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\sectd \pgwsxn16660\pghsxn25920\linex0 {\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy580\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy811\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Prof. Oral Buyukozturk
Fall 2003}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4195\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5393\posy2068\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Recitation 1}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1990\posy2589\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch CALCULATION OF WIND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS ON STRUCTURES}\b0\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4272\posy2860\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ACCORDING TO ASCE 7 & IBC}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3402\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch WIND LOADS}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3924\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Buildings and their components are to be designed to withstand the
code-specified wind}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4195\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch loads. Calculating wind loads is important in design of the wind
force-resisting system,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4466\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch including structural members, components, and cladding, against
shear, sliding,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4716\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch overturning, and uplift actions.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5258\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Wind Load Calculation Procedures}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5800\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The design wind loads for buildings and other structures shall be
determined according to}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6051\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch one of the following procedures:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy6592\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (1) Method 1 � Simplified procedure for low-rise simple diaphragm
buildings}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy6863\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (2) Method 2 � Analytical procedure for regular shaped building
and structures}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy7133\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (3) Method 3 � Wind tunnel procedure for geometrically complex
buildings and}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2513\posy7385\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch structures}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7927\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch Method 1 � Simplified Procedure}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8467\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The simplified procedure is used for determining and applying wind
pressures in the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8719\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch design of simple diaphragm buildings with flat, gabled, and hipped
roofs and having a}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8990\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch mean roof height not exceeding the least horizontal dimension or
60 feet (18.3 m),}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9260\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch whichever is less, and subject to additional limitations.}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9802\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Following are the steps of the simplified procedure:}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy10323\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1. Determined the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3692\posy10323\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch basic wind speed}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5316\posy10323\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5451\posy10323\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch V}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5586\posy10323\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , in accordance with ASCE 7 Figure 6-1 or IBC}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy10594\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Figure 1609, assuming the wind can come from any direction. ASCE 7
6.5.4 includes}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy10865\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch some provisions for the special wind regions indicated, near
mountainous terrain, and}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy11136\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch near gorges.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy11387\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy11387\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch importance factor}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5220\posy11387\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5336\posy11387\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch I}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5413\posy11387\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , in accordance with ASCE 7 Table 6-1 & Table 1-}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy11657\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1, or with IBC Table 1604.5.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy11928\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 3. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3595\posy11928\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch exposure category}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5336\posy11928\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.6 or IBC}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy12199\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Section 1609.4.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 4. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch height and exposure adjustment coefficient}\i0 \par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7578\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , , from ASCE 7 Figure 6-}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2 or IBC Table 1609.6.2.1 (4)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 5. Determine}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3286\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch p}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3673\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , the simplified wind pressure for exposure}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7887\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch B}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8023\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , at}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8410\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8526\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =30 ft, for}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9608\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch I}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9686\posy13030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =1.0,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3363\posy13263\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3460\posy13263\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 30}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy13359\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch from ASCE 7 Figure 6-2 or IBC Table 1609.6.2.1.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy14210\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1}\par}{ \sect}\sectd \pgwsxn16660\pghsxn25920\linex0 {\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy580\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy811\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Prof. Oral Buyukozturk
Fall 2003}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy1256\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Simplified design wind pressures,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5103\posy1256\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch p}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5296\posy1256\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , for the main wind force resisting systems of low-}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5180\posy1440\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch rise simple diaphragm buildings is determined by the following
equation:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5490\posy2068\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch p Ip}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5761\posy2068\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = (1)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5567\posy2320\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch
S S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6341\posy2320\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 30}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2667\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch where}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2377\posy2667\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch p}\i0 \par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2667\posy2667\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch represents the net pressure (sum of internal and external) to be
applied to the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2551\posy2851\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2938\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch horizontal and vertical projections of building surfaces. For the
horizontal pressures,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9763\posy2938\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch p}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9957\posy2938\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch is}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9840\posy3121\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3209\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch the combination of the windward and leeward net pressures.}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3750\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Method 2 � Analytical Procedure}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4272\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Wind loads for buildings and structures that do not satisfy the
conditions for using the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4543\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch simplified procedure can be calculated using the analytical
procedure provided that it is a}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4813\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch regular shaped building or structure, and it does not have
response characteristics making}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5065\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch it subject to across-wind loading, vortex shedding, instability
due to galloping or flutter,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5336\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or does not have a site location that require special
consideration.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5876\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The steps of analytical procedure, described in ASCE 7 Section
6.5.3 only, are as}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6147\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch follows:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3576\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch basic wind speed}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5200\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5336\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch V}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5470\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , and}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6012\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch wind directionality factor}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8429\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8564\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch K}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8797\posy6670\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8680\posy6853\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch d}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy6940\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.4.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7211\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3537\posy7211\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch importance factor}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5220\posy7211\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5336\posy7211\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch I}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5413\posy7211\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , in accordance with ASCE Section 6.5.5.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7481\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 3. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3692\posy7481\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch exposure category or exposure categories}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7906\posy7481\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch and}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8507\posy7481\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch velocity pressure}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy7733\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch exposure coefficient}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4060\posy7733\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4214\posy7733\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch K}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4426\posy7733\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4813\posy7733\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch K}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5046\posy7733\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , as applicable, for each wind direction according to}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4330\posy7916\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4930\posy7916\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy8003\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ASCE 7 Section 6.5.6.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8274\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 4. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3615\posy8274\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch topographic factor}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5393\posy8274\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5548\posy8274\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch K}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5800\posy8274\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , if applicable, according to ASCE 7 Section}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5664\posy8458\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch zt}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy8545\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 6.5.7.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8816\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 5. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3595\posy8816\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch gust effect factor}\i0 \par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5277\posy8816\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch G}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5432\posy8816\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5800\posy8816\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch G}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5993\posy8816\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , as applicable, in accordance with ASCE 7}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5916\posy8980\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch f}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy9066\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Section 6.5.8.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9337\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 6. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3537\posy9337\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch enclosure classification}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5741\posy9337\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance with Section 6.5.9.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9608\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 7. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy9608\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch internal pressure coefficient}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6186\posy9608\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6302\posy9608\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch GC}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6746\posy9608\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance with ASCE 7 Section}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6592\posy9772\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch pi}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy9879\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 6.5.11.1.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 8. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3576\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch external pressure coefficients}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6341\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch
,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6476\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch C}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6708\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7057\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch GC}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7501\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7906\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch force coefficient}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9415\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch s,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9646\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch C}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9840\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , as}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6592\posy10314\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch p}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7347\posy10314\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw

-1\kerning0\loch pf}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9763\posy10314\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch f}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy10401\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch applicable, in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.11.2 or
6.5.11.3.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 9. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3576\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch velocity pressure}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5180\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5316\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5490\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5838\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6031\posy10672\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , as applicable, in accordance with ASCE 7}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5393\posy10855\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5916\posy10855\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy10942\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Section 6.5.10. The velocity pressure,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5916\posy10942\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6090\posy10942\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch evaluated at height}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8100\posy10942\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8177\posy10942\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch is calculated by the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5993\posy11107\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy11213\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch following equation:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3770\posy11802\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch qKKKVI}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4020\posy11802\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4195\posy11802\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 0.00256
(lb/ft )}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5954\posy11851\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8236\posy11947\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (2)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3866\posy12006\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch z zztd}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4020\posy12170\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3770\posy12189\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch qKKKVI}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4195\posy12189\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 0.613
(N/m ; V in m/s)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5722\posy12237\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 22}\par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3866\posy12393\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch zzztd}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 10. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3653\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch design wind pressure}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5722\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5876\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch p}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5993\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6399\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch design wind load}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8100\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8255\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch F}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8390\posy12740\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , as applicable, in}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy13011\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch accordance with ASCE 7 Section 6.5.12 and 6.5.13. The design wind
pressure is}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy13282\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch given by the following equations:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy14210\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{ \sect}\sectd \pgwsxn16660\pghsxn25920\linex0 {\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy580\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy811\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Prof. Oral Buyukozturk
Fall 2003}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch For rigid buildings of all height}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7752\posy1836\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (3a)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4446\posy1845\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =-}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4272\posy1864\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch pqGC qGC}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5567\posy1864\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ( )
(lb/ft ) (N/m )}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6786\posy1894\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7501\posy1894\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5065\posy2068\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch p i pi}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2184\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for flexible buildings}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7791\posy2474\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (3b)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4233\posy2503\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch pqGC qGC}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4388\posy2503\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =-}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5606\posy2503\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ( ) (lb/ft ) (N/m )}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6824\posy2551\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7559\posy2551\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4871\posy2706\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch f p i pi}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3093\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch where}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy3363\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch q=q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3653\posy3363\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for windward walls evaluated at hight}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7288\posy3363\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7385\posy3363\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch above the ground,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy3547\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy3634\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch q=q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3730\posy3634\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for leeward walls, side walls, and roofs evaluated at height}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9241\posy3634\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy3798\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy3905\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch
q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3363\posy3905\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3789\posy3905\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls, and roofs of
enclosed}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3286\posy4069\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3595\posy4069\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy4156\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch buildings}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy4426\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3363\posy4426\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3499\posy4426\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3673\posy4426\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for positive internal pressure evaluation in partially
enclosed}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3286\posy4611\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3576\posy4611\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy4697\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch buildings}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5239\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch For low-rise buildings}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7887\posy5800\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch (3c)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4156\posy5828\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch pqGC GC}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4310\posy5828\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =-}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4697\posy5828\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs21\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch [( ) ( )] (lb/ft ) (N/m )}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6921\posy5876\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7637\posy5876\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4600\posy6031\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch h pf pi}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6418\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2261\posy6418\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch design wind load}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3924\posy6418\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4079\posy6418\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch F}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4214\posy6418\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , on open buildings and other structures is determined by
the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6689\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch following formula:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4949\posy7230\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch FqGCA}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5142\posy7230\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = (4)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6283\posy7230\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (lb) (N)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5432\posy7481\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch zff}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7849\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch where}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy8120\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch q}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3383\posy8120\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3537\posy8120\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch velocity pressure evaluated at height z of the centroid
area}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9009\posy8120\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch A}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3286\posy8303\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch z}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9106\posy8303\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch f}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy8390\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch A}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3402\posy8390\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3556\posy8390\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch projected area normal to the wind (ft}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7036\posy8390\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ) (m}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7501\posy8390\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch )}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6921\posy8419\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7385\posy8419\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3305\posy8555\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch f}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy14210\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 3}\par}{ \sect}\sectd \pgwsxn16660\pghsxn25920\linex0 {\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy580\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy811\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Prof. Oral Buyukozturk
Fall 2003}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch EARTHQUAKE LOADS}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2049\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Every building and its portions, as a minimum, shall be designed
and constructed to resist}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2320\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch the effects of earthquake ground motions as prescribed by the
following provisions.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2589\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Additions to existing structures shall also be designed and
constructed to resist the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2860\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch earthquake ground motion effects. Special structures including
vehicular bridges,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3131\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch transmission towers, piers and wharves, hydraulic structures, and
nuclear reactors are}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3383\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch beyond the scope of these provisions.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3924\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The process of determining earthquake loads can be broken down to
following basic}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4195\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch steps:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy4716\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (a) determining the maximum considered earthquake and design
spectral response}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2551\posy4987\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch accelerations}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy5258\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (b) determining the seismic base shear in conjunction with the
building or structure�s}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2551\posy5529\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch dynamic characteristics (e.g. fundamental period)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy5800\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (c) distribution of the seismic base shear within the building or
structure}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6321\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch General Procedure for Determining Maximum Considered Earthquake
and Design}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6592\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Spectral Response Accelerations}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7133\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Ground motion accelerations, represented by response spectra and
coefficients derived}\par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7385\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch from these spectra, shall be determined in accordance with:}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2145\posy7927\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch � the general procedure described in ASCE 7 Section 9.4.12 or IBC
Section 1615.1}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2145\posy8217\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch � the site-specific procedure described in ASCE 7 Section 9.4.1.3
or IBC Section}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2513\posy8486\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1615.2.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9028\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Conditions on use of these methods depend on the seismic use group
and site}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9299\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch characteristics of the building or structure.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9821\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch
The procedure for determining the design spectral response accelerations is as
follows:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy10362\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1. Determine the mapped}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4794\posy10362\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch maximum considered earthquake spectral response}\i0 \par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy10633\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch accelerations}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3421\posy10633\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch at short periods,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5296\posy10633\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5470\posy10633\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch and at 1-second period,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8081\posy10633\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8274\posy10633\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch using the spectral}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5374\posy10797\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch s}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8158\posy10797\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch 1}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy10903\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch acceleration maps in ASCE 7 Figure 9.4.1.1a through 9.4.1.1j or
IBC Figures 1615(1)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy11155\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch through (10). Straight-line interpolation is allowed for sites in
between contours.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy11426\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Acceleration values obtained from the maps are given in %g, where
g is the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy11697\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch gravitational acceleration.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy11967\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 2. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3537\posy11967\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch site class}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4388\posy11967\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance with ASCE Section 9.4.1.2.1 or IBC 1615.1.1.}\par}

{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy12237\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Site class (A, B, C, D, E or F) is obtained based on the average
shear wave velocity,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch v}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2320\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , average standart penetration resistance,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6166\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch N}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6321\posy12489\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , or the average undrained shear strength,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2223\posy12673\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch s}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy12760\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2358\posy12760\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch . These parameters represent average values for the top 100 ft (30
m) of soil.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2242\posy12943\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch u}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy14210\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 4}\par}{ \sect}\sectd \pgwsxn16660\pghsxn25920\linex0 {\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy580\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy811\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Prof. Oral Buyukozturk
Fall 2003}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy1256\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 3. Determine the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3692\posy1256\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations,}\i0
\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch adjusted for Site Class effects}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5026\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , at short period,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6631\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7036\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , and at 1-second period,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9531\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9840\posy1526\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , in}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6786\posy1691\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch MS}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9589\posy1691\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch M1}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy1797\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch accordance with ASCE Section 9.4.1.2.4 or IBC 1615.1.2.}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2049\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 4. Determine the design spectral response accelerations at short
period,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9106\posy2049\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9415\posy2049\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch and 1-}\par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9183\posy2232\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch DS}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy2320\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch second period,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3576\posy2320\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3885\posy2320\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 9.4.1.2.5 or 1615.3.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3653\posy2503\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch D1}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2589\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 5. Using the parameters determined in the previous steps,
construct the general response}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2165\posy2860\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch spectrum in accordance with ASCE 7 Section 9.4.1.2.6 or IBC
Section 1615.4.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3402\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Determining the Seismic Base Shear}\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy3924\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\b\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndt
w-1\kerning0\loch Structural Design Criteria, Analysis, and Procedures}\i0
\b0\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4466\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Each structure shall be assigned a seismic use group (ASCE 7 Table
9.1.3), based on its}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4716\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch corresponding occupancy category (determined from ASCE 7 Table 11) and a}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy4987\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch corresponding occupancy importance factor as indicated in ASCE 7
Table 9.1.4 and IBC}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5258\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Table 1604.5. All structures shall be assigned to a seismic design
category based on their}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5529\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch seismic use group and the design spectral response acceleration
coefficients,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9028\posy5529\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9337\posy5529\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch and}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9802\posy5529\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch S}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx10111\posy5529\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9106\posy5693\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch DS}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9879\posy5693\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch D1}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy5800\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch in accordance with ASCE Table 9.4.2.1a or 9.4.2.1b, or IBC Table
1616.3(1) or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6051\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1616.3(2), whichever gives the most severe seismic design
category.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy6592\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The analysis procedures, which can be used within certain
limitations, are as follows:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7133\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch (a) Index force analysis (ASCE 7 Section 9.5.3, IBC Section
1616.4)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7443\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch
(b) Simplified analysis (ASCE 7 Section 9.5.4, IBC Section 1617.5)}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy7771\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (c) Equivalent lateral force analysis (ASCE 7 Section 9.5.5, IBC
Section 1617.4)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8100\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (d) Modal response spectrum analysis (ASCE 7 Section 9.5.6, IBC
Section 1618)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8429\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (e) Linear response history analysis (ASCE 7 Section 9.5.7, IBC
Section 1618)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy8757\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch (f) Nonlinear response history analysis ((ASCE 7 Section 9.5.8,
IBC Section 1618)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9337\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Equivalent lateral force analysis covers most structures encounter
in daily design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy9608\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch practices.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy10150\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch The seismic base shear, V, in a given direction is determined in
accordance with the}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy10401\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch following equation:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5780\posy10942\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5567\posy10962\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch VCW}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6090\posy11193\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch s}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy11290\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch where}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy11561\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch C}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3073\posy11561\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = the seismic response coefficient determined in accordance
with}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2976\posy11725\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch s}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3383\posy11832\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch ASCE Section 9.5.5.2.1}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy12083\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch W}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3054\posy12083\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = the total dead load and applicable portions of other loads
as}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3383\posy12353\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch indicated in Section 9.5.3.}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy12895\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Vertical distribution of the base shear can be determined as
follows:}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5548\posy13437\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch FCV}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5819\posy13437\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw-

1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5645\posy13668\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw
-1\kerning0\loch xvx}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy14210\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 5}\par}{ \sect}\sectd \pgwsxn16660\pghsxn25920\linex0 {\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy580\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1.051 Structural Engineering Design}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1797\posy811\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs19\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch Prof. Oral Buyukozturk
Fall 2003}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy1256\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch and}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6031\posy1565\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch wh}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6341\posy1643\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch k}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5703\posy1700\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5355\posy1719\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch C}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6147\posy1797\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch xx}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5470\posy1952\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch vx n}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6186\posy2030\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch wh}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6456\posy2087\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch k}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6283\posy2261\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5896\posy2416\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy2416\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch =}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6012\posy2416\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs11\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 1}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx1816\posy2783\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch where}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy3035\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch C}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3150\posy3035\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = vertical distribution factor}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2976\posy3218\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch vx}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy3305\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch V}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2996\posy3305\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = total design lateral force or base shear}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy3576\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch w}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3054\posy3576\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , w}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3421\posy3576\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = the portion of the total gravity load of the structure located
or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2976\posy3760\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3305\posy3760\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch x}\i0 \par}{\pard

\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3383\posy3846\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch assigned to level}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx4987\posy3846\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5046\posy3846\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5355\posy3846\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch x}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5470\posy3846\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch .}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy4117\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3015\posy4117\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch , h}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3325\posy4117\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = the height from the base to Level}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6689\posy4117\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx6766\posy4117\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch or}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7057\posy4117\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch x}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2938\posy4281\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch i}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3209\posy4281\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs13\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch x}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy4369\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch k}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2957\posy4369\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = an exponent related to the structure period as follows:}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy4640\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for structures having a period of 0.5 sec or less,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7849\posy4640\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch k}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7946\posy4640\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = 1 (linear)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy4910\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for structures having a period of 2.5 sec or more,}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx7965\posy4910\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch k}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx8081\posy4910\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch = 2 (parabolic)}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx2860\posy5180\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch for structures having a period between 0.5 sec and 2.5 sec.,}\par}
{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9028\posy5180\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\i\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch k}\i0 \par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx9144\posy5180\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch shall}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx3383\posy5451\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch be 2 or shall be determined by linear interpolation
between 1 and 2}\par}{\pard
\qj\phpg\pvpg\posx5935\posy14210\dfrmtxtx0\dfrmtxty0{\cf1\f0\fs23\expnd5\expndtw1\kerning0\loch 6}\par}{ \sect}}

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