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CHEMISTRY

Element

Scandium

Iron

# of

# of

neutrons protons

# of

Atomic Mass

electrons

#

#

24

21

21

21

45

28

26

26

26

54

21

Sc

44.96

How many moles of aluminum are

3.7 x 1021 atoms of aluminum?

3.7 x 1021

atoms Al

__

1 mole Al

__

6.022

atoms

x 10

Al23

atoms Al

(0.0061 moles)

How many molecules of CO2 are in

22.0 grams of CO2?

6.022 x 1023

__

molecules

molecules

COCO

2

2

44.0

_

grams CO2

Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear chemistry is the study of the

structure of atomic nuclei and the

changes they undergo.

Nuclear Reactions

There are three different types of

nuclear reactions: radioactive decay,

fission, and fusion.

Radioactive Decay

Radioactive decay is a type of

nuclear reaction which involves atoms

that undergo radioactive (alpha, beta,

and gamma) decay.

Unstable nuclei spontaneously emit

radiation to attain more stable atomic

configurations.

Radioactive Decay

During radioactive decay, unstable

atoms lose energy by emitting one of

several types of radiation.

Radioactive Decay

Nuclear decay is a random event.

This is very much like popping

popcorn. When we pour popcorn

kernels into a popcorn popper, there is

no way to know which kernel will pop

first. And once that first kernel pops, it

will never be a kernel again...it is

forever changed!

Types of Radiation

The three

most

common

types of

radiation are

alpha (),

beta (), and

gamma ().

Types of Radiation

Name

alpha

beta

gamma

Symbol Formula

4

He

2

0

e

-1

Mass

4

0

0

Charge Description

+2

helium

nuclei

-1

high speed

electrons

high energy

radiation

Alpha

An alpha particle () has the same

composition as a helium nucleustwo

protons and two neutronsand is

therefore given the symbol

.

The charge of an alpha particle is 2+ due

to the presence of the two protons.

Alpha

Because of their mass and charge, alpha

particles are relatively slow-moving

compared with other types of radiation.

Thus, alpha particles are

not very penetratinga

single sheet of paper

stops alpha particles.

Beta

A beta particle is a very-fast moving

electron that has been emitted from a

neutron of an unstable nucleus.

Beta particles are represented by the

symbol

The zero superscript indicates the

insignificant mass of an electron in

comparison with the mass of a nucleus.

Beta

charge of the particle.

Beta radiation consists of a stream of

fast-moving electrons.

Beta

Because beta particles are both

lightweight and fast moving, they have

greater penetrating power than alpha

particles.

A thin metal foil is

required to stop beta

particles.

Gamma

Gamma rays are high-energy (short

wavelength) electromagnetic radiation.

They are denoted by the symbol .

the subscript and superscript are zeroes.

Gamma

Thus, the emission of gamma rays does

not change the atomic number or mass

number of a nucleus.

Gamma

Gamma rays are the most penetrating.

Concrete, lead, or steel must be used to

block gamma rays.

Radiation

Types of Radiation

Alpha, Beta or Gamma?

??

??

??

Types of Radiation

Negatively charged beta particles are

deflected toward the positively charged

plate.

??

??

??

Types of Radiation

Positively charged alpha particles are

deflected toward the negatively charged

plate.

??

??

Types of Radiation

Gamma rays, which have no electrical

charge, are not deflected.

??

Types of Radiation

In an electric or magnetic field, alpha

particles are deflected less than beta rays

because they are more massive.

Nuclear Stability

Radioactive nuclei undergo decay in

order to gain stability.

All elements with atomic numbers

greater than 83 are radioactive.

Nuclear equations are used to show

nuclear transformations.

Balanced nuclear equations require that

both the atomic number and the mass

number must be balanced.

Mass

number

X

Z

Atomic

number

Element

symbol

1. When beryllium-9 is bombarded with

alpha particles (helium nuclei), a neutron

is produced. The balanced nuclear

reaction is given as:

9 Be +

4

4 He 1 n + ???

2

0

9

Be

+

4

4 He 1 n +12

???

0

2

numbers equal (9 + 4) = 13.

On the product side, the mass number

equals 1.

The product side needs an additional

12 for the mass number.

9

Be

+

4

4 He 1 n + 12

2

0

6

numbers equal (4 + 2) = 6.

On the product side, the atomic

number equals 0.

The product side needs an additional 6

for the atomic number.

9

4 Be +

4 He 1 n + 12

0

6

2

the bottom) determines the identity of

the element.

9

4 Be +

4 He 1 n + 12

0

6C

2

6 is carbon.

2. When nitrogen-14 is bombarded with a

neutron, a proton is produced. The

balanced nuclear equation can be written

as:

14

1

1

???

N

+

n

p

+

7

0

1

14

7N +

1

1

n

p

+

0

1

14

???

numbers equal (14 + 1) = 15.

On the product side, the mass number

equals 1.

The product side needs an additional

14 for the mass number.

14

1

1

n

p

+

0

1

6

On the reactant side, the atomic

numbers equal (7 + 0) = 7.

14

N

+

7

number equals 1.

The product side needs an additional 6

for the atomic number.

14N + 1n 1 p

7

1

0

14

+

6

bottom) determines the identity of the

element.

14N +

7

1n 1 p

0

1

14

6C

6 is carbon.

3. Thorium-230 undergoes alpha decay.

Th

230

90

4

2

He

226

_____

88

Ra

4. Uranium-234 undergoes alpha decay.

235

92

4

2

He

231

_____

90

Th

5. Cobalt-50 undergoes beta decay.

50

27

Co

0

1

50

28

Ni

e _____

Question 6

What element is formed when

undergoes beta decay? Give the

atomic number and mass number of the

element.

60

26

Fe

0

1

60

27

Co

e _____

Question 7

Write a balanced nuclear equation for

the alpha decay of the following

radioisotope.

235

92

4

2

He

231

_____

90

Th

Question 8

Nitrogen-12 decays into a positron and

another element. Write the balanced

nuclear equation.

12

7

12

6

C

N e _____

0

1

Question 9

Uranium-238 is bombarded with a

neutron. One product forms along with

gamma radiation. Write the balanced

nuclear equation.

238

92

1

0

239

_____

92

Question 10

Nitrogen-14 is bombarded with

deuterium (hydrogen-2). One product

forms along with an alpha particle. Write

the balanced nuclear equation.

14

7

12

6

C He

N H _____

2

1

4

2

STOP HERE

are imaginary so DO NOT USE a

periodic table.

Element

Pc

Xv

# of

# of

neutrons protons

# of

Atomic Mass

electrons

#

#

30

28

28

28

58

48

53

53

53

101

How many moles of aluminum are

56.7 grams of aluminum?

56.7 grams Al

__

1 mole Al

__

27.0grams

grams

AlAl

(2.10 mole)

How many formula units of NaCl are

in 0.0594 moles of NaCl?

6.022 x 1023

__

f. units

f. Units

NaClNaCl

1_

mole NaCl

Balance the following nuclear equation

with the missing particle.

239

94

235

92

U

Pu He ___

4

2

Balance the following nuclear equation

with the missing particle.

27

13

Al He

4

2

30

15

1

___

0

Balance the following nuclear equation

with the missing number.

U n

235

92

1

0

139

53

I Y __

2 n

95

39

1

0

Radioactive decay rates are measured

in half-lives.

A half-life is the time required for onehalf of a radioisotopes nuclei to decay

into its products.

For example, the half-life of the

radioisotope strontium-90 is 29 years.

If you had 10.0 g of strontium-90 today,

29 years from now you would have 5.0 g

left.

The decay continues until negligible

strontium-90 remains.

The graph shows the

percent of a stontium90 sample remaining

over a period of four

half-lives.

With the passing of

each half-life, half of

the strontium-90

sample decays.

Chemical reaction rates are greatly

affected by changes in temperature,

pressure, and concentration, and by the

presence of a catalyst.

In contrast, nuclear reaction rates remain

constant regardless of such changes.

In fact, the half-life of any particular

radioisotope is constant.

time

amount

Initial amount

Half-life

Previous amt 2

Previous time +

Half-life

Previous amt 2

Previous time +

Half-life

Previous amt 2

Previous time +

Half-life

Previous amt 2

Calculating Amount of

Remaining Isotope

11. Iron-59 is used in medicine to diagnose

blood circulation disorders. The half-life

of iron-59 is 44.5 days. How much of a

2.000-mg sample will remain after

133.5 days?

circulation disorders. The half-life of iron-59 is

44.5 days. How much of a 2.000-mg sample will

remain after 133.5 days?

Time (years)

Amount (mg)

2.000

44.5

1.000

89

0.500

133.5

0.250

178

0.125

The

The

Take

final

the

See

if

the

Now

cut

amount

See

if

the

time

half-life

was

problem

theis

that

problem

given

time

and

to

tells

you

amount

in

across

tells

you

be

add

133.5.

this #

the

half

for

from

the

halftostarting

get the

each

row.

133.5

is

life

time.

# in the

amount.

the

next

box.

(0.250

mg)

answer!

Question

12. Cobalt-60 has a half-life of 5.27 years.

How much of a 10.0 g sample will

remain after 21.08 years?

a 10.0 g sample will remain after 21.08 years?

Time (years)

Amount (g)

10.0

5.27

5.0

10.54

2.5

15.81

1.25

21.08

0.625

The

Take

the

See

if

the

The

final

amount

Now

cut

See

if

the

half-life

problem

time

was

that

is

the

problem

time

and

tells

you

given

toin

across

amount

tells

you

add

this

#

the

be

21.08.

from

half

for

the

halfto

get the

starting

21.08

is

each

row.

life

time.

# in

the

amount.

the

next

box.

answer!

(0.625 mg)

Question

13. If 100.0 g of carbon-14 decays until only

25.0 g of carbon is left after 11,460 yr,

what is the half-life of carbon-14?

is the half-life of carbon-14?

Time (years)

Amount (g)

100.0

5730

50.0

11,460

25.0

12.5

6.25

How

This

So

divide

See

ifcut

the

many

The

time

Now

problem

11,460

by

problem

boxes

for

25.0

g

the

DOES

2does

to fill

in

tells

you

it in

is

given.

amount

NOT

tell

the

halftheto

take

half

for

you

the

life

box.

starting

get to

each

row.

half-life

amount.

11,460?

time.

TWO

(5730 yr)

Question

14. What is the half-life in days of an

isotope if 125 grams of a 1000 gram

sample remain after 15 days?

if 125 grams of a 1000 gram sample

remain after 15 days?

Time (years)

Amount (g)

1000

500

250

15

125

62.5

How

The

This

time

So

divide

See

if

the

Now

cut

many

problem

for

125

g

15

by

3

to

problem

thethe

boxes

is

DOES

given.

fill

in

tells

you

amount

in

does

it

NOT

tell

half-life

theto

half

for

take

you

the

box.

starting

each

row.

get to

half-life

amount.

15?

time.

THREE

(5 days)

Question

15. What is the half-life in years of an

isotope if 1 gram of a 16 gram sample

remains after 16 years?

isotope if 1 gram of a 16 gram sample

remains after 16 years?

Time (years)

Amount (g)

16

8

4

2

16

How

SoThis

divide

many

The

time

See

if4cut

the

16

by

to

Now

problem

boxes

for

1

g

is

problem

fill

in

thethe

DOES

doesyou

it

given.

tells

half-life

amount

in

NOT

tell

take

to

the

box.

half

for

you

the

get to

starting

each

row.

half-life

16?

amount.

time.

FOUR

(4 yr)

Question

16. The half-life of hafnium-156 is 0.025 s.

How long will it take a 560 g sample to

decay to one-fourth its original mass?

decay to one-fourth its original mass?

Time (years)

Amount (g)

560

0.025

280

0.050

140

0.075

70

0.10

35

The

Takeiftime

the

See

The

final

the

Now

cut

See

if

the

that

is

half-life

problem

amount

the

problem

across

time

and

tells

was

you

amount

in

tells

you

from

140

add

this

#

given

the

as

half

for

the

halfis

the

to

get560.

the

starting

of

each

row.

life

time.

answer!

# in the

amount.

next

box.

140

(0.50 s)

Question

17. Chromium-48 has a short half-life of

21.6 h. How long will it take 360.00 g of

chromium-48 to decay to 11.25 g?

21.6 h. How long will it take 360.00 g of

chromium-48 to decay to 11.25 g?

Time (hours)

Amount (g)

360.00

21.6

180.00

43.2

90.00

64.8

45.00

86.4

22.50

The

Take

final

the

The

amount

See cut

if the

Now

See

if the

amount

half-life

was

column

problem

theto

problem

given

time

and

be

would

be

tells you

amount

in

tells

you

11.25,

add

this

so

the

#

11.25the

and

half

for

the

halftable

to

get

needs

the

time

column

starting

each

row.

life

time.

have

#

in

one

the

would

be

amount.

more

next

box.

row.

108

(108 h)

Question

18. If the half-life of uranium-235 is

7.04 x 108 yr and 12.5 g of uranium-235

remain after 28.2 x 108 yr, how much of

the radioactive isotope was in the

original sample?

and 12.5 g of uranium-235 remain after

28.2 x 108 yr, how much of the radioactive

isotope was in the original sample?

0

200.0

7.04 x 108

100.0

14.08 x 108

50.0

22.12 x 108

25.0

So

you

The

Take

amount

We

the

cut

The

See

if

the

must toin

was

half-life

numbers

given

problem

problem

bya

bemultiply

time

12.5

half

and

going

for

DOES

tells

you

2

when

time

add

down

ofthis

the

#

NOT

tell

the

halfmoving

UP8.

to

28.2

get

mass

x

the

10

youtime.

the

life

the

# starting

column.

inamount

the

column.

next

box.

amount.

28.16 x 108

12.5

(200.0 g)

Time (yr)

Amount (g)

Question

19. Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years.

How much of a 250. g sample will

remain after 5730 years?

(125 g)

How much of a 250. g sample will

remain after 5730 years?

Thethe

Take

Time (years)

Amount (g)

amount

See

ifcut

the

half-life

The

final

Now

See

if the

that

is

problem

time

and

0

250

time

was

the

problem

across

tells

you

add

this

#

given

to

amount

in

tells

you

5730

125

from

the

tobe

get

the

5730.

half

for

the

half5730

is

starting

#

in

the

each

row.

62.5

life

time.

11460

the

amount.

next box.

answer!

31.25

17190

(125 g)

22920

15.625

Nuclear Reactions

A second type of nuclear reaction is

fission.

The basic difference in radioactive

decay and fission is that in radioactive

decay, an unstable isotope

spontaneously undergoes a nuclear

change.

Nuclear Reactions

In nuclear fission, a fissionable

isotope absorbs a neutron, becomes

unstable, and then fissions by

breaking into a couple of pieces and

releasing one or more neutrons plus a

large amount of energy.

Nuclear fission is usually thought of as

intentionally caused.

Nuclear Fission

Heavy atoms (mass number > 60) tend

to break into smaller atoms, thereby

increasing their stability.

Applications of

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear power plants

use the process of

nuclear fission to

produce heat in nuclear

reactors.

Nuclear Fusion

The third type of nuclear reaction is

fusion, which is the combining of atomic

nuclei.

Fusion reactions can release very large

amounts of energy but require extremely

high temperatures.

Nuclear Fusion

For example, nuclear fusion occurs

within the Sun, where hydrogen atoms

fuse to form helium atoms.

Question

20. What is the main difference between

nuclear fusion and nuclear fission?

Nuclear fusion is the

combining of nuclei to form a

single nucleus. Nuclear

fission is the splitting of a

nucleus into fragments.

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