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1.

A = hg 0 (t + )

B = sf 0 (a + )

C = sf 0 (a + ) = hg 0 (t + )f 0 (g(t) + t)

D = g 0 (t)f 0 (g(t)).

2. (a) [f (G(t))]0 = f 0 (G(t))G0 (t)

(b)

[f (G(t))]0 =

G01 (t)

G02 (t)

G03 (t)

giving 0 = f (G(t)) G0 (t), Thus f at G(t) is orthogonal to the curve

given by G(t) at G(t).

3. (a) f (x, y) =

2y

x0

ex

=0

0

2y

y

giving

dx x

dy

e 2y

= 0.

dt

dt

But, as

dy

=

dx

dy

dt

dx

dt

we have

dy

ex

= .

dx

2y

4. (a) [f G]0 (t) = f 0 (G(t))G0 (t).

x(t)

y(t)

t

then

d

f (x(t), y(t), t) = [f G]0 (t),

dt

so

df (x(t), y(t), t)

=

dt

f (x, y, t)

0 = x0

x(t)

y (t)

1

= x0

d

f (x(t), y(t), t)

dt

f

f

f

+ y0

+

.

x

y

t

= 0, giving

f

f

f

f

f

f

+ y0

+

= et

+ 2t

+

.

x

y

t

x

y

t

But x = et and y = t2 so

0 = x

f

f

f

+2 y

+

.

x

y

t

2

0 = x

f

f

f

2 ln x

+

.

x

y

t

5. (a)

2

f =

2x sin (x 3y)

3 sin (x 3y)

2x

sin (x2

3y)

2x

x

sin (x2 3y) = 0,

y0

3

y0

x0

2x

.

3

(c) Thus

dy

2x

=

.

dx

3

6. (a)

p

(Fi G)

G(x) X

Fi

Gk

= Fi |G(x)

=

xj

xj

k=1 yk G(x) xj x

(b)

F

i

y1

,...,

G(x)

Fi

yp

G1

xj

x

..

G(x)

Gp

xj

(c)

(F1 G)

x1

(F G)0 (x) =

..

(F G)

m

x1

(F1 G)

xn

..

(Fm G)

xn

(d)

1

F

x1 G

..

Fm

x

1

F1

x

1

G

n G x1 x

..

..

.

.

Gp

Fm

xn G

x1 x

G1

x

n

..

.

Gp

xn x

= F0 (G(x))G0 (x).

7.

cos r sin

F0 (r, ) =

sin

r cos

=

cos r sin

sin

r cos

2r2 cos sin + 6r2 sin2 + 2r2 cos sin 6r2 cos2

etc.

8. (a) [F G]0 (a)h = F0 (G(a))G(a)h, so

d(F G)[a; h] = [F G]0 (a)h = F0 (G(a))G0 (a)h

4

= F0 (G(a))dG[a; h]

h

= dF G(a); dG[a; h] .

(b) Note that

dF[r(t); r0 (t)] = F0 (r(t))r0 (t) = [F r]0 (t).

Let h be tangent to the curve given by r(t), at the point r(t). Then h =

kr0 (t) so dF[r(t); h] = k[F(r(t))]0 . Thus dF[r(t); h] is a scalar multiple

of [F(r(t))]0 , and so is tangent to the curve given by F r at the point

F(r(t)). So the mapping h 7 dF[r(t); h] takes vectors tangent to the

curve r(t) at r(t) to vectors tangent to the curve F r at F r(t).

9. Area(P) = | det [h : k]| (where [h : k] is the matrix you get by gluing h and k

together).

h

i

Area(Q) = det dF[a; h] : dF[a; k]

= | det F0 (a)| | det [h : k]|

= | det F0 (a)| Area(P).

The analogous result for IR 3 follows similarly; just use three vectors, say h, k,

and u, etc.

10. (a) [F G]0 (x) = F0 (G(x))G0 (x).

5

(b) The identity matrix I = (x)0 = F0 (G(x))G0 (x), so F0 (y)G0 (x) = I giving

and thus

F G

= 1.

y x

(c)

[F G]0 (x) =

F1

y1

F1

y2

F1

y3

F2

y1

F2

y2

F2

y3

x2

2x1

1

x1

2x2

1

x2 F

y1

F1

y3

2

2

x1 F

2x2 F

+

y1

y2

F2

y3

1

2x1 F

y2

(d)

[F G]0 (x) = F0 (G(x))G0 (x)

G2 (x) G1 (x)

2

2G3 (x)

G1

x1

..

G3

x1

but F G(x) =

G1 G2

2G1 +

G23

x1

x3

so

[F G]0 (x) =

1 0 0

0 0 1

G1

x4

..

.

G3

x4

and thus, by looking at the (1, 1)th entry of [F G]0 (x) we see that

G1

x1

2

0)

G

x1

G3

x1

1

2

so G2 G

+ G1 G

= 1.

x1

x1

=1

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