You are on page 1of 7

Nhng dng bi tp i s cn nh trong Ton

nng cao lp 10

1.S bin thin ca hm s y = f(x) trn khong (a;b).


Hng gii quyt:
x (a;b) ; x1 x2. Tnh f( x2) - f( x1 ) = ?
f ( x2 ) f(x1 )
Lp t s :
=k
x2 x1

Nu :

+ k 0 th hm s f(x) ng bin trn khong (a;b)


+ k 0 th hm s f(x) nghch bin trn khong (a;b)

Example:
Kho st s bin thin ca hm s y = x2 +2x- 2 trn khong (- ;-1)
v (-1; + ).
*

Bi gii:

Xt (- ;-1):
2
2
x (a;b) ; x1 x2,ta c : f(x2)-f(x1) = x2 + 2 x2 2 ( x1 + 2x1 -2) = (
x2 x1)(x2+ x1+ 2)
Suy ra :

f ( x2 ) f(x1 )
= (x2+ x1+ 2 )
x2 x1

V x1, x2 ( - ;-1) nn : x1 -1; x2 -1 x1+ x2 -2 hay x2+ x1+ 2 0


Vy hm s nghch bin trn khong (- ;-1).
Xt (-1; + ): Tng t
*******************************************

2. V Parabol y = ax2 + bx + c ( a 0 )
Hng gii quyt:

Cho tp xc nh D = R
b

Tm nh ca (P) : I ;
2a

4a
b
Trc i xng ca ( P) : x =
2a

Lp bng bin thin : Vi a > 0


x

b
2a

4a

Note : + Nu a 0 th b lm quay ln trn; nu a 0 th b lm quay


xung di.
*

b
+ Hm s ny ng bin trn khong ; v nghch bin
2a

b
trn khong ;
2a

* Example:

V th ca hm s : y x 2 2 x 3.

Bi gii:

th ca hm s : y x 2 2 x 3. c v nh sau:
Bng bin thin:
x
y

-1

nh I(2; -1).
Trc i xng l ng thng: x = 2.
Giao im ca th v trc tung: (0; 3)
Giao im ca th v trc honh: (1; 0) v (3; 0).
th :

3
2
1
-2 -1 O

2 3

**************************************

3. Tm (P) : ax2 + bx + c ( a 0 ) tha mn iu kin cho trc.


Hng gii quyt:
b

nh ca (P) : I ;
2a 4a

Trc i xng ca ( P) : x =

b
2a

b
khi x =
v ngc li
4a
2a

b
nu a 0 th GTLN ca hm s l
khi x = .
4a
2a

Nu a 0 th GTNN ca hm s l

Cho hm s (P) : y = ax2 + bx + c ( a 0 ). Bit (P) i qua gc


O v c nh I( -2;-2), tm th ca hm s ny.
Bi gii:
(P) i qua gc O nn suy ra: c = 0
* Example:

nh I( -2;-2)
* Thay

= -2;
= -2 b = 4a (1) ; b2 4ac = 8a (2)
2a
4a

c = 0 vo (2) ta c : b2 = 8a (3)

y=

1 2
x + 2x.
2

Th b = 4a vo (3) ta c : a =0 (L) or a =

1
( Tha mn ) .Vi a =
2

1
b = 2.
2

Vy th ca hm s ny l :

*************************************

4.Gii v bin lun phng trnh bc hai : ax2 + bx + c ( a 0 )


Hng gii quyt:

Cho tp xc nh D = R
+ Xt a = 0
+ Xt a 0 : Tnh = b2 4ac
* Nu 0 th pt trn v nghim
* Nu = 0 th pt trn c nghim kp : x1= x2 =
* Nu 0 th pt trn c 2 nghim phn bit
) : 2a.
x2 = (-b* Example:

b
2a

x1= (-b+

) : 2a v

Gia v bin lun phng trnh sau: x2- 4x + m - 3

Bi gii:

Cho tp xc nh D = R
Ta c: = 7- m
* Nu 0 7- m 0 m 7. Khi pt v nghim.
* Nu 0 7- m 0 m 7. Khi pt c 2 nghim phn bit: x1 = 2+
(7-m) or x2 = 2- (7-m)
* Nu = 0 7- m = 0 m =7. Khi pt c 2 nghim kp: x1 = x2= 2.
Kt lun: - m 7: S =
- m 7: S = 2
- m = 0: S = 2+
(7-m); 2- (7-m)
******************************************

5. Cho phng trnh: ax2 + bx + c ( a 0 ). Vi x1, x2 l nghim


ca phng trnh,ta lun c nhng ng thc sau:
x1 + x2 =

b
c
v x1. x2 = (H thc vi-t)
2a
a

x12 + x22 = (x1 + x2) 2- 2x1. x2


(x1 - x2) 2 = (x1 + x2) 2- 4 x1. x2
x14 + x24 = ( x1 + x2) 2 - 2 x1x2 2 - 2 x12x2
x13+ x23 = (x1 - x2)3 - 3 x1x2(x1 + x2)
p 0
s 0

x1 = 0 x2

x1 0 x2
x1 0 x2

x1 0 x2

p 0
x1 0 x2
s 0
0
0 x1 x2 s 0 ( Hai nghim cng dng phn bit )
p 0

0
x1 x2 0 s 0 ( Hai nghim cng m phn bit )
p 0

0
0 x1 x2 s 0
p 0

0
x1 x2 0 s 0
p 0

x1 0 x2

* Note: + Phng trnh c t nht mt nghim dng x1 0 x2


0 x1 x2
+ Hiu gia nghim ln v nghin nh x1 - x2

Cho phng trnh x2 6x + m- 2 = 0.


a. Tm m phng trnh ny c hai nghin dng phn bit
b. Tm m phng trnh ny c hai nghin m phn bit.
Bi gii:

* Example:

Phng trnh ny c hai nghim dng phn bit (0 x1 x2 )


0

s 0
p 0

(3)2 1(m 2) 0

m 11
6
0
2 m 11

2
1

m 2 0

Vy 2 m 11 th phng trnh trn y c hai nghim dng phn


bit.
Phng trnh ny c hai nghim m phn bit (x1 x2 0): Tng
t
****************************************

6. Gii v bin lun phng trnh : ax + b = cx + d (1)


Hng gii quyt:

ax + b = cx + d
d ) (3)

ax + b =

cx + d (2) or ax + b = -( cx +

Gia v bin lun pt (2) v (3). Khi nghim ca pt (1) chnh l


hp
nghim ca pt (2) v (3).
* Example:

Gii v bin lun pt sau :

mx x + 1 = x + 2 . (1)

Bi gii:

D=R
Phng trnh (1)

mx x + 1 =

x 2
( x 2)

(m 2) x 1(2)

mx 3(3)

Gia v bin lun pt (2) :


m 2 0 m 2. Khi pt (2) c nghim duy nht : x = 1 :
(m 2)
* Nu m = 2 m = 2 . Khi pt (2) v nghim.
Gii v bin lun pt (3) :
* Nu