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Six Instructional Strategies

1. Cooperative Learning Groups Research has shown that organizing

students into small heterogeneous groups working towards a common goal can
help foster key elements in the learning process, leading to higher student
achievement. Elements including:
a. Positive interdependence
b. Face-to-face interaction
c. Individual and group accountability
d. Group behaviors
e. Group processing
2. Identifying Similarities and Differences Challenging student by
having them break down material into smaller parts for comparative analysis helps
them to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills. According to the
literature, graphic and symbolic representations help students build upon their
knowledge by:
a. Making new connections
b. Experiencing fresh insights, and correcting misconceptions
c. Developing a deeper understanding
3. Non-Linguistic Representation/Graphic-Organizers What we know
is that knowledge is stored in the brain in two forms: linguistic and imagistic
(pictures and sensations). Research has shown that presenting material visually to
students stimulates and increases brain activity. Graphic organizers can be used to
organize textual information through symbolic representation. Using visual
representation helps:
a. Increase comprehension
b. Improve achievement in difficult subjects
c. Grasp abstract concepts
4. Homework and Practice The assignment of work to be completed outside
of the class is essential for students to gain mastery in subject areas. Practice
makes perfect when:
a. The appropriate amount and type of homework is given
b. Feedback is effectively delivered
c. Parent involvement is minimal

5. Advance Organizers Is a model used to structure information before the

introduction of a new topic so that students are able to take what they already
know and build upon that knowledge base. Advance Organizers have been shown
to enhance the long-term retention of information, and promote life-long learning.
Examples include:
a. Narrative
b. Expository
c. Skimming
d. Graphic Organizers
e. KWL Chart

6. Cues and Questions According to research, approximately 80% of studentteacher interactions involve cues and questions. By making use of frameworks
such as Blooms Taxonomy, teachers can guide students towards developing
critical thinking skills through learning objectives. Key research findings:
a. Questions focused on content increases learning
b. Higher order questions result in critical thinking development
c. Briefly pausing after asking a question increases the depth of a students