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5

Integration by Substitution

Math 1a

Introduction to Calculus

April 21, 2008

Find the following integrals. In the case of an indeﬁnite integral, your answer should be the

most general antiderivative. In the case of a deﬁnite integral, your answer should be a number.

In these problems, a substitution is given.

1.

(3x − 5)

17

dx, u = 3x − 5

Solution. As suggested, we let u = 3x − 5. Then du = 3 dx so dx =

1

3

du. Thus

(3x − 5)

17

dx =

1

3

u

17

du =

1

3

·

1

18

u

18

+C =

1

54

(3x − 5)

18

+C

2.

4

0

x

x

2

+ 9 dx, u = x

2

+ 9

Solution. We have du = 2xdx, which takes care of the x and dx that appear in the integrand.

The limits are changed to u(0) = 9 and u(4) = 25. Thus

4

0

x

x

2

+ 9 dx =

1

2

25

9

√

udu =

1

2

·

2

3

u

3/2

25

9

=

1

3

· (125 − 27) =

98

3

.

3.

e

√

x

√

x

dx, u =

√

x.

1

Solution. We have du =

1

2

√

x

dx, which means that

e

√

x

√

x

dx = 2

e

u

du = 2e

u

+C

4.

cos 3xdx

5 + 2 sin 3x

, u = 5 + 2 sin 3x

Solution. We have du = 6 cos 3xdx, so

cos 3xdx

5 + 2 sin 3x

=

1

6

du

u

=

1

6

ln |u| +C =

1

6

ln |5 + 2 sin 3x| +C

In these problems, you need to determine the substitution yourself.

5.

(4 − 3x)

7

dx.

Solution. Let u = 4 − 3x, so du = −3xdx and dx = −

1

3

du. Thus

(4 − 3x)

7

dx = −

1

3

u

7

du = −

u

8

24

+C = −

1

24

(4 − 3x)

8

+C

6.

π/3

π/4

csc

2

(5x) dx

Solution. Let u = 5x, so du = 5 dx and dx =

1

5

du. So

π/3

π/4

csc

2

(5x) dx =

1

5

5π/3

5π/4

csc

2

udu

= −

1

5

cot u

5π/3

5π/4

=

1

5

¸

cot

5π

4

− cot

5π

3

=

1

5

¸

1 +

√

3

3

¸

7.

x

2

e

3x

3

−1

dx

Solution. Let u = 3x

3

− 1, so du = 9x

2

dx and dx =

1

9

du. So

x

2

e

3x

3

−1

dx =

1

9

e

u

du =

1

9

e

u

+C

=

1

9

e

3x

3

−1

.

Sometimes there is more than one way to skin a cat:

8. Find

x

1 +x

dx, both by long division and by substituting u = 1 +x.

Solution. Long division yields

x

1 +x

= 1 −

1

1 +x

So

x

1 +x

dx = x −

dx

1 +x

To ﬁnd the leftover integral, let u = 1 +x. Then du = dx and so

dx

1 +x

=

du

u

= ln |u| +C

Therefore

x

1 +x

dx = x − ln |x + 1| +C

Making the substitution immediately gives du = dx and x = u − 1. So

x

1 +x

dx =

u − 1

u

du =

1 −

1

u

du

= u − ln |u| +C

= x + 1 − ln |x + 1| +C

It may appear that the two solutions are “diﬀerent.” But the diﬀerence is a constant, and we

know that antiderivatives are only unique up to addition of a constant.

9. Find

2z dz

3

√

z

2

+ 1

, both by substituting u = z

2

+ 1 and u =

3

z

2

+ 1.

Solution. In the ﬁrst substitution, du = 2z dz and the integral becomes

du

3

√

u

=

u

−1/3

du =

3

2

u

2/3

+C =

3

2

(z

2

+ 1)

2/3

In the second, u

3

= z

2

+ 1 and 3u

2

du = 2z dz. The integral becomes

3u

2

u

du =

3u

2

du =

3

2

u

3

+C =

3

2

(z

2

+ 1)

2/3

+C.

The second one is a dirtier substitution, but the integration is cleaner.

Use the trigonometric identity

cos 2α = cos

2

α − sin

2

α = 2 cos

2

α − 1 = 1 − 2 sin

2

α

to ﬁnd

10.

sin

2

xdx

Solution. Using cos 2α = 1 − 2 sin

2

α, we get

sin

2

α =

1 − cos 2α

2

So

sin

2

xdx =

1

2

−

1

2

cos 2x

dx

=

x

2

−

1

4

sin 2x +C.

11.

cos

2

xdx

Solution. Using cos 2α = 2 cos

2

α − 1, we get

sin

2

α =

1 + cos 2α

2

So

sin

2

xdx =

1

2

+

1

2

cos 2x

dx

=

x

2

+

1

4

sin 2x +C.

12. Find

sec xdx

by multiplying the numerator and denominator by sec x + tan x.

Solution. We have

sec xdx =

**sec x(sec x + tan x)
**

sec x + tan x

dx

=

sec

2

x + sec xtan x

tan x + sec x

dx

Now notice the numerator is the derivative of the denominator. So the substitution u = tan x+sec x

gives

sec xdx = ln |sec x + tan x| +C.

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