1.

Suppose you suspect that the photons leaving the surface of the sun have a (roughly)
mol
constant area density, ρ = C, where C has units of s·m
2.
(a) Design a thought experiment or lab that would allow you to estimate C?

(b) If you were at various distances from the sun (say on the Earth, Mars, Pluto,
Venus, alpha centauri), how could you estimate the amount of photons that
reach you every second? Construct an argument and share with a neighbor.

~ whose field lines point in the direction of the photon’s
(c) Construct a vector field, L,
trajectory and whose magnitude measures this area density (described above)?
~ =
L

(d) Suppose you have an solar panel whose region can be denoted, S. Write an
integral to compute the amount of photons coming through S each second.

(e) How does the integral in part (d) inform the vector field you imagined in (c)?