MARKETABILITY OF BOTTLED WATER IN THE COASTAL BARANGAYS OF BACOOR, CAVITE A Mini Thesis Submitted to Ms. Alfe M.

Solina College of Business and Entrepreneurship Cavite State University In Partial Fulfillment Of the requirements for the Subject MKTG 55 – Methods of Research Batchelor of Science in Business Management Major in Marketing Samson G. Arreglo October 2008 1

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA The author, Samson G. Arreglo, was born on March 13, 1989 in his hometown Meycauayan, Bulacan. He is the third child of Presiano B. Arreglo and Sepora G. Arreglo. He currently resides at EBS Compound, Sol P. Bella St., Toclong IB, Imus, Cavite. He enjoyed his childhood days in Imus, Cavite when his family moved from Bulacan in 1996. He finished his primary education Valedictorian in Toclong Elementary School on April 2002 which gave his passes to enroll for his secondary education. He entered a new world in high school that molded him to a brighter being. He graduated from Del Pilar Academy last April 2006 with a pocket full of sunshine. Pursuing his studies for college, he perfectly chose Cavite State University – College of Business and Entrepreneurship to continue his tertiary education. Going beyond a portal of unknown world to link, he does his tasks and staying to be real. Currently, he is a third year Batchelor of Science in Business Management Major in Marketing. 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author expresses his utmost gratitude to the following persons and organizations as far as this study is concerned: My loving and understanding mother Sepora and my persistent and courageous father Presiano for giving me life and for the never-ending support; Dr. Alice T. Valerio whom gave way for my scholarship so now I’m here in school; Gov. Ayong Maliksi for the scholarship accommodation; Ms. Alfe Solina for the guiding path for the taken subject; To all of my teachers, professors and mentors of Cavite State University – College of Business and Entrepreneurship for the unnumbered lessons; To the respondents of all the barangays that I collected data from for the accommodation and participation; To my siblings for the inspirations and support; 3

To my classmates for all the memories we’ve shared all my life in college; To Ms. Luisa Baes for outlining the statistical treatments for the study; To Roan Gustilo for the accommodation of USB flash drive where these data are all saved; To Jerome Ballesteros and Mariz Camerino for the computer accommodation; To all my volleyball teammates for the moral support; To all First Year IT Section III Students for the financial support; To all my friends for the priceless company; To all the people who loved, believed, trusted, and accepted me for who I am. Above all, to our Almighty God, who’s the beginning of all, whom I owe my life. Let His name be praise forever! SAMSON G. ARREGLO 4

ABSTRACT SAMSON G. ARREGLO The Marketability of Bottled Water in the Coastal areas of Bacoor, Cavite. Mini Thesis. Batchelor of Science in Business Management Major in Marketing. Cavite State University, Imus, Cavite. October 2008. Clean and safe water is a big issue in the modern times. As we intake water everyday, we should be all sure that it is in its best. This study aimed to answer the following: (a) to determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents; (b) to determine the knowledge of the households about background of the bottled water they consume; (c) to discover the factors that the households can consider to patronize the bottled water for domestic use and when bottled;. (d) to determine if the respondents know the issues behind bottled water industry; (e) to know if the households are satisfied with the bottled water they consume. The study used the multi-stage sampling techniques – the area sampling, Slovin formula to determine the sample size, and the quota sampling to have a fair distribution of respondents in each of the ten (10) coastal barangays of Bacoor, Cavite. The salient discoveries a1re the following: most of the respondents do not participate in any studies in choosing bottled water; purified water is the most used water at home with accessibility, price and water features are effective in the influence for its marketability; while mineral water is used when not at home with advertising, 5

accessibility, price, water features, and bottle appearance are effective in the influence for the marketability of it. The study concluded that the respondents are using bottled water with a thought for safety even they do not know everything about the water they consume. The researcher recommends that people should be careful and intelligent in choosing and purchasing bottled water. 6

TABLE OF CONTENTS BIOGRAPHICAL DATA ………………………………….………………………….2 ACKKNOWLEDGEMENT …………….. ………………………………………3 ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………..5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………..7 LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………..9 LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………10 LIST OF APPENDIX INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………... …….11 ……………………………………………………………………12 ……………………………………………………18 Statement of the Problem Objectives …………………………...……………………………………….19 ……………………………………………………20 ……………………………………………………21 ………………………………………...………….22 ………………………….…….…………..23 ……………………………………………23 Importance of the Study Scope and Limitations Conceptual Framework Time and Place of the Study Operational Definition of Terms REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ………………………………………...…25 METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………32 Sampling Procedures Collection of Data ……………………………………...…………….32 ……………………………………………………………32 Methods of Analysis ……………………………………………………………33 7

RESULTS, DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………34 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ……………...…….47 Summary …………………………………………………………...……….47 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………48 Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………49 …………………………………...……………………………….51 ……………………………………………………………………52 8

LIST OF TABLES Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of respondents according to age………………………………. …...34 Average number of households in every barangay Measure of 5-gallon bottled water consumed weekly Domestic Usage of Bottled Water ……………….…...35 …………….….…..38 ………………………………..…..38 Span of Usage of Bottled Water …………………………………………....39 Number of respondents who Conduct study/ies about bottled water Marketability concepts’ influence on the respondents …....39 …………….…..….40 …....41 Size of portable bottled water commonly consumed by the market Time of Usage of Portable bottled water ……………………………………42 Number of respondents who look for their water type during parties and events ……………………………………………………42 11 Number of respondents who conduct studies about their portable bottled water ……………………………………43 ……………………43 12 13 14 Marketability concepts’ influence on the respondents Effect of the bottled water issues ……………………………………………44 Reasons for continuous consumption for unsatisfactory bottled water …....45 9

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The Marketability of Bottled Water: A Conceptua1l Fra1mework Employment Status of the respondents ……22 ……………………………………35 ……………………36 Number of respondents according to Water Usage Number of respondents according to Gender ……………………………37 ………………...….37 Distribution of water type consumed domestically Number of respondents who doubt the tap water in their coastal place ……40 Types of Portable Bottled water used by the respondents Number of respondents who is aware of bottled water issues Satisfaction of the respondents on their current bottled water Distribution of respondents who are open for brand switches ………...….41 …………… 44 …...……….45 ……………46 10

LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1 The Questionnaire for the Respondents …………………………………..53 11

MARKETABILITY OF BOTTLED WATER IN THE COASTAL AREAS OF BACOOR, CAVITE Samson G. Arreglo A mini thesis document submitted to Ms. A1lfe M. Solina1, Cavite State University – College of Business and Entrepreneurship, Imus, Cavite in partial fulfillment of the req uirements for the subject MNGT 23. INTRODUCTION As part of our diet, water is the most important fluid that we intake. We cannot live without it, as our body is 70% water. Water has several functions in our body: (a) it contributes to temperature regulation; (b) it aids digestion which eventually helps remove waste products; (c) it supports for transporting nutrients; (d) it helps form the lubricants found in knees and other joints of the body because it is incompressible; and (e) it is the basis for saliva, bile and amniotic acid, which acts as a shock absorber surrounding the growing fetus. Water is everywhere – in seas, rivers, lakes, springs and underground depots. But there is the initiative on the most appropriate water that is safe for body intake. With a variety of water (e.g. purified, distilled, mineral, spring, sterilized, tap, well-water), we 12

must always assure to consume the best for us. In the changing ecosystems and aggravated water pollution, water safety is an issue. Tap water (which we consume from public water works) usage for body intake is a matter of doubt. There are people who are water-sensitive, specially babies and children. On cleaner places and with less population density, well and underground water are at trust. But the people in Bacoor, as one of the most developed municipalities in Cavite, which is surrounded by relative coastlines and rivers, are skeptical for water safety. Water-borne diseases (e.g. amoebiasis, diarrhea) are naturally experienced which were caused by harmful bacteria found in tap water. And with the intense demand for such water, more and more establishments are producing a lot of varieties for these demands. Background of the Study Bacoor Bay is actually the extension of the Bataan-ManilaCavite water pollution and absolutely suffers the same water pollution most similar to the Manila Bay. In the area of the current scenario, safe drinking water will be an issue. The consumption of bottled water is a safe way to resist water-borne diseases. Different water treatments are done for protection and safety. 13

Water Treatments Distillation is the reverse of boiling. Impurities are removed by boiling the water in a chamber causing water to vaporize, and the pure (or mostly pure) steam leaves the non-volatile contaminants behind. The steam moves to a different part of the unit and is cooled until it condenses back into liquid water. The resulting distillate drips into a storage container. Salts, sediment, metals - anything that won't boil or evaporate - remain in the distiller and must be removed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a good example of a contaminant that will evaporate and condense with the water vapor. A vapor trap, carbon filter, or other device must be used along with a distiller to ensure the more complete removal of contaminants. Reverse Osmosis (RO) is done when water pressure is used to force water molecules through a membrane that has extremely tiny pores, leaving the larger contaminants behind. Purified water is collected from the "clean" side of the membrane, and water containing the concentrated contaminants is flushed down the drain from the "contaminated" side. The average RO system is a unit consisting of a sediment/chlorine pre filter, the reverse-osmosis membrane, a water storage tank, and an activated-carbon post filter. They cost from about $150 to over $1,500 for point of use systems. Ultra-violet systems (UV) use a ultra-violet light to defeat microorganisms. These can be quite effective but depend on water that has no particulates in it that hides the "bugs" from the light so you have to have really clear water in your tank. A more severe 14

problem is that the ultra-violet light runs almost all the time at 120VAC and uses at least 30 watts. When away from commercial power, you wouldn't want to run a generator that much and an inverter would use a constant 2½ amps DC from your batteries to power the light. This pretty well eliminates UV as a convenient RV choice. The UV light can be turned off, but then you don't really purify. Some Rivers use UV when filling the tank or water jugs, then turn the light off and turn it back on periodically to "refresh" the system. When they have access to water, they usually have electricity as well, so can leave the UV running. Ozone purifiers that generate a very small (safe) amount of ozone and inject it into your water will kill such things as bacteria, viruses (virtually all forms of other microbes) and molds. Ozone contributes to breaking down some chemicals into lesser components. Ozone also works well against odor and color causing agents. Types of Water Spring Water Defined as bottled water derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth. To qualify as spring water, it must be collected only at the spring or through a borehole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. If the collection process uses some type of an external force, the water 15

must be from the same stratum as the spring and must retain the quality and all of the same physical properties of water that flows naturally from a spring to the surface. Purified Water This is a type of drinking water that has been treated with processes such as distillation, deionization or reverse osmosis. Basically, this just means that the bacteria and dissolved solids have been removed from the water by some process, making it "purified." This type of bottled water is usually labeled as purified drinking water but can also be labeled for the specific process used to produce it, for example, reverse osmosis drinking water or distilled drinking water. Many bottled water brands are actually purified drinking water. Mineral Water Mineral water contains not less than 250 parts per million total dissolved solids and is defined by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source. No minerals can be added to the water. Sparkling Bottled Water This type of water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had when it emerged from its source. Sparkling bottled waters may be labeled as sparkling drinking water, sparkling mineral water, sparkling spring water, etc. 16

Artesian Water/Artesian Well Water Artesian water comes from a well that taps a confined aquifer-a water-bearing underground layer of rock or sand-in which the water level is above the top of the aquifer. Well Water. Well water is exactly what it sounds like- water from a hole made in the ground that taps the water source. Municipal/Tap Water Municipal tap water is generally of excellent quality, however, many people prefer the taste and enjoy the convenience of bottled water, which, in most cases, undergoes additional processing and often retains the pleasant characteristics. History of Bottled Water 10, 000 BC Bottled water is born as early mankind transports water in primitive vessels and skins from natural spring sources to their dwellings 58 BC Aqueduct delivered spring water refreshes Nero 17

1845 Poland Spring Water founded when summer visitors to the Maine Resort wanted to return home with famed spring water 1863 Perrier first bottled by decree of Napoleon III for the “good of France” 1910 Perrier, in its curry green bottle, begins in advertising in popular American magazines To ensure the quality standard of bottled drinking water, the BFAD is behind the safety of all duly registered bottled water brands, given the stringent requirements of the institution as written in Administrative Order No. 18-A, series of 1993, as amended by AO 39 s. 1996. The order provides for the standards of quality, and requirements for the processing, packaging, and labeling of bottled drinking water and RA 3720 or the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and its implementing rules and regulations. The Problem Statement This study about the marketability of bottled water in the coastal barangays in Bacoor, Cavite for consumption is twofold. On one hand, the researcher will prioritize the water consumption in domestic households which means that the bottled water is studied because the water is stationed in every residence, which usually measures 5 gallons in every container. On the other hand, bottled water as a variation in container size (portable 18

bottle) is emphasized in the study because it is commonly used during transit and travel, nevertheless. The study sought to indicate the following: 1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents? 2. What is the overview of the bottled water the respondents are consuming? 3. What are the factors the households can consider to patronize the bottled water they consume a. domestically? b. in portable bottle? 4. Are the respondents aware of the issues behind bottled water? 5. Are the respondents satisfied with their current bottled water? The Study Objectives This study has the following objectives: 1. To determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents 2. To determine the knowledge of the households about background of the bottled water they consume. 3. To discover the factors that the households can consider to patronize the bottled water (a) for domestic use; (b) when bottled. 19

4. To determine if the respondents know the issues behind bottled water industry. 5. To know if the households are satisfied with the bottled water they consume. Significance of the Study The study will be significant to the following: Water Processing and Merchandising Companies The study will give them knowledge how their products are known, chosen and purchased in by the market. Households The study will help them realize about the water they consume, their way choosing and purchasing them. Public Water Works The study will help them improve their water systems and processes as what the household implies. 20

Scope and Limitations The study is done through limited number of respondents in the coastal areas of Bacoor, Cavite. Bottled water are those which are purchased in plastic bottles stationed domestically which is normally five-gallon containers, and those bottled water which are portable and are bought in retails. Water purifiers at home are not in the scope of the study. Also, free water fountains in public areas are not included in the study. 21

The Conceptual Framework This illustrates the events in purchasing bottled water which requires marketable criteria to make it salable in the market. Human Water Consumption Smart Buy of Marketable Bottled Water Water Impurities Water-borne diseases Search for desired bottled water Satisfactory Criteria: Adequate Water type Water Features Advertising Bottle and Water Station Appearance Prices Accessibility Promotions Taste Figure 1. The Marketability of Bottled Water The first, process box indicates that everyone consumes water. The downward direction of the arrow to the second, data box shows the knowledge of water impurities and water-borne diseases are accompanied in it in the third, data box, respectively. In this data, the fourth, process box is the process inn the search for desirable bottled water. And 22

the fifth, data box shows the different qualifications for marketable bottled water. And eventually, these qualifications are the cause for the smart buy of the market. Time and Place of the Study The study, which started last September 22, 2008, was finished last October 12, 2008. The respondents are purely from the ten (10) coastal barangays of Bacoor, Cavite which are Alima, Banalo, Digman, Mabolo I, Maliksi I and III, Sineguelasan, Tabingdagat, Talaba II, and Zapote V, respectively. Operational Definition of Terms Treated Bottled Water water that passed through different stages which ceases its natural state in from the water cycle Domestic Bottled Water bottled water which are stationed in every residence, normally in 5gallon containers, tha1t a1re refilled through wa1ter refilling sta1tions Portable Bottled Wa1ter Bottled wa1ter tha1t norma1lly comes in porta1ble sizes, easy to carry out during transit, which are purchased retailed in the market Bottled Water Issues issues of hazards in the bottled water industry, mainly focusing on the acquired health ha1zards from plastic bottles and unsafe water treatments Marketability Criteria requirements for bottled water to be salable in the market, which basically comes from the perception of the respondents Coastal Areas of Bacoor the geographic state of the place, which is composed of ten (10) local barangays that continuously creates the Bacoor peninsula 23

Advertising means in packaging the bottled water to be popular in the intended market Popularity the credible side of the bottled water to be easily trusted Promos any incentive attached to the product for mass attractions for the product to be marketable Accessibility the distance of the place which is actually the nearness of the source for bottled water which basically tends to be a marketing point Price the basic force which controls the demand for bottled water Water Features the treatments that the water passed through which is impressive for the marketability of the bottled water Bottle Appearance a characteristic of bottled water that gives an attraction for the actual purchase of the water Water Station Look the source of the 5-gallon bottled water that marketability is dependent upon based on its cleanliness and sanitation Taste the prime trait of the bottled water that can be a large impact in the demand for bottled water 24

REVIEW OF RELATED LITEARTURE Local Studies The market for bottled water in the Philippines is quite attractive as people are becoming more aware of their safety and health. Statistics shows that the incidence of diarrhea remained to be the number two leading cause of morbidity at 998 persons per 100 000 population (Saranilla, 2005). In a study (Garcia, 1997), majority of a bottled drinking water in the city of Baguio were processed through purification, processed in Manila and owned by corporations and had been sold for consumption less than a year. The Baguio city residents moderately accepted the product because it is safe and clean, and the source of water is clearly identified. The two (2) groups of respondents did not significantly differ in their perceptions on the level of acceptance of the processed, bottled drinking water by Baguio City residents. In a study in Mindanao, product, price, place and promotion were found to have significant influence on business performance. Among marketing mix practice, place was found to have the strongest contribution. It means that the more sales would be generated if the outlets were convenient and accessible to the customers. Price also showed the significant influence on business performance. Findings revealed that offering a good financing scheme and by giving allowances and incentives and discounts would definitely boast business performance. Promotion is also very necessary. Findings 25

revealed that it had a significant influence to business performance. Personal selling, word of mouth and promotion through prints and media or in any forms would significantly improve the business performance. Finally, products with good packaging, quality and brand alleged to be a good indicator to business performance (Manligoy, 2006). Foreign Studies Convenience According to Randy Johnson, using bottled water requires moving and storing jugs or bottles of water. He says that it is better to have smaller containers when not at home, to avoid extra efforts to carry heavy containers, or even mess. He added, the bottled water industry is an amazing business. From 1990 to 2005 the amount of bottled water that Americans drank more than tripled to 7.5 billion gallons and became the second most popular beverage in the United States. High quality natural spring water and drinking water offer a healthy, refreshing and great-tasting alternative to high-calorie soft drinks and ordinary tap water. Bottled water is convenient and able to meet the requirements of any lifestyle and hydration need. It's a fantastic industry, filled with leading companies, thriving bottled water products and a strong sense of environmental awareness and corporate responsibility. 26

According to Nestlé Waters, North America has businesses in the United States and Canada. Total sales for 2006 were $3.846 billion; $3.567 billion in the U.S. and $279 million in Canada. Both businesses have one distinct advantage. Our main focus is on one type of product: bottled water. That focus is our strength and makes us unique among the beverage giants. We do bottled water right, from sourcing, bottling and distribution, to packaging and market strategy. As a result, Nestlé Waters North America has been the bottled water industry leader for more than two decades. Company Price Margin In a study, Klessig (2004) states that many countries have become very oriented toward bottled water. According to him, a 2001 World Wildlife Fund survey, individuals around the globe consume some 89 billion liters of bottle water annually, worth roughly $22 million. Citizens of the U.S. alone consume about 13 billions liters of bottled water. A 2000 report conducted by Yankelovich Partneers of the Rockefeller University discovered that 2.3 eight-ounce servings of the total 6.1 servings of water that are consumed daily are bottled water in the U.S. Bottled Water Consumption He also emphasized that Splash also states that roughly 59% of bottled water that is consumed is purified, while the 41% is spring or mineral water. Most bottled water (about 75%) originates from protected sources such as underground aquifers and springs. Increase in bottled water consumption is also a major issue. 27

Demand In developed countries, demand is driven by a variety of factors including but not limited to convenience, the perception that bottled water may be safer than local municipal water, a new clean bottle, and taste preferences (Wikipedia). Packaging and Advertisement Packaging and advertising work to promote these perceptions and brand bottled water in ways similar to branded soft drinks. Though many municipalities, particularly in the developed world, provide high-quality, highly regulated, potable water, occasional problems with contamination from commercial fertilizer, MTBE, or other contaminants are often widely publicized. Violations of tap water standards are, in the United States, openly reported, especially examples like the severe 1993 Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which led to several deaths and 400,000 illnesses. The University of Cincinnati recently completed a "Tap Water Quality Analysis" for major US cities. While most cities have what is considered "safe" tap water, contaminants ranging from bacteria to heavy metals were present in the tap water. The actual or perceived threats from studies like this continue to drive up bottled water sales annually. Impact of bottled water The global bottled water market grew by 7% in 2006 to reach a value of $60,938.1 million (60.9 billion). The market grew by 8.1% in 2006 to reach a volume of 115,393.5 million liters. In 2011, the market is forecast to have a value of $86,421.2 28

million (86.4 billion), an increase of 41.8% since 2006. In 2011, the market is forecast to have a volume of 174,286.6 million liters, an increase of 51% since 2006 Cost In 2004, Andrea Petersen wrote in the Wall Street Journal that "... for the first time, Americans are expected to buy more bottled water than beer or coffee. Sales of bottled water reached $7.7 billion in 2002, up 12% from 2001, according to Beverage Marketing Corp., a New York-based consulting company.” Bottled water is a big business and with the current trend, everyone trying to get a piece, the individual states and countries are beginning to voice their objections. Many states have voted the big companies not over pump on their soil. (Wikipedia) Bottled Water Service It is not uncommon for business, or sometimes individual, customers to subscribe to a bottled water service, which, instead of selling drinking water in small individual-use bottles, supplies it in large, reusable (in the USA, typically 5 US gallons) containers. This practice eliminates the issue of disposing empty bottles; however it is the same product found in the individual servings.(Wikipedia) Purified Water Vending Machines Drinking water vending machines in Pattaya, Thailand has the price of 1 baht per liter. A number of companies worldwide, among which are a number of North American supermarket chains, have vending machines that dispense purified water into customer's 29

own containers, again obviating the costs and environmental issues involved in manufacturing, transporting, and disposing of, plastic bottles. When offered in lowincome areas, this practice makes purified water more affordable to local population. MacMahon (2007) states that when he prescribe a water treatment system for his customers, he review their water quality issues and then tell them what he would choose for his own family. My major concern and that of his customers is drinking healthy water. So, when he pick bottled water he look for a spring water to obtain beneficial minerals in moderate amounts with a pH of 7.4 or higher. And, if it’s available, he’ll choose a glass container over plastic to avoid the possibility of leaching. He also indicates that everyone can choose the bottled water that suits their purpose, whether that’s to experience a delightfully unique taste to compliment a fine dinner or a healthy and environmentally appropriate choice. Bottled water has contaminants too In a study, tests on leading brands of bottled water turned up a variety of contaminants often found in tap water. The findings challenge the popular idea — and marketing field — that bottled water is purer than tap water, the researchers say. The study's lab tests on 10 brands of bottled water detected 38 chemicals including bacteria, caffeine, the pain reliever acetaminophen, fertilizer, solvents, plasticmaking chemicals and the radioactive element strontium. Though some probably came 30

from tap water that some companies use for their bottled water, other contaminants probably leached from plastic bottles, the researchers said. "In some cases, it appears bottled water is no less polluted than tap water and, at 1,900 times the cost, consumers should expect better," said Jane Houlihan, an environmental engineer who co-authored the study. of its bottled water. The researchers recommend that people worried about water contaminants drink tap water with a carbon filter. 31

METHODOLOGY Sampling Procedure The researcher used the multi-stage sampling technique. First is the area sampling which is the coastal area of Bacoor, Cavite. Second, to achieve the appropriate number of respondents (respondents are the representatives of each household), with the Slovin’s formula: Third, quota sampling is employed to have the equal representations of respondents in every barangay, since the actual household number for 2007 is not available. Data Collection Method The study used the survey form method and the questionnaire as the research instrument. The first part is composed of the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the other half id the inquiry of the knowledge of the respondents about the bottled water and its marketability. 32

Methods of Analysis A. Descriptive Method The descriptive method was used in writing the study results using frequency distribution in determining the socio-demographic profile of the respondents including their knowledge in the bottled water they are using. B. Percentage Frequency Method The statistical treatment used in this study was the percentage method with the formula: P = (frequency / n) * 100 where in: P = the percentage f = frequency n= sample size 100 (constant) C. Likert Scale Likert scale was applied in the study in the study to determine the influence of effectiveness of the marketability criteria which 5 is very effective, 4 is effective, 3 is fairly effective, 2 ineffective and 1ast irrelevant (Saulog, 2008). D. Weighted Mean The researcher used the weighted mean to analyze the given Likert Scales. 33

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Bottled water to be consumed by the market should pass their requirements to be marketable. Certain characteristics of the product itself should impress the buyers, putting on the first place the safety and service the bottled water can accommodate. In this study, the researcher defined marketability as the salability of a certain product with respect to its characteristics that should be adequate enough to be marketable. In this chapter, the results of the survey are to be presented in a manner of pure information. Table 1. Number of respondents according to age. Age Frequency 20 – 25 18 26 – 31 40 32 – 37 36 38 – 43 43 44 – 49 34 50 – 55 14 56 – 62 8 63 and above 5 TOTAL 198 Percentage 9.09 20.20 18.18 21.72 17.17 7.07 4.04 2.53 100 Table 1 shows the age distribution of the respondents of the coastal area of Bacoor. The greatest number of respondents are aging 38 to 43 which comprises the sample a 21.72%. Second with the higher measure are the respondents aging 26 to 31 with a percentage of 20.20%. 34

The 32 – 37 bracket ranked third with an 18.18%, followed by the cluster 44 – 49 with a 17.17%. Least are the brackets 20 – 25 with a 9.09&; 50 – 55 with a 7.07&; 56 – 62 with a 4.04%; and 63 and above with 2.53%, respectively. Figure 2. Employment Status of the respondents 71% 29% Employed Unemployed Figure 2 indicates the employment status of the respondents. Most of the respondents are unemployed with q 66.66% against the employed individuals with a 33.33% Table 2. Average number of households in every barangay. Barangay Alima Banalo Digman Ambolo I Maliksi I Maliksi III Sineguelasan Tabing-dagat Tlaba Zapote V AVERAGE Average Number of Household Members 5.96 5.55 5.15 5.9 5.65 6.6 5.2 4.6 4.5 5.7 5.48 35

Table 2 clearly indicates the average number of households in every barangay. The area with the highest mean of household is Barangay Alima with a minimum of 6 individuals per household. Differently, Barangay Tabing-dagat has the lowest household mean of 4.5. Figure 3. Number of respondents according to Water Usage DiseasePrevention 18% DiseaseCure 82% Figure 3 shows the water usage of respondents which highlights that the prevention for water-borne diseases has the most numbers of 163 individuals that created a percentage of 82.32% over the total sample. However, the remaining 17.68% of 35 respondents are patronizing bottled water for water-borne diseases cure. 36

Figure 4. Number of respondents according to Gender 160 140 120 100 80 61 60 40 20 0 Male Female 137 Figure 4 portrays the gender distribution in the study. 61 individuals or 30.81% are male, while the 137 or 69.19% of the sample size, are female. Figure 5. Distribution of water type consumed domestically. 140 121 120 100 80 60 40 51 21 20 0 Distilled Purified Mineral Others 5 Figure 5 assesses the different types of water used inside the domestic residences. Purified water is proven to be the widely used bottled water with a frequency of 121 and 37

with a percentage of 61.11%, followed by mineral water with 51 observations and a percentage of 25.76%. Other types of water were used with 5 users and with 2,53% out of the sample, which were precede by the Distilled water with 10.61%. Table 3. Measure of 5-gallon bottled water consumed weekly. Number of Containers Frequency Less than 1 25 1 56 2 50 More than 3 67 TOTAL 198 Percentage 12.63 28.28 25.25 33.84 100 Table 3 shows the level of water used weekly by the respondents. Most in were consumers of more than 3 5-gallon bottled water with a frequency of container is used by the second placer with 56 observations. A frequency achieved by the respondents whom use 2 containers weekly. With the least consumption of less than one (1) container per week is tallied from 25 respondents. the tally 67. 1 of 50 is water

Table 4. Domestic Usage of Bottled Water. Bottled Water Used For For Drinking For Cooking For Dermatological purposes For Dental Purposes TOTAL *multiple responses Frequency 171 69 10 6 256* Table 4 accrues the domestic usage of bottled water. It shows that bottled water are mostly used for drinking with a frequency of 171, Followed by the consumption for cooking with a frequency of 69. For dermatological and dental purposes with frequencies of 10 and 6, respectively. 38

Table 5. Span of Usage of Bottled Water. Time of Usage Frequency 6 months 17 1 year 43 2 years 37 More than 2 years 101 TOTAL 198 Percentage 8.59 21.71 18.69 51.01 100 Table 5 indicates the span of time when the respondents started using bottled water at home. Most of them are using it more than two (2) years ago with a frequency of 101. Seems like the respondents are using bottled water just lately, statistics shows that a frequency of 37, 43, and 17 are from the consumers which started their bottled water last 2 years, 1 year, and 6 months, respectively. Table 6. Number of respondents who Conduct study/ies about bottled water. Studies Conduct Frequency Percentage Yes 37 18.69 No 120 60.60 A Little 38 19.19 Never 3 1.52 TOTAL 198 100 Table 6 shows the distribution of the individuals that conduct studies about the bottled water they consume. A frequency of 120, as the highest, indicates that they do not conduct such studies. While fortunately there are people who do with a clear number of 37 observations. Some have a little studies with a frequency of 38, and some never did with a frequency of 3. 39

Figure 6. Number of respondents who doubt the tap water in their coastal place. No 14% Yes 86% Figure 6 states that 86.36% of the respondents are skeptical in the tap water in their place, and the remaining 13.64% do not. Marketability of bottled water upon the criteria set by the researchers from the respondents. Table 7. Marketability concepts’ influence on the respondents. Crita1eria Rating Adjectival Rating Advertising 3.32 Fairly Effective Popularity 3.37 Fairly Effective Promos 3.19 Fairly Effective Accessibility 3.56 Effective Price 3.75 Effective Water Features 3.77 Effective Bottle Appearance 3.47 Fairly effective Taste 4.14 Effective Water Station Look 3.83 Effective Table 7 indicates the ratings of the criteria for marketability of bottled water. Advertising with a weighted mean of 3.32, popularity 0f 3.37, promos of 3.19, bottle appearance of 3.47 which are all “fairly effective” for the effectiveness of influence to 40

patronize. Nonetheless, accessibility with a weighted mean of 3.56, price with 3.75, water features with 3.77, taste with 4.14, and water station look with 3.83 all got “effective”. Figure 7. Types of Portable Bottled water used by the respondents. 70 60 50 42 66 69 40 30 20 10 2 0 Distilled Purified Mineral Spring Others 19 Figure 7 shows the type of portable bottled water highly used by the respondents. Mineral water soars with a percentage of 34.855. Purified water ranked second to gain 33.33%. Distilled water reaches 21.21% and spring water with 9.60%; while other types of water are used with a percentage of 1%. Table 8. Size of portable bottled water commonly consumed by the market. Bottle Size Frequency Percentage 100 mL 65 32.83 500 mL 52 26.26 1000 mL 15 7.58 Without Regular Size 66 33.33 TOTAL 198 100 Table 8 shares the portable bottle size commonly consumed. The 100-mL bottle reached second to the highest with 32.83% preceded by no regular size with a percentage of 33.33. The 500 and 1000 mL bottles gained 26.26 and 7.58, nonetheless. 41

Table 9. Time of Usage of Portable bottled water. Span of Usage of Portable Frequency Bottled Water 6 months 28 1 year 25 2 years 21 3 years 38 More than 3 years 86 TOTAL 198 Percentage 12.54 12.63 10.61 19.19 43.43 100 Table 9 endorses the time of usage the respondents emphasized in using portable bottled water. Respondents who used them more than three (3) years reached on top with a frequency of 86, followed by later than 3 years with f=38. The consumption of 2 years with f of 21, 1 year of 25 and 6 months with 28. Table 10. Number of respondents who look for their water type during parties and events. Response Frequency Percentage Yes 83 41.92 No 59 29.80 A Little 55 27.78 Never 1 .005 TOTAL 198 100 Table 10 shows the number of respondents that look for their water type during parties and events. Most respondents say yes with a frequency of 83. Some say no with a frequency of 59. Others look for their water only a little with a frequency of 55; and 1 respondent whom never did so. 42

Table 11. Number of respondents who conduct studies about their portable bottled water. Studies Conduct Frequency Percentage Yes 37 18.69 No 120 60.61 A Little 38 19.19 Never 3 1.52 TOTAL 198 100 Table 11 illustrates the number of respondents who conduct for their portable bottled water. Most do not with a 60.61 percentage. Some do with a little studies, with 19.19%. People who do reached 18.69 out of the sample. And there are 3 who never did. Marketability of portable bottled water upon the criteria set by the researchers from the respondents. Table 12. Marketability concepts’ influence on the respondents. Criteria Rating Adjectival Rating Advertising 3.5 Effective Popularity 3.45 Fairly Effective Promos 3.29 Fairly effective Accessibility 3.64 Effective Price 3.72 Effective Water Features 3.83 Effective Bottle Appearance 3.68 Effective Taste 4.2 Effective Table 12 indicates the weight of the criteria for marketing in patronizing the product. Advertising with a weighted mean of 3.5, accessibility with 3.64, price with 3.72, water features with 3.83, bottle appearance with 3.68 and taste with 4.2, all tend to be “effective”. While popularity with a weighted mean of 3.45 and promos with 3.29 are both “fairly effective”. 43

Figure 8. Number of respondents who is aware of bottled water issues. No, 17, 9% Yes, 181, 91% Figure 8 shows the number of the respondents if they are aware of the issues behind the bottled water industry. 181 respondents say that they are while 17 are not. Table 13. Effect of the bottled water issues. Effect Frequency Absolutely Lessens 41 Slightly Lessens 105 Not at All 35 TOTAL 181 Percentage 26.65 58.02 17.13 100 While table 13 states the effect of these issues in the salability of the product. 41 say that it absolutely lessens while 105 consider this they slightly affects. While the remaining 35 are not affected at all. 44

Figure 9. Satisfaction of the respondents on their current bottled water. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CompletelySatisfied Satisfied Completel ySatisfied Satisfied VerySatisf ied ` Notthatmu ch Figure 9 executes that 15.15% of the sample are completely satisfied with their water; 25.77% say they are very satisfied; 45.45% say that they are only satisfied. But the remaining 12.63% say they are not. Table 14. Reasons for continuous consumption for unsatisfactory bottled water. Reasons for Unsatisfaction Frequency Percentage Near Source 5 20 Cheap Price 4 16 Popular & Credible 1 4 Recommended by 7 28 nutritionists/doctor Not Tap Water 8 32 TOTAL 25 100 Table 14 unleashes the reasons why the respondents continue consuming the target bottled ate even they were not satisfied. 5 say because of near source. $ respondents for the cheap price; 1 for popularity; 7 for recommendation of the doctor or nutritionist; and 8 that trust its safety because it is not tap water. 45

Figure 10. Distribution of respondents who are open for brand switches. No 14 Yes 184 0 50 100 150 200 Here in figure 10, it shows the number of respondents that can switch brands from their current bottled water in case they find more appealing products. 92.93% are open for such switches while 7.07% are not. 46

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary As the researcher experiences the same points that the respondents are going through, like the need for clean and safe water, he has proven many significant points. This chapter analyzes the significant points where found out after the research process. In the modernization in the current times, people are also in the trend to go with the flow. As the demand for the bottled water increases, price is a big factor because of the relatively high cost of the water. The greatest number of respondents is aging 38 to 43. Most of the respondents are unemployed with q 66.66%. The average family size has 6 members. The prevention for water-borne diseases has the most numbers of 163 individuals. The study has 61 individuals or 30.81% male, while the 137 or 69.19% of the sample size are female. Purified water is proven to be the widely used bottled water. Most in the tally were consumers of more than 3 5-gallon bottled water a week. It is stated that bottled water are mostly used for drinking. Most of them are using it more than two (2) years ago. Most of the respondents are skeptical in the tap water in their place. Mineral water is the most used type of portable bottled water with no regular size for consumption and they have been using it for more than 3 years. They say that they are looking for their specified water type when they are at parties or other out-of-home events. 47

The researcher found that most of the people are not well knowledgeable about their bottled water consumption. Insufficient information are vastly incapacitated to inform everybody. Due to the lack of this knowledge, people might be detracted in the “supposed to be the best decision”. The respondents are also aware of the issues behind the bottled water industry but they are slightly affected by these in terms of the salability of the product. The respondents are just “satisfied” with their current bottled water, and those who are not are just convinced to consume them because of the idea that it is safe if it is not tap water. Nevertheless, the respondents are open for brand switches whenever they find some more appealing products. There are many practical ways to perfectly decide on the best bottled water, but certain circumstances blocks that choosing. Everyday life runs to drink just knowing it is safe. At the fast-pace revolving of the world, certain things are forgotten, specifically to deal with our drinking water. Conclusions The study is about to succeed on the following points: (a) to determine the sociodemographic profile of the respondents; (b) to determine the knowledge of the households about background of the bottled water they consume; (c) to discover the factors that the households can consider to patronize the bottled water for domestic use and when bottled;. (d) to determine if the respondents know the issues behind bottled water industry; (e) to know if the households are satisfied with the bottled water they consume. 48

The respondents admit that they are not too intimate in making researches about the bottled water they consume. Though they have the mentality that they are in safe hands because they consume bottled water, it is not enough to put their lives on the bottled water. There can be instances that the water doesn’t pass the standards set by the government, and it is our responsibility. The idea the respondents are open for brand switching whenever they find more appealing products is quite impressive because time will come that they will realize the proper terms for the consumption of the product. In addition, things are certain that these bottled water are beneficial for us, as long as we know its proper use and purchase, nonetheless, our lifestyle is concerned. Recommendations Many bottled water manufacturing companies are gaining profit with the kind of product that should be all kept safe and trustworthy. They should assure that everybody is not mistaken in trusting them. People should also be responsible in consuming the perfect bottled water for their health and lifestyle. Personal knowledge about this bottled water should be known individually to decide for the best for everybody. Our health is surely at stake. So factors should be considered to ensure our safety and not just to just unconsciously do our everyday routine. 49

Other studies should be done as the limited number of respondents never represents the total marketability of bottled water in the coastal areas of Bacoor, Cavite. More informative if other water-concerned individuals are going to conduct more detailed and wider studies. 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY Donn, J., 2008 Bottled water has contaminants too Johnson, R., 2008 Drinking Water Treatment Methods http://www.cyber-nook.com/water/Solutions.html FRC Research, 2005 http://www.nestle-watersna.com/Menu/AboutUs/Performance.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottled_water McMahon, J., 2004 Which Bottled Water Is The Best? Klessig, L., Spring 2004 Bottled Water Industry Saranilla, V., 2006 Establishing Bubble Purified Drinking Water Garcia, S., 1996 The Processed Bottled Drinking Water Industry Manligoy, V., 2006 The Marketing Practices and Business Performance of Mindanao Bottling Corporation 51

APPENDICES 52

The Questionnaire Please put a check [√] on the box/number of the appropriate answer. I. The socio-demographic profile of the respondents. Name: Barangay: Occupation: Water Usage: [ ] for water diseases cure [ ] for water diseases prevention Age: Gender: Number of family members: Bottled water at home. II. Knowledge of the households about the background of the bottled water they consume. 1. What is the bottled water you use? [ ] distilled [ ] purified [ ] mineral [ ] spring [ ] sterilized [ ] others: _______________(please specify) How much bottled water you consume? 1 container = 5 gallons [ ] Less than 1 container [ ] 1 container/day [ ] 2 containers/day [ ] 3 containers/day [ ] others: _______________(please specify) 4. When do you use this bottled water? (can be 2 or more answers) [ ] for drinking [ ] for cooking [ ] for dermatological purposes [ ] for dental purposes [ ] others: _______________(please specify) 53

5. How long you’ve been using bottled water? [ ] 6 months [ ] 1 year [ ] 2 years [ ] 3 years [ ] 5 years [ ] others: _______________(please specify) 6. Do you conduct studies/researches before choosing bottled water? [ ] yes [ ] no [ ] a little [ ] never 7. Do you use bottled water because of your doubt in the water safety because you are in the coastal area? [ ] Yes [ ] No III. Determine the marketability of bottled water the households can consider to patronize it. 8. How would you rate the following to patronize it? (Check the number you consider; 5 as the highest) Advertising Popularity Promos Accessibility Lower prices Water features (distillation, purification) Bottle appearance (color, shape) Taste Water Station appearance 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Portable bottled water. 1. What is the bottled water you use? [ ] distilled [ ] purified [ ] mineral [ ] spring [ ] sterilized [ ] others: _______________(please specify) 54

2. What is the portable bottle size you often consume when not at home? [ ] 100 mL [ ] 200 mL [ ] 300 mL [ ] 500 mL [ ] 1000 mL [ ] more than 1000 mL [ ] without regular size How long you’ve been using bottled water? [ ] 6 months [ ] 1 year [ ] 2 years [ ] 3 years [ ] 5 years [ ] others: _______________(please specify) 4. Do you look for your water you are using during parties or other events? [ ] yes [ ] no [ ] a little [ ] never Do you conduct studies/researches before choosing bottled water? [ ] yes [ ] no [ ] a little [ ] never III. Determine the marketability of bottled water the households can consider to patronize it. 6. How would you rate the following to patronize it? (Check the number you consider; 5 as the highest) Advertising Popularity Promos Accessibility Lower prices Water features (distillation, purification) Bottle appearance (color, shape) Taste 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 55

IV. To determine if the households are mindful about the issues behind the bottled water industry. 1. Are you aware of the hidden issues behind bottled water? (plastic bottle hazards, water treatment hazards) [ ] Yes [ ] No If yes, does it lessen its salability for you? [ ] Absolutely yes. [ ] Slightly, it does lessen. [ ] Not at all. V. The satisfaction of the respondents to their current bottled water. 1. Are you satisfied with your current water that it is the best (in price, accessibility, taste, promos, etc)? [ ] completely satisfied [ ] very satisfied [ ] satisfied [ ] not that much [ ] not at all If your answer is “not that much” and “not at all”, what are the factors that make you purchase your bottled water? [ ] cheap price [ ] near water station/marketplace [ ] popularity and credibility [ ] recommended by friends/doctors/nutritionists [ ] I know it is safe if it not from poso’s and tap water 2. Are you open for a brand-switch in case you find more appealing products? [ ] yes [ ] no 56

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful