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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

TRNG I HC BCH KHOA I HC QUC GIA TP HCM

KHOA CNG NGH HA HC


B MN CNG NGH HA THC PHM
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BI BO CO
H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM
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Nhm - lp HC05TP2

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

MC LC
I. Gii thiu chung.........................................................................................................3
II.
Cc h thng protein thc phm..........................................................................3
1. H thng protein ca tht, c.................................................................................3
Gi tr dinh dng.............................................................................................3
nh hng ca cc iu kin cng ngh n protein ca c.........................4
nh hng ca nhit ...................................................................................4
nh hng ca lnh ng................................................................................5
nh hng ca s kh nc............................................................................6
2. H thng protein ca trng...................................................................................7
Protein ca lng trng trng............................................................................7
Thnh phn dinh dng...................................................................................7
Cc bin i khi bo qun...............................................................................8
Protein ca lng trng.................................................................................8
Thnh phn......................................................................................................9
Cc bin i trong bo qun............................................................................9
3. H thng protein ca sa....................................................................................10
c im v gi tr dinh dng......................................................................10
nh hng ca cc qu trnh x l cng ngh..............................................10
Hiu qu ca gia nhit....................................................................................11
Hiu qu x l lnh........................................................................................11
4. H thng protein ca mu...................................................................................12
Thnh phn v s phn on mu................................................................12
Mt s protein c trong mu..............................................................................13
Cc yu t nh hng........................................................................................13
5. H thng protein ca ng cc.............................................................................14
Protein ca la m............................................................................................14
Thnh phn....................................................................................................14
Cc bin i khi bo qun.............................................................................16
Protein ca u tng.....................................................................................17
Thnh phn....................................................................................................17
S to gel.......................................................................................................17

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

I. Gii thiu chung.


Protein l mt trong nhng thnh phn quan trng ca thc phm cung
cp nhng tin cht cho qu trnh sinh tng hp protein ca c th.
Trong qu trnh ch bin thc phm, n trc tip to nn hng v ca
sn phm cng nh tham gia vo cc phn ng to mu mi
Ngun cung cp protein rt a dng v phong ph. Ngoi nhng ngun
protein truyn thng nh : tht c trng sa, ng cc v rau qu th hin
nay ngi ang ch n vic khai thc cc ngun protein phi truyn
thng nh : cc loi to, nm men v cc cht thi t l m c bit l
tit v xng.

II. Cc h thng protein thc phm.


1. H thng protein ca tht, c.
Gi tr dinh dng.
Tht l mt trong nhng loi thc phm c gi tr dinh dng cao. Tht
cc ng vt mu nng nh tht ln, tht b, tht gia cm c cha

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

nhiu axit amin cn thit, cc cht bo, cht khong, vitamin v mt s


cht khc gi l chit xut tht.
Thnh phn protein trong mt s loi tht.

Tn thc phm

Nng lng

Protein

nc

(kcal)

(mg %)

(mg %)

lipid
(mg %)

Tht b nc

85

20

72

0.5

Tht b

118

21

74.1

3.8

Tht tru

121

22.8

73

3.3

Tht ln

139

19

73

Tht d

122

20.7

74.4

4.3

Tht g

199

20.3

65.6

13.1

Tht vt

267

17.8

59.5

21.8

H thng protein ca tht l nhng t c trong c cha t 15-20%


protein ngha l chim t 50-95% cht hu c ca tht. Gi tr sinh hc
protein tht l 74%, ng ha l 96-97%.
Da vo v tr c th phn chia protein c thnh 3 nhm :
- Protein ca cht c.
- Protein ca m lin kt.
- Protein ca t c.
nh hng ca cc iu kin cng ngh n protein ca c.

nh hng ca nhit .

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Hu ht cc protein b bin tnh v to ra cc tp hp nhit 4560oC. Mioglobin b bin tnh khin cho tht b bin t sang nu
xm do to ra sc t firihemocrom.
Ti 50oC tht vn gi c mu sc, gia 50oC v 70oC tht trng ra v
cho tht mu , trn 70oC tht c mu nu do Mioglobin b bin tnh.
Vi calogen th trong qu trnh gia nhit n 55oC phn t b co ngn
i 1/3. n 61oC th b co ngn i mt na. nhit gn 100oC th
calogen b ha tan v to ra gelatin. Gelatin c c im l chu lc
ct km nhng kh nng gi nc rt tt.
Elastin hu nh khng b tc dng bi cc enzym phn gii protein
cng nh khng bin i trong qu trnh nu do c th khng hp
thu m thng thi ra nguyn vn. nhit 100oC v c nc th
elastin cng ch b trng ra m thi.
Calogen v elastin l hai loi protein kh hp thu, gi tr dinh dng
thp v trong thnh phn hu nh khng c tryptophan v xystin l hai
axitamin c gi tr cao.
Trong qu trnh nu nng, mt lng chit xut tan trong nc, d
bay hi, c mi v thm c bit. Chit xut gm c creatin creatinin ,
carnosin ( c nit )v glycogen, glucoza , axit lactic ( khng c nit ).
Khi luc tht phn ln cc chit xut tan trong nc ha tan vo nc
lm cho nc tht c mi v thm ngon c hiu.
Cc protein ca c s gim ha tan khi nhit gia 40-60oC v
lc ny mch polypeptit b gin v keo t. Khi nu kh nng gi nc
ca t c cng gim lm cho tht b sm mu.
i vi c, thnh phn protein ch yu l albumin, globulin v
nucleoprotein. T chc v lin kt thp v phn phi u, gn nh
khng c elastin. Protein ca c d ng ha hp thu hn tht.

nh hng ca lnh ng.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Lnh ng l phng php bo qun tht rt tt, tuy nhin cng lm


xu i mt s tnh cht ca tht. cc bin i xy ra khi lm lnh ng
ph thuc vo cc yu t tc lm lnh, nhit ti thiu t c
v thi gian bo qun.
nhit lnh ng trhng thng (-30 n -20oC ) 90% nc ng
li lm cho nng cc cht ha tan trong nc cha ng tng ln
10 ln. Trong vng c mt ca dung dch ny protein b bin tnh
mnh m do lc ion tng ln v pH thay i ln.
Lnh ng lm thit hi cu trc t bo. Khi lm lnh chm th cc
tinh th nc ln s to ra trong mi trng ngoi bo. p sut
thm thu khi u ca n b hn mi trng ni bo nn nc s
chuyn t mi trng ni bo ra mi trng ngoi bo. Tc th lc ion
trong mi trng ni bo tng ln ng k, t bo b tiu nguyn sinh
v cc protein b bin tnh.
Khi lm lnh nhanh s lm to ra nhiu tinh th nc trong tht
v do s chuyn nc gia mi trng ni bo v ngoi bo l ti
thiu. Lc ny s bin tnh protein l khng ln.
Hu qu chnh ca s bin tnh protein l kh nng gi nc gim v
s chy dch s xut hin ngay sau khi lm tan . Dch chy ra cha
cc vitamin, c mui khong, cc axitamin,. tn tht v dinh dng t,
nhng tn tht v trng lng ln, tht tr nn kh v x.

nh hng ca s kh nc

Kh nc bng phng php sy thng hoa cng km theo s gim


kh nng gi nc sau khi ti hidrat ha v lm cng cu trc. S d
c nhng bin i ny l do tng tc gia cc phn t actomiozin
qua cu mui lm trung gian. nu c mt saccharose th hin tng
ny s gim i.
Kt lun

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Trong qu trnh bo qun v ch bin, cc protein ca tht b bin tnh


lm gim mt phn gi tr dinh dng v thay i mt s tnh cht.
tuy nhin c c nhng sn phm nh mong mun, i khi ta
cng phi hi sinh mt phn gi tr dinh dng
Qu trnh bo qun ca c tng i kh hn so vi tht v
- Hm lng nc tng i cao trong cc t chc ca c.
- S c mt ca cc mng nhy l mit trng tt cho cc vi khun
pht trin. mng nhy xut hin do khi c ra khi nc thng tit ra
cc cht nhy ng li trn vy. Cht nhy c cha nhiu protein
gip vi khun pht trin tt hn.
- Tnh a dng ca ngun xm nhp. Ngoi vy c, vi khun cn c
th xm nhp t nhiu ngun khc nh mang v rut.

2. H thng protein ca trng.


Protein ca lng trng trng.
Thnh phn dinh dng
Ovalbumin : l protein giu nht ca lng trng trng.
Phn t ovalbumin c 4 nhm SH v 2 cu disunfua. Trong thi gian
bo qun s cu disunfua s tng ln do hnh thnh lin kt Sovalbumin c tnh bn nhit hn protein ban u. S-ovalbumin
chim 5% khi trng mi , tng ln 40% khi bn th trng v
80% trong trng bo qun lnh 6 thng.
Ovalbumin c kh nng to gel tt, lm cho bt bn. Khi gia nhit
kh nng to gel ca S-ovalbumin gim.ovalbumin d b bin tnh
nn c tc dng n nh cc bt to ra khi nhit lnh.
Conalbumin : l mt glucoprotein, to phc vi cc ion kim loi ha
tr 2 v 3 nh Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+ , Fe3+ . cc phc c mu khc nhau ty

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

thuc vo kim loi, phc Cu2+ mu , phc Fe3+ mu nu. dng


phc kim loi th bn nhit hn protein lc u.
Ovomuxoit : l mt glucoprotein c hot tnh antitripxin v c tnh rt
chu nhit tr khi trong mi trng kim.
Ovumoxin :l mt glucoprotein. Do c cc gc axit xialic tch in m
nn to ra lc y tnh in lm cho c cu trc th v c tnh cht
nht ca lp lng trng. Ovumoxin cng lm bn bt nhit lnh.
Avidin : gm ba thnh phn A, B ,C to phc vi biotin.
Protein ca lng trng trng c tnh khng khun trc tip hay gin
tip( dng protein hay dng phc ) gp phn bo v phi cng nh
bo qun trng.
Cc bin i khi bo qun.
Cc protein ca lng trng nguyn kh tiu ha, ch sau khi nu mi
tr nn d dng. Nguyn nhn l do hot tnh khng tripxin ca
omuvoxoit v tnh chng chu vi cc enzym tiu ha nn mt s
globulin khng b bin tnh.
S chuyn ovalbumin thnh S-ovalbumin, s phn ly phc ovomuxinlizozim km theo s ph hy gel ovomuxin l nhng phn nh quan
trng trong thi gian bo qun trng lm nh hng ti kh nng to
gel, to bt v kh nng ha lng ca lng trng trng.
Lng CO2 trong trng cng gim lm pH tng t 7,6 ln 9,7.
Trng mi ra bn trong coi nh tit trng nhng ngoi v c rt
nhiu vi khun. Khi ra thng lm cho vi khun xm nhp vo d
dng do mt lp biu b protein bo v cng nh do nc i vo ko
theo vi khun. Do sau khi ra, trng phi c lau kh ngay.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

C th lm gim cc l trn v trng bng cch nhng vo du


khong, hoc gia nhit nhanh trong nc lm ng t lp protein
di v.
Protein ca lng trng.
Thnh phn.
Do 3 protein lin kt vi nhau to thnh mt phc. lipovielin v
phosvitin l hai hp phn c s. Lipoprotein nh s kt dnh vo phc
qua phosvitin lm cu ni trung gian.
Phosvitin c kh nng c ng cc ion st. Cc phc to ra tan trong
nc v l ngun d tr st.
Protein ca trng giu axit amin cn thit. thnh phn cc axit amin
rt n nh v hu nh khng ph thuc vo ging, thc n cng nh
phng php nui ng vt.
Cc bin i trong bo qun.

Khi lng trng ng v c bo qun nhit -6oC tht


nht ca sn phm sau khi tan gi thng tng ln rt nhiu. kh nng
to gel tng khi bo qun nhit -50oC. Nu thm cc cht h im
ng bng th cng hiu qu ( sacaroza hoc mui nng 8-10%,
glyxerin 5% ).
Khi gia nhit ( nu nng ch bin ) th lng c li v tr nn kh,
mt s protein ca lng trng to ra H2S. Nu nu trong thi gian ko
di m khng lm lnh th H2S s phn ng vi Fe c mt trong lng
to kt ta en. Ta c th thc hin phn ng ny thu c
trng hon ton en v cht lng.
Trng nguyn khi sy kh th lm bin tnh mt phn protein v lm
thay i mt s tnh cht v chc nng ca chng.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

C th thm ng hoc mui bo qun. Lng trng trng c


c c ng thng cha 40% sacaroza, 1% natri clorua v 40%
nc c th bo qun nhit bnh thng trong nhiu thng. Lng
mn c ng, cha 10% natri clorua v 10% sacaroza c hot
nc l 0,85.

3. H thng protein ca sa.


c im v gi tr dinh dng.

V phng din l hc, sa l mt h thng phc tp, l mt huyn ph


cc ht keo trong pha phn tn l nc, bao gm cc mixen protein.
Sa l thc phm c gi tr dinh dng cao. Protein sa rt qu v
thnh phn axitamin cn i v c ng ha cao.
Thnh phn chnh ca protein sa bao gm : Casein, lactoalbumin, v
lactoglobulin. Sa b, sa tru, sa d thuc loi sa Casein v lng
Casein chim > 75% tng s protien. Sa m thuc loi albumin
( lng Casein di 75% )
Sa c kh nng to gel, to nh tt. cc sn phm t sa nh kem, pho
mt, b, sa kem
Thnh phn protein trong sa.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

hp cht nit ca sa 100%


Protein(30-35g/l) 95%

Casein (24-28g/l )

Nit phi protein(0.3-0.4g/l)5%.

Protein ha tan(5-7g/l)

Casein s1(15-19g/l)

-Lactoglubin(2-4g/l)

Casein s1(15-19g/l)

-Lactalbumin(1-1.5g/l)

nh hng ca cc qu trnh x l cng ngh.


Hiu qu ca gia nhit.

Khi thanh trng Pasteur cng nh khi c c sa di 100oC th

lactoglobulin b bin tnh. 80oC protein trong dung dch bt u to


gel. S to gel do khi cu trc cu b gin mch, cc tiol t do xut hin
lin kt vi nhau hoc vi cc cu disunfua. Khi s to ra nhng
phc hp ga cc protein ha tan b bin tnh v cc hp phn cha S
ca mixen.
Khi nhit trn 100oC phn ln cc protein ca lactoserum lin kt
vi mixen casein v lm cho chng bn vi proteaza. Phc hp lactoglobulin-casein K cng to thnh lm bn cc protein ca sa i
vi s thanh trng 120-140oC sau ny cng nh i vi tc dng ng
t ca cc enzym.
nhit 110-120oC, bn ca cc protien sa ph thuc rt mnh
vo pH. Trong qu trnh gia nhit pH b gim do to ra cc axit hu c.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Khi gia nhit nghim ngt s lm bin i cc casein. T nhit 110oC


s xy ra cc phn ng thy phn gii phng ra photpho v nit phi
protien. Photpho gim lm cho kh nng c nh canxi b gim.
Vic thanh trng cng ko theo phn ng Maillard lm cho mt phn
gc lizin mt hot ng. Do s lm c ch mt giai on ph ca
qu trnh ng t.
Nng cht kh ca sa tng s lm cho bn nhit gim ng k v
lm tng nguy c to gel trong qu trnh bo qun.
Hiu qu x l lnh.

Khi bo qun sa nhit thp ( 2-6oC ) s gy ra hai kiu bin i :


kh bn cc mixen v proteoliz hn ch.
Nhit thp lm thay i cn bng mui ( P v Ca ) gia cc mixen v
cc pha ha tan, pH thay i. Kt qu l lm thay i thi gian ng t
ca sa, lm thay i cng v lm hiu sut ca phomat. C th
phc hi li bng cch thm mt t CaCl2, iu chnh v pH ban u,
hoc x l nhit ( 60oC trong 30 pht ) ti hp th casein vo
trong mixen.
Nhit lnh cng lm tng s thoi bin casein thnh casein . Ty
thuc vo thi gian v nht bo qun m lng casein ca sa thay
i rt ln (2-10%).
Cc qu trnh proteoliz hn ch ny thng lm bin i thnh phn
ca mixen v do lm thay i tnh cht l hc v cng ngh ca
casein.

4. H thng protein ca mu.


Thnh phn v s phn on mu.
Trong mu c khong 17% protein nn ngi ta gi mu l tht
lng.
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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

So vi protein ca trng th protein ca mu hi thiu izolxin v


methionin. iu dng ch y l st trong heme ca hemoglobin
c gi tr dinh dng cao, v dng ny st d c rut hp th.
gn 200 protein c mt trong mu, hin nay ngi ta d tch v tinh
chit c trn 70 loi. Tr albumin v mt vi loi protein c hot
tinh enzym nh lisozin, a- amilaza, tt c protein cn li l
glucoprotein.

Mu nguyn + cht chng ng


ng t
Huyt
thanh

Khng b ng
Cc ng

Huyt tng

Hemoglobin
Hng cu

Hng cu

Cht m

Fibrin
Heme

Globin

Mt s protein c trong mu.

Serumalbumin ( albumin ca huyt tng ) :


chim 60% tng lng protein trong huyt tng. N cu to bi mt
chui polypeptit vi 182 axitxmin, c 17 cu disunfua v mt nhm SH
t do. Vai tr ca n l c nh v chuyn ti cc phn t nh hu c ni
sinh hoc ngoi sinh, hoc cc cht khong.
Globulin : tch khi albumin d dng bng cch kt ta chn lc vi Natri
Sunfat.
Fibrinogen l tin thn ca fibrin, chc nng lm cho mu ng c.
CBGD :Trn Th Bch Lam

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Hemoglobin nh v trong cc huyt cu t, gm nhiu chui polypeptit


lin kt vi mt nhn heme.
Cc yu t nh hng.
Trong qu trnh gia nhit mu ca Hemoglobin b bin i do hi
tng oxy ha.
Ch c axit ascocbic mi lm chm c qu trnh oxy ha
hemoglobin. Cacbon oxyt hoc nitrit cho nhng mu bn tuy hi khc
ban u. Hemoglobin c lm bn mu bng nitro c th dng
nhum mu cc sn phm tng t tht t protein thc vt.
C th lm t mu mu bng cch khuy trn vi sa tch kem
95oC, c mt CaCl2 trong 5 pht.
C th kh mu ca hemoglobin bng cch chit sc t heme ra khi
globin bng cc phng php ha hc hoc bng enzym.

5. H thng protein ca ng cc.


Ng cc l ngun chnh cung cp nng lng cho khu phn n hng
ngy ca nhn dn ta, ng thi cng l ngun protein thc vt.
Protein ca ng cc l protein khng hon ho, thng thiu cc axitamin
khng thay th . Hm lng protein thp ch khong t 10-13% hp
thu tng i thp ch khong 50-70%. Ch c protein ca cc loi u
tng i hon ho.
Trong ng cc ( tr yn mch ) prolamin v glutelin l hai nhm protein
chim 75-95% tng lng protein ca ht.
Protein ca la m.
Thnh phn.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Ht la m thng cha trung bnh 13% protein, c loi cha n 25%.


Hm lng protein c th do di truyn, iu kin canh tc v ph
nhiu ca t.
Protein ca la m tng i y cc axit amin khng thay th. Hai
protein chnh c trong la m l prolamin v glutelin. phn prolamin
trong la m c tn l gliain, phn glutelin c tn l glutenin.
Gliain v glutenin chim phn ch yu ca gluten bt m. Gliain
c trng cho gin, cn glutenin c trng cho n hi ca
bt nho t la m. Chnh nh tnh cht n hi ca protein ny m
bt m mi lm bnh c.
Cc gliadin v glutenin c hm lng glutamin rt ln (40 45 %)
do ko theo c hm lng nit. Hm lng glutamin cao s
hnh thnh nhiu lin kt hydro gia cc chui peptid vi nhau
hoc vi cc phn t nc, do to cho gluten c tnh nht do
cao. Hm lng axit amin a bo tng i cao cho thy tng tc
a bo chng nhng tham gia vo cu trc bc 4 ca glutenin m
cn lin kt vi mng li gluten trong bt nho.
Gliain
Trong la m c 2 nhm prolamin chnh:
- Gliadin , , c phn t lng 30 000 - 45 000 dalton
- Gliadin c phn t lng khang 60 000 n 80 000 dalton
Cc Gliadin , , cn c cc cu disunfua trong phn t lm cu trc
bn v cht. cc gliain c hm lng glutamin v prolin rt cao
75%.
Glutenin
Cc glutenin c tnh a hnh mnh m hn gliain v xu hng t
lin kt vi nhau bng tng tc a bo, lin kt hydro v cu
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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

disulfua ca chng ln hn. Khi lng phn t c th ln n 20


triu dalton, nht l nhng protein cn khng ha tan trong acid
acetic 0,1M. nhng protein ny hu nh u l nhng glutenin lin
hp li bng cu disulfua.
Khi ph hy cc cu disulfua gia cc phn t ,ngi ta thu c
25 di n v glutenin.
- Kiu A: khng ha tan c trong etanol, khi lng phn t
thp (10000 - 70000 dalton ) v rt giu cc acid amin c tnh baz
- Kiu B: khng ha tan trong etanol nhng c khi lng phn t
cao (60000 140000 dalton), giu glyxin, prolin v glutamine,
ngho xiatein, t l xon trong phn t thp (10 15 %).
- Kiu C: ha tan c torng etanol ,c khi lng phn t khang
gia 35000 45 000 dalton
Cc di n v lin kt vi nhau bng lin kt hidro, bng tng
tc a bo v bng cu disunfua.Cc phc hp glutenin c phn t
lng ln thng cha kiu B, C. Cn cc phc hp glutenin c
khi lng phn t thp th c t l kiu C kh cao.
trng thi ngm nc cc glutenin to ra mt mng mng rt
chc, n hi v c tnh ht c kt cao chu c lc cng. Tnh
cht ny do cng tng tc v s lng tng tc gia cc
chui protein.
Bt m nho do v gi kh nn khi gia nhit s hnh thnh mt cu
trc xp bnh m. Lng protein cn cng cao lc n ca bnh
cng tng. ngc li, lng protein ha tan c trong axit axetic
0.1 M cng tng th lc n gim xung. Do vy la m cng
khng lm bnh c v hm lng protein cn thp.
tng cht lng bt nho c th thm mt t tc nhn oxy ha.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Glutenin c tnh a bo nn chng lin kt c vi lipit to


nn nhng mng mng khng thm i vi kh CO2.
Cc bin i khi bo qun.
Trong qua trnh bo qun, cht lng gluten v bnh nng tng
ln r rt. bo qun trong vng 2-4 tun u th gluten tr nn n
hi, t nho hn, do hn v do cht lng bnh nng tt hn,
th tch bnh ln hn, v bnh xp hn.
S tng cht lng gluten l do qu trnh thy phn cht bo nh
tc dng ca enzym lipaza. Cc axit bo cha no to thanh c tc
dng mnh m n gluten lm chng lin kt cht hn v tr nn
do, n hi hn.
Mc d lm tng cht lng gluten nhng cng chnh mt s axit
ny li c tc dng lm gy ng sn phm.
Protein ca u tng.
Thnh phn.

Hm lng protein trong u tng ni chung tng i cao t 40-45%


protein tp trung ch yu c l mm. ta c th chia lm hai loi :
- Protein d tr b thy phn trong qu trnh ny mm lm cht dinh
dng cho phi sinh trng.

- Cc protein cu trc hoc protein chc nng enzym hay km hm


enzym th tp trung phn cn li ca t bo.

Cc globulin 7S v 11S chim trn 70% tng lng protein ca ht.

Mt trong nhng tnh cht quan trng ca protein u tng l kh


nng to gel.

S to gel.

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H THNG PROTEIN THC PHM

Khi dung dch protein u tng c nng m dc ( > 5% P/V )


c un nng pH gn trung tnh th s to gel.
Axit ha dung dch protein u tng n pH = 5.5 hoc thm ion Ca2+
s lm ng t protein thnh nhng cc. cc gel ny thng cng hn
cc gel to bng cch gia nhit. cc gel c ion canxi th li n hi hn.
lm u h th sa u ( c khong 4.5% protein ) trc tin phi
gia nhit nhit 100oC trong 3 pht, sau cho thm Ca2+ vi nng
khng qu 0.4M.
S to gel ca protein u tng cng c th thc hin bng kim ha
ri trung ha.

CBGD :Trn Th Bch Lam

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