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Few ideal versions of human constructions exist, and the transformer offers no exception. An ideal
transformer is based on very simple concepts, and a large number of assumptions. This is the
transformer one learns about in high school.
Let us take an iron core with infinite permeability and two coils wound around it (with zero
resistance), one with N1 and the other with N2 turns, as shown in figure 3.2. All the magnetic flux is
to remain in the iron. We assign dots at one terminal of each coil in the following fashion: if the flux in the core
changes, inducing a voltage in the coils, and the dotted terminal of one coil is positive
with respect its other terminal, so is the dotted terminal of the other coil. Or, the corollary to this,
current into dotted terminals produces flux in the same direction.

Fig. 3.2 Magnetic Circuit of an ideal transformer

Assume that somehow a time varying flux, (t), is established in the iron. Then the flux linkages
in each coil will be 1 = N1(t) and 2 = N2(t). Voltages will be induced in these two coils:

and dividing:

On the other hand, currents flowing in the coils are related to the field intensity H. If currents
flowing in the direction shown, i1 into the dotted terminal of coil 1, and i2 out of the dotted terminal
of coil 2, then:
N1. i1(t) N2.i2(t) = H.l
but B = ironH, and since B is finite and iron is infinite, then H = 0. We recognize that this is
practically impossible, but so is the existence of an ideal transformer.

Equations 3.3 and 3.5 describe this ideal transformer, a two port network. The symbol of a
network that is defined by these two equations is in the figure 3.3. An ideal transformer has an interesting
characteristic. A twoport

network that contains it and impedances can be replaced by an

equivalent other, as discussed below. Consider the circuit in figure 3.4a. Seen as a two port network with
variables v1, i1, v2, i2, we can write:

which could describe the circuit in figure 3.4b. Generally a circuit on a side 1 can be transferred to
side 2 by multiplying its component impedances by (N2=N1)2, the voltage sources by (N2=N1) and
the current sources by (N1=N2), while keeping the topology the same.

Fig. 3.3 Symbol for an ideal transformer

Fig. 3.4 Transferring an impedance from one side to the other of an ideal transformer