Grading

Thomas R.
Guskey

This year: Alignment
● Goals for this year (Bruce)

Expectations
■ Common grading for CT
Pilots
■ 70%-30%

Why???
❏ Individually look at the descriptions and
grades of the students on your hand-out
❏ Individually think about the following:
❏ What grade does each student deserve?
❏ Which method of grading is best- Average,
Median, or Deleting Lowest?

Why???
● Survey: Which method of grading is best?


Average
Median
Delete lowest

● Discuss at your tables

Which IS best?
Is the variation we just
saw a problem?

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
1) Grading is NOT essential to the instructional
process, but checking is

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Checking is diagnostic- the
teacher is an advocate
Grading is evaluative- the
teacher is a judge

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Medicine is a useful analogy
D-, Fatso

Doctors administer tests to
get information about an
individual’s health and to
support wellness. Why do
we give tests?

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
2) No one method of grading serves ALL
purposes well… and we’re stuck with that

Grades

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Purposes of Grades
● Communicate achievement to students,
parents, colleges, and others
● Select and identify students for certain
educational programs
● Provide incentives to learn
● Provide evidence of students’ lack of effort or
inappropriate responsibility

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Grades should reflect what a student knows
and can do
● Identify clear learning
targets (#1)
● Develop effective
measures of learning (#2)

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
3a) Grading will ALWAYS involve some degree
of subjectivity

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Who was the 17th president of the US?

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Who was the 17th president of the US?
A) Abraham Lincoln
B) Andrew Johnson
C) Ulysses S. Grant
D) Millard Filmore

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Who was the 17th president of the US?
A) George Washington
B) Andrew Johnson
C) Jimmy Carter
D) Bill Clinton

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Who was the 17th president of the US?
A) The War of 1812
B) Andrew Johnson
C) The Louisiana Purchase
D) A Crazy Day for Sally

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
Professional judgement is necessary
● to determine what kinds of questions and
tasks we provide students
● to evaluate the quality of
evidence of student
learning that each question
or task provides

Research-based Ideas from Guskey
3b) Mathematical precision does NOT yield
fairer or more objective grading

Thoughtful, informed professional judgement is key

Recap
● Grading is NOT essential to the instructional
process, but checking is
● No one method of grading serves ALL
purposes well
● Grading will ALWAYS involve some degree
of subjectivity

So now what?
School Philosophy of Grading
Grades should be
● Accurate
● Consistent
● Meaningful
● Supportive of learning

Discussion
● Read the first page and a half of the
Philosophy of Grading hand-out
● Use it to determine how well each practice
aligns with the research of Guskey and
others

Assignment for Collaborative Teams
Bruce or Meggie/ Brad insert expectations
around grading for teams

Grading

This year
● Alignment

Common grading for each course

● Pilots

70% Summative-30% Formative

Highlights from Guskey’s Research
Grades should be
● Accurate
● Consistent
● Meaningful
● Supportive of learning

Thomas R.
Guskey

Grades should be Accurate
A grade should reflect what a
student knows and can do.

Grades should be Consistent
Two students who achieve at the same
level should earn the same grade,
regardless of teacher.
(Teams need common objectives, common
assessments, and common policies).

Grades should be Consistent
Cautions:

Grades should be Consistent
Who was the 17th president of the US?

Grades should be Consistent
Who was the 17th president of the US?
A) Abraham Lincoln
B) Andrew Johnson
C) Ulysses S. Grant
D) Millard Filmore

Grades should be Consistent
Who was the 17th president of the US?
A) George Washington
B) Andrew Johnson
C) Jimmy Carter
D) Bill Clinton

Grades should be Consistent
Who was the 17th president of the US?
A) The War of 1812
B) Andrew Johnson
C) The Louisiana Purchase
D) A Crazy Day for Sally

Grades should be Meaningful
Grade reports should clearly indicate areas of
strength and areas for improvement
Ex: “Quiz 1” vs. “Quiz 1: -ar verb conjugation”
“Quiz 2” vs. “Quiz 2: -er verb conjugation”

Grades should be Supportive of Learning
Formative assessment should be
used to monitor student progress
and adjust instruction

Recap
Grades should be
● Accurate
● Consistent
● Meaningful
● Supportive of learning