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tinyurl.

com/pjqrdeq
Energy

Howdoesitwork?

Pros

Solarpowercellsconvert
sunlightintoelectricity,using
theenergyofspeeding
photonstocreatean
electricalcurrentwithina
solarpanel.Photonsare
createdinthecenterofthe
sunbythefusionofatoms.

lightfromthesunis
veryabundantand
otherwisewasted
relatively
inexpensive
donotneedto
connecttoasystem
lowcarbon
doesntpollute,
exceptfor
constructionofthe
panels
doesnttakeuptoo
muchspace,canbe
attachedtohouses
orroads(solar
roadways)
verylittle
maintenance
inexhaustible/
sustainable

Cons

Source
Solar
Power

Wind
Power

Simplystarted,awindturbine renewable
workstheoppositeofafan.
Insteadofusingelectricityto

InitialPrice
:Solar
panelsareexpensive
tomake.

Pollution:
The
materialsitsmadeof,
Silicon,mercury,lead
andcadmium,are
toxicandcancause
pollution.Creationof
thecellsusedtomake
thepanelsmayalso
decreasetheir
efficiency.
Efficiency:
Panels
onlycaptureon
average40%ofthe
sunsenergy.Some
highefficiencycan
captureupto80%,but
theyarevery
expensive.
Reliability
:Theyonly
workduringtheday.
Area
:Requirealarge
amountofareato
generatesufficient
energyforalarge
businessoracity.
Noise:
Windpoweris
noisy.

makewindpower,likeafan,
windturbinesusewindto
makeelectricity.Thewind
turnstheblade,whichspina
shaft,whichconnectstoa
generatorandmakes
electricity.

Hydro
Power

HydroPower(waterpower)is
usedprimarilytogenerate
electricity
Powerderivedfromthe
energyoffallingandrunning
water,whichmaybe
harnessedforuseful
purposes
Ex:Dams
Thewaterinthedamgoes
throughthepenstockintothe
turbinemakingthegenerator
turnandcreateenergy

derivedfromthe
sun,whichisntabout
togetupandleave
clean&
nonpolluting,aside
fromthecreationof
thedevices
takesupavery
smallspaceonthe
ground
canbetakenfrom
themiddleofthe
ocean,wherethere
issomuchwind.too
muchwind.

Wildlife:
Wind
turbinescanaffect
wildlife,especially
birdswhoareoften
killed,and
undergroundhabitats
arealsooften
affected.
Reliability
:Windis
unpredictable.Large
amountsofwindare
neededtomakeit
worthit.
Aesthetics
:Wind
turbinesoftendisturb
thelookofa
landscape.michael
stoptexting

Cleanfuelsource
Wontpollutethe
environment
Renewable
power/energysource
Reliableandstable
sourceofenergy
Lowmaintenance
costs
Nowastedisposal

extremelyexpensive
tobuildmustbebuilt
toaveryhigh
standard
Thefloodingoflarge
areasoflandmeans
thatthenatural
environmentis
destroyed
canbeimpactedby
drought.Whenwater
isnotavailable,the
hydroplantscant
produceelectricity
hydropowercan
impactwaterquality
andflow

http://www.dukeenerg
y.com/aboutenergy/g
eneratingelectricity/pu
mpedstoragehow.as
p

Biomass/
Biofuel

Biomassandbiofuelscome
directlyfromliving
organisms.Inotherwords,it
isacompletelynatural
sourceofenergy.Biomass
andbiofueldontnecessarily
needtobefromanimals.It
canalsobeaplant.Any
livingorganismworks.When
biofuelisignited,itis
transferredintoenergy,that
canbeusedaselectricityin
everydayitems.

Itisa100%natural
waytoproduce
energy.
Notveryexpensive

Itproducesharmful
pollutants.
Limited

Geother
mal

Hotwaterispumpedfrom
deepundergroundthrougha
wellunderhighpressure.
Whenthewaterreachesthe
surface,thepressureis
dropped,whichcausesthe
watertoturnintosteam.The
spinturbine,whichis
connectedtoageneratorthat
produceselectricity.The
steamcoolsoffinacooling
towerandcondensesback
intowater.Thecooledwater
ispumpedbackintotheearth
tobegintheprocess

Cleanand
sustainable.Thereis
nofuelused,this
canbuilt
undergroundsoit
takesverylittle
space.Ithasa
virtuallylimitless
supply.Nominingor
transportation
required.Smallest
landfootprintofany
majorpowersource.

Inextremecases,the
geothermalpower
plantcancause
earthquakes.Itisalso
expensive.Theprime
locationsarevery
specificandfaraway
frompopulation
centers.Italso
requirestheuseof
water.

Oiland
Petroleu
m

Crudeoilisfoundinplaces.
TheseplacescanbeTexas,
theDakotas,California,or
Alaska.Thenitisshippedto
refineries,thenrefined.
Refineriesdothreethings:
separation,conversion,and
treatment.Separationoccurs
inthedistillationunits,where
theheavierliquidssinktothe

Technologiesused
forextractingoilare
alreadywell
developed.
Petroleumhasbroad
use.
Tischeap.
Burningone
kilogramofoilcan

Burningoffossilfuels
releasescarbon
dioxide,nitrogen
monoxide,nitrogen
dioxide,sulphur
dioxide,carbon
monoxide,andmore,
thathaveterrible
consequenceson
habitatsandhuman

bottomandthelightergases
floattothetop.Inthe
conversionphase,heatand
pressurecrackheavy
hydrogenmoleculesinto
lighterones.Treatmentisthe
finalstage.Init,finaltouches
aremadeandoctanelevels
areadjusted.Once
petroleumfuelhasbeen
refined,itisburnedtocreate
steamthatgoestoaturbine,
whichsendsrotational
energyintoagenerator,
whichcreateselectricity.

generate10,000
kcal.
Easytotransport
becauseofitsliquid
form.
Alaskaisfullofit,but
thebearswont
share.Bearsare
mammalsofthe
familyUrsidae.
Bearsareclassified
ascaniforms,or
doglikecarnivorans,
withthepinnipeds
beingtheirclosest
livingrelatives.
Althoughonlyeight
speciesofbearsare
extant,theyare
widespread,
appearinginawide
varietyofhabitats
throughoutthe
Northern
Hemisphereand
partiallyinthe
Southern
Hemisphere.Bears
arefoundonthe
continentsofNorth
America,South
America,Europe,
andAsia.

Republican
lawmakers
frequentlyarebribed
byExxontosaythat
petroleumdoesnot
harmthe
environment.These
boneheadshaveno

health.
Nonrenewable.Major
pollution.Expensive.
Impactsonaquaticlife
byoilspillsintothe
ocean.Needhuge
amountsofspace.
Lotsofcoalminingis
needed,whichcreates
ahealthhazardtothe
workers.

scientific
background,butthey
clearlyknowbetter
thanmostscientists,
soIsupposethey
arecorrect.
Natural
Gas

Uses:
Oftenusedfor
heating,cooking,andenergy
generating.Alsousedasfuel
forvehicles.
Formed
:Itisaproductof
decomposed
organicmatter
(Biomass)
.Thematerial
getscoveredandsealedoff
inanoxygenfree
environment.Astheheata
pressureincreasesonthe
organicmaterial,itgoesfor
healththroughathermal
breakdown(Burning).This
processconvertstheorganic
materialto
hydrocarbons
.
Naturalgasiscomposed
mostlyofofmethane,the
simplestandlightest
hydrocarbon.
Obtaining
:Depositsof
naturalgascanbefound
usingseismictesting
methods.Onceasiteis
found,verticalwellsare
drilledtoreachthegasunder
thelayersofoverhead.
Naturalbuoyancybringsthe
gastothesurface.
TurningNaturalGasinto
energy:
Weusenaturalgastopower
energyproducingturbines.
Thegasislitonfireina
boilertoheatwater.The

Itis
Readily
available
domestic
sourceofenergy.
(was90%ofU.S.
energymixin2012)

Destroysthe
ecosystem
Cannotrelyonits
limitedsource

steampushestheturbine,
whichisattachedtoa
generator,soastheturbine
spinsitcreatesmechanical
energythatthegenerator
convertsintoelectricity.
Coal

Coalisformedfrom
decomposingorganic
materialformedunder
extremeheatandpressure.
Coalisgenerallyasolidfuel
thatisusedtogenerate
electricitybycombustion.
Whenusingcoaltogenerate
electricityitisusually
pulverizedandplacedina
furnacewithaboiler.The
coalthenboilswaterand
generatessteam.Thesteam
thenturnsaturbine,the
turbinepowersagenerator
whichcreateselectricity.
Moderndaycoalfire
poweredpowerstationshave
abouta43%thermal
efficiency.Thisdiagramofa
coalpowerplantwasfound
at:
http://www.learneasy.info/MD
ME/iTester/tests/10906_Heat
_Engines/images/generating
_electricity_files/boiler.gif

cheapandplentiful
locatedcloseto
surfaceandcover
largeareas
inexpensivemining
techniques

easilyconvertedto
energy

speedsupglobal
warming
nonrenewable
pollutingchemicals
thataredangerousfor
health
damagingto
surroundingnatural
habitats
transportationcanbe
costly

picturefound:

Nuclear
Power

Energyreleasedfromatoms relativelylowcostto Heatwaves,


produceenergy
freshwatershortages

fromaprocessinwhichthe
nucleusofanatomsplitsinto
smallerparts(Lighternuclei)
worksthroughnuclear
fission.

processproducesfree
neutronsandphotons,which
releasesalargeamountof
energy

Aneutronisabsorbedbya
uranium
nucleus,turningit
brieflyintoanexcited
uraniumnucleus,withthe
excitationenergyprovidedby
thekineticenergyofthe
neutronplustheforcesthat
bindtheneutron.The
uranium,inturn,splitsinto
fastmovinglighterelements.

lowpollution
fuelnotlimitedto
justUranium
Thoriumcanalsobe
used
tenmilliontimes
greaterthanthe
energyreleased
whenburningfossil
fuels
Reliable,powerful,
andefficient
Onlysmallamounts
ofUraniumare
neededtoproducea
largeamountof
energy
Producesabout502
MW,or
1807200000000000
0joulesina24hour
period

anddroughtscan
affectcoolingof
reactors,forcingthem
tobeshutdown
Cantgetridofwaste
Nuclearplant
accidentscanbe
disastrous
Radioactivewasteis
produced

Whybuildahousewithoutelectricity?
Howmuchenergydohumansuse?Inwhatforms?
528.797quadrillionBTU,BritishThermalUnit(forcomparison,ittakes[numberJordansaid]
BTUtoboilsomewaterand1000BTUtoheata10x10x10ftroom5degreesFahrenheit)
AKA557,880,830,000,000,000,000Joules/year

Humansproducemoreenergythanweuse
Weproduce530.683quadrillionBTUperyear
Weconsume528.797quadrillionBTUperyear

TypesofenergytheUSuses
Coal42%
NaturalGas25%
Nuclear19%

Hydro8%
OilPetroleum1%
Renewable5%

Cost/Economics
BP,Chevron,ConocoPhillips,ExxonMobil,andShellmade$93billioncombinedprofit2013
AveragehouseholdinUSpays$110.55andconsumes955kilowatthoursmonthly(US
EnergyInformationAdministration),beingcharged11.8centsperkilowatthours.Withthat
average,UShouseholdspay$1326.60forelectricityperyear.

Costs

Coal$46.70perto
n

OilPetroleum$73.29perbarrel

Nuclearpowerplantwas1.51cents/kWhin2013

Hydropowercostsabout0.7cents/kWh

http://www.worldnuclear.org/info/EconomicAspects/EnergySecurit
y/

Climatechangehowdoesithappen?(greenhouseeffect,carbon
cycle,useofsunsenergy):

(Forsomereason,thepicturesherearentworking.Toseethem,aswellasthewholeHow
doesclimatechangehappensectionspamandlagfree,viewtheseparatedocat
https://docs.google.com/a/students.nusd.org/document/d/15hvTbExVFt9XrdFsee6dY1LK9q1
ebySE2W3riJ2cjk/edit
.Thanks.)

Greenhouseeffect
Theprocessofwhenthermalradiationisabsorbedbyatmosphericgreenhousegasesis
knownasthegreenhouseeffect.LifeasweknowitisonlypossiblebecauseofEarthsnatural
greenhouseeffect.
20%oflightfromthesunisdistributedandreflectedbyclouds
51%ofthesunslightisabsorbedbyearth
4%isreflectedbytheEarthssurface
6%isscatteredfromatmosphere
19%isabsorbedbyatmosphereandclouds

https://www.koshlandsciencemuseum.org/explorethescience/earthlab/processes#.VORS
033iw
WhensunlighthitstheEarthssurface,someofitgetreflectedandsomeofitturnsintoheat.
Carbonandotheratmosphericgasestraptheheat,keepingtheEarthwarm.Thegreenhouse
effectcausedbyincreasedcarbonandothercontaminantsintheatmospherehasbeen
keepingmoreandmoreheatinouratmosphere,changingtheplanetstemperature
drastically.Accordingtoclimate.nasa.gov,carbondioxidelevelsintheatmosphereareatan
alltimehigh,and97%ofscientistsagreethatthisdramaticchangeiscausedbyhuman
actions.

http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

Gasesthatcreatethegreenhouseeffect:carbondioxide(CO2),methane(CH4),watervapor
(H2O),NitrousOxide(N2O)

CarbonCycle
Itsabiogeochemicalcyclewherecarbonisexchangedthroughoutthebiosphere,
pedosphere(theoutermostlayeroftheEarth),geosphere,
Alllivingthisaremadeofcarbon.Carbonattacheswithoxygentoformcarbondioxide.Plants

usebothsunlightandcarbondioxidetofeedthemselvesandgrow.Whenplantseventually
die,andgetburiedtheyturnintofossilfuels(suchascoaloroilmillionsofyears).Humans
thenburnthecoal,andthecarbonreturnsintotheatmosphereascarbondioxide.Since
humanshaveburnedsomuchfuelovertheyears,thereis30%morecarbondioxideinthe
atmospherecomparedto150yearsago.

http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/co2_cycle.html

ClimateChangeConsequenceswhatcouldhappenasaresultofthechangingclimate?
Polaricecapsmelt
Manynorthernspeciesofanimalsbecomeatriskofextinction
Sealevelsrise
Heavyrainandextremeweathereventsbecomemorecommon
floodinganderosionbegintohavemoreeffectonland
decreasingwaterquality
decreasingabundanceofwaterinsomeplaces,andmoreabundanceinothers
increaseininsectoutbreaks
increaseinforestfires
increaseinheatrelatedsicknessanddisease
sizeofmajorriverdeltasincreasesataveryvastrate

ClimateChangeConsequenceswhatcouldhappenasaresultof
thechangingclimate?
Decreasingavailabilityofwaterresourcesinsomeregions
Moreintenseheatwaves
frequentwildfires,longerperiodsofdroughtinsomeregionsandanincrease
inthenumber,durationandintensityoftropicalstorms

Wildlife
plantsandanimalspeciesstrugglingtocope
terrestrial,freshwater,andmarinespecieshavemovedtonewlocations
somespecieswillbeatincreasedriskofextinctionifglobalaverage
temperaturescontinuetorise
ConsequencesforHumanHealth

therehasbeenanincreaseinthenumberofheatrelateddeaths
therehasbeenadecreaseincoldrelateddeathsinotherregions
HighCost
destruction,forcedrelocations,droughts,andextinctionsaddupcostsinthe
globaleconomy
by2030,climatechangecostsareprojectedtocosttheglobaleconomy$700
billionannually
ForcedRelocation
in2008,36millionpeopleweredisplacedbynaturaldisasters
atleast20millionofthosepeopleweredrivenawayfromtheirhomes
bydisastersrelatedtoclimatechange,likedroughtandrisingsealevel
SouthernHemisphere
mostaffected
notonlystates,butculturesandidentitieswillbedrowned
200millionpeopleby2050couldbeforcedtoleavedueto
environmentalchanges

Increasingwaterlevels
floodsanddecreasingwateravailability
resultoficecapsmelting

ClimateChangeConsequencesonRegions
NorthEast
Heatwaves,intenserain,riseofsealevel

NorthWest
Riseofsealevel,erosion,increaseinoceanaciditylevels,wildfires,insect
outbreakscompetingwaterdemands

SouthEast
Riseinsealevel,continuousriseinthreatstoeconomyandenvironment,health
problemsduetoextremeheat,largedecreaseinwaterresourcesaffectingeconomyand
agriculture

SouthWest

Heat,drought,andinsectswarms,increasedwildfires,decliningwater,less

agriculturalpotential,healthchangesfromheat,andfloodinganderosiononthe
coastlines(thinkseaarches,butmuch,muchmoresignificant)

Californias annual temperature is projected


to increase up to 8 degrees within the next
century.

http://www.independent.co.uk/incoming/article6272752.ece/alternates/w620/Pg24graphicc
limate.jpg

http://static1.businessinsider.com/image/538f14e8eab8ea5259b5dd7e960/sdfvs

Geothermal

reandand...?????!!!???

NATURALGAS: