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signal processing first
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if you are studying at monash uni electrical engineering than this will help

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You are on page 1of 28

Processing

First

Lecture 10

FIR Filtering

Introduction

READING ASSIGNMENTS

This Lecture:

Chapter 5, Sects. 5-1, 5-2 and 5-3 (partial)

Other Reading:

Recitation: Ch. 5, Sects 5-4, 5-6, 5-7 and 5-8

CONVOLUTION

LECTURE OBJECTIVES

INTRODUCE FILTERING IDEA

Weighted Average

Running Average

FIR

Filters

input signal, x[n]

DIGITAL FILTERING

x(t)

A-to-D

x[n]

COMPUTER

y[n]

D-to-A

y(t)

PROCESSING ALGORITHMS

SOFTWARE (MATLAB)

HARDWARE: DSP chips, VLSI

Copyright Monash University 2009

For the price of a small house, you could have one of these.

Copyright Monash University 2009

Copyright Monash University 2009

DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEM

x[n]

COMPUTER

y[n]

WANT a GENERAL CLASS of SYSTEMS

ANALYZE the SYSTEM

TOOLS: TIME-DOMAIN & FREQUENCY-DOMAIN

x[n]

SYSTEM

y[n]

EXAMPLES:

POINTWISE OPERATORS

SQUARING: y[n] = (x[n])2

RUNNING AVERAGE

RULE: Eg the output at time n is the average of three

consecutive input values

DISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL

x[n] is a LIST of NUMBERS

INDEXED by n : , x[-1]=0, x[0]=2, x[1]=4,

STEM PLOT

10

ADD 3 CONSECUTIVE NUMBERS

Do this for each n

Make a TABLE

n=0

n=1

Copyright Monash University 2009

3/19/2015

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INPUT SIGNAL

OUTPUT SIGNAL

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Copyright Monash University 2009

12

Uses PAST VALUES of x[n]

IMPORTANT IF n represents REAL TIME

WHEN x[n] & y[n] ARE STREAMS

13

Causal filtering

n is

Noncausal

TIME filtering

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FILTER COEFFICIENTS {bk}

DEFINE THE FILTER

y[n] bk x[n k ]

k 0

For example,

bk {3, 1, 2,1}

y[n ] bk x[n k ]

k 0

Copyright Monash University 2009

15

FILTER COEFFICIENTS {bk}

M

y[n] bk x[n k ]

k 0

FILTER ORDER is M

FILTER LENGTH is L = M+1

NUMBER of FILTER COEFFS is L

Copyright Monash University 2009

16

SLIDE a WINDOW across x[n]

M

y[n] bk x[n k ]

k 0

x[n-M]

x[n]

17

INPUT

OUTPUT

50-pt Averager

Copyright Monash University 2009

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE (LATER)

x[n] = SINUSOID

x[n] has only one NON-ZERO VALUE

1 n 0

[n ]

0 n 0

UNIT-IMPULSE

1

n

Copyright Monash University 2009

19

[n-i] is NON-ZERO

Only when n-i = 0 !!!

[n 3]

n3

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Copyright Monash University 2009

20

Use SHIFTED IMPULSES to write x[n]

x[n] 2 [n] 4 [n 1] 6 [n 2] 4 [n 3] 2 [n 4]

NOTE: {[n-k]}

for - < k < is an

orthonormal basis

for D-T signals

x[n]

x[k ] [n k ]

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Use SHIFTED IMPULSES to write x[n]

x[n]

NOTE:

k[n] = [n-k] for - < k <

is an orthonormal basis for

Discrete-Time signals

Copyright Monash University 2009

3/19/2015

22

1 n 0

u[n ]

0 n 0

[n]

u[n]

u[n-1]

u[n] u[n 1]

[n]

24

CAUSAL SYSTEM: USE PAST VALUES

y[n] 14 ( x[n] x[n 1] x[n 2] x[n 3])

x[n] [n]

y[n] 14 [n] 14 [n 1] 14 [n 2] 14 [n 3]

OUTPUT is called IMPULSE RESPONSE

h[n] {, 0, 0, 14 , 14 , 14 , 14 , 0, 0, }

Copyright Monash University 2009

25

y[n] 14 ( x[n] x[n 1] x[n 2] x[n 3])

[n] READS OUT the FILTER COEFFICIENTS

h[n] {, 0, 0, 14 , 14 , 14 , 14 , 0, 0, }

h in h[n] denotes

Impulse Response

n = 1

n=0

n=1

NON-ZERO

When window

overlaps [n]

n

n=4

n=5

Copyright Monash University 2009

26

Convolution = Filter Definition

Filter Coeffs = Impulse Response

y[n] bk x[n k ]

k 0

k 0

CONVOLUTION

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FILTERING EXAMPLE

Input : x[n] (1.02)n cos(2 n / 8 / 4)

7-point AVERAGER

Removes cosine

for 0 n 40

y7 [n] 17 x[n k ]

k 0

3-point AVERAGER

Changes A slightly

y3[n] 13 x[n k ]

k 0

28

Phase shift

3/19/2015

29

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