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ADHD(Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

Is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity


impulsiveness revealed before the age of 7 years.
Estimated to occur in about 3% to 7% of school age children
Boys are affected more frequently than in girls
Associated with child neglect, lead poisoning, drug exposure
in utero
symptoms:
Cannot sit still in school or cannot even sit long enough to
finish a meal
Cannot concentrate on problem solving
Hyperactivity or excessive movement
Perform repetitive activities
Variability
High level of impulsiveness
all or none reaction to stimuli
Have difficulty with concepts
Show many soft neurologic signs
May not show normal responses of graphethesia or
sterognosis
management:
Encourage parents to construct a stable learning
environment

Parents at home need to construct an environment that


is free of stimulating distractions
Parents should be fair but firm and to set consistent
limitations
Teach parents to give instructions slowly and to make
certain that they have their childs attention before
beginning instructions.
Breaking down of chore in to several steps
Encourage parents to be sure when they correct
behavior
What causes ADHD?
The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but the condition has been shown to
run in families, and research has identified a number of possible differences
in the brains of people with ADHD compared to those who don't have the
condition.
Other factors that have been suggested as potentially having a role in ADHD
include:

being born prematurely (before the 37th week of pregnancy)

having a low birthweight

smoking, alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy

How ADHD is treated


There is no cure for ADHD, but it can be managed with
appropriate educational support, advice and support for parents
and affected children, alongside medication, if necessary.
Medication is often the first treatment offered to adults
with ADHD, although psychological therapies such as cognitive
behavioural therapy (CBT) may also help.