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TRNG I HC B RA VNG TU

KHOA HA HC V CNG NGH THC PHM

BO CO THC TP CHUYN NGNH

QUY TRNH CNG NGH


NH MY X L KH DINH C

Trnh o to
:
H o to
:
Ngnh
:
Chuyn ngnh
:
Kho hc
:
n v thc tp
:
Ging vin hng dn :
Sinh vin thc hin :

i hc
i hc chnh quy
Cng ngh k thut ho hc
Ho du
2011 2015
Nh my x l kh Dinh C
Th.S Nguyn Vn Ton
ng Thu Sng

B Ra - Vng Tu, thng 07 nm 2014

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NHN XT CA N V THC TP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------., ngy thng nm 20

Xc nhn ca n v

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NHN XT CA GING VIN HNG DN

1. Thi tc phong khi tham gia thc tp


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Kin thc chuyn mn
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Nhn thc thc t
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. nh gi khc
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. nh gi kt qu thc tp
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ging vin hng dn

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LI CM N
u tin, em xin chn thnh gi li cm n n Ban gim hiu Trng
i hc B Ra Vng Tu v cc thy c trong khoa Ha to iu kin cho
em c thc tp chuyn ngnh c th p dng nhng kin thc hc vo
qu trnh thc tin.
Tip theo, em xin cm n Ban lnh o Cng ty ch bin kh Vng Tu v
cn b cng nhn vin Nh my x l kh Dinh C hng dn em tham quan,
tm hiu quy trnh v cc ch vn hnh ca nh my.
Cui cng, em xin gi li cm n n thy Nguyn Vn Ton trc tip
hng dn gip em hon thnh bi bo co, cm n s gip ca cc bn
trong lp.
Vng Tu, ngy 30 thng 07 nm 2014
Sinh vin thc hin
ng Thu Sng

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MC LC
M U ...................................................................................................... 1
Chng 1 GII THIU CHUNG V NH MY .................................. 2
1.1. V tr a l ............................................................................................ 2
1.2. Lch s hnh thnh .................................................................................. 2
1.3. Nhim v .............................................................................................. 3
Chng 2 QUY TRNH CNG NGH .................................................... 4
2.1. Nguyn liu u vo............................................................................... 4
2.2. Sn phm ................................................................................................ 6
2.3. Nguyn l vn hnh ............................................................................... 7
2.4. Cc ch vn hnh .............................................................................. 7
2.4.1. Ch AMF.................................................................................... 8
2.4.2. Ch MF ...................................................................................... 8
2.4.3. Ch GPP thit k ........................................................................ 9
2.4.4. Ch GPP chuyn i .................................................................. 9
2.5. Quy trnh cng ngh ch GPP chuyn i ...................................... 10
Chng 3 H THNG THIT B ......................................................... 17
3.1. H thng thit b chnh ......................................................................... 17
3.1.1. H thng my nn ......................................................................... 17
3.1.1.1. My nn K-1011A/B/C/D ...................................................... 17
3.1.1.2. My nn K-01/02/03/04 ......................................................... 19

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3.1.2. Thit b trao i nhit E-14 ........................................................... 22


3.1.3. H thng thit b tch .................................................................... 23
3.1.3.1. Thit b tch Slug Catcher...................................................... 23
3.1.3.2. Thit b tch V-03 .................................................................. 25
3.1.3.3. Thit b tch Filter Separator V-08 ........................................ 27
3.1.4. H thng thp chng ct ............................................................... 27
3.1.4.1. Thp tch Ethane C-01........................................................... 27
3.1.4.2. Thp n nh C-02 ................................................................. 29
3.1.4.3. Thp tch C-03 (C3/C4, Splitter) ............................................ 31
3.1.4.4. Thp C-04 (Gas Stripper)....................................................... 32
3.1.4.5. Thp chng ct nhit thp C-05 ........................................ 33
3.1.5. Thit b hp ph V-06A/B ............................................................ 34
3.1.6. Turbo-Expander CC-01................................................................. 41
3.2. H thng ph tr .................................................................................. 43
3.2.1. H thng bn cha v bm sn phm ........................................... 43
3.2.2. H thng uc ............................................................................... 44
3.2.3. H thng bm methanol ................................................................ 45
3.3.4. H thng bm xut xe bn ............................................................ 45
3.2.5. H thng du nng ........................................................................ 45
KT LUN ................................................................................................ 47
TI LIU THAM KHO ........................................................................ 48

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M U
Trong ln thc tp chuyn ngnh vo thng 7 va qua, em c c hi
c tham quan v tm hiu Nh my x l kh Dinh C. Vic thc tp gip
em c c hi tip xc vi nhng vn thc tin trn c s l thuyt, cng c
nhng kin thc hc v nng cao tm hiu bit. l phng tin em c
th tm hiu r hn v c s l thuyt ca h thng x l kh v quy trnh cng
ngh, cc ch vn hnh ca nh my.
Nh my x l kh Dinh C l n v trc thuc Tp on du kh quc
gia Vit Nam, hot ng trong lnh vc vn chuyn, ch bin v kinh doanh
cc sn phm kh, cung cp sn phm kh cho ton khu vc min Nam v trn
ton quc. Vic i vo hot ng ca nh my gp phn thc y v nh
du bc pht trin vt bc ca ngnh cng nghip kh hin nay.
Trong bi bo co ny, em s tp trung trnh by v quy trnh cng ngh
ca ch GPP chuyn i ca nh my x l kh Dinh C vi nhng ni dung
sau:
- Gii thiu chung v nh my.
- Quy trnh cng ngh ch GPP chuyn i.
- Cc h thng thit b trong nh my.

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Chng 1
GII THIU CHUNG V NH MY
1.1. V tr a l
Nh my x l kh Dinh C c xy dng ti x An Ngi, huyn Long
in, tnh B Ra Vng Tu vi din tch 89600 km2 (di 320m, rng 280m),
cch Long Hi 6 km v pha Bc, cch im tip b ca ng ng dn kh t
Bch H khong 10 km.
1.2. Lch s hnh thnh
Nh my x l kh Dinh C l nh my trc thuc Tng cng ty kh Vit
Nam (PVGAS) c xy dng vo nm 1997. n thng 10/1998, nh my
chnh thc c a vo vn hnh cng kho cng Th Vi, nh du vic hon
thnh ton b d n kh Bch H, gip PVGAS c kh nng cung cp kh kh,
LPG v condensate cho th trng ni a.
Thng 11/2002, d n kh Nam Cn Sn c a vo vn hnh, lm gia
tng ng k lng kh cung cp cho khch hng cng nghip khu vc min
Nam Vit Nam.
n ngy 4 /4/2005, 15 t m3 kh kh c a vo b cung cp cho cc
nh my in, nh du mt ct mc quan trng cho qu trnh pht trin ca
PVGAS ni ring v ca ngnh cng nghip du kh Vit Nam ni chung.
Hin nay, PVGAS tr thnh mt cng ty vng mnh vi i ng nhn
vin ng o, p ng nhu cu tiu th kh kh, LPG v condensate cho th
trng Vit Nam. Song song vi vic kinh doanh v ch bin cc sn phm kh
trong nc, hin nay cng ty cn lin doanh vi cc i tc nc ngoi kinh
doanh ngun kh ha lng LPG v hp tc u t trong vic tm kim, thm d
ngun kh mi.

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1.2. Nhim v
Trong hn mi nm khai thc du (t 1983 1995), ta buc phi t kh
ng hnh, iu ny khng ch lm lng ph mt lng ln ngun ti nguyn
thin nhin ca t nc m cn gy nhim mi trng. Bn cnh , cng
vi s pht trin hng lot ca cc m kh thin nhin thm lc a pha Nam
i hi chng ta phi tm ra nhng gii php thch hp cho vic khai thc, s
dng hp l ngun ti nguyn qu gi ny.
n thng 5/1995, h thng thu gom kh ng hnh m Bch H
hon thnh, ng vai tr cung cp kh nguyn liu cho Nh my x l kh Dinh
C. Nh my i vo hot ng vi nhng nhim v chnh nh sau:
X l, ch bin kh ng hnh thu gom c trong qu trnh khai thc
du ti m Bch H v cc m khc ngoi khi Vit Nam.
Cung cp kh thng phm lm nhin liu cho cc nh my in B Ra,
nh my in m Ph M v lm nguyn liu cho cc ngnh cng
nghip khc.
Thu hi sn phm lng (LPG, condensate) c gi tr kinh t cao hn so
vi kh ng hnh ban u.
Nh vy, i vo hot ng vi nhng nhim v chnh nh trn, Nh my
x l kh Dinh C khng nhng gii quyt c vn s dng hp l ngun
ti nguyn kh m cn mang li doanh thu t vic bn cc sn phm ho lng
v condensat trong nc cng nh xut khu nc ngoi. Bn cnh , LPG
cn thay th dn nguyn liu than , than ci, mang li s tin li rt ln trong
vic gii quyt vn nhim mi trng v km theo cc li ch nh n nh
sn xut, gii quyt c vn vic lm cho ngi lao ng.

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Chng 2
QUY TRNH CNG NGH
2.1. Nguyn liu u vo
Hin nay, nguyn liu Nh my x l kh Dinh C s dng l kh ng
hnh khai thc t m Bch H v m Rng ng, c dn vo b theo ng
ng 16. Theo thit k, kh ng hnh t m Bch H s c dn vo nh my
vi lu lng 4,3 triu m3/ngy, p sut 109 bar. Tuy nhin, theo thi gian th
cc thng s vt l cng nh thnh phn cu t v lu lng s c s thay i,
v vy y ta ch xt n ngun nguyn liu hin ti nh sau:
Nng sut : 5,9 6,1 m3/ngy.
Nhit : 270C.
p sut

: 70 75 bar.

Hm lng nc : bo ha ti iu kin nhp liu.


p sut u vo nh my theo thit k l 109 bar, chnh lch kh nhiu so
vi hin ti. Nguyn nhn ca s chnh lch p sut ny l v l do: T nm
2002, kh ng hnh t m Rng ng c a v gin nn trung tm ca m
Bch H qua ng ng 16 a v b, tng cng sut nh my t 4,3 triu
m3/ngy ln 5,7 triu m3/ngy. Do lu lng tng ln nn st p qua ng ng
cng tng ln, dn n p sut u vo nh my hin ti ch cn 70 75 bar.
Nh my c thit k vi iu kin nguyn liu u vo bo ha nc
do s c mt ca nc trong kh c th ngng t trong ng dn v to hydrat,
cn tr qu trnh vn hnh ca cc thit b trong qu trnh ch bin. V vy, kh
cn c dehydrat nhm gim nhit im sng, c ch qu trnh to hydrat
ca kh. C nhiu phng php sy kh ph bin nh lm lnh, hp th, hp
ph hay c ch. Tuy nhin, phng php lm lnh v c ch khng hiu qu,
cn phng php hp ph kh phc tp trong iu kin trn bin. Trong khi ,
kh nguyn liu yu cu tch s b phn ln lng nc ti gin trc khi i
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vo cc thit b khc nn nh my s dng phng php hp th bng glycol


do phng php ny c s thit b n gin, d vn hnh khi ngoi gin,
t tiu hao tc nhn sy kh v c bit dung dch glycol c kh nng lm gim
nhit ng c ca dung dch nc. Ngoi ra, glycol c th ho tan trong
nc nn d dng hp th nc, thch hp khi cn tch mt lng nc ln v
dung dch khng gy n mn nn cho php nh my s dng nhng thit b
c ch to t kim loi r tin tit kim chi ph sn xut. Cc glycol ph
bin l DEG, TEG, EG.. nhng DEG c nh my chn la s dng v khng
nhng p ng c cc yu cu cn thit ca cht hp th nh ho tan
hydrocacbon thp (thp hn TEG t 25 30%) nn trnh mt mt kh nguyn
liu, kh nng to bt km m cn em li hiu qu kinh t cao, c v vn u
t v nng lng.
Di y l bng s liu phn tch thnh phn kh nguyn liu (S liu
ngy 19/6/2010)
Bng 2.1. Thnh phn kh nguyn liu
Th t

Tn cu t

Hm lng

N2

0,472 %

CO2

0,077 %

Methane

75,734 %

Ethane

12,04 %

5
6

Propane
I-Butane

6,941 %
1,418 %

N-Butane

1,951 %

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

I-Pentane
N-Pentane
Hexanes
Heptanes
Octanes
H2O
H2S

0,447 %
0,442 %
0,296 %
0,133 %
0,048 %
0,1 g/m3
18 ppm

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Da vo bng s liu trn, ta c th nhn thy kh nguyn liu cung cp


cho nh my Dinh C c hm lng C2+ >10% nn thuc loi kh bo, ngt m;
c hm lng CO2 nh v hu nh khng cha kh H2S nn khi ch bin khng
phi qua giai on lm ngt kh, do thun li cho qu trnh ch bin v sn
xut LPG.
2.2. Sn phm
Kh ng hnh c thu gom t m Bch H v m Rng ng c x
l ti nh my nhm thu hi cc sn phm chnh l kh kh, LPG v condensate.
Phn kh kh c s dng lm nhin liu cho nh my in B Ra, nh my
in m Ph M, cn cc sn phm lng sau khi ra khi nh my c dn
theo 3 ng ng 6 n kho cng Th Vi cch nh my Dinh C 28 km.
2.2.1. Kh kh (salegas)
Kh kh l sn phm kh thu c sau khi x l tch loi nc v cc
tp cht c hc, tch kh ha lng v condensate ti nh my, p ng c
tiu chun vn chuyn bng ng ng v tho mn c cc yu cu ca
khch hng.
Thnh phn ch yu ca kh kh l methane (> 90%) v ethane. Ngoi ra
trong kh kh cn ln cc hydrocacbon nng hn v cc kh khc nh H2, N2,
CO2vi thnh phn thay i tu theo iu kin vn hnh. So vi du v than
th kh kh khi chy thi ra t CO2 v NOx hn, c bit hu nh khng thi
ra SOx khi chy. Do , kh kh l mt nhin liu sch.
2.2.2. LPG
Thnh phn ch yu ca LPG l butane (40%) v propane (60%) cng mt
hm lng nh ethane, pentane. Ty thuc vo tng yu cu s dng m butane
v propane s c phn tch ring. LPG c s dng lm nhin liu, nguyn
liu tng hp ho du, sn xut vt liu xy dng. c th nhn bit LPG
trong trng hp kh b r r, cht to mi meracaptan c thm vo vi t l
nht nh. Hin nh my ang s dng etyl meracaptan vi hm lng 40 ppm.
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2.2.3. Condensate
Condensate l hn hp hydrocacbon tn ti th lng trong iu kin
thng. Thnh phn ca condensate ch yu l hydrocarbon mch thng, bao
gm pentane v cc hydrocarbon nng hn (C5+). Condensate ch yu c
dng lm dung mi, nhin liu hay nguyn liu tng hp ho du. Condensate
t m Bch H v Nam Cn Sn c d tr ti 2 bn 6500 m3 thuc kho cng
Th Vi. Ty theo ch hot ng ca nh my m cc sn phm s c nhng
thng s c trng khc nhau.
2.3. Nguyn l vn hnh
Kh m cung cp cho nh my t hai ngun m Bch H v m Rng
ng ph thuc vo vic khai thc du th. Do , c s chnh lch gia nhu
cu tiu th kh kh v kh nng cung cp kh m. V vy, vic vn hnh nh
my tun th mt s th t u tin nh sau:
u tin cao nht l tip nhn ton b lng kh m cung cp t ngoi
khi. Khi nhu cu tiu th kh nh hn lng kh thu gom th nh my
vn tip nhn ti a, lng kh d sau khi x l thu gom phn lng
s c t b.
u tin tip theo l p ng nhu cu tiu th kh ca cc nh my in.
Nu nhu cu tiu th kh kh cao hn lng kh cung cp t ngoi khi
th vic cung cp kh c u tin hn vic thu hi sn phm lng.
u tin cui cng l thu hi sn phm lng LPG.
Tuy nhin, thc t th gi thnh ca cc sn phm lng cao hn nhiu so
vi sn phm kh nn trong qu trnh vn hnh, nh my vn ch trng vo vic
vn hnh cc ch thch hp nhm thu hi lng sn phm lng ti a.
2.4. Cc ch vn hnh
Theo thit k, nh my c th hot ng cc ch khc nhau. Nguyn
nhn l v khi bt u xy dng, do i hi cao v tin trong khi mt s thit
b khng kp p ng, nh my chia lm 3 giai on i vo hot ng,
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tng ng vi 3 ch AMF, MF v GPP. Sau khi hon tt ch GPP, tu


vo hon cnh m cc ch c vn dng linh hot. Trong iu kin bnh
thng, ch GPP c vn hnh nhm mc ch thu hi ti a lng sn
phm lng. Tuy nhin, t nm 2002 n nay, do phi tip nhn thm lng kh
ng hnh t m Rng ng nn nh my vn hnh theo ch GPP chuyn
i nhm gii quyt vn tng cng sut kh u vo.
2.4.1. Ch AMF (Absolute Minium Facility)
Ch AMF theo thit k l ch vn hnh nh my ban u vi cc
thit b ti thiu, nhm cung cp kh cho cc h tiu th v khng ch trng vo
thu hi sn phm lng.
Ch AMF c h thng thit b gm 2 thp chng ct, 3 thit b trao i
nhit, 3 bnh tch v khng s dng my nn. Phng thc lm lnh trong ch
AMF l s dng thit b ho dng Jet Compressor EJ-01A/B nn qu trnh
lm lnh khng su, do sn phm kh kh thu c nng (C1-C4) vi nng
sut 3,7 triu m3/ngy, c nhit im sng cao nn cn phi tch lng v
kh tiu th. Ngoi ra, ch ny khng thu hi c LPG nn khng thc s
mang li hiu qu, v vy khng c ng dng rng ri v ch c vn hnh
khi cn thit.
2.4.2. Ch MF (Minium Facility)
y l ch hot ng trung gian ca nh my nhm thu hi khong 630
tn bupro/ngy v khong 380 tn condensate/ngy. Thit b ca ch ny
bao gm ton b cc thit b ca ch AMF (tr EJ-A/B/C) v c b sung
thm cc thit b chnh sau:
Thp n nh condensate : C-02.
Cc thit b trao i nhit : E-14, E-20.
Thit b hp ph : V-06A/B.
My nn: K-01, K-04A/B.

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Phng thc lm lnh ch MF s dng l dng cc thit b trao i


nhit E-14 v E-20, lm gim nhit im sng ca kh n mc thp hn
so vi ch AMF. Ngoi ra, trong ch ny cc hydrocacbon C3, C4 c th
c ngng t trong kh nn sn phm ngoi condensate cn c thm hn hp
bupro.
2.4.3. Ch GPP thit k (Gas Processing Plant)
Ch GPP l ch vn hnh ti u v hon thin ca nh my, c
thit k thu hi 540 tn propane/ngy, 415 tn butane/ngy v 400 tn
condesate/ngy. Ch ny bao gm cc thit b ca ch MF v c b
sung mt s thit b sau:
Mt thp tch C3/C4 : C-03.
Mt thp Stripper : C-04.
Hai my nn piton 2 cp chy kh 1200 kW : K-02, K-03.
Thit b Turbo-Expander 2200 kW : CC-01.
Cc thit b trao i nhit : E-17, E-11,
Ch GPP s dng cng ngh lm lnh Turbo-Expander, l mt cng
ngh c hiu qu nht v lm lnh v kh nng lm lnh su, c th t ng ho
hon ton v t ng iu chnh khi thnh phn hn hp kh nguyn liu thay
i. Do trong ch ny, ta c th tch ring butane v propane thay v hn
hp bupro nh trong ch MF.
2.4.4. Ch GPP chuyn i (Modified Gas Processing Plant)
Nm 2001, khi phi tip nhn thm lng kh ng hnh t m Rng ng
dn vo b, lu lng kh qua nh my t mc ti a 5,7 triu m3/ngy, p
sut u vo gim xung cn khong 70 75 bar, khng th m bo gi tr p
sut thit k ban u l 109 bar. gii quyt nhng pht sinh ca vic tng
cng sut, trm nn kh u vo K-1011A/B/C/D c lp t tng p
sut kh nguyn liu vo nh my ln 109 bar theo ng thit k ban u, m
bo vic tng sn lng sn phm ca nh my cng nh p sut cho dng
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kh cung cp cho nh my in Ph M 1. V vy k t nm 2002, nh my


vn hnh theo ch GPP chuyn i do nh thu Flour Daniel nh gi v
thit k li.
Cc thit k trong ch ny gm ton b cc thit b ca ch GPP v
c lp t thm trm nn kh u vo K-1011A/B/C/D cng bnh tch lng
V-101. Trm nn kh u vo gm 4 my nn kh, trong c 3 my hot ng
v 1 my d phng. Ngoi ra, mt s thit b ca nh my x l kh Dinh C
cng c ci hon kt ni, m rng vi trm nn kh.
2.5. Quy trnh cng ngh ch GPP chuyn i
Quy trnh cng ngh ch GPP chuyn i c th hin trong hnh 2.1
v nguyn l vn hnh ca ch ny nh sau:
Kh vo nh my l kh ng hnh t m Bch H v m Rng ng vi
lu lng kh m khong 5,9 6,1 triu m3/ngy. Do nh my c thit k
vi iu kin nguyn liu u vo c bo ho nc nn lng kh m ny
sau khi tch nc s b ti gin s c a vo h thng tch lng Slug
Catcher ca nh my bng ng ng 16 iu kin p sut t 65 80 bar,
nhit t 20 300C tch kh nguyn liu thnh 3 pha: nc, condensate v
kh.
Nc c a ra t Slug Catcher thng qua thit b iu khin mc, i
vo bnh tch nc V-52 x l. Ti y, nc c lm gim ti p sut kh
quyn v kh hydrocacbon b hp th s c gii phng, a vo t h
thng uc t ME-51. loi b ton b lng cht lng b cun theo trc
khi t, ton b kh thi ra c thu gom vo ng thu gom c ng knh 20
v a n bnh tch lng V-51 nm ngang. Lng lng thu c t bnh tch
V-51 c gia nhit ln 5500C nh thit b gia nhit bng du nng E-52 tch
t trong V-51. Mc ch ca vic gia nhit l nhm bay hi trit cc
hydrocacbon nh trc khi thi ra hm t nh bm P-51A/B.

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Hnh 2.1. Quy trnh cng ngh ch GPP chuyn i

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Condensate sau khi ra khi Slug Catcher c thu gom trong ng ng


36 v c a vo thit b tch 3 pha V-03 thng qua cc b iu chnh mc
tch hydrocacbon nh, ch yu l methane v ethane b hp th trong dng
lng t y Slug Catcher nh qu trnh gim p. Lng lng di y bao gm
condensate v nc s c tch ring nh vo s khc nhau v t trng ca
chng. Nc tch ra t V-03 c chuyn sang thit b iu chnh mc v a
vo bnh tch nc V-52 nh trng hp nc t Slug Catcher. Dng
condensate sau khi ra khi V-03 c trao i nhit ti thit b E-04A/B nhm
tn dng nhit v lm mt cho dng condensate thng phm.
Thit b V-03 lm vic nhit 200C, c gia nhit nh thit b gia
nhit bng du nng dng ng xon E-07 nhm tng nhit cho dng
condensate ln cao hn 200C trnh to hydrat bn trong bnh. Khi lng kh
m vt qu cng sut vn hnh ca GPP, n s c bypass qua bnh tch
lng V-101 cp thng cho cc h tiu th, cn lng lng tch ra V-101
v trc K-1011 cng c a v V-03 x l m bo an ton. V vy,
p sut lm vic ca bnh tch V-03 trong ch GPP chuyn i l 47 bar,
thp hn so vi ch GPP thit k (75 bar). y chnh mt trong nhng im
khc bit trong quy trnh cng ngh ca ch GPP v GPP chuyn i.
Hin nay, do sn lng khai thc c nng ln v nhu cu s dng sn
phm cng ngy cng tng nn yu cu t ra l phi tng nng sut x l ca
nh my. m bo cho nh my hot ng bnh thng, dng kh ra khi
Slug Catcher c chia thnh 2 dng:
- Dng th nht c lu lng khong 1 triu m3/ngy, sau khi tch khi
dy chuyn hot ng c a qua van gim p PV-106, gim p t 65 80
bar xung cn 54 bar v i vo thit b phn tch thu hi lng lng V-101
tch ring kh v lng lng ln trong kh. Lng tch ra ti y bnh tch lng
V-101 c a vo thit b tch V-03 l thit b tch ba pha tch su hn,
cn kh ra nh bnh tch V-101 c a trc tip n dng kh thng phm
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cung cp cho cc nh my in bng h thng ng dn c ng knh 16. Khi


, mt lng ng k cc cu t C3, C4 s theo dng kh ny i ra cng kh
thng phm. V vy, nhc im ca ch ny l khng thu hi mt cch
trit propane v butane sn xut LPG.
- Dng kh th hai l dng kh chnh vi lu lng khong 5,2 triu
m3/ngy, c a vo h thng 4 my nn kh K-1011A/B/C/D nn dng
kh t p sut 65 80 bar ln n p sut thit k l 109 bar vi nhit 450C.
Do dng kh ny c cha lng lng ko theo trong kh v bi bn t dng kh
u ra Slug Catcher hoc u ra my nn K-1011 nn s c a vo thit b
lc V-08 nhm m bo vn hnh cc thit b ch bin. Sau khi ra khi V-08,
dng kh cha bo ha nc nn cn c tch tinh nc bng cch a vo
thit b hp ph V-06A/B vi mc ch m bo nhit im sng ca kh
trc khi a vo cm lm lnh nhm trnh hin tng to thnh hydrate khi
nhit ca qu trnh lm lnh thp v m bo nhit im sng ca kh
thng phm u ra. Dng kh c i qua cc tng cht hp ph t nhm oxit
hot tnh n ry phn t zeolit nhm tch trit nc v gim nhit im
sng xung t yu cu l -750C p sut 34,5 bar. Kh kh ra khi thit b
hp ph c gp li v a n thit b lc F-01A/B tch bi ca cht hp
ph b ko theo. Phn lng ra khi thit b V-08 c a vo bnh tch 3 pha
V-03 x l tip.
Dng kh sau khi c tch nc V-06A/B v lc bi F-01A/B l kh
kh, dng ny c chia lm 2 phn :
- Phn th nht: Khong 1/3 lng kh kh trn c a vo thit b
trao i nhit E-14 bng cch thc hin qu trnh trao i nhit nh s tip xc
gia 2 dng kh nng v lnh. Dng nng l dng i t thp hp th V-06A/B
c nhit 26,50C v dng lnh l dng i t nh thp C-05 c nhit -450C.
Lc ny, dng kh c lm lnh xung -350C. Nu nhit ny thp hn gi
tr -350C th mt lng hydrocacbon lng c th khng c thu hi, v nu
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nhit ny cao hn th hydrate c th hnh thnh trong ng ng. V vy,


nhit ny c iu chnh bng dng lnh qua thit b trao i nhit E-14
thng qua b iu chnh nhit c lp t trn ng ng u ra ca dng
lnh nhm trnh hin tng nhit thp hn gi tr nhit thit k ng
ng (-1000C) bng cch gii hn dng kh lnh bypass qua E-14. Sau , dng
kh tip tc c lm lnh su bng cch gim p qua van tit lu FV-1001
gim p sut t 109 bar xung 37 bar, bng p sut lm vic ca nh thp
chng ct C-05. ng thi vi qu trnh gim p, nhit ca dng kh s gim
xung ti -620C. Khi , dng kh s cha khong 56% mol lng v c a
ti a trn cng ca thp C-05 nh mt dng hi lu ngoi.
- Phn th hai: Sau khi c tch nc, khong 2/3 lng kh kh cn
li s c a vo thit b gin n Turbo-Expander CC-01 thc hin vic
gim p sut kh nguyn liu u vo t 109 bar xung 35 bar nhm lm lnh
dng kh xung -120C. nhit ny, phn ln hydrocacbon nng C3+ c
ha lng v lm dng np liu vo y thp C-05, dng nguyn liu phn chnh
l trng thi hi nn ng vai tr nh dng un si li thp C-05.
Nh vy, kh kh sau khi ra khi thit b lc F-01A/B c phn tch ra
thnh hai dng a sang cc thit b E-14 v CC-01 gim nhit , sau
mi a vo thp tinh ct C-05 hot ng p sut 37 bar, nhit ca nh
thp v y thp tng ng l -420C v -200C. Nh s chnh lch nhit gia
dng nh v dng y nn cc cu t nh (ch yu l C1, C2) c nhit -420C
s c tch ra v bay ln nh thp, ng vai tr l dng nhit lnh tn dng
cho thit b trao i nhit E-14 v sau c a n phn nn ca thit b
CC-01, nng p sut ln 47 bar nhm m bo yu cu cho dng kh thng
phm. Hn hp kh i ra t thit b ny c a vo h thng ng ng 16
n cc nh my in. Cn cc cu t nng, ch yu l propane v cc cu t
nng hn s ri xung y thp, sau c a vo nh thp C-01 nh dng
hi lu ngoi. Trc khi i vo CC-01, dng kh ny c trch ra mt phn
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nh ng vai tr ti sinh cho thit b hp ph V-06, sau a i tch nc


V-07 v nhp li dng kh thng phm ti CC-01. Dng kh ny c qua
thit b o lng v theo ng ng dn n trm kh thp p.
Dng lng ti y ca thp tch C-05 sau khi qua van gim p c a
vo thit b tch ethane C-01. C-01 l mt thp a dng van hot ng nh mt
thit b chng ct. Trong ch GPP chuyn i, thp C-01 c 3 dng nhp
liu gm: Dng lng t y thp C-05 i vo a trn cng, ng vai tr nh
dng hi lu ngoi ca thp, dng kh ra t bnh tch V-03 sau khi gim p
xung 27 bar c a vo a th 8 v dng lng t y bnh tch V-03 sau
khi c gia nhit ti E-04 c a vo a th 20.
Thp C-01 c nhim v tch cc hydrocacbon nh nh methane v ethane
ra khi condensate nh s chnh lch nhit gia nh thp v y thp. Thp
hot ng p sut 27 bar, nhit nh 100C, nhit y thp 1000C c
duy tr nh thit b gia nhit E-01A/B. E-01A/B l thit b un si li nhm
cung cp dng hi i trong thp v tng s phn tch cc cu t kh nh ra khi
condensate. Kh nh ra khi nh thp C-01 c a vo bnh tch V-12
tch lng c trong kh. Sau c my nn K-01 nn t p sut 27 bar n p
sut 45 bar ri a vo bnh tch V-13 tch cc ht lng to ra trong qu
trnh nn. Lu lng ca dng kh qua my nn v cng sut ca my nn c
th thay i sao cho m bo p sut lm vic ca C-01 l 27 bar. Dng kh
ra khi V-13 c nn tip n p sut 70 bar nh my nn K-02, sau c
lm mt nh thit b trao i nhit bng khng kh E-19. Dng kh ra khi thit
b E-19 li c my nn K-03 nn n p sut thit k l 109 bar, v c lm
mt ti thit b trao i nhit E-13 v cui cng quay tr li lm nguyn liu
cho bnh tch V-08. Mc ch ca vic nn kh l nhm a kh t nh thp
tch C-01 tr li u vo my nn tn thu ti a lng LPG b bc ln nh
thp C-01. Ring my nn K-02/03 thc hin vic nn kh t K-01 a v trn
vi kh m u vo nhm tng t l thu hi lng. Hn hp lng ra y C-01
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c thnh phn ch yu l C3+ c a vo bnh n nh V-15, sau c a


vo a th 11 ca thp n nh condensate C-02.
Thp C-02 c nhim v tch ring hn hp bupro ca dng lng t bnh
tch V-15 ra khi condensate da vo s chnh lch nhit si ca cu t nh
(bupro) v cu t nng (condensate). Thp n nh C-02 l mt thp a dng
van bao gm 30 a, p sut lm vic 10 bar, nhit nh v y thp tng
ng l 410C v 1430C c duy tr nh vic iu chnh t l hi lu lnh nh
thp v lng nhit du nng cung cp vo Reboiler y thp E-03. Hn hp
bupro ra khi nh C-02 trng thi im sng c nhit 410C, c lm
lnh bng khng kh bi gin qut E-02 ngng t thnh lng (trng thi im
si) ri c a sang bnh n nh V-02. Mt phn bupro c bm P-01A/B
hi lu li nh thp C-02 nhm tng tinh ct ca thp. Phn cn li c
lm lnh ln na ti E-12, sau c a vo bn cha V-21A/B xut ra
xe bn hoc a v kho cng Th Vi hay ti thp C-03 tch ring butane v
propane. Tuy nhin, hin nay cm chng ct C-03 khng cn lm vic do yu
cu sn phm khng cn tch ring bit butane v propane.
Condensate ra khi y thp C-02 c nhit cao c tn dng gia
nhit cho dng lng ra t y V-03 thng qua thit b trao i nhit E-04, nhm
bc hi mt phn cc cu t nh quay tr li y thp, ng thi nhit ca
dng condensate cng gim xung cn 600C, sau c lm mt tip n
450C ti thit b lm lnh bng qut E-09 cui cng c a vo bn cha
hoc dn v kho cng Th Vi. Nhit thp C-02 c iu khin bi van du
nng TV-1523 sao cho lm lng C5 trong LPG < 2% v khi sn phm cng
cho nhiu LPG.

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Chng 3
H THNG THIT B
3.1. H thng thit b chnh
3.1.1. H thng my nn
H thng my nn trong nh my s dng ch yu l my nn kh piston.
Loi my nn ny c nhng u im chnh nh sau:
Kt cu my n gin, gn gng v d khc phc cc h hng nn my
nn kh piston rt ph hp vi mi iu kin lm vic, k c trn bin.
My c trng lng nh, din tch lp t khng ln, tin li khi tho lp
cc cm chi tit v c th to ra p sut nn ln. Thng thng, p sut
nn t 6 10 bar i vi loi 1 cp v c th n 15 bar i vi loi 2
cp. Nh vy, kh nng lm vic ca my nn piston l rt rng, p sut
cao.
S thay i t ngt ca mt kh nn khng nh hng ti kh nng
lm vic ca my nn my nn piston c ng dng kh rng ri.
Tuy nhin, bn cnh , my nn kh piston hot ng khng cn bng,
lm vic cn kh n v rung ng do c cc khi lng tnh tin qua li. Mt
khc, kh nn cung cp khng c lin tc, do phi c bnh cha kh nn
i km.
Mc d vn tn ti nhng nhc im nh trn nhng so vi nhng u
im m n em li th my nn kh piston c ng dng rt rng ri trong
thc t cho h thng iu khin bng kh nn trong cng nghip nh ch vn
hnh ca nh my x l kh Dinh C hin nay.
3.1.1.1. My nn kh K-1011A/B/C/D
a. Chc nng
H thng my nn kh gm 4 my nn piston, trong c 3 my hot ng
(K-1011A/B/C) v 1 my d phng (K-1011D), c lp t vi chc nng
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nn kh u vo t 75 bar ln 109 bar. Do lu lng kh tng t 4,3 triu


m3/ngy (theo thit k) ln 5,7 triu m3/ngy nh hin nay nn nh my phi
lp t trm my nn u vo nng p sut ln bng vi p sut theo thit k
ban u, m bo cho hot ng ca nh my.
b. Cu to v nguyn l lm vic
Cm my nn K-1011A/B/C/D nh my s dng l h thng cc my nn
kiu piston n cp, hnh trnh kp v s dng ng c chnh l ng c chy
kh, trong :
My nn :
Tn hng sn xut : Dresser-rand.
Kiu : 5DVIP4 -1, 4 xi lanh, 1496, 18 Hp.
ng c :
Tn hng sn xut : Caterpillar.
Kiu : CAT 3608TALE, 8 my, tc 750-900-1000 RPM, 1998 Hp.
My nn kh hnh trnh kp c c im l nn kh c 2 pha ca piston.
V qu trnh nn theo c 2 pha hiu qu hn qu trnh nn 1 pha nn do ,
my nn hnh trnh kp thng c hiu sut cao hn v tit kim in nng vi
cng sut tiu hao khong t 5,3 5,7 kW/m3/pht, trong khi my nn kh hnh
trnh n thc t c cng sut tiu hao t 7,8 8,5 kW/m3/pht. Di y l
mt s thng s vn hnh ca h thng my nn kh K-1011A/B/C/D :
Cng sut mi my: 1,67 triu m3/ngy.
p sut kh u vo: thng thng t 70 80 bar, thp nht l 60 bar.
p sut u ra: 109 bar (sau khi lm mt u ra).
p sut thit k: 139 bar c u vo v u ra.
Nguyn l lm vic ca my nn piston n cp hnh trnh kp nh sau:
Khi piston chuyn ng t tri sang phi, th tch tng, p sut gim. Lc ny,
van np m ra v kh bn ngoi c ht vo trong xy lanh thc hin qu
trnh np kh. Khi piston chuyn v bn tri, khng kh trong xy lanh c nn
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li, p sut trong xy lanh tng dn, van np ng. n khi p sut tng ln ln
hn sc cng l xo (van x) th van x s t ng m, kh nn i qua van x
theo ng ng n bnh cha kh nn v kt thc mt chu k lm vic. C nh
vy, chu trnh ny c lp i lp li lin tc.
Ti u ra ca my nn kh ngi ta lp t h thng thit b lm mt bng
khng kh E-1011A/B/C/D lm gim nhit ca dng kh t 530C xung
450C nhm tng kh nng thu hi lng. Vic hot ng ca h thng my nn
ph thuc vo lu lng kh u vo nh my. Trong trng hp phn kh vt
qu cng sut x l ca trm nn, trm nn s shutdown, khi lng kh s
c bypass qua GPP v c trn vi kh kh sau khi x l v cung cp cho
cc nh my in.
3.1.1.2. My nn kh K-01/02/03/04
a. My nn kh K-01/02/03
My nn kh K-01, K-02, K-03 l my nn kh kiu piston hnh trnh kp.
Trong K-01 l loi mt cp cn K-02 v K-03 l loi my nn hai cp. My
nn gm 3 b phn chnh vi cc thng s nh sau:
Mot dn ng: Mot in cng sut 150 Hp. Tc quay l 2975 rpm
B tng tc: T s truyn I/O = 2960 (rpm)/ 17,177 (rpm)
u nn kh: lu lng Q = 15,870 m3/h; P=3 bar
Bng 3.1. Thng s vn hnh ca h thng my nn K-01/02/03
Thng s

n v

K-01A/B

K-02/03

Lu lng

Nm3/s

25000 3700

p sut u vo/ra

kPa

2700 4500

25000 3700
4500 7500
7500 1100
26 40
40 45

Nhit vo/ra
Tc quay

12 26

RPM

650 900

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Hnh 3.1. Cu to my nn piston hnh trnh kp


Nguyn l lm vic ca my nn piston K-01/02/03 nh sau: Khi piston
i t phi sang tri, ti khoang bn tri th tch gim xung, kh b nn li, van
ht ng, van x m. Piston thc hin qu trnh nn. ng thi, ti khoang bn
phi th tch tng ln, p sut trong khoang gim xung, van ht m ra v van
x ng li, piston thc hin qu trnh ht. Trong cng mt thi im, piston
thc hin ng thi hai hnh trnh ht v nn. Ngc li, khi piston i t tri
sang phi, cc qu trnh xy ra tng t nh trn theo hng ngc li. Khi vn
hnh, trnh gy hng my nn do hin tng lng cun theo kh, trc cc
my nn u c lp t cc bnh tch kh lng tch lng ra khi dng kh.
Trong ch hot ng ny, kh nn p sut cao, nh my s dng h
thng my nn K-01/02/03 nhiu cp ni tip, c h thng lm mt trung gian
m khng s dng nn mt bc p sut cao v l do gii hn nhit kh nn
sau cp nn. Thng thng, my nn lm vic bnh thng, ta phi m bo
tt iu kin bi trn, ngha l nhit kh nn v cc b phn ca my khng
vt qu gi tr nhit lm vic cho php i vi vt liu bi trn. Thng
thng ngi ta s dng loi du bi trn cho my nn vi nhit lm vic
khng qu 1800C, nh vy yu cu nhit kh nn cng khng vt qu gi
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tr ny nn sau mi cp nn s c h thng lm mt. Mt khc, my nn nhiu


cp c lc tc dng ln piston v cc chi tit truyn ng my nn nh nn trnh
gy h hi cho h thng, c cng tiu th nh hn cng tiu th cho my nn
mt cp c cng t s nn v khng cn tiu tn nhiu nng lng vo ng c.
Ngoi ra, nn mt cp p sut cao th vic lm mt my nn kh phc tp, phi
x l vt liu m bo cc chi tit khng b h hi, yu cu thit b lm mt
phi c kch thc ln. Do vic s dng h thng my nn nhiu cp c h
thng lm mt trung gian K-01/02/03 l hon ton hp l.
b. My nn kh K-04
My nn K-04 l loi my nn ly tm mt cp, hnh trnh n. Cc my
nn K-04 A/B c cng sut 75 kW, mi my lm nhim v nn mt lng kh
kh t u ht phn nn ca Turbo-Expander CC-01 ti E-18, gia nhit n
2300C ti sinh cho thp hp ph V-06 A/B. Ch vn hnh bnh thng
ca K-04 A/B l 1 my lm vic, 1 my d phng v theo ch lm vic lun
phin.
Nguyn l lm vic ca my nn K-04 nh sau: Khi my nn ly tm lm
vic, bnh cng tc quay, cc phn t kh trong bnh cng tc di nh hng
ca lc ly tm dn t trong ra ngoi theo theo chuyn ng ca mng dn v
y i vo ng vi p sut cao hn, l qu trnh y ca my nn. ng thi
ti ca vo ca bnh cng tc xut hin mt vng c p sut thp di tc dng
ca p sut bn ngoi ln hn so vi p sut ca my nn, dng cht kh b ht
vo my nn theo ng ng ht. l qu trnh ht ca my nn. Cc qu
trnh ht v y din ra lin tc, to nn mt dng chy lin tc qua my nn.
tng p sut nn, my nn ly tm c thit k nhiu cp ni tip. Kh nn
sau khi ra khi cnh cng tc th nht c dn vo u ht ca cnh cng tc
th hai tip tc tng p ln.

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3.1.2. Thit b trao i nhit E-14.


3.1.2.1. Chc nng
Thit b trao i nhit E-14 c chc nng lm ngui cho dng kh i ra t
thp hp ph V-06A/B nh dng kh lnh i ra t nh thp C-05.
3.1.2.2. Cu to
Thit b E-14 c cu to dng tm (gi tt l PHE), bn trong c nhiu
khoang trao i nhit. Cc khoang ny c cu to bng nhiu tm kim loi
mng lp t song song nhau, c lm kn bi cc giong cao su (hoc hn
kn bng mi hn hp kim) gip ngn hai dng lu cht nng v lnh. Hai dng
lu th chuyn ng theo nhng khe h gia cc tm mt cch xen k nhau.
Mi khoang c nhiu tm mng c dp rnh to b mt gn sng, t chng
ln nhau to nn dng chy ri cho hai lu cht nhm t c nng sut
trao i nhit ln nht. Do mi tm c din tch b mt ln, nn to ra b mt
trao i nhit ln gia cc mi cht.
So vi thit b trao i nhit kiu ng chm truyn thng vi cng cng
sut truyn nhit th thit b trao i nhit dng tm c kch thc nh gn hn,
hiu sut trao i nhit tt hn. V d, vi cng mt cng sut trao i nhit,
thit b dng tm cn b mt trao i nhit l 200m2 vi kch thc l 3x1x2 m
th thit b trao i nhit kiu ng chm cn mt din tch trao i nhit tng
ng l 600m2 vi chiu di ca v l 5m, ng knh 1,8m; cng thm mt
khong khng gian cn thit cho di chuyn chm ng khi bo dng thit b.
Thit b trao i nhit dng tm cn c u im l c khi lng nh gn,
vn tc cht ti nhit hai pha u ln v tn tht p sut dng chy qua thit b
cng thp hn so vi thit b trao i nhit kiu ng chm, kh nng thay i
din tch trao i nhit nhanh chng bng cch thay i s lng tm trao i
nhit. Mt khc, qu trnh v sinh, bo tr v bo dng cng tr nn d dng
hn. Tuy nhin, thit b trao i nhit dng tm c nhc im l khong p
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sut lm vic khng cao, kh ghp kn, phi bt kn bng m nn khng thch
hp vi mt s lu th v c dng trao i nhit p sut thng.
3.1.2.3. Nguyn l lm vic
Bng 3.2. Thng s vn hnh ca thit b trao i nhit E-14.
Thng s
Nhit (0C)
p sut (Bar)

Thit k
50/-65
139

GPP hin hnh


42/-35
109

Thit b E-14 vn hnh vi nhng thng s chnh c th hin bng


trn. Nguyn tc hot ng ca thit b trao i nhit dng tm l to ra cc
dng chy ca cc lu th ngc chiu nhau trn b mt ca cc tm trao i
nhit, da trn s tip xc gia hai dng kh nng v lnh tng cng qu
trnh truyn nhit. Dng nng l dng i t thp hp th V-06A/B c nhit
290C, dng lnh l dng i t nh thp C-05 c nhit -450C. V hai dng c
nhit khc xa nhau nn dn n s trao i nhit. Dng kh nng s truyn
mt nhit lng nht nh lm cho dng nng gim nhit v dng lnh tng
nhit khi kh ra khi thit b.
3.1.3. H thng thit b tch
3.1.3.1. Slug Catcher
a. Cu to
Slug Catcher l loi thit b tch ba pha dng ng, gm c 2 nhnh, mi
nhnh c 12 ng t song song vi nhau c tng dung tch l 1400m3, ng
knh mi ng l 42, c b tr nm nghing gc t 150 so vi mt phng nm
ngang v di 159m nhm tng kh nng tch kh/lng trong qu trnh di chuyn
ca hn hp lng-kh.
b. Nguyn l lm vic
Thng s vn hnh hin ti ca thit b nh sau:
p sut : 70 85 bar, ty thuc vo lu lng kh u vo.

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Nhit : 25 320C.
Dng hai pha t ng ng 16 i vo trong ng nh chn, nm vung
gc vi hng ca dng kh ti u Slug Catcher. Nh vo s thay i ng
nng t ngt, nhng ht lng c ng knh ln s ri xung ng Slug Catcher
nh trng lc v chy v c gp y thit b nh nghing ca ng. Phn
kh sau khi c tch lng theo ng ng tip tc c thu gom trong ng
ng 30 v i vo khu vc cng ngh tip tc x l. Lng lng ti y Slug
Catcher s c tch ra thnh 2 pha l hydrocacbon lng v v nc nh s
khc nhau v khi lng ring ca chng. Theo thit k thi gian lu ti thiu
nc v condensate tch ra thnh 2 pha l 15 pht.
Lng condensat tch ra c gp u gp 36 v s c a i di
s iu khin mc (LIC-0111A & B), mc iu khin c chia lm hai mc
A (cao), B (thp) bi thit b iu khin bng tay HS-0111, 0112. Trong trng
hp lng lng ln mc cao th van vo s ng, cn mc thp th dng
lng s ng trnh hin tng sc kh vo thit b V-03.
So vi nhng thit b tch lng khc nh thit b tch lng dng nm
ngang, thng ng hay dng hnh cu, Slug Catcher c nhng u v nhc
im c th nh sau:
u im: Do Slug Catcher c th tch ln nn ph hp vi ngun kh u
vo ln nh Nh my x l kh Dinh C, trong khi dng thng ng v dng
cu ch ph hp vi nhng ni c din tch lp t v lu lng kh nh.
Nhc im: Chim nhiu din tch khi lp t v chi ph ln, kh nng
tch km nht so vi nhng dng tch lng cn li.
Tuy nhin, v thit b Slug Catcher ch ng vai tr tch lng s b nn
khng yu cu kh nng tch trit nh nhng thit b khc. V vy, Slug
Catcher l s la chn hp l nht cho nh my v ngoi chc nng tch lng,

Trang 24

KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

n cn c kh nng cha lng nh th tch ln ti y khi lu lng lng t


ng ng vo b ln.
Trong tng lai, SC-01/02 vn kh nng tip nhn v x l dng kh
m u vo vi lu lng khong 6 triu m3/ngy. Tuy nhin kh nng lng b
cun theo s tng ln do cn c bit lu n h thng scrubbers ca my
nn u vo.
3.1.3.2. Thit b tch V-03
a. Chc nng
V-03 l thit b tch 3 pha c nhim v tch hydrocacbon nh ha tan
trong dng lng t y SC nh qu trnh gim p qua van LV-0131A/B.
b. Cu to
1. Thit b chn u vo.

2. Tm chn sng.
3. Dng kh ra.
4. Dng lng ra.
5. Boot tch nc.
6. Dng nguyn liu u vo

Hnh 3.2. Cu to thit b tch V-03


Thit b tch V-03 l dng thit b phn tch ba pha nm ngang, dung tch
9m3. Cc thnh phn chnh ca thit b bao gm: Van tit lu gim p u vo,
tm chn u vo v tm chn sng. Thit b c lp t thm tm chn
sng (hay cn gi l b chit sng) trc dng kh ra tch nhng ht
lng cun theo dng kh ra ngoi v nhng git lng c kch thc nh hn
Trang 25

KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

150 300m khng th lng c nh trng lc. Nu tng kch thc v bnh
tch hoc gim vn tc dng kh trong bnh thu hi nhng git lng ny th
khng hiu qu kinh k. Do , b chit sng c s dng tng cng s
tch hiu qu hn v tu vo tng cu trc thit k m chng ta c th gi li
cc git lng c kch thc 20 30m v lng ng xung, theo ng tho
kh chy trc tip xung phn lu gi cht lng. Ngoi ra, hn ch qu trnh
to thnh hydrat ngi ta cn lp t bn trong thit b mt b gia nhit ng
xon nm ngang (hot oil) m bo nhit vn hnh thit b khng thp hn
nhit im sng theo tnh ton. Cng sut gia nhit ca E-07 c iu
chnh bng thit b iu chnh nhit .
c. Nguyn l lm vic
Lng kh vi thnh phn ch yu l methane v ethane ha tan trong
dng lng y Slug Catcher s c tch ra khi pha lng nh vo s gim p
sut qua van LV-0131A/B. Lng di y bao gm condensate v nc s
c tch ring bit nh vo s khc nhau v t trng ca chng. Nc c
gp li y bn v c iu khin thit b iu khin mc thng qua thit
b bc hi V-52 nh trong trng hp ca thit b Slug Catcher.
d. Thng s vn hnh
p sut thit k: 8250 kPa. p sut vn hnh hin ti ca V-03 l 45 bar,
c iu chnh bng van iu p lp t trn ng ng dn kh t bnh
tch V-03 hoc bng my nn K-03.
Nhit thit k l 800C. Nhit vn hnh thc t l 21 250C.
Thit b V-03 c b mt phn chia pha ln (din tch mt thong ln) nn
s to iu kin thun li cho pha kh gii phng ra khi pha lng d dng. Bn
cnh , thi gian lu ca cht lng trong thit b lu hn do th tch cha lng
tng i ln, v vy iu ny cho php tch kh ho tan trong lng hon ton
hn v nhanh hn. Tuy bnh tch V-03 c nhc im l kh nng tch cc bi
du ra khi dng kh khng trit nhng n ph hp cho dng lng vo c
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

lu lng ln v gi thnh r hn so vi bnh tch ng, mt khc d vn


chuyn v lp rp nn c nh my chn la s dng.
3.1.3.3. Thit b tch Filter - Separator V-08
a. Chc nng
Thit b tch V-08 c chc nng tch lng v cn bn t dng kh u ra
Slug Catcher (ch thit k ban u) hoc u ra my nn K-1011 trc khi
a kh vo khu cng ngh.
b. Cu to
Thit b tch V-08 l thit b tch nm ngang c kch thc 2921x711x273
(mm) v cu to gm 2 phn chnh nh sau:
Phn th nht (Filter element) lm nhim v loi b cc tp cht rn c
kch thc nh hn 10 m.
Phn th hai (mist extractor ) l tm chn sng dng cnh li an, lm
nhim v tch cc ht lng khi dng kh ln cui. Tm chn sng c
cu to n gin, nhng gip cho thit b tch c hiu qu cao v gi thnh
ca hp l. Pha lng tch c sau s c a vo mt bung cha
pha bn di.
c. Nguyn l lm vic
Thit b V-08 vn hnh p sut thc t l 109 bar, nhit 420C. Vic
thc hin tch cc tp cht c hc c kch thc t 10 m tr ln trong thit b
V-08 c thc hin nh h thng lc filter c kch thc l di 10 m. Cc
ht cht lng b cun theo trong dng kh c kch thc nh s c kt dnh
thnh nhng ht c kch thc to nh h thng tm chn sng pha trc dng
kh ra ca thit b.
3.1.4. H thng thp chng ct
3.1.4.1. Thp tch Ethane C-01
a. Chc nng

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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

Thp C-01 ng vai tr rt quan trng trong nh my, c chc nng thc
hin qu trnh phn tch gia ethane v propane. Ti y ngun condensate
nng s c x l tch cc thnh phn nh c nhit si di 4000C v
cc thnh phn nng c nhit si trn 2100C. Hydrocacbon nh hn ethane
v mt phn nh propane s ra khi nh thp pha kh, phn ln hydrocacbon
nng (C3+) v mt phn nh ethane ra khi y C-01 dng lng s c a
ti thp C-02 phn tch tip sn xut ra LPG v condensate. Thp c
thit k ch bin condensate n nh vi c tnh ph hp c th trn vi
reformate to ra xng c ch s RON-83 theo TCVN5690-98.
b. Cu to
Thp tch ethane C-01 gm c 32 a van, 13 a phn luyn ca thp
c ng knh 2,6m. Phn chng ca thp c 19 a c ng knh 3,05m. B
kim sot chnh p qua thp PDIA-1321 c nhim v kim sot chnh p qua
thp nhm kp thi pht hin cc hin tng bt thng nh ngp thp, to bt.
Hai thit b gia nhit dng Kettle Reboiler c lp ti y ca thp, vi cng
sut hot ng ca mi thit b l 50% cung cp nhit cho y thp.
c. Nguyn l lm vic
Nh s chnh lch nhit gia y v nh thp nn cc cu t nh C1,
C2 s bc hi ln nh thp, cc cu t nng C3+ s c gi li y thp
a v thp C-02 chng ct thnh LPG v condensate. Sau khi trao i nhit,
condensat chy xung nh trng lc n bnh cha V-15 vi thi gian lu l 3
pht n nh mc cht lng. Dng lng c nhit thp t thp C-05 cha
95% mol cht lng s ng vai tr dng phun ti, lm dng hi lu lnh cho
nh thp. Nhit ca y thp c duy tr nh 2 reboiler gia nhit y thp
E-01A/B.
d. Thng s vn hnh
p sut thp C-01 trong ch GPP chuyn i l 27 bar, c duy tr
bng cch iu chnh ng m ca van PV-1403A/B v tc quay
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

ca my nn K-01. Trong trng hp p sut vt gii hn thit k, van


PV-1305B s m x kh ra t ti flare trnh gy qu p cho thp.
Nhit nh v y tng ng l 140C v 1090C, c duy tr nh
vo vic iu chnh lng du nng cung cp vo thit b gia nhit y
thp.
Nhit ca thp cn c iu chnh sao cho hm lng C2 trong LPG
t gi tr mong mun. Nu mun sn phm LPG c hm lng C2 cao th thp
C-01 s c tng nhit v ngc li gim nhit khi C2 thp. Hm lng
C2- cn kim sot ph thuc vo yu cu cht lng ca cng ty v theo tha
thun vi khch hng. Hin nay hm lng ny l t 2 2,5%.
Trong qu trnh vn hnh, nu nhn thy lu lng sn phm t nh thp
C-01 vt qu gi tr bnh thng th my nn K-01 s c tng tc , ng
thi gim nhit ca thp C-01 xung nhm gim lu lng kh i ra t nh
thp. Nu mc lng y C-01 qu cao th nn m van FV-1301 ln hn nhm
trnh ngp y C-01, E-01A/B, V-15 lm gim hiu qu lm vic ca thp.
3.1.4.2. Thp n nh C-02
a. Chc nng
Thp n nh C-02 c chc nng phn tch cc cu t C4 v C5 ca dng
lng t V-15 ti to ra hai loi sn phm ring bit: LPG v condensate.
b. Cu to
Thp C-02 c cu to gm 30 a van, ng knh 2,14m. a np liu
cho thp l a s 10. Thp c thit k mt thit b ngng t nh v mt
thit b un si li y. Thit b reboiler ca thp thuc loi Kettle (E-03)
c s dng cung cp nhit cho y thp. Nhit y thp c khng
ch nh vic iu chnh lng du nng cung cp cho Reboiler qua van TV1523. Hi LPG t nh thp s ngng t 430C trong thit b ngng t bng
khng kh E-02 sau n bnh hi lu nm ngang V-02 c ng knh 2,2m,
di 7m. LPG c qua bm hi lu P-01A/B. Bm c cng sut l 180 m3/h,
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

cng sut ng c l 75 kW, chiu cao ct p 133,7m. Ngoi ra, C-02 cn c


thit b kim sot chnh p qua thp PDIA-1521 trnh s chnh p trong ct
qu cao nhm kp thi pht hin cc hin tng bt thng nh ngp lng, to
bt.
c. Nguyn l lm vic
Thp C-02 hot ng da vo s chnh lch nhit si ca cu t nh
C3, C4 v condensate. LPG ra khi nh thp c lm lnh bng khng kh bi
gin qut E-02 ngng t thnh lng ti V-02. Sau , mt phn LPG s c
bm P-01A/B hi lu li thp nhm tng tinh ct ca thp, mt phn khc
c bm ti bnh chaV-21A/B, kho cng Th Vi hay ti thp C-03 tch
ring propane v butane. Condensate y thp c dn ti E-03 gia nhit
nhm bc hi mt phn cc cu t nh quay tr li y thp. Phn lng ra khi
y E-03 s l condensate thnh phm. Nhit thp C-02 c iu khin bi
van du nng TV-1523 sao cho hm lng C5 trong LPG < 2% v p sut hi
bo ha ca condensate khng vt qu 11,2 psia.
d. Thng s vn hnh
p sut lm vic ca thp C-02 theo thit k l 12,5 bar v theo ch
MGPP l 10 bar, c iu chnh nh vic iu chnh cng sut qut lm
mt v cc van PV-1501A/B. Ta c th khng ch hiu sut ca thit b
trao i nhit E-02 bng cch m hoc ng mt dng kh bypass nng
qua van TV-1501A, cng sut thit k l 30% dng kh tng, kh s c
t qua van PV-1501B.
Nhit nh v y thp tng ng l 400C v 1410C, c duy tr
n nh nh vo vic iu chnh t l hi lu lnh nh thp v lng
nhit du nng cung cp vo Reboiler y thp.
Mc phn tch ca thp C-02 ph thuc vo ch s hi lu ca thp.
Nu t l gia phn hi lu v phn sn phm nh thp cng cao th ch s hi
lu cng ln, nhng tn tht nng lng gia nhit y thp v lm lnh nh
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

thp cng ln hn. Ngoi ra, mc ch ca thp C-02 l thu ti a lng LPG
nn mc phn tch cao khng cn thit, v vy khi vn hnh cn tnh ton
thit b sao cho ch s hi lu ti u nht.
Trong qu trnh vn hnh thp, nu mc lng y E-03 tng ln qu mc
vn hnh bnh thng (50 60%) th lng lng s chim ton b phn shell
side ca E-03 v bt u ngp ln trn thp. Lc ny cng sut ca E-03 khng
gia nhit cho y C-02 dn n nhit y C-02 gim v lm condensate
khng t cht lng. Ngoi ra, cn c th xy ra hin tng ngp thp C-02
trong cc trng hp: Khi lng lng t C-01 vo C-02 tng ln nhiu nhng
dng condensate ra khi E-03 khng kp iu chnh hp l kp thi; khi khi
ng li thp C-02 sau khi b shutdown t ngt hay khi nhit ti y thp
C-02 qu thp, dng np liu v hi lu ln. Ty vo tng s c vn hnh trn
m cc vn hnh vin nh my s c nhng bin php x l ty theo cc mc
khc nhau.
3.1.4.3. Thp tch C-03 (C3/C4, Splitter)
a. Chc nng
Thp tch C-03 c chc nng phn tch sn phm lng l hn hp C3, C4.
Thit b C-03 c lp t ch GPP nhng cng c th hot ng ch
MF v AMF d phng .
b. Cu to
Thp tch C-03 c cu to c 30 a van vi ng knh 1,7m. Nguyn
liu c np vo thp ti a th 14 k t nh xung. C mt thit b ngng
t v mt thit b un si li c lp t nh v y thp.
c. Nguyn l lm vic
Hi propane i ra t nh thp C-03 s c ngng t bng khng kh nh
thit b E-11, nhit gim n 400C. Sau c a n bnh cha nm
ngang V-05 c chiu di 6m, ng knh 2,2m. Propane lng ti y thp c
bm P-03A/B c cng sut 175m3/h, cng sut mt 30 kW, chiu cao ct p
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

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70,5m bm n ng ng dn propane hoc bn cha propane V-21A vi lu


lng 49 m3/h thng qua thit b iu khin mc LICA-2201. Propane c lu
lng 89 m3/h c hi lu li thp C-03. Thit b un si li loi kettle E-10
y C-03 c s dng un nng nh dng nng 970C. Nhit c
khng ch bi van TV-2123 lp trn ng du nng ny. Sn phm y butane
sau khi c lm lnh thit b trao i nhit E-17, E-12 n 450C v c
a n ng dn hoc bnh cha butane V-21B thng qua thit b iu khin
mc LICA-2101.
Mt thit b iu khin p sut vi phn PDIA-2121 c lp t pht
hin s bin i p sut trong ct, chng s gy ra to bt. Ngoi ra cn c 3
thit b o nhit c lp t ti cc a 13, 14, 30 theo di nhit lm
vic ca thp.
d. Thng s vn hnh
p sut : p sut thp c khng ch 16 bar bng cch iu khin
cng sut ca thit b E-19 nh vic ng hoc m dng kh nng
van bypass PV-2101A.
Nhit : 950C y thp trong ch MGPP.
3.1.4.4. Thp C-04, Gas Stripper
Thp C-04 dng tch lng condensate cn ln trong dng kh t nh
thp C-01. Thp c vn hnh iu kin p sut 47 bar, duy tr nh kh em
i t thng qua van PV-1801 lp trn ng ng ra. Nhit ti nh v y
tng ng l 440C v 400C. Thp C-04 gm 6 a van vi ng knh l 2,6m.
Thp c mt thit b o chnh p trnh hin tng to bt, thit b o nhit
c t o a th 6 ca thp.
Thp C-04 hot ng nh mt thit b bc hi bng hi nc nn khng
cn thit b un si li v thit b ngng t. Condensat c tch ra bi kh kh
s c ly ra theo s iu khin bi van FV-1701 (iu khin thng qua thit
b iu khin mc LICA-1821), n a th 14 hoc a th 20 trong thp tch
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

ethane, sau khi qua thit bi trao i nhit E-04 nng nhit t 400C ln
860C vi dng nng 1400C t y ca thit b stabilizer. Mc ch ca thit b
trao i nhit ny l tn dng v thu hi nhit.
Trong trng hp thp C-04 khng c vn hnh th ch vn hnh
n gin hn. p sut hot ng c t ng gi 47 bar nh kh em i t
thng qua van PV-1801 lp trn ng ng ra. Nu khi lu th i qua van FV1802 xy ra vic hnh thnh hydrat, ngi ta s phun methanol vo ngay trc
van v khng c dng nng trong E-08 v trng hp ny ph hp vi ch
c thi gian vn hnh ngn nh ch AMF.
3.1.4.5. Thp chng ct nhit thp C-05
a. Chc nng
Thp chng ct nhit thp C-05 c chc nng tch hn hp kh - lng
sau cm thit b lm lnh E-14/CC-01 thnh kh kh (thnh phn ch yu l
methane v ethane) ra khi hn hp C3+.
b. Cu to
Thp C-05 c cu to gm 2 phn: Phn trn nh thp lp t 1 a
(Chimney tray) v h thng tch sng (Mist eliminator) ng vai tr nh b
tch kh - lng tch lng lng cun theo kh ra nh thp. Phn y c cu
to nh mt thp chng nhng ch c phn ct. Mt vi thng s chnh ca thp
C-05 nh sau:
S mm thc : 12 mm (7 mm l thuyt).
Khong cch gia cc mm : 610 m.
Chiu cao tng th : 21m.
ng knh : 2,1m.
Thp khng c dng tun hon v ni si li.
p sut : 35 - 37 bar ty thuc vo lu lng kh u vo v p sut
kh kh u ra.
Nhit : - 450C nh v -150C y trong ch GPP.
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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

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c. Nguyn l hot ng
Thp C-05 hot ng do s chnh lch nhit gia dng nguyn liu
nh v y. Dng kh i ra t thp hp ph V-06 : 1/3 i qua thit b trao i
nhit E-14 ri qua van gim p lm cho nhit gim xung khong -620C i
vo a s 1 ca thp, 2/3 dng kh cn li i qua thit b gin n CC-01 lm
cho nhit gim xung khong -200C v i vo y thp. Nh s chnh lch
nhit gia dng nh v dng y nn cc cu t nh (C1, C2) s c tch
ra v bay ln nh thp cn cc cu t nng s ri xung y thp. y, lng
lng c to ra do qu trnh lm lnh dng kh ti E-14 ng vai tr l dng
hi lu lnh cho nh thp, dng kh sau khi gim p qua Turbo-Expander ng
vai tr l dng hi lu nng cho y thp.
Trong qu trnh vn hnh thp, hm lng C3 cn phi c lin tc theo
di iu chnh t l dng qua E-14/CC-01 sao cho lng C3 mt ra salegas
l thp nht c th. Khi p sut salegas thp cn theo di tc CC-01 v m
bo CC-01 khng b qu tc . Trong trng hp kh u vo c s thay i
nhp liu u vo (lu lng, thnh phn, lng condensate trng bm vo) th
cn tnh ton li cc thng s vn hnh ti u ha vn hnh thp C-05 nhm
tng cng hiu qu thu hi lng.
Khi lu lng u vo tng, thp C-05 thng c hin tng b ngp lng,
c th dn n nguy c lng lng b cun theo v gy nh hng n CC-01.
Nh my tin hnh vic ci to h thng nguyn liu u vo thp nhng
khng hiu qu. V vy, ngn nga vic ngp thp xy ra, nh my lun duy
tr mt lung kh nng bypass thng qua van PV-0805 vi m ca van
khong 15 20%. Tuy nhin, iu ny dn n vic gim hiu qu thu hi
lng. Do , nu gii quyt c vn ngp lng thp C-05 th s cho php
tng ti a hiu qu thu hi lng t ngun nguyn liu ban u.
3.1.5. Thit b hp ph V-06A/B

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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

tch nc ra khi dng kh nguyn liu nhm m bo nhit im


sng ca kh thng phm u ra kh trc khi a vo cm lm lnh, ng
thi trnh hin tng to thnh hydrate, kh nguyn liu sau khi tch lng ti
V-08 c a vo h thng hp ph V-06A/B.
Phng php hp ph s dng nhng cht hp ph rn nh silicagel,
zeolit, oxit nhm mang li hiu qu sy kh cao, c tin cy cao v im
sng thp. Tuy nhin, chi ph u t v vn hnh cho phng php ny kh
ln, kh nng hp ph gim dn theo thi gian nn cn phi ti sinh hoc thay
lp cht hp ph m bo hiu qu lm kh kh.
3.1.5.1. Cu to

Hnh 3.3. Cu to thit b hp ph V-06 vi lp hp ph tnh

C 2 kiu thit b hp ph c bn:


Thit b hp ph vi lp hp ph tnh.
Thit b hp ph vi lp hp ph chuyn ng.
Trong thc t, thit b hp ph c lp hp ph chuyn ng t c s
dng do cu to ca loi thit b ny kh phc tp v gi thnh t. Thit b hp
ph vi lp hp ph tnh c cu to n gin nh hnh v trn. Thn thit b

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KHOA HO HC V CNTP

BO CO THC TP

hnh tr, c ng knh 2,3 m; y c dng xyclon. Cu to bn trong thit b


gm 3 lp chnh: Lp m, lp cht hp ph v lp hp ph cui cng. Nu
chia theo tn tng lp, V-06 gm tt c 6 lp. y, ta xt theo cu to 6 lp
nh trong bng di y d dng phn tch.
Bng 3.3. Cc lp vt liu trong thit b hp ph V-06
STT
1
2
3
4
5
6

Tn lp

Loi

Lp m
ABS
Nhm oxit hot tnh F-200
Ry phn t zeolit
MS4A
Lp m
ABS
Lp m
ABS
Ceramic

Kch
thc

Chiu cao
(mm)

1/4
1/8
1/16
1/8
1/4
3/4

150
1500
1340
160
160
-

Khi
lng
(kg)
510
4762
4050
510
510
2500

Lp th nht l lp m trn cng, c cu to gm 2 lp nh: Lp bi s


v lp m di. Lp bi s pha trn c dng hnh cu. Lp bi ny c nhim v
bo v cht hp ph di p lc ln ca kh nguyn liu v phn b u kh
nguyn liu trn b mt lp m di. Lp m di nh hn, thng l loi
c tn ABS, hnh cu, kch thc khong 1/4. Nh vy lp th nht ny c vai
tr bo v v trnh hin tng b cun theo kh ca cht hp ph khi dng kh
ti sinh i qua. ng thi n gip lm gim lng mt mt v m bo c
kch thc ca cht hp ph nh tng kh nng hp ph cho dng kh.
Lp th hai v ba l lp cht hp ph. y l lp quan trng nht ca thit
b V-06, gm nhm oxit hot tnh v ry phn t zeolit.
- Nhm oxit hot tnh: y l cht hp ph c phn tn cao v cu trc
khuyt, c bit c th tch mao qun v din tch b mt ln dng -Al2O3.
Nhm oxit hot tnh c kh nng chu nc. Do , mt trong nhng ng dng
chnh ca nhm oxit hot tnh l lm cht hp ph. Nhm oxit hot tnh c kh
nng lm kh kh tt cho n nhit im sng -600C v cao hn na. V

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vy, n c s dng tch s b phn ln lng nc ln trong kh trc


khi qua cc lp vt liu khc.
- Ry phn t zeoilit: Zeolit c tng hp t aluminosilicat. Zeolit l mt
loi vt liu ang ngy cng c ng dng rng ri nh nhng tnh cht ni
tri so vi cc loi vt liu khc nh b mt ring ln, c th iu chnh c
lc axit v tm axit, cu trc tinh th xp vi kch thc mao qun ng u
ph hp vi nhiu loi phn t v kh nng bin tnh tt. N c kh nng tch
c cc cht da vo s khc nhau v kch thc phn t. Ngoi ra zeolit cn
c thm mt u im na l c th gi c hot tnh nhit tng i t
150 - 2000C. Zeolit thng c s dng di dng vin hoc trn thm t st
lm cht kt dnh v lm tng b mt hp ph. Tuy nhin, do th tch l xp
nh nn lng cht b hp ph t hn so vi cc cht hp ph khc. V vy,
bo v lp zeolit v m bo kh nng hp ph cng nh hiu qu kinh t v
gi thnh ca n kh t so vi cc loi vt liu hp ph khc, nc s c
tch s b nh i qua lp hp ph nhm oxit hot tnh trc khi vo lp zeolit
ny.
Bng 3.4. c trng ca cht hp ph nhm oxit hot tnh v zeolit
c trng
Kh nng hp ph hi nc
(kg nc/100 kg cht hp ph)
Hm lng nc trong cht hp ph
(% trng lng)
Nhit ti sinh (0C)

Al2O3

Zeolit 4A, 5A

4-7

9 - 12

Thay i

177 - 315

150 - 350

Da vo bng trn ta c th thy kh nng hp ph ca nhm oxit hot


tnh thp hn so vi zeolit, v vy lp nhm oxit hot tnh c phn b trc
lp zeolit, ng vai tr hp ph s b nc trc khi qua zeolit lm sch
tinh. im sng kh sau khi sy ph thuc vo vic chn la cht hp ph v

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cng ngh. i vi nhm oxit hot tnh v zeolit ry phn t, nhit im


sng sau khi sy ln lt l -730C v -900C.
Ba lp cui cng gm 2 phn : Pha trn l lp m, pha di l lp bi s
(ceramic). Ceramic c thnh phn ha hc ch yu l SiO2, Al2O3, c phn
b cui cng di y thp v ceramic c bn c hc cao v din tch b mt
cao hn rt nhiu so vi cc vt liu thng thng khc nn ceramic c kh
nng chu nhit cao v bn vng trong mi trng acid, baz. Lp m c
nhim v l cht hp ph v lm gim s mt mt cht hp ph do b cun
theo dng kh kh ra ngoi.
Thc t trong cng nghip ngi ta thng s dng t hai n ba thp,
trong thp th nht thc hin qu trnh hp ph, thp th hai ng vai tr
ti sinh v thp th ba s lm lnh cht hp ph sau ti sinh m bo cho
qu trnh sy kh din ra lin tc. y ta ang xt trng hp c th nh my
s dng hai thp, khi thp th nht lm nhim v hp ph th thp th hai gii
hp. Hai thp ny hot ng lun phin nhau v thi gian chuyn thp l 8h.
Kh nng hp ph ca cht hp ph b gim dn theo thi gian do s to cc
trn b mt, c bit lp trn cng b gim hot tnh nhanh nht. V vy sau mt
thi gian phi thay cht hp ph mi, t 2 5 nm tu vo bn cht v iu
kin lm vic ca cht hp ph. Qu trnh hp ph thc hin qua 4 giai on:
Gim p, un nng, lm lnh v tng p.
3.1.5.2. Qu trnh hp ph
Kh t Slug Catcher u tin c a qua thit b tch lc nc V-08,
c thit k tch 99% hydrocacbon lng, nc t do, du bi trn, cht rn
trong kh, ri kh tip tc i n thit b kh nc tinh V-06A/B. y, du c
tc dng xu n hiu nng v thi gian sng ca cht hp ph phn t nn cn
c thit b tch th tch chng i nhm bo v ry phn t.
Dng kh 260C v p sut 109 bar c np vo mt trong hai thit b
hp ph lm vic song song (V-06A/B). Dng kh vo c phn phi, i qua
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lp m v gp cc cht hp ph. Ti y, nc b hp ph v b gi li trong


cc mao qun. u tin l nhm oxit hot tnh. Oxit nhm c dng tch
th dng kh ban u v oxit nhm c gi thnh thp, c kh nng ht nc cao
hn, mt khc kh b lm bn v bo v tt, d ti sinh. Sau dng kh qua
ry phn t zeolit tch trit nc v gim nhit im sng xung t
yu cu l -750C p sut 34,5 bar. V kch thc cc ht zeolit nh nn n d
dng b cun theo dng kh, v vy ngi ta phn b kch thc cc lp ht theo
th t t nh ( gia) n ln dn hai u m bo t mt mt zeolit nht.
Cht hp ph s bo ho sau 8h lm vic v c ti sinh. Kh kh ra khi thit
b hp ph c gp li, a n thit b lc F-01A/B tch bi ca cht hp
ph b ko theo. S chnh lch p sut c iu khin bi thit b DPA0503A/B, p sut ci t y l 0,1 bar
3.1.5.3. Qu trnh ti sinh
Cht hp ph sau mt thi gian lm vic s b bo ha nc, hot tnh ca
cht hp ph gim i, lc ny cht hp ph cn c ti sinh. V thi gian ti
sinh thng di hn thi gian hp ph nn qu trnh ti sinh c thc hin
trong mt thp khc. ti sinh cht hp ph, ngi ta dng kh nng, c th
h thng ny l s dng chnh dng kh kh ti sinh. Qu trnh ti sinh
cht hp ph bao gm cc giai on sau:
a. Chuyn b lc
Thit b ang ch d phng sn sng a vo hot ng song song
vi thit b ang hot ng. Trong thi gian ngn th c hai thit b hot ng
song song :
Gim thiu s thay i thnh phn.
Gim thiu s li cun ca cc git hydrocacbon lng tp hp trn ng
ng lm vic u vo trong thi gian iu p.
Trnh ngt dng kh.
Thp hp ph c ti sinh c lp.
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b. Gim p
Thit b hp ph c gim p sau khi c lp c dng kh vo v dng kh
ra, kh t p sut 109 bar gim xung p sut 35 bar mi qua thit b ti sinh.
S gim p l cho dng i trc tip n ng ng dn kh ti sinh. Tc
gim p c c gii hn bi mt l tit lu v c th iu khin bng van
iu khin bng tay vi thi gian ti a cho qu trnh gim p l 30 pht. Qu
trnh ny c kim tra nh vic tnh ton kch thc l, bng cch dng thit
b o p sut t trc v sau l.
Trong qu trnh gim p th km theo qu trnh gim nhit (nhit ti
thiu -80C) v xy ra s ngng t kh, kt qu ca qu trnh ny lm ngng t
thm 20% khi lng hydrocacbon lng. Ngoi ra cn c mt lng nh
hydrocacbon ngng t trong qu trnh hp ph (nh hn 1% khi lng).
ngn chn qu trnh tch t cc hydrocacbon lng trong thit b ti sinh th c
mt dng kh ti sinh bypass s c hnh thnh trc khi qu trnh gim p.
c. Lm nng
Nc c tch khi cht hp ph nh un nng bi dng kh kh ti sinh
sau khi c gia nhit ti E-18. Kh ti sinh c lu lng 12500 kg/h, p
sut 34 bar, c tun hon bi my nn kh K-04A/B v c ti sinh 100%.
Cng sut ca ng c in l 75 kW v c lm nng trong thit b trao i
nhit E-18 bng du nng ln n 2300C. Dng kh ti sinh i ngc chiu vi
dng kh hp ph. Qu trnh lm nng c hin th bi ba thit b hin th nhit
trn tng hp ph (TI-0551A/B, 0552A/B, 0553A/B) v nhit u ra kh
ti sinh c iu khin bi TI-0512 m bo lu lng v nhit nh
nht. n bo ng nhit , lu lng thp nht c ci t. Dng kh ti
sinh nng c cha nc c lm lnh nh thit b lm lnh bng khng kh E15. Nc ngng t c tch ra trong bnh tch nc V-07 v quay li dng
salegas.
d. Lm lnh
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Tng cht hp ph c lm lnh bng chnh dng kh ti sinh cng nh


i vi vic lm nng, ngoi tr b lm nng kh ti sinh kh nc E-18 c
b qua bng cch bypass. Tng hp ph s c lm lnh n nhit 250C
hoc chnh lch 50C so vi nhit ca kh nhp liu. Ging nh qu trnh t
nng, qu trnh lm lnh cng c hin th bi ba ch th nhit t trn lp
cht hp ph v kim tra nhit ca kh ti sinh bng TI-0512.
e. Qu trnh tng p
Thit b hp ph c tng p bi dng kh kh sn phm n p sut 109
bar v nhit 370C. Hiu sut ca qu trnh ny c gii hn nghim ngt
bng mt l tit lu, bng cch dng thit b o p sut cc b ca p sut trc
l v sau l v c th c kim sot bng van tay. Thi gian tng p hon ton
l 30 pht. Ging nh qu trnh gim p, qu trnh ny s c s ngng t
ngc. Hydrocacbon lng s c gp li trong ng ng vo ca qu trnh
lm vic. Tc nn trung bnh hi ln hn so vi qu trnh gim p. iu ny
s c kim tra bi vic tnh ton kch thc ca l.
d. D phng
Kt thc qu trnh tng p, thit b hp ph s c gi p sut kh x
l 109 bar sn sng a vo hot ng. Cc my nn kh ti sinh kh nc
s hot ng trong sut thi gian . Trong qu trnh thc hin, cc pha tng
v gim p ca b hp ph th kh ti sinh s b qua cc b hp ph ny bng
cch i theo ng dn nhnh. My nn c th c tt i nu nh d on s
khng cn thit hn 4h, v nh vy cn c s tng thch gia s ln khi ng
my nn v tit kim nng lng. Theo thit k, qu trnh kh nc s hot
ng vi dng kh bo ho hi nc (0,06%). Tuy nhin, vic x l kh bng
glycol ngoi khi gim hm lng nc xung 0,015%. V vy, qu trnh
hp ph c th c ko di gn 4 chu k. Trong trng hp ny, my nn kh
ti sinh c th ngng hot ng.
3.1.6. Thit b Turbo Expander (CC-01)
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3.1.6.1. Chc nng


Thit b c chc nng gim p sut kh m vo nh my t 109 bar xung
p sut t 35 38 bar, c thc hin trong cnh gin n lm lnh dng kh
ti -10 -150C. ng thi, nng lng thu c dng nn kh kh t p sut
35 38 bar ti 47 54 bar ti cnh qut nn.
3.1.6.2. Cu to

Hnh 3.4. Cu to thit b Turbo-Expander


Thit b Turbo-Expander l loi thit b gin n s dng ni nng ca
dng kh c ph ti l my nn mt cp. Cnh gin n v cnh qut nn c
gn chung trn mt trc c bi hai bc n. Thit b c chia lm ba
phn bao gm: Bung gin n, bung nn v phn trc quay. Thit b c
trang b cc h thng ph tr gm h thng kh lm kn, h thng du bi trn
v h thng lm mt. Trc quay v bc n c bi trn bng du bi trn.
Cc seal lm kn c tng cng bng h thng seal gas. Nhim v ca phn
gin n v phn nn l:
Phn gin n (expander) c nhim v gim p sut kh nguyn liu u
vo sau khi c tch nc t p sut 109 bar xung 33 37 bar nhm
lm lnh kh nguyn liu u vo.
Phn nn (compressor) c nhim v nn hn hp kh c tch cc
thnh phn nng C3+ ti thp C-05 v c tn thu nhit lnh sau thit
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b E-14 n p sut kh kh theo yu cu ca cc h tiu th (nh my


in, m).
3.1.6.3. Nguyn l lm vic
Bng 3.5. Thng s vn hnh ca thit b Turbo Expander
Tc
Lu lng
Expander
p sut/Nhit vo
p sut/nhit ra
Lu lng
Compressor p sut/Nhit vo
p sut/ nhit ra
CC-01

RPM
Sm3/h
Bar/0C
Bar/0C
Sm3/h
0
C
0
C

27000 (max 29000)


167000
108/30,5
33,5/-17,2
147000
32,9/27,2
46/60,7

Ti phn gin n, 2/3 lng kh kh sau khi tch nc V-06 i n phn


gin n ca CC-01 gim p t 109 bar xung cn 33,5 bar, ng thi nhit
cng gim t 25,60C n -180C. nhit ny, phn ln hydrocacbon nng
(C3+) c ha lng v lm dng np liu cho thp C-05.
Ti phn my nn, qu trnh gin n gim p ti expander xy ra th dng
kh s sinh ra mt cng. Cng quay ny c dn truyn ng dng chy
phn my nn, nn dng kh ra t 33,5 bar ln n p sut vn chuyn 47 bar.
Nh vo vic tn dng cng ca qu trnh gin n s tit kim nng lng cho
nh my.
3.2. H thng ph tr
3.2.1. H thng bn cha v bm sn phm
H thng bn cha ti nh my gm 3 bn cha LPG v 1 bn cha
condensate c s dng cp cho xe bn:
3 bn cha LPG (V- 21A/B/C) c ng knh 3,35m v chiu di 54,61m
c s dng cha sn phm lng vi dung tch 450 m3. K hiu bn cha
V-21 tng ng vi A cho propane, B cho butane, C cho cc sn phm khc. 3
bn cha ny l ging nhau v p sut thit k l 17,5 bar; tng ng vi p

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sut hi ca propane ti 500C. Cc bn c bo v khi s qu p bng cch


x kh a i t uc. u tin thng qua cc van PV- 2401A/B/C, ri tip
theo qua PSV-2401A/B/C. Bn cha condensate (TK- 21) c mi hnh chp di
ng, c dung tch 2000 m3, ng knh 13m. Bn cao 15,6m v c th cha
c mt th tch condensate cho 3 ngy.
H thng bm sn phm gm bm condensate P-23A/B l loi bm li tm
n cp c cng sut 80 m3/h, chiu cao ct p 133m c thit k sao cho p
ng c p sut u vo l 8 bar, cng sut ng c in 30 kW. Bm ny
dng cho qu trnh phn phi condensate t bn cha n ng ng dn
condensate. iu khin bm, h thng s dng thit b o lu lng FIA320. Trong trng hp lu lng di mc an ton ca bm th h thng
bm s ngng hot ng.
3.2.2. H thng uc
H thng uc ca nh my c vai tr loi bt kh ti nh my thng qua
cc van an ton, van p sut hoc cc ch ni thng kh v t n ch an ton.
Ton b kh c gom ng gp ca uc 20 v c a ti bn cch bit
ca uc V-51. Bn V-51 l bnh nm ngang c ng knh 3,1m v di 8,2m.
y, ton b cht lng c loi ra v kh ri ng gp 20 sang ng uc
ME-51. ng uc c ng knh 30, cao 70 m v c cng sut t 77,2 tn/h
lc gin on, 212 tn/h lc lin tc. Mt b nh la c t nh ca uc.
Lng lng trong V-51 c a ti V-52 bng bm P-51A/B, nng sut l 10
m3/h.
H thng thot kh c thit k loi cht lng x ra t nh my qua van
an ton nhit hoc cc im ni x bng cch lm nng hoc bay hi. Tt c
cc cht lng trong ng gp 12 c dn n b lm nng E-52. Cht lng
c lm nng ti 550C, sau ti thng tch bit. Kh bay hi c t ng
uc, cht lng x ra c bm qua thng tch bit, qua hm t, c cng sut
ln nht l 8,9 m3/h (vi hydrocacbon lng).
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3.2.3. H thng bm methanol


Methanol c tc dng loi hydrat to thnh cng nh c s dng
nhm trnh to hydrat trong cc b phn lm lnh trong nh my. Methanol
c vn chuyn n bn cha V-25 dng ng c ng knh 0,75 m v chiu
cao 3,5 vi nng sut 1,5 m3 ( cung cp cho 20h bm kh lin tc). Bm
methanol P-25A/B/C l bm piston c cng sut 13 lt/h, p sut x 11,5 bar;
ht t y V-52 v x ra u phn phi. H thng gm c ba bung cha, mt
bung cung cp cho u vo ca E-14, mt bung cho E- 20 v bung cn
li l cung cp chung cho cc im bm.
3.2.4. H thng bm xut cho xe bn
Bm xut LPG P-21A/B c cng sut 70 m3/h, chiu cao ct p 61,2 m.
Bm c cng sut ng c in 15 kW, c dng cho vic xut LPG cho xe
bn t bn cha sn phm. Bm ng n cp v n c la chn c gi tr
NPSH thp. Chiu cao ct p thit k p ng vic xut qua trm xut LPG
ME-21. Khi lu lng nm trong vng gii hn di ca bm, thit b o lu
lng FIA-2402 lm cho bm s ngng hot ng. Vic xut cho xe bn c
thao tc bng tay, bng cch kt ni ng lng 4 v ng hi 3 quay li
ng ng. Vic la chn sn phm c thc hin ti bng iu khin cho
vic xut, vi van vn hnh lp trn ng ng ra ca cc bullet. Cc van s t
ng ng, m thng qua SDV-2501 (trn ng lng), SDV-2501 (trn ng
kh), vi tn hiu t hp iu khin. ng pha hi hi lu li cc bullet c
la chn bng cc thao tc tay.
Vic xut s t ng ng khi tn hiu t ME-22 hoc mc cht lng trong
xe bn cao (LS-3501). ng y ca bm c ni vi ba ng ng. Tuy
nhin, sn phm lng c th khng p vn chuyn xuyn qua ng ng
khi p sut ph thuc vo nhit ca bullet. Trong trng hp ny, bm xut
LPG c th sp xp li kt ni lm tng p ng ra.
3.2.5. H thng du nng
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Nhit hot ng ca cc thit b gia nhit trong nh my c cp bi


h thng du nng. Nhit c ly ra t vic t kh trc tip ln cc b lm
nng du.
H thng bao gm:

Thit b lm nng du.

Thit b cha du nng.

B lc du nng.

My bm du nng

Vic tun hon du nng c thc hin bng mt h thng bm, s bm


ph thuc vo tng ch . i vi ch GPP chuyn i th s bm s dng
l 2. Cng sut ca mi bm l 270 m3/h. Nhit hi lu ph thuc vo tng
thit b s dng du nng.
B lm nng du gm phn tn nhit v phn i lu. Cng sut ca mi
b lm nng c thit k l 47,52 GJ/h.

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KT LUN
Trong qu trnh thc tp, em tm hiu c cc ch vn hnh ca
nh my, c bit l quy trnh cng ngh ch GPP chuyn i cng cc h
thng thit b trong ch ny v em c mt s kt lun sau:
- Cc thng s vn hnh ca h thng thit b trong ch GPP chuyn
i u nm trong gii hn thit k ca nh my. V vy, ch vn hnh hin
nay ca nh my vn m bo an ton v l ch vn hnh ti u.
- im ni bt c bit trong vic vn hnh ch GPP chuyn i so vi
ch GPP thit k l vic s dng cm my nn K-1011A/B/C/D v h thng
tch lng V-101. Dng kh qua K-1011A/B/D vi lu lng khong 5,1 triu
m3/ngy, cn li c bypass qua V-101 em li kt qu ng k t vic thu
hi kh kh trc tip t kh ng hnh m khng i qua qu trnh ch bin su.
- Hin nay, nh my ang tp trung vo vic thu hi ti a lng sn phm
lng. Tuy nhin, ch vn hnh GPP chuyn i c nhc im l khng thu
hi ti a LPG do trong qu trnh bypass, cc cu t butane v propane b mt
mt theo dng kh thng phm. Ngoi ra, v vic vn hnh thp C-05 vn cn
tn ti do hin tng ngp thp, nh hng n vic thu hi LPG v condensate.
- Trong qu trnh vn hnh, cc yu t nh p sut kh u vo, p sut
kh thng phm cng cc thng s lm vic ca thp C-01, C-02 cng nh t
l dng c phn chia gia thit b E-14 v CC-01 l nhng yu t m nh
my c th iu chnh m bo hiu sut thu hi lng sn phm lng l ti
a.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


1. V Anh Tun v Mai Xun Ba, 2008. S tay vn hnh Nh my x l kh
Dinh C.
2. Nguyn Th Minh Hin. Cng ngh ch bin kh t nhin v kh ng
hnh, Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut H Ni.
3. Phm Xun Ton. Cc qu trnh, thit b trong cng ngh ha cht v thc
phm, Tp 3. Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut H Ni.
4. Nguyn Bin.Cc qu trnh thit b trong cng ngh ha cht v thc
phm, Nh xut bn KH&KT.

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