The Rising Power

of European
States
Section 1 of Ch. 9
Transformations in European
Culture

Vocabulary
O English Bill of Rights
O Glorious Revolution
O Absolutism
O Absolute Monarchy
O Oliver Cromwell
O English Civil War

Growing Wealth and Royal
Power
O European countries colonized the “New

World” to enhance wealth and prestige
for the mother country
O Traded furs, fish, precious metals,

tobacco, etc. which brought much wealth.
O Royal control and taxation increased

royal power

King Louis XIV— “The Sun King”
O (1643-1715)
O One of the most

successful monarchs
O Had unlimited power
O Subjects were to
glorify him
O Very extravagant;
nearly bankrupts
country
O Influences many other
monarchs

King Louis XIV’s palace

Growing wealth w/o Royal
Power
O The Dutch Republic
O Had no centralized monarch, but built a vast

economic empire through world trading.
(Known as the Dutch East India Company)
O People owned “shares” in the company
developing today’s stock market.

Growing Wealth w/ Limited
Power
O England wanted to limit the power of the king.
O England signed the Magna Carta in 1215 setting

limits to the king’s power; Parliament est. 1215.
O James I (1603-1625) refused to work with the
(already est.) Parliament (trying to take absolute
power)
O Charles I (1625-1649) (James I’s son) believed
the same as his father…but was also a Catholic
and tried to force England and Scotland to
become Catholic.
O This leads to the English Civil War (1642)

English Civil War
O B/t Charles I and the

people/Parliament of England
O Charles I wins for a little while; then
Parliament names Oliver Cromwell as
leader of the army.
O Cromwell defeats Charles I and
Parliament has him executed in
1649.
O Cromwell rules England until his
death in 1658 (see Protectorate pg.
158)

After Cromwell dies…
O Parliament asks Charles II (1660-1685) (son of

Charles I) to be king, but he continues with
the same thinking as father and grandfather.
(absolutism and Catholicism)
O Charles II makes alliances with French king
Louis XIV.
O Charles II dies in 1685 leaving his brother,
James II (1685-1688) to take the throne. (He
is also like his father, but is tolerated b/c he is
old and had no sons, but then his wife gives
birth to a baby boy…dum dum dummmmmm)

The Glorious Revolution
O With the birth of a son for James II,

Parliament (and the English people)
feared a continuing of Catholic rulers.
O Parliament asks Mary (daughter of James
II) and her husband William to rule (both
are protestant).
O James II chooses not to fight for the
throne and allows William and Mary to
rule without any war or bloodshed!
(Glorious Revolution!)

Rulers
O James I—Wanted absolute

power/Catholic
O Charles I—wanted absolute
power/catholic
O Cromwell
O Charles II—wanted absolute
power/catholic
O James II—wanted absolute
power/catholic
O William and Mary (1688—1702)—
protestants/encouraged to sign
English Bill of Rights

English Bill of Rights
O After W & M take the throne

Parliament asks them to sign the
English Bill of rights, which sets
limits on royal power and secured
the basic civil liberties of the English
people
O It also prevented another Catholic
from taking the throne.
O England then moves away from a
monarchy to a more representative
government

Impact of Glorious
Revolution
O This event is remembered by the

English colonists living in America
when Parliament and the king begin
passing laws they felt violated the
English Bill of Rights.
O Since there was no bloodshed in
1688, they were hoping that no
bloodshed would occur in the
1770’s…However, this was not the
case.