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Sara Taylor

Theory Comparison:
Eric Erikson believed in four stages of psychological and social
development in the lives of children, he assumed that family members are
the principal actors in childrens lives during the first three stages, but
teachers also play a significant role in helping young children (Effective
Practices in Early Childhood Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 107). I agree
with Erikson that family members and teachers play a significant role in a
childs development. I think that family teaching in children K-5th is the most
important teaching in a childs life during those ages. When you have both a
supportive teacher and family members learning is much easier for children.
Maslow is quite different from Erikson. Maslow believed a hierarchy of
human needs. The hierarchy is a pyramid depicting the relationship
between needs and goals. Physical needs; air, water food, shelter and sex,
Psychological safety and security, sense of belonging and love, self-esteem
and respect for others and self-actualization (Effective Practices in Early
Childhood Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 109). Maslow did not believe in
different stages for childhood, he believed this hierarchy of needs was for
any age and was in effect for your entire life. I think Maslows idea is very
interesting because it is completely different from most beliefs and ideas. I
do find this theory accurate because you have to take this pyramid step-bystep. In life we strive for self-actualization and Maslow confirms that not
everyone reaches this level.

Jean Piaget believed in the cognitive-development theory. Piaget is the

same as Erikson in the way that he believes in stages of life. Although he
does not have as many stages as Erikson there are still stages of life in
Piagets eyes. Piaget also believes ion types of knowledge. Piaget believes in,
Physical knowledge which is understanding how objects move and function,
logico-mathematical knowledge which is the relationships are constructed in
our minds between objects or concepts, and social-conventional knowledge
which is the culturally agreed-on names and symbols that need to be
transmitted to the learner directly (Effective Practices in Early Childhood
Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 112). I agree that there are different types
of knowledge that we have to learn, but I do not think everyone learns all of
these different types of knowledge.
Lev Vygotsky believes in the sociocultural theory. Sociocultural theory
is that children learn from social interaction within a cultural context
(Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 116).
This theory involves the idea of scaffolding. Vygotsky theories to me make
the most sense. I think that you have to do something to learn from it. Such
as making your own mistakes in life instead of people telling you not to do
something. You learn best for what you have gone through, not what other
people go through. I relate with this concept the best.
B.F Skinner believed in behaviorism or behavioral learning. Theory
that learning is a change in behavior that is controlled by the consequences,
either positive or negative, that follow the behavior (Effective Practices in

Early Childhood Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 119). Skinner believes in

both positive and negative reinforcement. Which follows the idea of
consequences for both positive and negative actions that are shown by
children. Skinner believes that this shapes childrens behavior by using each
of these techniques.
The Reggio Emilia approach is, Principles of early childhood education
practice developed in schools in Reggo Emilia, emanates from the image of
the child rich in potential and as a citizen with rights (Effective Practices in
Early Childhood Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 129). This idea is based on
a set of core values, The image of the child, childrens relationships and
interactions, the role of parents, the role of space, teachers and children as
partners in learning, curriculum as a process of inviting and sustaining
learning, and the many languages of children (Effective Practices in Early
Childhood Education, Sue Bredekamp, page 129). I think this approach is so
important because it helps all children. I think it is very important to make
the parents have a large role in the childs education, they need to help their
children all they can to make them learn to their highest ability.

Works Cited:
Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education. Sue Bredekamp. Pearson
Education Inc. 2014.