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Applications of Integration

A differential equation is an equation that consists of one or more derivatives, and is


solved by integrating with respect to the variable of integration. The solution is an equation that
relates the variables in a way that their derivatives will satisfy the differential equation. The
additional information needed to completely solve a differential equation is an initial condition,
which is usually given as the value of the function at a single point; a differential equation with
an initial condition is also called an initial value problem.
A differentiable equation is separable if its variables can be separated onto opposite sides
of the equation. After this is done, the solution can be found by using ordinary techniques to
integrate each side separately.
1)

dy x 2
=e ( y y ) , y ( 0 ) =2
dx
dy
=e x dx
y ( y1 )

Separate the variables onto opposite sides of the equation.

A
B
1
+
=
y y1 y ( y 1 )

Partial fraction

decomposition
A ( y1 ) + By=1
A ( 01 ) + B ( 0 )=1
y=0
A=1

A ( 0 ) + B (1 ) =1
y=1

B=1
1
+
dy= e x dx
(1
y y1 )
function.
ln| y|+ln | y 1|=e x +C
C=ln |1|ln |2|e0

Replace the original rational

Integrate both sides.


Substitute values from the initial condition.

ln 21
x

ln | y1|ln| y|=e ln 21
solution.

Substitute for C

in the

2)

ds 2 s +2
=
dt t 2 +2 t
ds
dt
=
2 s+2 t ( t+ 2 )

Separate the variables onto opposite sides of the equation.

A B
1
+
=
t t +2 t ( t +2 )

Partial fraction decomposition

A ( t+2 ) + Bt =1
A ( 0+2 ) + B ( 0 )=1
t =0
A=

1
2

A (2+2 ) + B (2 )=1
t=2
B=
ds

1
2

2 ( s+1 ) =

1
1

dt
2t 2 ( t + 2 )

Replace the original rational function.

1
1
1
ln |s +1|= ln|t| |t+ 2|+C
2
2
2

Integrate both sides.

3) A particles acceleration is given by the equation

dv
2
= ( v +1 ) sin t
, where t
dt

represents

t=
the time elapsed. If v =0 at time
2 , determine the equation for the particles velocity.
dv

( v +1 )2 = sin t dt
1
=cos t+C
v +1
C=

+cos
0+1
2

Separate the variables onto opposite sides of the equation.


Integrate both sides.
Substitute values from the initial condition.

1
=cos t+ 1
v +1
1
1=v
cos t+1
v=

cos t
cos t+1

Solve for v .

Replace the original rational function and simplify.