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You are on page 1of 10

Read 141-142

Why do we study relationships between two variables?

to make predictions, or explain phenomenon

Read 143-144

Page 144: Check Your Understanding

explanatory variable- helps explain or influence changes on response variable (independent- cant use in Stats

Response variable-measures the outcome of a study (dependent) y-axis

1. explanatory variable- # cans of beer they drank, response- blood alcohol level

2. explanatory variable- amount of college debt, response- stress caused by college debt

Read 144-149

How do you know which variable to put on which axis?

Explanatory - (x axis) horizontal

Response- (y axis) vertical

title and label axis

Alternate Example: Track and Field Day! The table below shows data for 13 students in a statistics

class. Each member of the class ran a 40-yard sprint and then did a long jump (with a running start).

Make a scatterplot of the relationship between sprint time (in seconds) and long jump distance (in

inches).

Sprint Time (s)

Long Jump Distance (in)

5.41

171

5.05

184

9.49

48

8.09

151

7.01

90

7.17

65

6.83

94

6.73

78

8.01

71

5.68

130

5.78

173

6.31

143

6.04

141

20

"DuFOS"

Form- linear, non-linear, clusters

Strength- how close points follow the form

Cluster

Somewhat Linear

Linear

Direction- students who take longer to run sprint have shorter jumps. This is a negative association

Form- somewhat linear pattern

Strength- association is not that strong, since points don't closely conform to a line

Outliers- there is one student who is potential outlier with a time of 8.09 sec and long jump of 151 inches

Page 149: Check Your Understanding

1. Put the data into L1 and L2

2. Turn Stat Plot On, and click the first graph option

3. Zoom, 9

21

Regression Lines

Just like two distributions can have the same shape and center with different spreads, two associations

can have the same directions and form, but very different strengths.

Read 150-151

How do we measure the strength of a linear relationship between two quantitative variables?

Can you determine the form of a relationship using only the correlation?

Read 152-155

Do you need to know the formula for correlation?

22

Read 155-156

What are some additional facts about correlation?

Read 164-166

What is a regression line?

What is the general form of a regression equation? What is the difference between y and y ?

The following scatterplot shows the number of miles driven (in

thousands) and advertised price (in thousands) for 11 used Honda CRVs from the 2002-2006 model years. The regression line shown on

the scatterplot is y = 18773 86.18x. Interpret the slope and y

intercept in context.

23

Read 166-167

What is extrapolation? Why is it dangerous?

Read 168-171

What is a residual? How do you interpret a residual?

How can we determine the best regression line for a set of data?

24

Alternate Example: Track and Field Day! The table below shows data for 13 students in a statistics

class. Each member of the class ran a 40-yard sprint and then did a long jump (with a running start).

Sprint Time (s)

Long Jump Distance (in)

5.41

171

5.05

184

9.49

48

8.09

151

7.01

90

7.17

65

6.83

94

6.73

78

8.01

71

5.68

130

5.78

173

6.31

143

6.04

141

(a) Calculate the equation of the least-squares regression line using technology.

(b) Interpret the slope in context. Does it make sense to interpret the y intercept?

(c) Calculate and interpret the residual for the student who had a sprint time of 8.01 seconds.

Read 172-174

How can you calculate the least-squares regression line from summary statistics?

Read 174-177

What is a residual plot? What is the purpose of a residual plot?

What two things do you look for in a residual plot? How can you tell if a linear model is appropriate?

25

Construct and interpret a residual plot for the Track-and-Field Day data.

Suppose that a student was absent on the day these data were collected. Predict this students long jump

distance.

Read 177-181

What is s? How do you calculate and interpret s?

26

The anticipation of the first blooms of spring flowers is one of the joys of April. One of

the most beautiful is that of the Japanese cherry tree. Experience has taught us that, if the

spring has been a warm one, the trees will bloom early, but if the spring has been cool,

then the blossoms will appear later. Mr. Yamada is a gardener who has observed the date

in April when the blossoms first appear for the last 24 years. His son, Hiro, went on the

internet and found the average March temperature (in degrees Celsius) in his area for

those years. For example, for the first year in the data table, the average March

temperature was 4C and the first bloom happened on the 14th day of April.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Temp

4

5.4

3.2

2.6

4.2

4.7

4.9

4

4.9

3.8

4

5.1

4.3

1.5

3.7

3.8

4.5

4.1

6.1

6.2

5.1

5

4.6

4

Date

14

8

11

19

14

14

14

21

9

14

13

11

13

28

17

19

10

17

3

3

11

6

9

11

Draw a scatterplot and discuss the noticeable features.

Calculate the least squares regression line and graph it on the scatterplot.

Interpret the slope in the context of the problem.

Interpret the x- and y-intercepts in the context of the problem. Are these reasonable

values in this context?

Calculate and interpret the value of the correlation coefficient.

If the temperature was measured in degrees Fahrenheit, how would this value

change?

If r is high, can we conclude that warmer temperatures cause earlier blooms?

Calculate and interpret the residual for the first year in the data table.

Sketch the residual plot. What does it tell you?

Calculate and interpret the values of r 2 and s in the context of the problem.

If you were to use number of hours in April instead of number of days in April for the date of first

bloom, how would the values of r 2 and s change?

Predict the date of first bloom for a year with an average March temperature of 3C. How confident

are you in your prediction?

27

Read 181-183

Alternate Example: Fresh Flowers

For their second semester project, two AP Statistics students decided to investigate the effect of sugar on

the life of cut flowers. They went to the local grocery store and randomly selected 12 carnations. All

the carnations seemed equally healthy when they were selected. When they got home, the students

prepared 12 identical vases with exactly the same amount of water in each vase. They put 1 tablespoon

of sugar in three vases, 2 tablespoons of sugar in three vases, and 3 tablespoons of sugar in three vases.

In the remaining 3 vases, they put no sugar. After the vases were prepared and placed in the same

location, the students randomly assigned one flower to each vase and observed how many hours each

flower continued to look fresh. A scatterplot, residual plot, and computer output from the regression are

shown.

Predictor

Constant

Sugar

Coef

181.200

15.200

S = 7.52596

SE Coef

3.635

1.943

R-Sq = 86.0%

T

49.84

7.82

P

0.000

0.000

R-Sq(adj) = 84.5%

(a) What is the equation of the least-squares regression line? Define any variables you use.

(d) Calculate and interpret the residual for the flower that got 3 tablespoons of sugar and lasted 222

hours.

28

Read 183-188

Does it matter which variable is x and which is y?

What should you always do before calculating the correlation or least-squares regression line?

How do outliers affect the correlation, least-squares regression line, and standard deviation of the

residuals? Are all outliers influential?

29

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