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beam design

© All Rights Reserved

0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)

98 views52 pagesbeam design

© All Rights Reserved

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RC BEAM DESIGN

Based on BS 8110

Cl. 2.4.4.1

Characteristic strength

Design strength

m

Given in Table 2.2

Durability

Cl. 2.2.4 and 3.1.5

Exposure conditions (Integrity of rc concrete

ability to prevent corrosion) : moderate,

severe, very severe, most severe and

abrasive (Table 3.2)

Protection a agaist corrosion of steel (Table

3.3)

Fire resistance requirement (Table 3.4)

Nominal cover

Cl. 3.3.1.1

Bar Size (Cl. 3.3.1.2)

Single Bars: nominal cover main bar diameter, d1

Paired bars: nominal cover 2 d1

Bundles bars: 2 (Aequivalent/)

Example:

Using the data given, determine:

(i) the nominal cover required to the underside of

the beam, and

(ii) the minimum width of beam required.

Data:

Exposure condition mild

Characteristic strength of concrete (fcu) 40 N/mm2

Nominal maximum aggregate size (hagg) 20 mm

Diameter of main tension steel 25 mm

Diameter of shear links 8 mm

Minimum required fire resistance 1.5 hours

SOLUTION

Clause 3.3.1.2 Nominal cover (main bar diameter link

diameter)

(25 8) = 17 mm

Clause 3.3.1.3 Nominal cover nominal maximum

aggregate size > 20 mm

Clause 3.3.3 Exposure condition is mild

Grade of concrete is C40

Table 3.3 Nominal cover 20 mm*

Clause 3.3.6 Minimum fire resistance = 1.5 hr

The beam is simply supported

Table 3.4 Nominal cover 20 mm

The required nominal cover = 20 mm

The flexural strength (i.e. the ultimate

moment of resistance of a cross-section)

is determined assuming the following

conditions as given in Clause 3.4.4.1,

BS8110:Part 1

Concrete Capacity

The maximum compressive force which can be

resisted by the concrete corresponds to the

maximum depth permitted for the neutral axis,

as shown in Figure 5.28 (i.e. x = d/2).

Concrete Capacity

Consider the moment of the compressive force about the

line of action of Ft :

Mult,concrete = (Fc z)

where Fc = compressive force = (stress area)

= [0.45fcu (b 0.9x )]

(for the maximum concrete force x = d/2)

= [0.45fcu (b 0.45d)] = 0.2bdfcu

z = lever arm

= [d (0.5 0.45d)] = 0.775d

{Note: In general z = [d (0.5 0.9x)] }

Mult,concrete = (0.2bdfcu )(0.775d) =0.156bd2fcu

This equation can be rewritten as 0.156 =M/bd2fcu

Steel Capacity

Mult,steel = (Fs z)

where Fs = tensile force = (stress area)

= (0.95fy As)

z = lever arm

Mult,steel = 0.95fyAs z

As = M/0.95fyz

Consider z, the lever arm:

z = [d (0.5 0.9x)] ,

0.9x = 2(d z)

Mult,concrete = [0.45fcu (b 0.9x)] z (substitute for

0.9x)

= 0.9fcu b (d z) z

Steel Capacity

Mult,concrete = K bd 2 fcu

K bd 2 fcu = 0.9fcu b (d z) z

Kd 2 = 0.9fcu dz 0.9z 2

z2 dz + Kd2/0.9 = 0

The solution of this quadratic equation (ax2 + bx +

c = 0) gives an expression which can be used to

determine the lever arm, z.

Summary

When K K for a singly-reinforced section the maximum

moment permitted, based on the concrete strength, is equal to

0.156 bd2fcu

When K > K a section requires compression reinforcement.

of bars

Example 1:

A rectangular beam section is shown

in Figure 5.29. Using the data given,

determine the maximum ultimate

moment which can be applied to the

section assuming it to be singly

reinforced.

Data:

Characteristic strength of concrete (fcu)

40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of steel (fy)

460 N/mm2

Solution:

Strength based on concrete:

Mult = 0.156bd2fcu

= (0.156 250 4202 40)/106

= 275.2 kNm

Strength based on steel:

As = 1260 mm2

z = 0.775 d = 0.775 x 420 = 325.5

Mult = 0.95fyAs z

= (0.95 460 1260 325.5)/106

= 179.5 kNm

The maximum design moment which can be applied is:

Mult = 179.5 kNm

supported rectangular beam is

Example 2:

shown in Figure 5.30. Using

the data given, determine the Data:

maximum ultimate moment

Characteristic strength of

which can be applied to the

concrete (fcu) 30 N/mm2

section assuming it to be

Characteristic strength of steel

singly-reinforced.

(fy) 460 N/mm2

Nominal maximum aggregate

size (hagg) 20 mm

Diameter of main tension steel

32 mm

Diameter of shear links 8 mm

Exposure condition mild

Minimum required fire

resistance 1.0 hour

Solution:

Clause 3.3.1 Nominal cover to all steel

Clause 3.3.1.2 bar size

cover (32 8) = 24 mm

Clause 3.3.1.3 Nominal maximum aggregate size

cover 20 mm

Clause 3.3.3 Exposure condition: mild

Table 3.3 and fcu = 30 N/mm2

cover 25 mm

Clause 3.3.6 Min. fire resistance: 1 hr

beam is simply supported

Table 3.4 cover 20 mm

The required nominal cover to all steel = 25 mm

Solution

Figure 3.2 Minimum width b for 1 hour fire resistance = 200

mm adequate

Effective depth

d = (h cover link diameter bar diameter/2)

= (475 25 8 16) = 426 mm

Strength based on concrete:

Mult = 0.156bd2fcu = (0.156 250 4262 30)/106 = 212.3 kNm

Strength based on steel:

As = 2410 mm2

z = 0.775 d

Mult = 0.95fyAs z = (0.95 460 2410 0.775 426)/106

= 349.9 kNm

The maximum design moment which can be applied is: Mult =

212.3 kNm

Example 3:

The cross-section of a simply supported rectangular

beam is shown in Figure 5.31. Using the data given,

and assuming the section to be singly-reinforced,

determine the area of tension reinforcement

required to resist an applied ultimate bending

moment of 150 kNm.

Data:

Characteristic strength of steel (fy) 460 N/mm2

Nominal maximum aggregate size (hagg) 20 mm

Diameter of main tension steel Assume 25 mm

Diameter of shear links 10 mm

Exposure condition moderate

Minimum required fire resistance 2.0 hours

Solution:

Clause 3.3.1 Nominal cover to all steel

Clause 3.3.1.2 bar size

cover = (25 10) = 15 mm

Clause 3.3.1.3 Nominal maximum

aggregate size

cover = 20 mm

Clause 3.3.3 Exposure condition: moderate

Table 3.3 fcu = 40 N/mm2

cover 30 mm

Clause 3.3.6 Min. fire resistance: 2.0 hr

beam is simply supported

Table 3.4 cover 40 mm

The required nominal cover to the main steel = 40 mm

Figure 3.2 Minimum width b for 2 hours, fire resistance

= 200 mm adequate

Figure 5.31

Solution:

Effective depth d = (h cover link diameter bar

diameter/2)

= (450 40 10 13) = 387 mm

Clause 3.4.4.4

Check that the section is singly-reinforced:

K = M/bd2fcu = 0.125 < 0.156

Since K < K the section is singly-reinforced

K

z d 0.5 0.25

0.83d 0.95d

0.9

= 1068 mm2

Adopt 4/ 20 mm diameter HYS bars providing 1260

mm2.

The equation in BS 8110 (Cl 3.4.5.2)

V

v

bv d

Where

V = design shear force due to ultimate loads

bv=breadth of the section

d =effective depth

code for the cross-sectional area of designed

links when the design shear stress v at a crosssection is greater than (vc + 0.4). It is recognised

that the truss analogy produces conservative

results and the code specifies that: designed

links are required when:

(vc + 0.4) < v < 0.8 (fcu)1/2 or 5 N/mm2

It is important to provide minimum areas of steel in

concrete to minimize thermal and shrinkage cracking,

etc.

Minimum links are specified in the code which provide a

shear resistance of 0.4N/mm2 in addition to the design

concrete shear stress vc, and consequently designed

links are required when v > (vc + 0.4) as indicated.

In Table 3.7: minimum links are required when 0.5vc <

v < (vc + 0.4)

The cross-sectional area of the links required is given by:

Example 3:

m span as shown in Figure 5.48. Using the data

given, determine suitable shear reinforcement.

Data:

Characteristic strength of concrete (fcu) 40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of mild steel (fyv) 250 N/mm2

Maximum shear force at the support 40 kN

Solution:

Solution:

Consider the end of the beam at the support

where the shear force is a maximum = 40 kN

Clause 3.4.5.2

V

40 x103

v

0.89 N / mm 2

bv d 200 x 225

0.8 f cu 0.8 40 5.06 N / mm 2

v 0.8 f cu & 5.0 N / mm 2

Solution:

Table 3.7 To determine the required

reinforcement, evaluate vc and either adopt

minimum links throughout or use designed links.

As = area of 2/16 mm diameter bars = 402 mm 2

100 As 100x 402

0.893; d 225mm

bv d

200 x 225

Since f cu 25 N / mm 2

vc 0.73 ( f cu / 25) 0.73 (40 / 25) 0.82 N / mm 2

(vc 0.4) (0.82 0.4) 1.22 N / mm 2

Solution:

Since 0.5vc < v < (vc + 0.4), minimum links are required for the whole

length of the beam.

The cross-sectional area of the links required is given by

Option 1:

Assume 2-legged / 6 mm diameter mild steel links.

Asv = 56.6 mm2

0.95 f yv Asv 0.95x 250 x 56.6

Table 3.7 The spacing requiredsv ,

169mm

0.4bv

0.4 x200

Clause 3.4.5.5

The maximum spacing of the links 0.75d

= (0.75 x 225) = 169 mm

Adopt 6 mm diameter mild steel links @ 150 mm

centres throughout the length of the beam.

Solution:

Option 2:

Clause 3.4.5.5

The maximum spacing of the links 0.75d

= (0.75 225) = 169 mm

Assume sv = 150 mm.

centres throughout the length of the beam as in option 1.

Example 4:

A concrete beam is simply supported over a 7.0

m span as shown in Figure 5.49. Using the data

given, determine suitable shear reinforcement.

Data:

Characteristic strength of concrete (fcu) 40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of mild steel (fyv) 250 N/mm2

Characteristic dead load (gk) 5.0 kN/m

Characteristic imposed load (qk) 30.0 kN/m

Solution:

Ultimate design load = [(1.4 5.0) + (1.6 30.0)]

= 55.0 kN/m

Ultimate design shear force at the support V =

(55.0 3.5) = 192.5 kN

Solution:

Table 3.7 : To determine the required

reinforcement evaluate vc and to determine the

requirement for either minimum links or

designed links.

Solution:

Table 3.7 Since (vc + 0.4) < v < 0.8 (fcu)

< 5 N/mm2

designed links are required

The maximum shear force which can be resisted by the

provision of minimum links is given by:

V = (vc + 0.4)bvd = (1.06 240 570)/103

= 145 kN

Solution:

Provide designed links for the first metre from each end

and minimum links elsewhere.

The cross-sectional area of the designed links required is

given by

Assuming 8 mm diameter mild steel links,

mm2 and fyv = 250 N/mm2.

Asv = 101

Solution:

Clause 3.4.5.5

The maximum spacing of the links 0.75d

= (0.75 570) = 428 mm

Adopt 8 mm diameter mild steel links @ 125 mm centres

for 1.0 m from each end of the beam.

The cross-sectional area of the minimum links required is

given by Asv =

throughout the central 5.0 m of the beam.

Allowances for these factors to reflect the actual

behaviour are made in the BS 8110 in terms of:

using a basic span/effective depth ratio (span/d)

rather than a span/h ratio (Table 3.9),

applying a modifying factor which is dependent on the

steel strength (steel percentage and steel strength are

directly related through the factor K = M/bd2) and the

steel stress (fs) under service conditions

(Table

3.10),

applying a modifying factor which is dependent on the

percentage of compression steel provided

(Table 3.11).

Deflections

The basic ratios given in Table 3.9 relate

to three support conditions:

cantilevers,

simply supported beams,

continuous beams.

be any beam in which at least one end of

the beam is continuous, i.e. this includes

propped cantilevers at the end of a series

of continuous beams.

Example 5:

A rectangular concrete beam 250 mm wide

475 mm overall depth is simply supported over a

7.0 m span. Using the data given, check the

suitability of the beam with respect to deflection.

Data:

Characteristic strength of concrete (fcu) 40 N/mm2

Characteristic strength of main steel (fy) 460 N/mm2

Design ultimate bending moment at mid-span (M)

150.0 kNm

Assume the distance to the centre of the main steel

from the tension face is 50 mm

Solution:

Effective depth d = (475 50) = 425 mm

Check that section is singly-reinforced:

Solution:

Clause 3.4.6 There is no redistribution of

moments b = 1.0

Table 3.9 The beam is simply supported:

L/d = 20

Clause 3.4.6.5

M/bd 2 = (K fcu )

= (0.082 40) = 3.32 N/mm2

2 fyAsrequired 1

fs

x

291.7 N / mm 2

3 As provided

b

Interpolate from Table 3.10 0.92

Solution:

L/d x value from Table 3.10 = L/d x 0.92

Allowable deflection = 20 x 0.92 = 18.4

Actual deflection = L/d = 6000/425 = 14.12

So, the deflection is acceptable.

Minimum areas of steel are required in structural

elements to ensure that any unnecessary

cracking due to thermal/shrinkage effects or

tension induced by accidental loading can be

minimized.

The required minimum steel areas for different

situations, i.e. tension or compression

reinforcement, rectangular beams/slabs, flanged

beams and columns/walls, are given in

Table

3.25

Determine the minimum areas of steel required

for the cross-sections shown in Figure 5.57; in

all cases fy = 460 N/mm2.

The required area of steel is given by:

100As /Ac = 0.13

where:

As is the minimum recommended area of

reinforcement,

Ac is the total area of concrete.

As = (0.13176103)/100= 229 mm2

3.4.1.5)

where:

b is the breadth of the section bw is the breadth or

effective breadth of the rib; for a box, T or I section, bw is

taken as the average breadth of the concrete below the

flange,

h is the overall depth of the cross-section of a reinforced

member.

the required area of steel is given by:

100As /bwh = 0.18

bw h = (300 600) = 180 103 mm2

As = 0.18180103/100 = 324 mm2

The maximum percentages of steel given

in the code are based on the physical

requirements for placing the concrete and

fixing the steel. They are:

In beams (Clause 3.12.6.1):

As 4% Ac

As 4% Ac

3.12.11.1)

spacing to ensure that members can be

constructed achieving adequate penetration and

compaction of the concrete to enable the

reinforcement to perform as designed.

It is important that reinforcing bars are

surrounded by concrete for two main reasons:

(i) to develop sufficient bond between the concrete

and the bars such that the required forces are

transferred between the steel and the concrete, and

(ii) to provide protection to the steel against corrosion,

fire, etc.

3.12.11.2)

of reinforcement is to minimize surface cracking.

Using Table 3.28.

Since very small bars when mixed with larger

bars would invalidate the assumptions on which

the Table 3.28 values are based, the code

specifies that any bar in a section with a

diameter < (0.45 the largest bar in the section)

should be ignored except when considering

those in the side faces of deep beams.

The minimum size of bar to be used in the

side faces is given in Clause 3.12.5.4 as:

bar diameter

where: sb is the bar spacing (e.g. 250 mm)

b is the breadth of the section 500 mm