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Q. (1) How is communication defined? Which are the various dimensions or facets brought out by different definitions?
Ans.:- If I am to speak ten minutes, I need a week for preparation; if fifteen minutes, three days; if
half an hour, two days; if an hour, I am ready now. ~ Woodrow Wilson Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts, ideas and emotions. Communication is a process that involves a sender who encodes and sends the message, which is then carried via the communication channel to the receiver where the receiver decodes the message, processes the information and sends an appropriate reply via the same communication channel. Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.
Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information). The word communication, which has its origin in the Latin word communis, brings out many images in one’s mind. It could be a two way process, a network, a technique or a form of entertainment. It could be personal or business related communication and as we see, has developed its modes, channels, instruments and gadgets over the years. Communication are a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is discreeted and imparted by sender to a receiver via a channel/medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, and writing. “Communication is the broad field of human interchange of facts and opinions.” -REDFIELD This definition emphasizes the fact communication has to do with interchange or exchange of facts and opinions or social or commercial intercourse. “Communication encompasses all forms of expression which serve the purpose of mutual understanding.” -REVESZ This definition highlights the all-encompassing nature of communication and the fact that it has a purpose to achieve . “Communication is the process that links discontinuous parts of the world to one another.” -RUESCH Here, the focus is on the fact that communication has a global reach. “Communication is the means by which power is exerted.” -SCHACTER
This brings out the dominant role played by communication in empowering people in their individual and organizational endeavours.
The 4 Dimensions of Communication
By Chris Sheridan
Introduction: - 4 physical dimensions:
Just like the 4 dimensions of the physical world (yes, there are more than 4), there are 4 dimensions of human communication. To recap, 1st Dimension-a point, like this period. 2nd Dimension - a line, like this one_____, or area with length and width. 3rd Dimension - add vertical component - height, as in a cube or sphere. This is the one that is most familiar to us, especially for things up close. 4th Dimension - the space/time continuum. Space and time are inextricably linked - as in very long distances being measured in light-years. E=mc2 - When an object (composed of matter and having mass) travels toward the speed of light and beyond, it becomes less physical and more energy. (It will turn into pure energy when the velocity hits the speed of light squared). These dimensions apply directly to communication...
1st Dimension of Communication:- Internal dialog:
This is when we talk to ourselves - not out loud, but in our heads. It is our internal belief system that only we ourselves know about how we really feel about everything. If we say: "I know I can get this job," or "I can ace my P.E. exam," or "I bowl about a 240," we will! That's because we can say with reasonable assurity that we can do those things within our abilities. Of course, the negative version of this works quite well, also. We sometimes keep ourselves from growing because we tell ourselves what we can and cannot do. "I can't figure this thing out," or "I'm not really a creative person - that's something you're either born with, or not," Saying these things can have a devastating effect! It is also the images we play in our heads like thinking what it'd be like if we move to a new city, or run into an ex- at our own wedding, or what we would do if the apartment caught on fire. In the 1st dimension, communication takes place instantaneously. 2nd Dimension of Communication:- One-to one: Face to face interactions, such as talking with someone next to you. This form is limited to our senses - mainly the strength of our voices and ears. And, both parties need to be present for the message to be transferred. Once out of earshot, communication can no longer take place. Sign language, light, flag and smoke signals all fit in this category because one needs to be within visual range to get the message. With technology, messages can be transmitted and received over distances beyond the reach of our senses. Messages have to be written or recorded on some media (such as a letter or newspaper) to be physically taken to the other person either by foot, horseback, boat or carrier pigeon. At this point, time becomes an issue and messages are not always timely. With technologies such as the telegraph and telephone, the messages do not need a physical form, although the devices and wires do. Now, the proximity factor is no longer relevant - messages travel great distances at nearly light-speed.
3rd Dimension of Communication: - One-to-many:
From public speaking to rock concerts, these messages can be received by several listeners/viewers in one locale, such as a movie theater or stage, but only come from one entity that has control over the content. The receiver can choose only from what is available, and the communication is mostly one-way, except for audience reaction. With technology, one-to-many messages are broadcast by, radio, cable or satellite. In this dimension, one sender can transmit a message to many, many receivers simultaneously around the world. But without a live audience, the feedback is more removed, an therefore the communication is even more one-way. In the 3rd dimension, time and distance again are not a significant factor, but timing is everything. The receiver has to be at the concert or near a radio or in front of a TV to get the message. Even if you tape a show with your VCR and watch it later, you still have to coordinate the machine with the airing schedule determined by the sender.
4th Dimension of Communication: - Many-to-many:
These messages (you are reading on now) are now possible with the Internet. Now, we can send a message that anyone else can receive from just about anywhere and at anytime - 24 hours a day. No longer do we have to wait for a show to come on, or a book to be returned from the library. E-mail travels as fast as a telephone, and you don't have to be at your mailbox to receive (or send) it. Timing is controlled primarily by the receiver, not the sender. And the sender can post an essay on the Web at 4:00 in the morning (like this one). The Internet and WWW represent the massest of all mass media. Perhaps the most important difference from other mass media is that the Internet is unmediated media. More specifically, it is self-mediated media. We can send or receive the information we want, when we want it and every book is always on the shelf of the world's largest library. And, we all have a voice a microphone or billboard to share our thoughts to the world. In the 4th dimension, time, distance and physical space are irrelevant, and now, timing is no longer necessary. Furthermore, even the physical form of the media is reduced to (almost) pure energy. Not only can previously physical objects appear in front of us instantly (14.4 's might suggest otherwise!!) - we ourselves can be non-physically teleported to anywhere in the world where there is a WebCam running and see live images of Amsterdam or Santa Cruz. Ultimately, it is our choice of when and where to go - and these decisions are made at the fastest speed in the universe - the speed of thought.
Dimensions of communication
THE STRENGTHS and weaknesses of each communication method are not just a factor of the media elements they can employ, but also the broad categories that they fall into. I have identified four independent dimensions that help considerably in categorising the methods: • • • • recorded v live passive v interactive local v remote push v pull
Recorded Recorded communication is prepared in advance of its delivery. Examples are audio tapes and CDs; videotapes; CD-ROMs; letters, memos and reports; manuals; printed materials; faxes; e-mails; intranet pages and some radio and TV broadcasts. The advantages of recorded communication are that it delivers a consistent message each time; the message can be a considered one and the recipient can access the communication at a time that suits them. Pull Push Remote Passive
Live Live communication is delivered as it happens, in realtime. Examples are live radio and TV broadcasts; oneto-ones; meetings; phone calls and video conferencing calls. The advantage of live communication is that it is immediate.
Pull communications are made available to be accessed at the recipient’s discretion. Examples are audio tapes and CDs; videotapes; CDROMs; manuals; printed materials; the intranet; radio and TV broadcasts. The advantages of pull communication are that it is less stressful for the recipient and that very large quantities of information can be made available at any one time.
Push communications are sent to specific recipients. Examples are letters, memos and reports; faxes and emails; one-to-ones; meetings; phone calls and videoconferencing calls. The advantage of push communication is the greater certainty that it provides that a message will reach its target within an a ppropriate timeframe.
Interactive Interactive communication is two-way. Each party in the process is able to send and receive communication. Examples are CD-ROMs (assuming they do not contain purely linear material); letters, memos and emails (to the extent that they are exchanged); the intranet (to the extent that interactive facilities are provided); one-to-ones; meetings; phone calls and videoconferencing calls. The advantages of interactive communication are the opportunities it provides for feedback; the greater degree of confidence it provides that the message has been understood; the recipient can to some extent control the pace of the communication and the message can be tailored to better meet the recipient’s needs.
Remote communication is delivered at a distance. It is networked, on-line, transmitted. Examples are e-mails; the intranet; radio and TV broadcasts; phone calls and videoconferencing calls. The process by which faxes are transmitted is also remote. The advantages of remote communication are that there is no delay in getting the message to the recipient, wherever they are and that communication can take place over large distances. An advantage of remote, recorded media, such as intranet pages, is that they can be easily updated centrally.
Passive communication is one-way. The receiver is not able to respond directly to the communication. Examples are audio tapes and CDs; videotapes; manuals; printed materials; faxes; radio and TV
broadcasts. The advantages of passive communication are that it requires less effort from the recipient and that, because there are no opportunities for interaction, it is quicker.
Q. (2) What are the various objectives, Which communication strives to achieve in large business organizations?
Ans.:- The following are the main objectives of business communication:Conveying the right message: The main object of communication is to convey the right message to the right person, i.e., to the person for whom it is meant. The message conveyed should be well understood and accepted by the receiver in the right perspective. In other words, it should carry the same meaning which has been conveyed so that it may be translated into action effectively. Coordination of effort: Communication is an effective tool for coordinating the activities of different persons engaged in running a business. Coordination without communication is a remote possibility. The individuals or groups come to know what others are doing and what is expected from them only through communication. Good industrial relations: Communication develops good industrial relations as it conveys the feelings, ideas, opinions, and viewpoints of one party to the other party. The two parties the management and the subordinates, come closer through communication. They understand each other and dispel any misunderstanding. Thus, it promotes cooperation and good industrial relations. Development of managerial skills: Communication helps managers to understand human behaviour at work. Communication of facts, ideas, opinions, information, feelings, etc., add value to the knowledge of managers about various happenings, in the organization and behaviour of people. Thus, communication is a process of learning.
Identifying communication needs, objectives and activities
Starting with communication needs
When planning communication strategies, many tend to take a very broad problem as a starting point (desertification, for example), and then to move right into planning communication activities (information sessions, awareness campaigns). The result is that the target is often missed and, despite all the activities undertaken, the problem remains untouched. To avoid situations of this kind, we should start from the needs expressed by local communities and identify the communication objectives we want to achieve before undertaking specific activities.
Material needs and communication needs
Development needs can be categorized broadly between material needs and communication needs. Any given development problem and attempt to resolve it will present needs relating to material resources and to the conditions to acquire and manage these. However, we will also find complementary needs which involve communication: for sharing information, influencing policies, mediating conflicts, raising awareness, facilitating learning, supporting decision-making and collaborative action etc. Clearly, these two aspects should go hand in hand and be addressed in a systemic way by any research or development effort. Participatory development communication puts the focus on the second category of needs and ensures that they are addressed, together with the material needs the research or development effort is concentrating on. For example, in an initiative aiming to resolve water conflicts in a village, we will probably find a need for an improved access to water, and development initiatives are needed to address that need. At the same time however, we may find out that in order to find adequate solutions in the present context, we must first understand the reasons behind the conflicts, such as the time schedule for various categories of users or the conflicting needs of herders, women and farmers. Or we may find that villagers do not know how to set up or manage effectively a water management committee. Or there may be a need for the village authorities to advocate for more water access, such as the drilling of another well, to the national water program. In a community initiative aiming to manage collectively a forest, there may be material needs such as tools to cut wood, seeds to plant new trees, access to drinkable water, etc. and again development resources are needed to address those needs. At the same time, people must understand the necessity to manage the forest if they want it to survive, and be able to take into consideration the specific needs of different categories of users. There may also be needs relating to learning different techniques, or needs relating to the setting up of a community forestry management mechanism. To identify such needs, it is not enough to ask the question directly in a community meeting. This work needs to be done with each group of participants, both those most directly affected by the problem and those who are in a position to help resolve it. Sometimes, needs will be identified not through direct answers from community members, but through an observation of the different practices in use or by comparing the answers or lack of answers of the different groups. Again, this identification of needs must be linked to the problem or to the goal identified previously and to the initiative to be carried out. The question which can guide us in this is the following: What do the different groups we are working with need in order to experiment with or implement a specific set of activities, which can help solve a specific problem?
Communication objectives are based on the communication needs of each specific group concerned by a specific problem or a set of research activities. These objectives are identified and then prioritised. The final choice of objectives may be made on the basis of the needs that are most urgent, or those most susceptible to action. They are then defined in terms of the action which need to occur for the objectives to be achieved. Generally, in the context of natural resource management, the objectives are linked to one or several of these communication functions: raising awareness, sharing information, facilitating learning, supporting participation, decision-making and collaborative action, mediating conflicts, influencing the policy environment. An important aspect though is not to limit oneself to awareness-raising objectives. It may be important to raise awareness for a community management of a forest, or for a better community management of water resources. However, this objective should be accompanied by other objectives aiming to: • • • develop a plan for such a management, set up a community mechanism to carry it forward and monitor it, learn specific forestry techniques (in the case of the first situation).
One question we may ask ourselves in identifying these objectives is the following: what are the results, (in terms of knowledge, attitudes, behaviour or problem-solving capacity) that each group of participants should be expected to achieve by the end of the initiative? Each of these results then constitutes an objective. In this way, we will have a general objective, which defines the final results that we hope to accomplish, and more specific objectives relating to each of these results, which will serve as the basis for the activities to be undertaken. It is best if these objectives can be set out in observable terms, because that will greatly facilitate subsequent evaluation. However, we should not overdo that. For example, it may be very difficult to tell, at the end of a communication strategy for improving soil fertility, whether we have “reduced desertification risk”. It will be easier to ascertain whether the specific community groups with whom the communication facilitator worked understand the process of desertification as it takes place in their own setting, whether they are aware of appropriate protective measures, and have put one or more of these into practice. But on the other hand, to be too specific may be as problematic as to be too general. It may be more appropriate to formulate an objective as “to facilitate the understanding of causes related to a water conflict problem in the community” than to formulate it as “75% of the community members will be able to identify five causes related to the water conflict problem in the community”. The latter would be a better formulation in the context of a class (pedagogical objectives) but is rather unproductive at the scale of a community. Again, this planning exercise should be done with the participation of the various groups of participants and resource persons working with the initiative.
From communication objectives to communication activities
The next stage is to regroup the different objectives involving the same community groups and to consider the best way of supporting each group in achieving them. For each group of participants and for each objective, we should then ask ourselves what the most appropriate modes of communication areFor example, if we want to work closely with women on water use, in many settings, it may be better to arrange first for a global meeting with husbands and wives to explain the intention, discuss the problem and then arrange for working exclusively with groups of women, than trying to isolate women for participation in communication activities. It is on the basis of such strategic considerations that communication activities are then identified and ranked by order of priority. It is particularly important at this point to be realistic about the feasibility issues and not to compile an endless list of activities that is too ambitious.
Q. (3) What are the various type of non-verbal communication? How can non-verbal communication be used effectively?
of Nonverbal Communication
According to experts, a substantial portion of our communication is nonverbal. Every day, we respond to thousands on nonverbal cues and behaviours including postures, facial expression, eye gaze, gestures, and tone of voice. From our handshakes to our hairstyles, nonverbal details reveal who we are and impact how we relate to other people. Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behaviour began with the 1872 publication of Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Since that time, there has been an abundance of research on the types, effects, and expression of unspoken communication and behaviour. While these signals are often so subtle that we are not consciously aware of them, research has identified several different types of nonverbal communication.
Haptics--touch Chronemics--time Kinesics--body language Proxemics--personal space
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behaviour can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are similar throughout the world.
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate number amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.
Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.
Body Language and Posture
Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970’s, but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-crossing, especially after the publication of Julius Fast’s book Body Language. While these nonverbal behaviours can indicate feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed.
Kinesics:- Kinesics, or body language, is one of the most powerful ways that humans can communicate nonverbally. It is used to portray moods and emotions and to emphasize or contradict what is being said. Body language is very important when in an interview. "To effectively communicate it’s not always what you say, but what your body says, that makes the difference," according to Patricia Ball. There are various different types of body movement one can do to come across as being too strong or too weak. For example, when one first walks into the room and shakes hands with the interviewer you want to have good eye contact as well as a good firm hand shake. Not too strong, because you can come across as being a power player. Another important aspect to remember when you are on an interview and that is to mirror your interviewer, but not to the point that you over do it. For example, if the person that is giving you the interview crosses his/her arms than you can cross your arms. If he/she crosses their feet then you should cross your feet, but do it gradually. The last two things to remember is when you first walk into the office do not cross anything unless the person that is doing the interviewing crosses his or hers first. Next when you are
sitting down be relaxed as possible by opening your suit jacket. This shows the person that you are not tensed. The other aspect to remember is to lean forward in your chair, but not to close where you are in the individuals face. If you sit back in your chair you might be sending off signals, such as, aloofness or rejection. Finally, nonverbal communication can also be an effective sale when executives learn to read a client’s body language.
People often refer to their need for “personal space,” which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics, and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.
One of the terms used in non-verbal language is proxemics. Edward Hall defined proxemics in the 1950’s and 1960’s when he investigated man’s use of personal space in contrast with fixed and semi-fixed feature space. Fixed feature is what it is fixed has in unmovable boundaries. Semi-fixed is fixed boundaries that can be moved like furniture. Proxemics can be divided in two other ways, physical and personal territory. Physical territory is like desks that are in front of the room of a classroom instead of center. An example of the proxemic concept is that of stepping behind the desk of an associate at work and invading the personal zone. But what if it is the boss; do you have the authority? If it’s a co-worker you probably do. A workplace where you sit is a primary tool in establishing certain communications and is his or her freedom to place that desk where and how it is a key element in personnel considerations. The cubicles don’t offer the chance to allow the worker to rearrange the furniture to his or her preference, nor do they allow visitors. Extra room or the ability to move furniture in an office are both symbols of status. Manager Tip: A manager can use proxemics to their advantage. The arrangement of an office space can show the attitude or personality of the manager. To establish a democratic and friendly style, speak with an employee side by side, such as at a table, rather than from behind a large, imposing desk.
1. Eye Gaze
Looking, staring, and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviours. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest, and attraction.
Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behaviour. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood. Harry Harlow’s classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behaviour and social interaction.
Research has found that touching can create both positive and negative feelings. Your feelings are positive when the touch is perceived to be natural. A person gets the opposite feeling when the touch is perceived to be manipulative or insincere. Touch is
experienced in many ways. Handshakes, pats, and kisses are just a few of the ways one can communicate by touching. Manager Tip: A firm handshake says, "I care." A weak handshake says, "I care less."
Our choice of colour, clothing, hairstyles, and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on colour psychology has demonstrated that different colours can invoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgment, and interpretations 4.
Time, or chronemics, can be used very differently with respect to individuals and even cultures. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait, and interactions. Time use affects lifestyles, daily agendas, speed of speech and movements, how long people are willing to listen, etc. The way time is used can provide information about people as individuals. There are different perceptions about time usage and its value. Also, cultures differ in their usage of time. For example, in European and American societies, when men are interacting with women, they generally control the time use, talk more than women, and interrupt more than women. In the business world, Americans are expected to arrive to meetings on time and, usually, even early. On the other hand, they arrive late to parties and dances. Manager Tip: When addressing the issues of time and punctuality, be specific as to what exactly is "on time." An employee may view arriving at 8:05-8:10 as acceptable, while the manager may see 8:10 as being late. By citing a specific time rather than using general phrases, communication can be improved and possible conflicts avoided.
Q. (4) What is the importance of listening skills in a business organization? How are these skill useful in dealing with customer complaints?
Ans.:ISTENING KILLS We were given two ears but only one mouth. This is because God knew that listening was twice as hard as talking. People need to practice and acquire skills to be good listeners, because a speaker cannot throw you information in the same manner that a dart player tosses a dart at a passive dartboard. Information is an intangible substance that must be sent by the speaker and received by an active listener.
THE FACE IT SOLUTION FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING
Many people are familiar with the scene of the child standing in front of dad, just bursting to tell him what happened in school that day. Unfortunately, dad has the paper in front of his face and even when he drops the paper down half-way, it is visibly apparent that he is not really listening. A student solved the problem of getting dad to listen from behind his protective paper wall. Her solution was to say, "Move your face, dad, when I'm talking to you.'' This simple solution will force
even the poorest listener to adopt effective listening skills because it captures the essence of good listening.
GOOD LISTENERS LISTEN WITH THEIR FACES
The first skill that you can practice to be a good listener is to act like a good listener. We have spent a lot of our modern lives working at tuning out all of the information that is thrust at us. It therefore becomes important to change our physical body language from that of a deflector to that of a receiver, much like a satellite dish. Our faces contain most of the receptive equipment in our bodies, so it is only natural that we should tilt our faces towards the channel of information. A second skill is to use the other bodily receptors besides your ears. You can be a better listener when you look at the other person. Your eyes pick up the non-verbal signals that all people send out when they are speaking. By looking at the speaker, your eyes will also complete the eye contact that speakers are trying to make. A speaker will work harder at sending out the information when they see a receptive audience in attendance. Your eyes help complete the communication circuit that must be established between speaker and listener. When you have established eye and face contact with your speaker, you must then react to the speaker by sending out non-verbal signals. Your face must move and give the range of emotions that indicate whether you are following what the speaker has to say. By moving your face to the information, you can better concentrate on what the person is saying. Your face must become an active and contoured catcher of information. It is extremely difficult to receive information when your mouth is moving information out at the same time. A good listener will stop talking and use receptive language instead. Use the I see . . . un hunh . . . oh really words and phrases that follow and encourage your speaker's train of thought. This forces you to react to the ideas presented, rather than the person. You can then move to asking questions, instead of giving your opinion on the information being presented. It is a true listening skill to use your mouth as a moving receptor of information rather than a broadcaster. A final skill is to move your mind to concentrate on what the speaker is saying. You cannot fully hear their point of view or process information when you argue mentally or judge what they are saying before they have completed. An open mind is a mind that is receiving and listening to information. If you really want to listen, you will act like a good listener. Good listeners are good catchers because they give their speakers a target and then move that target to capture the information that is being sent. When good listeners aren't understanding their speakers, they will send signals to the speaker about what they expect next, or how the speaker can change the speed of information delivery to suit the listener. Above all, a good listener involves all of their face to be an active moving listener.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
If you are really listening intently, you should feel tired after your speaker has finished. Effective listening is an active rather than a passive activity. When you find yourself drifting away during a listening session, change your body position and concentrate on using one of the above skills. Once one of the skills is being used, the other active skills will come into place as well. Your body position defines whether you will have the chance of being a good listener or a good deflector. Good listeners are like poor boxers: they lead with their faces. Meaning cannot just be transmitted as a tangible substance by the speaker. It must also be stimulated or aroused in the receiver. The receiver must therefore be an active participant for the cycle of communication to be complete. There are books written exclusively on the rules of giving presentation. With long articles and publications on the subject, it_s not hard to learn the stead fast rules of speaking and how to write a presentation, much like it isn_t hard to learn how to fix a car, albeit it takes some dedication. However there aren_t long publications on simple little tips and tricks about presentations that make the whole learning process easier. While tips won_t create a great speaker, they are possibly some of the greatest
information out there and they make the basics much easier and make even a weak presenter look like a super star.
While there are many presentation tips to come, it_s important to learn how to find them on your own. The old saying of give a man a fish and he_ll eat for a night, but teach a man to fish and he_ll never go hungry again really applies. The only trick to getting presentation tips is finding people who give presentations constantly and are extremely good at it. Often times there will be a handful of people that are easily accessible that can give you presentation tips. The first place to stop by would be a church. Ninety percent of what a priest or pastor does is talk. Their jobs rely on being able to speak well to a large audience and to be able to keep the entertained long enough to give them his message; someone that does such a job every day for year's results in a strong presenter who has likely picked up a lot of presentation tips. Just drop by and see them when they aren_t giving a ceremony and start a conversation with them. To name a few other good resources politicians and public relations people in non profit organizations often times have to speak to the public a lot and are a wonderful resource of presentation tips. Finally to actually name a few presentation tips. We_ll start with organization; a good tip on organizing is to print clearly at the top of index cards the main topic of a presentation that will often times have many sub topics, then on separate index cards write the sub topics at the head and the points on the respective cards below the titles. Once the cards are all filled out, pile them on top of each other in the correct order and this will allow you to clearly and visually arrange the presentation in a way that flows smoothly without having to delete and reword entire sections, instead all you have to do is move the index cards. A common presentation tip to curb anxiety is to practice some form of meditation outside of public speaking. Once you become proficient at it you can use it to calm yourself during a presentation. Finally, to keep the audience_s attention, engage them somehow. Whether it_s asking them a question or asking for a show of hands, it will keep them on their toes and listening to what you have to say. With a few of the presentation tips listed and the knowledge of where to find presentation tips, it won_t be hard to master giving presentations. Presentation tips aren_t an excuse to not learn the basics but they will help reduce the learning curve and give you more confidence when you_re in front of people. A good presenter will never stop looking for new presentation tips and often times discuss the subject with new presenters they meet throughout their life. A good set of presentation tip is like a list of good recipes. They will serve you well throughout your life and they are perfect to share and pass on.
How to Conduct Audience Analysis
For most technical writers, audience analysis is the most important step in planning a target document. In order for a writer's final product to be fully successful, the piece must be aimed toward the intended audience--its knowledge, its opinions, its needs, and its wants. The question then, is how do you determine the knowledge, opinions, needs, and wants of your target audience? These instructions will help you analyze your audience and develop a strategy to target your writing to your audience.
Know the definition of audience analysis: determining the important characteristics of an audience in order to chose the best style, format and information/arguments when writing or speaking. Understanding the identity, personality and characteristics brought to a situation by the specific type of audience.
Know the purpose of audience analysis: Having knowledge of a specific audience allows the writer or speaker to understand the social situation in which he or she writes. It allows the writer to come up with a strategy to adapt arguments to best suit an audience. Conducting audience analysis informs a speaker or writer about the people he or she is talking to. This is important because based on what is found out in the audience analysis a writer/speaker can adjust his work to relate to an audience in the best way possible. It allows a writer/speaker to be able to succeed in their goal of writing or speaking whatever that may be. If a speaker/writer wants to persuade, inform, motivate, excite, scare, warn or cheer up an audience, then analyzing those people to which he/she is talking can allow them to pick the best words, stories, tone, style and delivery to use when writing or talking to that specific group of people. Follow this acronym and answer the resulting questions. Just remember the AUDIENCE.
Analysis- Who is the audience? Understanding- What is the audience's knowledge of the subject? Demographics- What is their age, gender, education background etc.? Interest- Why are they reading your document? Environment- Where will this document be sent/viewed? Needs- What are the audience's needs associated with your document topic? Customization- What specific needs/interests should you the writer address relating to the specific audience? Expectations- What does the audience expect to learn from your document? The audience should walk away having their initial questions answered and explained.
Analysis/Understanding: Defining the background of the audience aids the writer in
determining what information is already understood and what information needs to be included. More information may need to be included so that the audience can understand and reach the conclusion that your document intends. Demographics/Interest/Environment: Demographic characteristics of the audience can help determine the style and content of a document. Age groups, areas of residence, gender, and political preferences for example, are some of the characteristics to focus on. Paying attention to these aspects of the audience can also help sidestep any offensive remarks or topics that the audience would not relate to or appreciate. Needs/Customization: If there is more than one audience, you can write sections specifically pertaining to the corresponding audiences, or write in one particular fashion that applies across the board. Similarly, if there is a wide variability in the audience, cater to the majority--write to the majority of the people that will be reading the document. References to other sources with alternative information may need to be included to aid the minority of the readers.
Audience analysis is part of the beginning stages of producing a target document. Whereas audience analysis does help to start off the project and lead the writer in the right direction, it is only one step in the formation of a document. It is beneficial to consult other rhetorical strategies that may help guide the writing process even more.
Q. (5) Write short notes:(a) Understanding audience psychology and (b) Building self-confidence.
By Lenny Laskowski
Analysis - It's Your Key To Success
As speakers we all know the importance of properly preparing our material far enough in advance so we may have sufficient time to rehearse and "fine-tune" our speeches. Unfortunately, this is not enough to assure that your speech or presentation is well received. Your speech preparation must also include gathering information about your audience and their needs. A well prepared speech given to the wrong audience can have the same effect as a poorly prepared speech given to the correct audience. They both can fail terribly. It is critical that your preparation efforts include some amount of audience analysis. The more you know and understand about your audience and their needs, the better you can prepare your speech to assure that you meet their needs. Speech preparation should use what I like to call the 9 P's. Prior Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance of the Person Putting on the Presentation. Nothing will relax you more than to know you have properly prepared. The stage fright or speech anxiety felt by many speakers is due to not knowing enough about the speaking environment or the audience. The more you know about your speaking environment and your audience, the more relaxed you will be when delivering your speech. Many speakers, however, often overlook the need to include any kind of audience analysis as part of their speech preparation. Proper audience analysis will assure that you give the right speech to the right audience. Most professional speakers send their clients a multi-page questionnaire in order to gather enough information about them and the speaking event to properly customize their speeches. Using the word "A-U-D-I-E-N-C-E" as an acronym, I have defined some general audience analysis categories that these surveys should include. A nalysis - Who are they? How many will be there? U nderstanding - What is their knowledge of the subject? D emographics - What is their age, sex, educational background? I nterest - Why are they there? Who asked them to be there? E nvironment - Where will I stand? Can they all see & hear me? N eeds - What are their needs? What are your needs as the speaker? C ustomized - What specific needs do you need to address? E xpectations - What do they expect to learn or hear from you? Develop specific questions which fit into each of these eight categories and ask the client or audience to tell you what they want. Essentially, ask them what they need and give it to them. The audience is often referred to as the end user, and all communications need to be targeted towards the defined audience. When defining an audience, factors that must be considered include: Age Skills
Language Culture Background knowledge Needs and interests Where the document will be read How the document will be delivered (print, online, projection, PDA) Why the document will be accessed (reference, training) When the document will be accessed (work, home, travel) The intended audience of a document is often referred to as the who, what, where, when, and why.
Interactive strategies call for communicating with audience members. Using these strategies requires what Berger calls "interrogation" and "self-disclosure." These strategies can include formal or informal methods.
Formal interactive strategies often utilized to analyze audiences for political speeches, marketing research, and other formal addresses. They obtain excellent data, but require careful planning. You will want to ask your instructor before employing these methods: conducting a survey forming a focus group questioning the audience members individually All of these methods require careful planning. You will want to make sure your questions are clear, use several types of questions, and be as brief as possible.
Informal methods involve simply talking with audience members. One simple way to get people to talk with you is self-disclosure, which means discussing yourself, your opinions, and your feelings, and listening for their response. By doing this, you can set the topic for discussion and hope your partner keeps to the topic. Most people are willing to help, since they know they will have to give speeches, too.
Passive strategies of information-gathering are those that do not directly affect your subject, and do not require much effort on your part. Berger calls these strategies a "hide in the bushes approach", since your subjects may not even know you are gathering information. For instance, how could find out which exhibits at a rodeo were the most popular? Non-passive ways: you could ask everybody what they saw, you could survey perhaps a hundred people, - or you could set people at each exhibit to count people. These methods would take a lot of work! Using a passive strategy, you could walk around at the end of the day and see where the ground was most worn by people's feet, and that might give a pretty good idea of which exhibits attracted the most people.
Strategies for public speaking
Passive strategies you can use to get information about your audience: recall previous speeches observe typical audience members hang out in places frequented by members of your audience
TA outline According to the International Transactional Analysis Association'Transactional analysis is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change'. As a theory of personality, TA describes how people are structured psychologically. It uses what is perhaps its best known model, the ego-state (Parent-Adult-Child) model to do this. This same model helps explain how people function and express their personality in their behavior. It is a theory of communication that can be extended to the analysis of systems and organisations It offers a theory for child development, by explaining how our adult patterns of life originated in childhood This explanation is based on the idea of a "Life (or Childhood) Script": the assumption that we continue to re-play childhood strategies, even when this results in pain or defeat. thus it claims to offer a theory of psychopathology In practical application, it can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of many types of psychological disorders, and provides a method of therapy for individuals, couples, families and groups.
Outside the therapeutic field, it has been used in education, to help teachers remain in clear communication at an appropriate level, in counselling and consultancy, in management and communications training, and by other bodies Philosophy of TA
Improve your life - learn how to build self confidence. How To Build Self Confidence
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If there is one attribute that anyone is lacking it is most likely self confidence. Self confidence has been diminishing at an astonishing rate and this is largely due to the world we live in today. We_re constantly being bombarded with images of perfection and the message that not being first means we_re last. This subconsciously makes us very sensitive to all sorts of judgment and makes us very self conscious in about everything we do. Self consciousness is the enemy of self confidence and if one can defeat their self conscious habits they can largely solve their self confidence issues and learn how to build self confidence. Learning how to build self confidence will not only relieve a lot of the anxiety in ones life but it will also prove to strengthen their career and make them more outgoing. The key to learning how to build self confidence is really a two step process. The first step is to eliminate those things which chip away at your confidence such as self conscious behaviors and negativity. Getting rid of the things that limit the confidence in yourself is necessary because without doing so, your confidence will be stuck in a never ending cycle of improving and then receding back to where it was to begin with. The first step is to try and remove yourself from negativity; this means stop associating so much with the people who try to diminish your accomplishments and who are hurtful. It also means recognizing the situations that are inherently negative and trying to take steps to avoid them, even if it means you have to avoid things you enjoy too. The next step is much harder and it is to get rid of self conscious behavior. Reassuring yourself that what you_re doing is not a big deal in the grand scheme of things works well but if you have serious problems with this area counseling is usually best. Once all the impeding properties are removed, you_re ready to start learning how to build self confidence. The first step on learning how to build self confidence is to let others around you know you_re trying to do so. Inform your loved ones of what your plan on learning how to build self confidence and have them point out things you do right. The biggest piece of learning how to build self confidence is feeling good about yourself. If you feel bad that you_re not fit, lose some weight. You can never emotionally feel confident in yourself if you_re not happy with your situation physically. The next step to learning how to build self confidence is to recognize all the good things you do. In order to learn how to build self confidence you have to ignore all the bad things and simply accept them as mistakes and not take them to heart. Concentrating on only the good will put you in the right mindset to think more highly
of yourself. Last but not least, just smile. Learn to lighten up a bit and learning how to build self confidence will come much more naturally. It_s unfortunate that there isn_t more material out there to teach people how to build self confidence, especially considered how low confidence levels are plaguing great deal of people. If the problem is really serious then counseling is really the best option. However, if you have a drive to succeed and want to change your life for the better, apply some of the rules above to your life and learn how to build self confidence. With a better confidence level almost all aspects of your life will improve.
Q. (6) What is transactional analysis? How is it relevant in dealing with people and situations?
Ans.:- Transactional analysis
Transactional analysis, commonly known as TA to its adherents, is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. Integrative because it has elements of psychoanalytic,
According to the International Transactional Analysis Association Transactional analysis is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal humanist and cognitive approaches. It was developed by Canadian-born US psychiatrist Eric Berne during the late 1950s.change'. As a theory of personality, TA describes how people are structured psychologically. It uses what is perhaps its best known model, the ego-state (Parent-Adult-Child) model to do this. This same model helps explain how people function and express their personality in their behaviour. It is a theory of communication that can be extended to the analysis of systems and organisations. It offers a theory for child development, by explaining how our adult patterns of life originated in childhood. This explanation is based on the idea of a "Life (or Childhood) Script": the assumption that we continue to re-play childhood strategies, even when this results in pain or defeat. thus it claims to offer a theory of psychopathology. In practical application, it can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of many types of psychological disorders, and provides a method of therapy for individuals, couples, families and groups. Outside the therapeutic field, it has been used in education, to help teachers remain in clear communication at an appropriate level, in counselling and consultancy, in management and communications training, and by other bodies.
Philosophy of TA
People are OK; thus each person has validity, importance, equality of respect. Everyone (with only few exceptions, such as the severely brain-damaged) has the capacity to think. People decide their story and destiny, and these decisions can be changed. Freedom from historical maladaptations embedded in the childhood script is required in order to become free of inappropriate, inauthentic, and displaced emotions which are not a fair and honest reflection of here-and-now life (such as echoes of childhood suffering, pity-me and other mind games, compulsive behavior, and repetitive dysfunctional life patterns). The aim of change under TA is to move toward autonomy (freedom from childhood script), spontaneity, intimacy, problem solving as opposed to avoidance or passivity, cure as an ideal rather than merely making progress, learning new choices.
Key ideas of TA
Some core models and concepts are part of TA as follows:--
The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model
At any given time, a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture of behaviours, thoughts and feelings. Typically, according to TA, there are three ego-states that people consistently use: Parent ("exteropsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions. For example, a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked. Adult ("neopsyche"): a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that cloud its operation. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality. Child ("archaeopsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. For example, a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor, and crying or pouting, as they used to when scolded as a child. Conversely, a person who receives a good evaluation may respond with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. The Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy. Berne differentiated his Parent, Adult, and Child ego states from actual adults, parents, and children, by using capital letters when describing them. These ego-states may or may not represent the relationships that they act out. For example, in the workplace, an adult supervisor may take on the Parent role, and scold an adult employee as though they were a Child. Or a child, using their Parent ego-state, could scold their actual parent as though the parent were a Child. Within each of these ego states are subdivisions. Thus Parental figures are often either nurturing (permission-giving, security-giving) or criticizing (comparing to family traditions and ideals in generally negative ways); Childhood behaviours are either natural (free) or adapted to others. These subdivision categorize individuals' patterns of behaviour, feelings, and ways of thinking, that can be functional (beneficial or positive) or dysfunctional/counterproductive (negative). Berne states that there are four types of diagnosis of ego states. They are the behavioural diagnosis, social diagnosis, historical diagnosis and the phenomenological diagnosis of ego states. For a complete diagnosis one needs to complete all four types. It has been subsequently demonstrated that there is in fact a fifth way of diagnosis. It is known as the contextual diagnosis of ego states. For example if a man says, “On July 5th, 2007 the alignment of the planets will create a magnetic field so large that there will be the biggest tides in half a century”, what ego state would be diagnosed? If that man was of a dishevelled appearance, had not shaven for 2 days and was sitting on a park bench drinking out of a bottle in a brown paper bag what ego state would be diagnosed?. Probably some kind of regressed Child ego state. If that man was in an observatory wearing a white coat and carrying a clip board what ego state would be diagnosed? Probably Adult ego state. The different contexts for the same statement would tend to result in a different diagnosis. The context in which the statement is made is central to the diagnosis of ego states. Ego-states do not correspond directly to Sigmund Freud's Ego, Superego and Id, although there are obvious parallels: ie, Superego:Ego:Id::Parent:Adult:Child. Ego states are consistent for each person and are argued by TA practitioners as more readily observable than the pats in Freud's hypothetical model. In other words, the particular ego state that a given person is communicating from is determinable by external observation and experience.
There is no "universal" ego-state; each state is individually and visibly manifested for each person. For example, each Child ego state is unique to the childhood experiences, mentality, intellect, and family of each individual; it is not a generalised childlike state. Ego states can become contaminated, for example, when a person mistakes Parental rules and slogans, for here-and-now Adult reality, and when beliefs are taken as facts. Or when a person "knows" that everyone is laughing at them because "they always laughed". This would be an example of a childhood contamination, insofar as here-and-now reality is being overlaid with memories of previous historic incidents in childhood. Although TA theory claims that Ego states do not correspond directly to thinking, feeling, and judging, as these processes are present in every ego state, this claim is self-contradictory to the claim that the Adult is like a computer processing information, therefore not feeling unless it is contaminated by the Child. Berne suspected that Parent, Adult, and Child ego states might be tied to specific areas of the human brain; an idea that has not been proved. The three ego state model has been questioned by a TA group in Australia, who have devised a "two ego-state model" as a means of solving perceived theoretical problems: "The two ego-state model says that there is a Child ego-state and a Parent ego-state, placing the Adult ego-state with the Parent ego-state. [...] How we learn to speak, add up and learn how to think is all just copied from our teachers. Just as our morals and values are copied from our parents. There is no absolute truth where facts exist out side a person’s own belief system. Berne mistakenly concluded that there was and thus mistakenly put the Adult ego-state as separate from the Parent ego-state."
Transactions and Strokes
Transactions are the flow of communication, and more specifically the unspoken psychological flow of communication that runs in parallel.Transactions occur simultaneously at both explicit and psychological levels. Example: sweet caring voice with sarcastic intent. To read the real communication requires both surface and non-verbal reading. Strokes are the recognition, attention or responsiveness that one person gives another. Strokes can be positive (nicknamed "warm fuzzies") or negative ("cold pricklies"). A key idea is that people hunger for recognition, and that lacking positive strokes, will seek whatever kind they can, even if it is recognition of a negative kind. We test out as children what strategies and behaviours seem to get us strokes, of whatever kind we can get. People often create pressure in (or experience pressure from) others to communicate in a way that matches their style, so that a boss who talks to his staff as a controlling parent will often engender self-abasement or other childlike responses. Those employees who resist may get removed or labeled as "trouble". Transactions can be experienced as positive or negative depending on the nature of the strokes within them. However, a negative transaction is preferred to no transaction at all, because of a fundamental hunger for strokes. The nature of transactions is important to understanding communication.
Kinds of transactions
There are basically three kinds of transactions: • Reciprocal/Complementary (the simplest) • Crossed • Duplex/Covert (the most complex)
Reciprocal or Complementary Transactions
A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in. These are also called complementary transactions. Example 1 A: "Have you been able to write the report?" B: "Yes - I'm about to email it to you." ----(This exchange was Adult to Adult) Example 2 A: "Would you like to skip this meeting and go watch a film with me instead?" B: "I'd love to - I don't want to work anymore, what should we go and see?" (Child to Child) Example 3 A: "You should have your room tidy by now!" (Parent to Child) B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent) Communication like this can continue indefinitely. (Clearly it will stop at some stage - but this psychologically balanced exchange of strokes can continue for some time).
Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners address ego states other than that their partner is in. Consider the above examples jumbled up a bit. Example 1a: A: "Have you been able to write that report?" (Adult to Adult) B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent) is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace. "A" may respond with a Parent to Child transaction. For instance: A: "If you don't change your attitude, you'll get fired." Example 2a: A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child) B: "I'm just going to do it, actually." (Adult to Adult) is a more positive crossed transaction. However there is the risk that "A" will feel aggrieved that "B" is acting responsibly and not playing their role, and the conversation will develop into: A: "I can never trust you to do things!" (Parent to Child) B: "Why don't you believe anything I say?" (Adult to Adult) which can continue indefinitely.
Duplex or Covert transactions
Another class of transaction is the 'duplex' or 'covert' transactions, where the explicit social conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction. For instance, A: "I need you to stay late at the office with me." (Adult words) body language indicates sexual intent (flirtatious Child) B: "Of course." (Adult response to Adult statement). winking or grinning (Child accepts the hidden motive). Phenomena behind the transactions
In TA theory,"Life Position" refers to the general feeling about life (specifically, the unconscious feeling, as opposed to a conscious philosophical position) that colours every dyadic (i.e. person-toperson) transaction. Initially four such Life Positions were proposed: "I'm Not OK, You're OK" (I-U+) "I'm Not OK, You're Not OK" (I-U-) "I'm OK, You're Not OK" (I+U-) "I'm OK, You're OK" (I+U+) However, lately, an Australian TA analyst has claimed that in order to better represent the Life Position behind disorders that were not, allegedly, as widespread and/or recognized at the time when TA was conceptualized as they are now (such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder etc, the above list requires alteration. Also, two additional Life Positions are proposed .
"I'm not-OK, You're OK" (I-U+) "I'm not-OK, You're not-OK" (I-U-) "I'm not-OK, But You're Worse" (I-U--) "I'm not-OK, You're Irrelevant" (I-U?) "I'm a Bit More OK Than You Are" (I++U+) "I'm OK, You're OK" (I+U+) "I'm OK, You're Irrelevant" (I+U?) The difference between one's own OK-ness and other's OK-ness captured by description "I'm OK, You're not-OK" is proposed to be substituted by description that more accurately captures one's own feeling (not jumping to conclusions based only on one's perceived behavior), therefore stating the difference in a new way: "I'm not-OK, but You're worse" (I-,U--), instead.
Life (or Childhood) Script
Script is a life plan, directed to a reward Script is decisional and responsive; i.e., decided upon in childhood in response to perceptions of the world and as a means of living with and making sense of the world. It is not just thrust upon a person by external forces. Script is reinforced by parents (or other influential figures and experiences). Script is for the most part outside awareness. Script is how we navigate and what we look for, the rest of reality is redefined (distorted) to match our filters. Each culture, country and people in the world has a Mythos, that is, a legend explaining its origins, core beliefs and purpose. According to TA, so do individual people. A person begins writing his/her own life story (script) at a young age, as he/she tries to make sense of the world and his place within it. Although it is revised throughout life, the core story is selected and decided upon typically by age 7 As adults it passes out of awareness. A life script might be "to be hurt many times, and suffer and make others feel bad when I die", and could result in a person indeed setting himself up for this, by adopting behaviours in childhood that produce exactly this effect. Though Berne identified several dozen common scripts, there are a practically infinite number of them. Though often largely destructive, scripts could as easily be mostly positive or beneficial.
Redefining and Discounting
Redefining means the distortion of reality when we deliberately (but unconsciously) distort things to match our preferred way of seeing the world. Thus a person whose script involves "struggling alone against a cold hard world" may redefine others' kindness, concluding that others are trying to get something by manipulation. Discounting means to take something as worth less than it is. Thus to give a substitute reaction which does not originate as a here-and-now Adult attempt to solve the actual problem, or to choose not to see evidence that would contradict one's script. Types of discount can also include: passivity (doing nothing), over-adaptation, agitation, incapacitation, anger and violence.
Injunctions and Drivers
TA identifies twelve key injunctions which people commonly build into their scripts. These are injunctions in the sense of being powerful "I can't/mustn't ..." messages that embed into a child's belief and life-script: Don't be (don't exist) Don't be who you are Don't be a child Don't grow up
Don't make it in your life Don't do anything! Don't be important Don't belong Don't be close Don't be well (don't be sane!) Don't think Don't feel. In addition there is the so-called episcript: "You should (or deserve to) have this happen in your life, so it doesn't have to happen to me." (Magical thinking on the part of the parent(s).) Against these, a child is often told other things he or she must do. There is debate as to whether there are five or six of these 'drivers': Please (me/others)! Be perfect! Be Strong! Try Hard! Hurry Up! Be Careful! (is in dispute) Thus in creating his script, a child will often attempt to juggle these, example: "It's okay for me to go on living (ignore don't exist) so long as I try hard". This explains why some change is inordinately difficult. To continue the above example: When a person stops trying hard and relaxes to be with his family, the injunction You don't have the right to exist which was being suppressed by their script now becomes exposed and a vivid threat. Such an individual may feel a massive psychological pressure which he himself doesn't understand, to return to trying hard, in order to feel safe and justified (in a childlike way) in existing. Driver behaviour is also detectable at a very small scale, for instance in instinctive responses to certain situations where driver behaviour is played out over five to twenty seconds. Broadly speaking, scripts can fall into Tragic, Heroic or Banal (or Non-Winner) varieties, depending on their rules.
Ways of Time Structuring
There are six ways of structuring time by giving and receiving strokes: Withdrawal Ritual Pastimes Activity Games Intimacy This is sorted in accordance with stroke strength; Intimacy and Games in general allow for the most intensive strokes. Withdrawal This means no strokes are being exchanged
A ritual is a series of transactions that are complementary (reciprocal), stereotyped and based on social programming. Rituals usually comprise a series of strokes exchanged between two parties. For instance, two people may have a daily two stroke ritual, where, the first time they meet each day, each one greets the other with a "Hi". Others may have a four stroke ritual, such as: A: Hi! B: Hi! How are you? A: Getting along. What about you? B: Fine. See you around.
The next time they meet in the day, they may not exchange any strokes at all, or may just acknowledge each other's presence with a curt nod. Some phenomena associated with daily rituals: If a person exchanges fewer strokes than expected, the other person may feel that he is either preoccupied or acting high and mighty. If a person exchanges more strokes than expected, the other person might wonder whether he is trying to butter him up or get on good terms for some vested interests. If two people do not meet for a long time, a backlog of strokes gets built up, so that the next time they meet, they may exchange a large number of strokes to catch up.
A pastime is a series of transactions that is complementary (reciprocal), semi-ritualistic, and is mainly intended as a time-structuring activity. Pastimes have no covert purpose and can usually be carried out only between people on the same wavelength. They are usually shallow and harmless. Pastimes are a type of smalltalk. Individuals often partake in similar pastimes throughout their entire life, as pastimes are generally very much linked to one's life script and the games that one often plays. Some pastimes can even be understood as a reward for playing a certain game. For example, Eric Berne in Games People Play discusses how those who play the "Alcoholic" game (which Berne differentiated from alcoholism and alcoholics) often enjoy the "Morning After" pastime in which participants share their most amusing or harrowing hangover stories.
Activities in this context mean the individuals work together for a common goal. This may be work, sports or something similar. In contrast to Pastimes, there is a meaningful purpose guiding the interactions, while Pastimes are just about exchanging strokes. Strokes can then be given in the context of the cooperation. Thus the strokes are generally not personal, but related to the activity.
Intimacy as a way of structuring time allows one to exchange the strongest strokes without playing a Game. Intimacy differs from Games as there is no covert purpose, and differs from Activities as there is no other process going on which defines a context of cooperation. Strokes are personal, relating to the other person, and often unconditional.
Q. (7) Discuss the significance of written communication for any organisation. What its advantages and limitations?
Ans.:- Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it. Business Letters:-Being an effective communicator requires knowing how to write good business letters. The main reason for writing good letters is that your writings reflect you. A sloppy letter represents a sloppy person or organization. On the contrary, clearly stated views and good written communication skills represent a strong organization. Difference In Letters and Memos To be an effective communicator, you must know when to send a letter as opposed to a memo. Letters generally go to people outside an organization, while memos go to people
inside an organization. However, sometimes in large organizations, people will send letters to different departments instead of memos. The only other major distinctions are the audience and format. Keys to Good Letters Good grammar and use of punctuation is essential in an effective letter. There is no excuse for poor grammar, spelling, and punctuation in business letters. Do not rely on spelling and grammar checkers to find all of your errors. A letter submitted with an error that is overlooked states that the letter was not important enough to double check, and can show a lack of effort. Format Knowledge of the letter formats is essential. Consistency is good; people do not want to read a letter with components of multiple formats. This makes a letter sloppy and less attractive to readers. Block, modified block, and AMS (American Management Society) Simplified are three different formats letters can have. Block lines the whole letter up at the left margin, are single spaced in paragraphs, and double-spaced between paragraphs. Headings are optional, and if used they are boldfaced. The first paragraph never has a heading and the paragraphs are not indented. The only difference in block and modified block is that modified block lines the date line and signature block up together over two-thirds to right margin. Here, paragraph indentation is optional. AMS Simplified is a little different than block and modified block. The subject line is in all capital letters. If a list is used in the letter, the items in the list should be doublespaced between. There is no salutation line in AMS and headings are optional as well. The author’s name is placed at the bottom in all capital letters in place of a signature.
Q. (8) What is the role of humour in oral communication? What kind of humour is appropriate in a business context?
Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.
Q. (9) How is mass communication different from business letters? What are the objectives of mass communication?
Ans.:- Mass communication
Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of the various means by which individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television and film, as these are used both for disseminating news and for advertising. Field of study Tuba Nacar - Mass communication research includes media institutions and processes such as diffusion of information, and media effects such as persuasion or manipulation of public opinion. In the United States, for instance, several university journalism departments evolved into schools or colleges of mass communication or "journalism and mass communication". In addition to studying practical skills of journalism, public relations or advertising, they offer programs on "mass communication" or "mass communication research." The latter is often the title given to doctoral studies in such schools, whether the focus of the student's research is journalism practice, history, law or media effects. Departmental structures within such colleges may separate research and instruction in professional or technical aspects of mass communication. With the increased role of the Internet in delivering news and information, mass communication studies and media organizations tend to focus on the convergence of publishing, broadcasting and digital communication. The academic mass communication discipline historically differs from media studies and communication studies programs with roots in departments of theatre, film or speech, and with more interest in "qualitative," interpretive theory, critical or cultural approaches to communication study. In contrast, many mass communication programs historically lean toward empirical analysis and quantitative research -- from statistical content analysis of media messages to survey research, public opinion polling, and experimental research. Interest in "New Media" and "Computer Mediated Communication" is growing much faster than educational institutions can assimilate it. So far, traditional classes and degree programs have not been able to accommodate new shifts of the paradigm in communication technologies. Although national standards for the study of interactive media have been present in the U.K. since the mid-nineties, course work in these areas tends to vary significantly from university to university. Graduates of Mass Communication programs work in a variety of fields in traditional news media and publishing, advertising, public relations and research institutes. Such programs are accredited by the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communication The Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication is the major membership organization for academics in the field, offering regional and national conferences and refereed publications. The International Communication Association and National Communication Association (formerly the Speech Communication Association) include divisions and publications that overlap with those of AEJMC, but AEJMC historically has stronger ties to the mass communication professions in the United States The terms 'Mass' and 'Communication' The term 'mass' denotes great volume, range or extent (of people or production) and reception of messages. The important point about 'mass' is not that a given number of individuals receives the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients The term 'mass' suggests that the recipients of media products constitute a vast sea of passive, undifferentiated individuals. This is an image associated with some earlier critiques of 'mass culture' and Mass society which generally assumed that the development of mass communication has had a largely negative impact on modern social life, creating a kind of
bland and homogeneous culture which entertains individuals without challenging themHowever, with the advancement in Media Technology, people are no longer receiving gratification without questioning the grounds on which it is based.Instead, people are engaging themselves more with media products such as computers, cell phones and Internet. These have gradually became vital tools for communications in society today. The aspect of 'communication' refers to the giving and taking of meaning, the transmission and reception of messages. The word 'communication' is really equated with 'transmission', as viewed by the sender, rather than in the fuller meaning, which includes the notions of response, sharing and interaction. Messages are produced by one set of individuals and transmitted to others who are typically situated in settings that are spatially and temporally remote from the original context of production. Therefore, the term 'communication' in this context masks the social and industrial nature of the media, promoting a tendency to think of them as interpersonal communication.Furthermore, it is known that recipients today do have some capacity to intervene in and contribute to the course and content of the communicative process. They are being both active and creative towards the messages that they are conveyed of. With the complement of the cyberspace supported by the Internet, not only that recipients are participants in a structured process of symbolic transmission, constraints such as time and space are reordered and eliminated. 'Mass communication' can be seen as institutionalized production and generalized diffusion of symbolic goods via the fixation and transmission of information or symbolic content. It is known that the systems of information codification has shifted from analog to digital. This has indeed advanced the communication between individuals. With the existence of Infrared, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, cell phones are no longer solely a tool for audio transmission. We can transfer photos, music documents or even games and email at any time and anywhere. The development of media technology has indeed advanced the transmission rate and stability of information exchange.
Characteristics of Mass Communication Five characteristics of mass communication have been identified by Cambridge University's John Thompson. Firstly, it "comprises both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution"This is evident throughout the history of the media, from print to the Internet, each suitable for commercial utility. Secondly, it involves the "commodification of symbolic forms", as the production of materials relies on its ability to manufacture and sell large quantities of the work. Just as radio stations rely on its time sold to advertisements, newspapers rely for the same reasons on its space. Mass communication's third characteristic is the "separate contexts between the production and reception of information",while the fourth is in its "reach to those 'far removed' in time and space, in comparison to the producers". Mass communication, which involves "information distribution". This is a "one to many" form of communication, whereby products are mass produced and disseminated to a great quantity of audiences.
Business Letters:- A strong organization.
Being an effective communicator requires knowing how to write good business letters. The main reason for writing good letters is that your writings reflect you. A sloppy letter represents a sloppy person or organization. On the contrary, clearly stated views and good written communication skills represent Difference In Letters and Memos To be an effective communicator, you must know when to send a letter as opposed to a memo. Letters generally go to people outside an organization, while memos go to people inside an organization. However, sometimes in large organizations, people will send letters to different departments instead of memos. The only other major distinctions are the audience and format.
Keys to Good Letters Good grammar and use of punctuation is essential in an effective letter. There is no excuse for poor grammar, spelling, and punctuation in business letters. Do not rely on spelling and grammar checkers to find all of your errors. A letter submitted with an error that is overlooked states that the letter was not important enough to double check, and can show a lack of effort. Format Knowledge of the letter formats is essential. Consistency is good; people do not want to read a letter with components of multiple formats. This makes a letter sloppy and less attractive to readers. Block, modified block, and AMS (American Management Society) Simplified are three different formats letters can have. Block lines the whole letter up at the left margin, are single spaced in paragraphs, and double-spaced between paragraphs. Headings are optional, and if used they are boldfaced. The first paragraph never has a heading and the paragraphs are not indented. The only difference in block and modified block is that modified block lines the date line and signature block up together over two-thirds to right margin. Here, paragraph indentation is optional. AMS Simplified is a little different than block and modified block. The subject line is in all capital letters. If a list is used in the letter, the items in the list should be doublespaced between. There is no salutation line in AMS and headings are optional as well. The author’s name is placed at the bottom in all capital letters in place of a signature.
Q. (10) What is a report? State various kinds of reports relevant to your organization.
A report is a very formal document that is written for a variety of purposes, generally in the sciences, social sciences, engineering and business disciplines. Generally, findings pertaining to a given or specific task are written up into a report. It should be noted that reports are considered to be legal documents in the workplace and, thus, they need to be precise, accurate and difficult to misinterpret. Business report writing becomes an essential part of the communication process in the business environment. Business report writing standards grow in complexity to meet the needs of a rapidly developing environment. Whether you are writing a financial, statistical or an audit report, you have to determine the scope of your research and isolate the problem to collect relevant data. business report writing starts with the executive summary that is written in a non-technical manner. You should keep in mind audience needs, since the typical audience for business reports is upper level managers with little or no technical knowledge. Do not forget to state the precise quantitative tools that will be used to achieve the desired results. This part of a business report is tough for many students, as it requires not only in-depth knowledge of statistical tools, but also general information about the tools used in similar studies to estimate the accuracy and relevancy of the selected tool. Often, more than two writers at Custom-Writing.org work to ensure that your report ends up being statistically correct. Be careful with findings and interpretation of the results, since your conclusion and future research suggestions are based on this section. We make interpretations of technical findings for those who have less technical expertise. Writers at Custom-Writing.org have extensive experience with business report writing
Types of Report Writing --• • •
Research Report Writing Business Report Writing Science Report Writing
Research Report Writing--- To presents the tangible proof of the conducted research is the major intention of the academic assignment. When writing on research report, you must ponder over clarity, organization, and content. Research reports are all the more same to technical reports, lab reports, formal reports and scientific papers which comprise a quite consistent format that will facilitate you to put your information noticeably, making it crystal clear. Business Report Writing--- In business milieu, Business report writing happens to be an indispensable part of the communication process. Executive summary is written in a non-technical manner. By and large, audience for business reports will consist of upper level manager, for that reason you should take the audience needs in consideration. Go on with the introduction to articulate the problem and determine the scope of the research. To attain the desired results, don't fail to state about the precise quantitative tools. Science Report Writing--- Parallel to a business report, science report writing also corresponds with the line of investigation. To report upon an empirical investigation, these reports make use of standard scientific report format, portraying technique, fallout and conclusions. As an assignment in undergraduate papers within the scientific disciplines, it is required frequently. The main objective of the Science report is to boast an aim, the technique which enlightens how the project has been analyzed, the outcomes which presents the findings and the conclusion. This embraces advance research suggestions and your own biased opinion on the topic which has been talked about. When writing a science report, do not fail to remember to use heading and subheadings in order to direct a reader through your work. In the form of tables and graphs, Statistical evidence should be incorporated in appendices. Than refer to it in the body of your scientific report.
Reports are a common form of writing because of the inclusion of recommendations which are helpful in implementing the decision.
Local Local communication is stand-alone and off-line. It occurs where you are, even though it might have been originated at a distance. Examples are audio tape and CDs; videotapes; CD-ROMs; letters, memos and reports; manuals; printed materials; one-to-ones and meetings. Faxes are local even though the process by which they are transmitted is not. The advantages of local communication are that no sacrifice has to be made to quality because of bandwidth limitations and that there are fewer restrictions on where the media can be used or the communication can take place.
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