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Introduction: Sanskrit language has scripts or alphabets for writing, and grammatical

rules for sentence formation, just like any other language (English for example). In
this chapter we will get an overview of this. The details with their grammatical rules
will be covered in subsequent chapters.

Alphabets & Their Classification:In Sanskrit language Devanagari Script is the mostly
used script for writing. Most of the Sanskrit literature are in this script. Following is
the list of the alphabets in their correct order.

अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ॠ ए ऐ ओ औ क ख ग
a aa i ii u uu RRi RRI e ai o au k kh g
घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध
gh N^ ch chh j jh JN T Th D Dh N t th d dh
न प फ ब भ म य र ल व श ष स ह . /
n p ph b bh m y r l v sh Sh s h ksh dny

All these alphabets are classified into two major groups i.e.,

• Vowels or 0वरवण1 (svaravarNa): Alphabets starting from अ (a) till औ (au) are the
vowels. These are further classified into 20व (hrasva) and द3घ1 (diirgha). The
द3घ1 (diirgha) are pronounced double the length (or time) of 20व (hrasva).

20व अ आ इ उ ए ऐ ओ औ
hrasva a aa i u e ai o au
द3घ1 ई ऊ ऋ ॠ
diirgha ii uu RRi RRI


• Consonants or 4य5जनवण1 (vyaJNjanavarNa): Alphabets starting from क (k) till /
(dny) are the consonants. Some of the consonants are further classified into
different groups called वग1 (varga). Following table has this classification.
Some of the gramatical rules for Euphonic Combination or सि7ध (sandhi) and
Compound Words or समास (samaasa) are based on these वग1 (varga).

कवग1 क ख ग घ ङ
kavarga k kh g gh N^
चवग1 च छ ज झ ञ
chaavarga ch chh j jh JN
टवग1 ट ठ ड ढ ण
Taavarga T Th D Dh N
तवग1 त थ द ध न
tavarga t th d dh n
पवग1 प फ ब भ म
pavarga p ph b bh m
We will refere these classifications, while covering the Euphonic Combination or सि7ध
(sandhi) and Compound Words or समास (samaasa).

In Sanskrit just like any other language (English for


Sentence Formation Overview:
example) a sentence is made of different elements. The elements are "Subject",
"Object", and "Verb". A sentence may or may not have an Object in it.

Lets study the following English sentence to understand these basic elements better.

The boy is reading a book.


In the sentence "boy" is the "Subject", "reading" is "Verb" and the "book" is the
"Object".
The boy is reading a book.
--- ------- -----
| | |
Subject Verb Object

• If we ask the question "who is reading?", the answer that comes is "the boy".
So, the "boy" here is the Subject. It is also called the "Noun".

• The answer that comes in response to question "what is the boy doing?" is
"reading". The "reading" here is the "Verb".

• Similarly the answer to "what is the boy reading?" is "book". The "book"
becomes the "Object".

Now study the following statement.


The boy is laughing.
In the sentence "boy" is the "Subject", "laughing" is "Verb". But, there is no "Object"
in this sentence.
The boy is laughing.
--- -------
| |
Subject Verb

• If we ask the question "what is the boy laughing?", no answer comes from
this. So, laughing becomes an "Intranstive Verb".

• However in the first sentence "what is the boy reading?" gives answer "book".
In this case the "reading" becomes a "Transitive Verb".

Now that we have understood the basic elements of a sentence, we will begin with
more details of Sanskrit language.

In Sanskrit:
• Subject is called -> कता1 / kartaa
• Object is called -> कम1 / karma
• Verb is called -> 9:या / kriyaa
• Transitive Verb is called -> सकम1क / sakarmaka
• Intransitive Verb is called -> अकम1क / akarmaka

So, in the above statements:


The boy is reading a book.
--- ------- -----
| | |
Subject Verb Object
| | |
कता1/kartaa 9:या/kriyaa(सकम1क / sakarmaka)
कम1/karma
The boy is laughing.
--- -------
| |
Subject Verb
| |
कता1/kartaa 9:या/kriyaa (अकम1क / akarmaka)

Words & Their Classification: In any language a sentence is madeup of multiple words
composed in a well defined structure giving a sensible meaning to the sentence.
These words can be categorised into three different types viz.,

• Noun
• Verb
• Indeclinable

Besides the above classifications nouns and verbs can also be part of following
categories with minor derivations like addition of 'ility', 'ily', 'tion', 'ing' etc., as well
as based on their usage and grammatical rules:

• Pronoun
• Adjective
• Adverb

In Sanskrit also words are classified into similar categories. Following is a


representation of the important classifications. We can see the classification is almost
same as any other language. Each classification has been described in the coming
chapters.
|--------------- Noun Root (श;द / shabda)
| |
| ------------------------------
| | |
| सव7तपद

त=>तपद
| suvantapada
taddhitapada
| |
| --------------------------------------
-------
| | |
|
Word (पद / pada) ----| Masculine Feminine
Neuter
| प?ल@ग
ु Aी?ल@ग
नप@सक?ल7ग

| puliN^ga striiliN^ga
napuN^sakalinga
|
|
|--------------- Verb Root (धातु / dhaatu)
|
----------------------------------------
-----
|
|
Cतङतपद
कद7तपद

tiN^atapada
kRRidantapada
|
------------------------------------------------------------
| |
|
पर0मैपद3 आFमनेपद3
उभयपद3
parasmaipadii aatmanepadii
ubhayapadii
Noun is the word that represents someone or something in a
श;द / shabda):
Nouns (श;द
sentence. Noun normally refers to person, place, thing, state or quality etc. A noun is
the only word that can be used as the subject or object for a verb.

Noun in Sanskrit is called श;द (shabda) or noun-root. It is also called कत1प


ृ द
(kartRRipada). Noun can be classified into सव7तपद
ु (suvantapada) and त=>तपद
(taddhitapada).

• सव7तपद
ु (suvantapada):This classification is based on the gender, number and
case of the noun. The noun-forms are used to express something or someone
etc. सव7तपद
ु or suvantapada meaning - words ending with सप ु ् (sup) suffix. In
this classification:

o Nouns are categorised into three different "genders" (?ल@ग / liN^ga)


viz., "masculine" (पं?ु ल@ग / pu.nliN^ga), "feminine" (Aी?ल@ग /
striiliN^ga) and "neuter" (नपंुसक?ल@ग / napu.nsakaliN^ga).
o Each noun also has three "numbers" (वचन / vachana) and 7 "cases"
(=वभJK / vibhakti).

Each noun has a different derivation based on the "number" and "case".
Unlike other languages, in Sanskrit the noun has its different forms built into
itself. The "noun base" is called श;द (shabda) and the "derived noun forms"
are called श;दLप (shabdarupa). So, in the previous statement बालक is the
"base" (श;द / shabda) of noun "BOY" and बालकः is one of the derived noun
forms (श;दLप / shabdarupa).

• त=>तपद (taddhitapada):
In this classification special suffixes are added to the
noun to get noun forms used as - subject, adjectives, indeclinable etc.

We will start with first 2 cases and all three numbers of सव7तपद
ु (suvantapada) BOY
(बालक / baalaka) and GIRL (वाला / vaalaa) श;द / shabda. Once we know how to use
noun forms (श;दLप / shabdarupa) in sentences, we will cover all the cases and their
usage rules.

Boy / बालक / baalaka (Masculine / पं?ु ल@ग / pu.nliN^ga)

Singular Dual Plural


Case
एकवचन / ि0ववचन / वहवचन
ु /
=वभJK / vibhakti
ekavachana dvivachana vahuvachana
Nominative
(Subject) बालकः / baalakaH बालकौ / baalakau बालकाः / baalakaaH
Nथमा / prathamaa (the boy) (two boys) (the boys)

Accusative (Object) बालकम ् / baalakam बालकौ / balakau बालकान ् / baalakaan


PQतीया / dvitiiyaa (to the boy) (to two boys) (to the boys)

Girl / वाला / vaalaa (Femenine / Aी?ल@ग / striiliN^ga)

Singular Dual Plural


Case
एकवचन / ि0ववचन / वहवचन
ु /
=वभJK / vibhakti
ekavachana dvivachana vahuvachana
Nominative
(Subject) वाला / vaalaa वाले / vaale वालाः / vaalaaH
Nथमा / prathamaa (the girl) (two girls) (the girls)

Accusative (Object) वालाम ् / vaalaam वाले / valae वालाः / vaalaaH


PQतीया / dvitiiyaa (to the girl) (to two girls) (to the girls)

Examples of noun form (श;दLप / shabdarupa):

• The boy -> बालकः / baalakaH


• Many boys -> बालकाः / baalakaaH
• To the boy -> बालकम ् / baalakam
• To the boys -> बालकान ् / baalakaan
• The girl -> वाला / vaalaa
• Many girls -> वालाः / vaalaaH
• To the girl -> वालाम ् / vaalaam
• To the girls -> वालाः / vaalaaH

The complete noun form (श;दLप / shabdarupa) for बालक श;द (baalaka shabda) will
have 7 different forms for each number. The singular forms include "the boy", "to the
boy", "by the boy", "for/to the boy", "from the boy", "of the boy", and "in the boy".
Besides these 7 forms an additional vocative ("O! boy") case is also their.

All these we will study in detail in coming chapters. The complete श;दLप
(shabdarupa) is listed in Chapter 11.

Followings are few more nouns (श;दLप / shabdarupa). We will use these in sentences
later in this chapter.

School / =वRालय / vidyaalaya (Masculine / पं?ु ल@ग / pu.nliN^ga)

Dual
Case Singular Plural
ि0ववचन /
=वभJK / vibhakti एकवचन / ekavachana वहवचन
ु / vahuvachana
dvivachana
Nominative
=वRालयौ / =वRालयाः /
Nथमा / =वRालयः / vidyaalayaH
vidyaalayau vidyaalayaaH
prathamaa
Accusative =वRालयम ् / =वRालयौ / =वRालयान ् /
PQतीया / dvitiiyaa vidyaalayam vidyaalayau vidyaalayaan

Book / प0तक
ु / pustaka (Nuter / नपंुसक?ल@ग / napu.nsakaliN^ga)

Dual
Case Singular Plural
ि0ववचन /
=वभJK / vibhakti एकवचन / ekavachana वहवचन
ु / vahuvachana
dvivachana
Nominative
प0तकम
ु ् / pustakam प0तक
ु े / pustake प0तकाCन
ु / pustakaani
Nथमा / prathamaa

Accusative
प0तकम
ु ् / pustakam प0तक
ु े / pustake प0तकाCन
ु / pustakaani
PQतीया / dvitiiyaa

*** In अकारा7त / akaaraanta nuter (नपंुसक?ल@ग / napu.nsakaliN^ga), both Nominative


and Accusative cases have the same form.

Me / अ0मS / asmad (All Genders / TU?ल@गक / triliN^gaka)

Case Singular Dual Plural


=वभJK / vibhakti एकवचन / ekavachana ि0ववचन / dvivachana वहवचन
ु / vahuvachana

Nominative
अहम ् / aham आवाम ् / aavaam वयम ् / vayam
Nथमा / prathamaa

Accusative माम ् / maam आवाम ् / aavaam अ0मान ् / asmaan


PQतीया / dvitiiyaa मा / maa नौ / nau नः / naH

You / य0मS
ु / yusmad (All Genders / TU?ल@गक / triliN^gaka)

Case Singular Dual Plural


=वभJK / vibhakti एकवचन / ekavachana ि0ववचन / dvivachana वहवचन
ु / vahuvachana

Nominative
Fवम ् / tvam यवाम
ु ् / yuvaam ययम
ू ् / yuuyam
Nथमा / prathamaa

Accusative Fवाम ् / tvaam यवाम


ु ् / yuvaam यWमान
ु ् / yuShmaan
PQतीया / dvitiiyaa Fवा / tvaa वाम ् / vaam वः / vaH

सव1नाम पद / sarvanaama pada):


Pronouns (सव1 Words like he, she, this, that, these etc., are
called pronoun. Pronouns in Sanskrit are called सव1नाम पद (sarvanaama pada). The
rules for pronouns are exactly same as the nouns (श;द / shabda).

धातु / dhaatu):
Verb (धात Verb normally refers to action, state, existence or occurrence etc.
Verb in Sanskrit is called धातु (dhaatu) or verb root. It is also known as 9:यापद
(kriyaapada). It can be classified into Cतङतपद (tiN^atapada) and कद7तपद

(kRRidantapada).
• Cतङतपद (tiN^atapada):This classification is based on the tense and mood of the
verb. The verb-forms are used as normal verbs to express some action or
state etc. Cतङतपद or tiN^atapada meaning - words ending with Cतप ् (tip) suffix.
In this classification:

o Each Verb can have any of the 10 tenses (लकार / lakaara). Howver only
5 are enough to use Sanskrit in daily life.

o Each verb can be of three different numbers, Singular (एकवचन /


ekavachana), Dual (Qीवचन / dviivachana) and Plural (वहवचन
ु /
vahuvachana).

o Each verb can be of three persons viz., Third (Nथम / prathama),


Second (मXयम / madhyama) and First (उYम / uttama).

o Each verb can belong to categories पर0मैपद3 (parasmaipadii), आFमनेपद3


(aatmanepadii) or उभयपद3 (ubhayapadii). Verbs of पर0मैपद3
(parasmaipadii) category represent 'action whose result is for others'.
आFमनेपद3 (aatmanepadii) represents 'action whose result is for self',
and उभयपद3 (ubhayapadii) represents 'action whose result is both for
others and self'.

Just like noun (श;द / shabda), each verb (धातु / dhaatu) also has different
derivations based on the "tense", "number' and "person". This is called "verb

form" (धातLप / dhaaturupa). The verb-forms differ based on this category.
The "root" of a verb is called धातु (dhaatu). धातु (dhaatu) does not have any
"gender".

• कद7तपद
ृ (kRRidantapada):
In this classification special suffixes are added to the
verb to get verb-forms used as - subject, pronoun, adjectives, indeclinable
etc.

Followings are the Cतङतपद (tiN^atapada) verb-forms (धातLप


ु / dhaatutupa) of READ
(पZ / paTH) धातु (dhaatu) and GO (गम ् / gam) धातु (dhaatu) in present tense (ल[लकार /
laTlakaara). Once we are acquainted with the verb usage in a sentence, we will cover
all other different forms.
Read / पZ / paTh

Person / पLष
ु /
Number / वचन / vachana
puruSha
Singular Dual Plural
एकवचन / Qीवचन / dviivachana वहवचन
ु /
ekavachana vahuvachana
Third पठCत / paThati पठतः / paThataH पठि7त / paThanti
Nथम / prathama (is reading) (both are reading) (many are reading)

पठथः / paThathaH
Second पठ?स / paThasi पठथ / paThatha
मXयम / madhyama (you two are
(you are reading) (you all reading)
reading)
First पठा?म / paThaami पठावः / paThaavaH पठामः / paThaamaH
उYम / uttama (i am reading) (both of us reading) (all of us reading)

Go / गम ् / gam

Person / पLष
ु /
Number / वचन / vachana
puruSha
Singular Plural
Dual
एकवचन / वहवचन
ु /
Qीवचन / dviivachana
ekavachana vahuvachana

ग\छतः /
Third ग\छCत / gachchhati ग\छि7त / gachchhanti
Nथम / prathama gachchhataH
(is going) (many are going)
(both are going)

ग\छथः /
Second ग\छ?स / gachchhasi ग\छथ / gachchhatha
मXयम / madhyama gachchhathaH
(you are going) (you all are going)
(you two are going)

First ग\छा?म / ग\छावः / ग\छामः /


उYम / uttama gachchhaami gachchhaavaH gachchhaamaH
(i am going) (both of us going) (all of us going)

Lets study a sample use of shabdarupa and dhaaturupa using the above. These will
help in learning the sentence formation rules.

the boy is reading - बालकः पठCत / baalakaH paThati


the boys are reading - बालकाः पठि7त / baalakaaH paThanti

the girl is reading - वाला पठCत / vaala paThati


the girls are reading - वालाः पठि7त / vaalaaH paThanti

you are reading - Fवं पठ?स / tvam paThasi


you all are reading - ययं
ु पठथ / yuyam paThata

i am reading - अहं पठा?म / aham paThaami


we are reading - वयं पठामः / vayam paThaamaH
All the sentences above have the "Subject" (कता1 / kartaa) and a "Verb" (9:या /

kriyaa). In all the sentences, the number (वचन / vachana) and person (पLष /
puruSha) of the "Verb" (9:या / kriyaa) match number (वचन / vachana) and person

(पLष / puruSha) of the "Subject" (कता1 / kartaa).

Say in the sentence "the boy is reading" (बालकः पठCत / baalakaH paThati), the "boy"

(बालकः / baalakaH) is in third person singular (NथपपLष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha
ekavachana). Similarly the "Verb" (9:या / kriyaa) is also in third person singular

(NथपपLष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

However the verb does not change if the gender of the "Subject" change. This can be
seen in the sentence "the girl is reading" (वाला पठCत / vaalaa paThati).

Rule 1: The verb (धातु / dhaatu) always follows number (वचन / vachana)
and person ु
(पLष / puruSha) of the noun (श;द / shabda).

Rule 2: The verb (धातु / dhaatu) remains same irrespective of the gender
(?ल@ग / liN^ga) of the "Subject" (कता1 / kartaa).


Rule 3: The verb form (धातLप / dhaaturupa) is always in second person

(मXयमपLष / madhyamapuruSha), if the noun used is अ0मS श;द (asmad

shabda). The verb form (धातLप / dhaaturupa) is always in first person

(उYमपLष / uttamapuruSha), if the noun used is य0मS
ु श;द (yusmad shabda).
All other nouns will always be in third person ु
(NथमपLष /
prathamapuruSha).

Indeclinable अ4ययपद
(अ4ययपद / avyayapada): Indeclinable in Sanskrit is called अ4ययपद
(avyayapada). Unlike shabdarupa and dhaaturupa अ4ययपद / avyayapada do not
change in its form. It remains same irrespective of gender, number, person and
tense. Followings are few examples:

kutra / कU
ु - where
atra / कU
ु - here
tatra / तU - there
api / अ=प - too
Few sample statements using indeclinable (अव ्ययपद / avyayapada):
where is the boy going - बालकः कU
ु ग\छCत / baalakaH kutra
gachchhati
the boy is going there - बालकः तU ग\छCत / baalakaH tatra
gachchhati
where are the boys going - बालकाः कU
ु ग\छि7त / baalakaaH kutra
gachchhanti
the boys are going there - बालकाः तU ग\छि7त / baalakaaH tatra
gachchhanti
Note that the अ4ययपद (avyayapada) remains the same irrespective of the number,
and person of the "Subject" (कता1 / kartaa).

Rule 4: Indeclinables (अ4ययपद / avyayapada) never change in form and


remain same irrespective of the person and number of the "Subject" (कता1
/kartaa).

Adjective is the word that expresses an attribute or


=वशेषण / visheShaNa):
Adjective (=वशे
property of something or someone. Only nouns can be used adjectives. In Sanskrit it
is called =वशेषण (visheShaNa). Adjective always follows the gender (?ल@ग / liN^ga)
and number (वचन / vachana) of the subject or the word for which it is an adjective.
Followings are few examples:

blue sky - Cनलः आकाशः / nilaH aakaashaH


white cloud - 0वेतः मेघः / svetaH meghaH
In above sentences the words blue and white represent an attribute of sky and
cloud. So, these are adjectives for the words sky and cloud respectively.

In Sanskrit sentence can be in any of the following three voices.


वा\य / vaachya):
Voice (वा\य
'Impersonal Voice' is specific to Sanskrit language only and this sentence formation
is normally not seen in other languages like English.

1. Active voice or कत1व


ृ ा\य (kartRRI vaachya).
2. Passive voice or कम1वा\य (karma vaachya).
3. Impersonal voice or भाववा\य (bhava vaachya).

Now that we know the basics of Sanskrit sentence formation, their different
elements, classification of alphabets and words, we will study the rules in detail in
subsequent chapters.
कत1व
Active Voice (कत1 We will study "Active Voice" in this chapter with
ृ ा\य / kartRRIvaachya):
examples. Other two sentence formations will be covered in chapter 7 and 8 later. All
subsequent chapters are in active voices except chapter 7 and 8.

Study the following statements.

Subject Verb
आ@]लभाषा / Object
सं0कत
ृ / Sanskrit (कता1 / (9:या /
English (कम1 / karma)
kartaa) kriyaa)

बालः ग\छCत the boy going


1. the boy is
baalaH बालः / ग\छCत / -
going
gachchhati baalaH gachchhati
going
अहं ग\छा?म i am
2. i am going ग\छा?म / -
aha.n gachchhami अहं / aha.n
gachchhami
the boy reading
3. the boy is बालः पठCत
बालः / पठCत / -
reading baalaH pathati
baalaH pathati
reading
4. i am अहं पठा?म i am
पठा?म / -
reading aha.n pathaami अहं / aha.n
pathaami

बालः =वRालयम ्
5. the boy is the boy going to school
ग\छCत
going to
baalaH बालः / ग\छCत / =वRालयम ् /
school baalaH gachchhati vidyaalayam
vidyaalayam
gachchhati

अहं =वRालम ् ग\छा?म going to school


6. i am going i am
aha.n ग\छा?म / =वRालयम ् /
to school vidyaalayam अहं / aha.n
gachchhami vidyaalayam
gachchhami

7. the boy is बालकः प0तकम


ु ् पठCत the boy reading the book
reading the baalakaH बालकः / पठCत / प0तकम
ु ् /
book pustakam paThati baalakaH pathati pustakam

8. i am अहं प0तकम
ु ् पठा?म reading the book
i am
reading the aha.n pustakam पठा?म / प0तकम
ु ् /
अहं / aha.n
book paThaami pathaami pustakam

These are all examples of Active Voice or कत1व


ृ ा\य (kartRRivaachya).

Sentence 1 to 4 do not have any "Object" or कम1 (karma) in them. So these are
intransitive or अकम1 कत1व
ृ ा\य (akarmaka kartRRivachya).
Rule 5: In a कत1व
ृ ा\य (kartRRivaachya) the "Subject" or कता1 (kartaa) is
always in the "nominative case" or Nथमा =वभJK (prathamaa vibhakti).

Sentence 5 to 8 have "Object" or कम1 (karma) like =वRालयम ् (vidyaalayam), प0तकम


ु ्
(pustakam) in them. So, these are transitive or सकम1क कत1व
ृ ा\य (sakarmaka
kartRRivachya).

Rule 6: In a कत1व
ृ ा\य (kartRRivaachya) the "Object" or कम1 (karma) is
always in the "accusative case" or PQतीया =वभJK (dvitiiyaa vibhakti).

Cतङ7तपद / tiN^antapada):
Verb Forms (Cतङ7तपद In chapter 1 we were introduced with verb (9:या /
kriyaa) and its use. We learnt that in Sanskrit धातु (dhaatu) is the base or root of all
verbs. Each verb is a derivative or धातLप
ु (dhaaturupa) of it's root. We also learnt
that in a sentence the verb (धातु / dhaatu) always follows the person (पLष
ु / puruSha)
and number (वचन / vachana) in which the Subject or कता1 (kartaa) is. Verb normally
refers to action, state, existence or occurrence etc.

In this chapter we will study the 5 mostly used verb-forms or लकार (lakaara) out of
10 verb-forms that a verb can have. The 5 verb-forms covered are enough for day-
to-day use of Sanskrit.

Verb or धातु (dhaatu) has 10 different Cतङ7तपद (tiN^antapada) forms known as लकार
(lakaara) and they are listed below.

• ल[लकार / laTlakaara
• ल[लकार
ृ / lRRiTlakaara
• ल@लकार / laN^lakaara
• आझयांलो[लकार / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara
• =वधै?ल@लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara

• ?ल[लकार / liTlakaara
• ल[लकार
ु / lRRiTlakaara
• आशी?ल@लकार / aashiiliN^lakaara
• ल@लकार
ु / luN^lakaara
• ल@लकार
ृ / lRRiN^lakaara

We will study the first 5 verb-forms in detail, in coming chapters. Followings are
some common features of different लकार (lakaara) in Sanskrit.
Each लकार (lakaara) has verb-forms for three persons (पLष
ु / puruSha) and three
numbers (वचन / vachana). So, in total each लकार (lakaara) has 9 different verb-forms
or धातLप
ु (dhaaturupa) in it.


The persons are third person (NथमपLष ु
/ prathamapuruSha), second person (मXयमपLष

/ madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उYमपLष / uttamapuruSha). धातLप


(dhaaturupa) in first person (उYमपLष / uttamapuruSha) are always used with अ0मS
(asmad) श;द i.e., 'Me' as the Subject in the sentence. धातLप
ु (dhaaturupa) in second

person (मXयमपLष / madhyamapuruSha) is always used with य0मS
ु (yusmad) श;द i.e.,

'You' as Subject in the sentence. The third person (NथमपLष / prathamapuruSha) is
used in all other cases.


Similarly each person (पLष / puruSha) has three numbers (वचन / vachana), which
are singlar (एकवचन / ekavachana), dual (Qीवचन / dviivachana) and plural (वहवचन
ु /
vahuvachana).

The number (वचन / vachana) of the धातLप


ु (dhaaturupa) always follows the number
(वचन / vachana) of the Subject or श;दLप (shabdarupa) in the sentence. The gender
(?ल@ग / liN^ga) of the Subject does not affect the धातLप
ु (dhaaturupa).

In coming chapters we will study the different verb-forms (धातLप ु / dhaaturupa) in


detail. For easier and simpler study while describing the different verb-forms we
have used पZ / paTh (read) and गम ् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu for sentence formation.
At the end of each chapter Practice Sentences are given using many commonly used nouns and
verbs. Studying the Practice Sentences will help building a good vocabulary for day-to-day
conversasion in Sanskrit.

ल[लकार / laTlakaara (Present Tense): ल[लकार (laTlakaara) represents verb-forms in


present tense (वत1मानकाल / vartamaanakaala). So, while forming a sentence which is
in present tense, the verb (9:या / kriaa) has to be in ल[लकार (laTlakaara).

The complete ल[लकार / laTlakaara of पZ / paTh (read) and गम ् / gam (go) धातु /
dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following
sentences. These are in वत1मानकाल (vartamaanakaala) or present tense.

Subject Verb
आ@]लभाषा / English सं0कत
ृ / Sanskrit Comments
श;द / धातु /
shabda dhaatu
Present Tense - Third Person Singular
वत1मानकाल NथमपLष
ु एकवचन / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana

1. The boy is बालकः पठCत बालक पZ


-
reading. baalakaH paThati baalaka paTh

2. The girl is वा?लका पठCत वा?लका पZ


-
reading. vaalikaa paThati vaalikaa paTh

रामः पठCत राम पZ


3. Rama is reading. -
raamaH paThati raama paTh

सीता पठCत सीता पZ


4. Sita is reading. -
siitaa paThati siitaa paTh

बालकः ग_छCत
5. The boy is बालक गम ्
baalakaH -
going. baalaka gam
gachchhati

वा?लका ग_छCत
6. The girl is वा?लका गम ्
vaalikaa -
going. vaalikaa gam
gachchhati
Present Tense - Third Person Plural
वत1मानकाल NथमपLष
ु वहवचन
ु / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha vahuvachana

7. The boys are बालकाः पठि7त बालक पZ


-
reading. baalakaaH paThanti baalaka paTh

8. The girls are वा?लकाः पठि7त वा?लका पZ


-
reading. vaalikaaH paThati vaalikaa paTh

\छाUाः पठि7त
9. Students are \छाU पZ
chchhaatraaH -
reading. chchhaatra paTh
paThati

?ल=पकाराः पठि7त
10. Clearks are ?ल=पकार पZ
lipikaaraaH -
reading. lipikaara paTh
paThanti

बालकाः ग\छि7त
11. The boys are बालक गम ्
baalakaaH -
going. baalaka gam
gachchhanti

वा?लकाः ग\छि7त
12. The girls are वा?लका गम ्
vaalikaaH -
going. vaalikaa gam
gachchhanti


In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कता1 / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (NथमपLष
एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always follows the number and

peson, the verb (पठCत / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular (NथमपLष एकवचन /
prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कता1 / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural

(NथमपLष वहवचन
ु / prathamapuruSha vahuvachana). Similarly the verb (पठि7त /
paThanti) is also in NथमपLष
ु वहवचन
ु / prathamapuruSha vahuvachana of verb पZ
(paTh).

One thing we can note that the gender of Subject does not affect the verb-form in
use. Only the number and person are followed by verb. In case sentences 1, 3, 5, 7,

9, 10 and 11 the Subject are in musculine (पि@ल7ग / puN^linga) gender. In case of
sentences 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 the Subject are in feminine (Aी?ल@ग / striiliN^ga).
However in neither case the verb depends upon the gender.


All the above sentences were in third person (NथमपLष / prathamapuruSha). Now let

us study the following sentences. These are in second person (मXयमपLष /

madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उYमपLष / uttamapuruSha).

Subject Verb
आ@]लभाषा / English सं0कत
ृ / Sanskrit श;द / धातु / Comments
shabda dhaatu
Present Tense - Second Person Singular
वत1मानकाल मXयमपL
ु ष/ एकवचन / vartamaanakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana

Fवं ग\छ?स य0मS


ु गम ्
13. You are going. -
tva.n gachchhasi yusmad gam

Fवं पठ?स य0मS


ु पZ
14. You are reading. -
tva.n paThasi yusmad paTh
Present Tense - First Person Singular
वत1मानकाल उYमपLष
ु एकवचन / vartamaanakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana

अहं ग\छा?म अ0मS गम ्


15. I am going. -
aha.n gachchhaami asmad gam

अहं पठा?म अ0मS पZ


16. I am reading. -
aha.n paThaami asmad paTh
Present Tense - Second Person Plural
वत1मानकाल मXयमपLष
ु वहवचन
ु / vartamaanakaala madhyamapuruSha vahuvachana

17. You all are ययं


ु ग\छथ य0मS
ु गम ्
-
going. yua.n gachchhatha yusmad gam

18. You all are ययं


ु पठथ य0मS
ु पZ
-
reading. yua.n paThatha yusmad paTh
Present Tense - First Person Plural
वत1मानकाल उYमपLष
ु वहवचन
ु / vartamaanakaala uttamapuruSha vahuvachana
वयं ग\छामः
19. We all are अ0मS गम ्
vaya.n -
going. asmad gam
gachchhaamaH

20. We all are वयं पठामः अ0मS पZ


-
reading. yua.n paThaamaH asmad paTh


In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मXयमपLष
एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject
(kartaa) is in second person plural वहवचन

(मXयमपLष
ु / madhyamapuruSha
vahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is य0मS

(yusmad) श;द (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always य0मS

(yusmad) श;द (shabda).


In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उYमपLष एकवचन /
uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person

plural (उYमपLष वहवचन
ु / uttamapuruSha vahuvachana). In all these sentences the
Subjects used is अ0मS (asmad) श;द (shabda). In case of first person the kartaa is
always अ0मS (asmad) श;द (shabda).

As we know unlike English or any other language, Sanskrit language has three
different numbers viz., singular, plural and dual. This dual number is specific to
Sanskrit and must be used accordingly. The followings are the dual number form of
above sentences.

Subject Verb
आ@]लभाषा / English सं0कत
ृ / Sanskrit श;द / धातु / Comments
shabda dhaatu
Present Tense - Dual
वत1मानकाल PQवचन / vartamaanakaala dvivachana

21. Two boys are बालकौ पठतः बालक पZ


-
reading. baalakau paThataH baalaka paTh

22. Two girls are वा?लके पठतः वा?लका पZ


-
reading. vaalike paThataH vaalikaa paTh

बालकौ ग\छतः
23. Two boys are बालक गम ्
baalakau -
going. baalaka gam
gachchhataH

वा?लके ग\छतः
24. Two girls are वा?लका गम ्
vaalike -
going. vaalikaa gam
gachchhataH

25. Two students are \छाUौ पठतः \छाU पZ


-
reading. chchhatrau chchhaatra paTh
paThataH

?ल=पकारौ पठतः
26. Two clearks are ?ल=पकार पZ
lipikaarau -
reading. lipikaara paTh
paThataH

यवां
ु ग\छथः
27. Both of you are य0मS
ु गम ्
yuvaa.n -
going. yusmad gam
gachchhathaH

28. Both of you are यवां


ु पठथः य0मS
ु पZ
-
reading. yuvaa.n paThathaH yusmad paTh

आवां ग\छावः
29. Both of us are अ0मS गम ्
aavaa.n -
going. asmad gam
gachchhaavaH

30. Both of us are आवां पठावः अ0मS पZ


-
reading. aavaa.n paThaavaH asmad paTh

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many
Sanskrit sentences using ल[लकार / laTlakaara are given. You will know about many
more nouns (श;द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those.

In the next chapter we will study ल[लकार


ृ (lRRiTlakaara) or future tense.

Read / पZ / paTh : ल[लकार / laTlakaara


(Present tense / वत1मानकाल / vartamaanakaala)

Person / पLष
ु /
Number / वचन / vachana
puruSha
Singular Dual Plural
एकवचन / Qीवचन / वहवचन
ु /
ekavachana dviivachana vahuvachana
Third
पठCत / paThati पठतः / paThataH पठि7त / paThanti
Nथम / prathama

Second
पठ?स / paThasi पठथः / paThathaH पठथ / paThatha
मXयम / madhyama

First
पठा?म / paThaami पठावः / paThaavaH पठामः / paThaamaH
उYम / uttama

Go / गम ् / gam : ल[लकार / laTlakaara


(Present tense / वत1मानकाल / vartamaanakaala)
Person / पLष
ु /
Number / वचन / vachana
puruSha
Singular Plural
Dual
एकवचन / वहवचन
ु /
Qीवचन / dviivachana
ekavachana vahuvachana
Third ग\छतः /
ग\छCत / gachchhati ग\छि7त / gachchhanti
Nथम / prathama gachchhataH
Second ग\छथः /
ग\छ?स / gachchhasi ग\छथ / gachchhatha
मXयम / madhyama gachchhathaH
First ग\छा?म / ग\छावः / ग\छामः /
उYम / uttama gachchhaami gachchhaavaH gachchhaamaH