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PREVUOUS PAPER QUESTIONS (2005-2010 OR & NR)

ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY (2/4 MECHANICAL II


SEM)
1 ST & 2 ND U NITS (M AGNETICS & EMI):
2 MARKS

QUESTIONS :

D EFINE ( A ) MMF ( B ) M AGNETIC FLUX AND ( C ) RELUCTANCE


W . R . TO MAGNETIC CIRCUIT . G IVE THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG
THEM .

(2010 NR, 2009)

2. E XPLAIN HOW HYSTERESIS


MATERIAL . (2010)

LOSS OCCURS IN A MAGNETIC

3. Define self inductance and mutual inductance (2010 NR, 2010, 2009
NR,2008)

4. D EFINE

THE TERMS

MMF

AND RELUCTANCE OF A MAGNETIC

CIRCUIT AND STATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM .(2010)

5. D ISTINGUISH

BETWEEN STATICALLY INDUCED E . M . F AND

DYNAMICALLY INDUCED E . M . F .

6. G IVE

(2009)

THE RELATION SHIP BETWEEN RELUCTANCE ,

MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE AND MAGNETIC FLUX ?

7.S TATE

AND EXPLAIN

(2008)

THE FARDAYS LAWS OF ELECTRO

MAGNETIC INDUCTION ?(2007)

8. D EFINE

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE BETWEEN TWO COILS .

9. D ERIVE THE EXPRESSION


(2007, 2006)

(2007)

FOR DYNAMICALLY INDUCED EMF .

10. D EFINE AND EXPLAIN


TWO COILS . (2006)
11. W HAT

IS MEANT BY MAGNETIC HYSTERESIS ?

12. E XPLAIN
(2005)

7 MARKS

S TATE

THE COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING BETWEEN

THE TERMS I )

R ELUCTANCE

AND II )

(2006)
H YSTERESIS .

QUESTIONS THEORY :

AND EXPLAIN THE FARADAYS LAWS OF ELECTRO MAGNETIC

INDUCTION .

U SING

THIS LAW EXPLAIN DYNAMICALLY

INDUCED E . M . F AND STATISTICALLY INDUCED E . M . F (2010

2. S TATE

AND EXPLAIN

INDUCTION .(2009

3. G IVE

F ARADAY S

LAWS OF ELECTRO MAGNETIC

NR)

THE SIMILARITIES AND DISSIMILARITIES BETWEEN ELECTRIC

CIRCUIT AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT .(2009)

4. B RING OUT THE


CIRCUITS . (2008)

ANALOGY BETWEEN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC

5. S TATE F ARADAY S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION . F ROM


THIS , EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF SELF INDUCTANCE
AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE .

7 MARKS

QUESTIONS SUMS :

(2008)

T WO

COILS

AND

HAVING TURNS OF

200

AND

500

RESPECTIVELY ARE WOUND SIDE BY SIDE ON A CLOSED IRON


CIRCUIT OF CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
LENGTH OF

C OMPUTE

100

CM .

T HE

10 S Q . CM

AND A MEAN

RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF IRON IS

900.

W HAT IS
THE INDUCED EMF IN COIL B WHEN THE CURRENT IN THE COIL A IS
INCREASED FROM ZERO TO 10 AMPS IN 0.01 SECOND ? (2010 NR)
A

THE MUTUAL INDUCTANCE BETWEEN THE COILS .

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT IS SHOWN IN THE FIGURE BELOW .

LENGTH OF THE RING IS


AREA IS

0.001 M 2. T HE

D ETERMINE

60

T HE

MEAN

CROSS - SECTIONAL

0.06 H/ M .
WHEN I=0.5 A MP

ABSOLUTE PERMEABILITY IS

THE MAGNETIC FLUX IN THE CIRCUIT

AND THE NUMBER OF TURNS

CM .

T HE

N=100(2010)

CAST STEEL RING WITH A RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

CIRCULAR CROSS - SECTION OF

300

HAS A

CMS IN A DIAMETER AND A

80 CMS . T HE RING IS UNIFORMLY


A COIL OF 600 TURNS . E STIMATE THE CURRENT
PRODUCE A FLUX OF 0.5 M WEB IN THE RING . (2009

MEAN CIRCUMFERENCE OF
WOUND WITH
REQUIRED TO

NR)
A

CONDUCTOR OF

OF DIAMETER

50

25

CM LONG ON A PERIPHERY OF AN ARMATURE

CM ROTATES AT

1000 R . P . M .

IF THE

0.6 W B / M 2, FIND
CONDUCTOR .(2009)

FIELD STRENGTH UNDER THE POLE IS


AVERAGE EMF INDUCED IN THE

AN

IRON RING OF CROSS SECTION

WIRE OF

1500

.C ALICULATE

CM 2 IS WOUND WITH A

TURNS HAS A SAW A CUT OFF

MM AIR GAP

THE MAGENETISING CURRENT REQUIRED TO

PRODUCE FLUX OF
MAGNETIC PATH IS

470

10

THE

0.25 IN W B
50 CM AND

AND A LEAKAGE FACTOR IS

IF THE MEAN LENGTH OF


RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF

1.2?

(2010 NR)
6. A

STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR OF LENGTH

40

CM MOVES

50

PERPENDICULARLY TO ITS AXIS AT A VELOCITY OF


UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD OF FLUX DENSITY

M / SEC IN A

1.2 T ESLA . E VALUATE

THE E . M . F . INDUCED IN THE CONDUCTOR IF THE DIRECTION OF THE


MOTION IS

I ) NORMAL TO THE FIELD II ) PARALLEL TO THE FIELD AND III ) AT AN


ANGLE

60

DEGREES TO THE ORIENTATION OF THE FIELD .

(2008)
7. A

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT COMPRISES THREE PARTS A , B AND C IN

SERIES , EACH OF WHICH HAS UNIFORM CROSS SECTIONAL


AREA .
AREA

P ART A HAS A LENGTH OF 80 MM AND CROSS SECTION


50 MM 2 . P ART B HAS A LENGTH OF 70 MM AND CROSS

SECTIONAL AREA

80

MM 2 .

P ART

C IS AN AIR GAP

LENGTH AND OF CROSS SECTIONAL AREA

60

MM

0.5

MM IN

. N EGLECTING

MAGNETIC LEAKAGE AND FRINGING , DETERMINE THE CURRENT


NECESSARY IN A COIL OF

4000

TURNS WOUND ON PART B TO

PRODUCE IN THE AIRGAP A FLUX DENSITY OF

0.7 T. T HE

MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR PARTS A AND B IS GIVEN BY :

(2007)
H (A/T):
B (T)
8. A

100 210 340 500 800 1500


0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8

1.0 1.2

RING OF CAST STEEL HAS AN EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF

AND A SQUARE CROSS SECTION OF

24

CM

MM SIDE . I NSIDE AND

ACROSS THE RING , AN ORDINARY STEEL BAR

18

CM

X3

CM

X 0.4

CM IS FITTED WITH NEGLIGIBLE GAP .

C ALCULATE

THE NUMBER OF

AMPERE TURNS REQUIRED TO BE APPLIED TO ONE HALF OF THE

IT IN THE OTHER HALF .


B-H CHARACTERISTICS ARE

RING TO PRODUCE A FLUX DENSITY OF

N EGLECT

MAGNETIC LEAKAGE .

T HE

AS

FOLLOWS :

F OR C AST S TEEL

F OR O RDINARY S TEEL

(2006)
B (T)

: 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.45

H (A/M): 900
1650

1020

1220

590

1220

9. T WO SIMILAR COUPLED COILS HAVE A COUPLING COEFFICIENT OF


0.25. W HEN THESE ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES CUMULATIVELY THE
TOTAL INDUCTANCE IS 80 M H. C ALCULATE I ) THE SELF INDUCTANCE
OF EACH COIL II ) THE TOTAL INDUCTANCE OF THE COILS WHEN
CONNECTED DIFFERENTIALLY AND III ) WHEN THE COILS ARE
CONNECTED IN PARALLEL ( WITH SAME POLARITY ENDS JOINED
TOGETHER ). (2005)
10. A

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT HAS A MEAN CORE LENGTH OF

AND UNIFORM CROSS SECTION OF

0.8

160

CM

. I T HAS AN AIR GAP OF


OF 1200 TURNS . D ETERMINE
2

CM

MM AND IS WOUND WITH A COIL

THE SELF INDUCTANCE OF THE COIL IF THE CORE MATERIAL HAS A


RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF

1600. (2005)

3 RD & 4 TH U NITS (DCG & DCM):


2 MARKS

QUESTIONS :

1. D RAW THE LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF ( A ) SERIES MOTOR AND


( B ) SHUNT MOTOR ON THE SAME . G IVE ONE APPLICATION OF EACH
MOTOR ON THE LOAD CHARACTERISTICS (2010 NR, 2010 OR).
2. W HAT

ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF COMMUTATOR IN A

GENERATOR ?

(2009 NR)

3. W HAT IS BACK EMF


(2009 NR)
4. G IVE

AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN

THE SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF :

SHUNT COMPOUND GENERATOR


GENERATOR

( B ) D.C

D.C

( A ) D. C

I)
II )

D.C.
D.C.

O N THE
(2008)

SHORT

(2009)
SERIES

THE TORQUE - SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF

SERIES MOTOR AND


SHUNT MOTOR .
SAME DIAGRAM .

7. W HAT
(2007)
8. W HY

MOTORS ?

LONG SHUNT COMPOUND

5. C AN S WINBURNE S TEST BE CONDUCTED ON D.C


MOTOR ? I F SO , HOW ? I F NOT , WHY ? (2009)

6. D RAW

D.C

G IVE

ONE APPLICATION OF EACH MOTOR .

IS THE NECESSITY OF A STARTER IN A

IS THE ARMATURE OF A

9. W HAT ARE THE VARIOUS


D . C . MACHINES . (2005)

0.08

MOTOR ?

MACHINE LAMINATED ?

(2006)

METHODS OF EXCITATION USED FOR

10. T HE TERMINAL VOLTAGE OF


W HEN THE ARMATURE CURRENT
RESISTANCE IS

DC

DC

A D . C . MOTOR IS
IS

60A

241

VOLTS .

AND IF THE ARMATURE

OHM , WHAT IS THE BACK EMF ?

(2005)

7 MARKS

E XPLAIN

QUESTIONS THEORY :

THE CLASSIFICATION OF

BY MEANS OF THEIR LOAD

D.C

GENERATORS AND ILLUSTRATE

C HARACTERISTICS . G IVE

APPLICATION OF EACH GENERATOR .(2010

2. D EVELOP FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES ,


OF A D.C GENERATOR (2010)

NR)

AN EXPRESSION FOR THE EMF

3. D ERIVE

THE TORQUE EQUATION OF A

4. D ERIVE

THE E . M . F EQUATION OF A

5. I N

D.C

D.C

MOTOR

(2009)

GENERATOR .

AN APPLICATION IT IS REQUIRED THAT THE

BE DRIVEN ABOVE ITS RATED SPEED .

ONE

S UGGEST

D.C

(2008)

SHUNT MOTOR

THE METHOD

OF SPEED CONTROL DESIRED AND EXPLAIN WITH A NEAT CIRCUIT


DIAGRAM .

(2008)

6. D ERIVE

THE EMF EQUATION AND TORQUE EQUATION FOR

MACHINE FROM FUNDAMENTALS .

7. D RAW

(2007, 2006)

AND EXPLAIN EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF

GENERATOR .

DC

SHUNT

(2007)

8. D ESCRIBE S WINBURNE S

TEST WITH THE HELP OF A NEAT

DIAGRAM TO FIND OT THE EFFICIENCY OF

DC

MACHINE .

9. D ESCRIBE THE EFFECTS OF ARMATURE REACTION


OF DC MACHINES . D ESCRIBE ALSO THE REMEDIES

(2007)

THE OPERATION

EMPLOYED FOR DECREASING THE EFFECTS OF ARMATURE


REACTION .

DC

(2006)

10. D RAW

AND EXPLAIN DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF

SERIES MOTOR .

11. E XPLAIN
(2005)

7 MARKS

A6

(2006)

THE PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF

D.C. G ENERATOR .

QUESTIONS SUMS :

POLE ,

600

VOLTS ,

D.C

SHUNT MOTOR HAS A WAVE

CONNECTED ARMATURE WITH


POLE IS

DC

30

MWB.

960

C ALCULATE

CONDUCTORS .

T HE

FLUX PER

THE TORQUE DEVELOPED BY THE

NW- M , WHEN THE


CURRENT TAKEN BY THE MOTOR IS 20 A MPS . T HE ARMATURE
RESISTANCE IS 0.1 OHMS AND FIELD RESISTANCE IS 200
OHMS . T HE ROTATIONAL LOSSES AMOUNT TO 800 WATTS . A LSO ,
CALCULATE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE MOTOR . (2010 NR)
ARMATURE AND THE USEFUL TORQUE IN

A D.C

SHUNT GENERATOR DELIVERS

VOLTAGE OF

300

RESISTANCE ARE

VOLTS .

0.1

T HE

50

AND FRICTIONAL LOSSES EQUAL TO


PRIME

A D.C

( B ) TOTAL COPPER
MOVER (2009 NR)

OHMS RESPECTIVELY .

1000

WATTS .

LOSSES AND

SHUNT MACHINE CONNECTED TO

ARMATURE RESISTANCE OF

AT A TERMINAL

ARMATURE AND SHUNT FIELD

OHM AND

GENERATED

200 A MPS

0.12

T HE IRON
( A ) EMF

F IND
( C ) B.H.P OF

250

THE

VOLTS MAINS HAS AN

OHMS AND THE

RESISTANCE OF THE FIELD CIRCUIT IS

100

OHMS .

F IND

THE RATIO

OF THE SPEED OF THE MACHINE AS A GENERATOR TO THE SPEED AS


A MOTOR ASSUMING THET THE LINE CURRENT IN EACH CASE BEING

80

AMPERES .

A 500

VOLTS

(2009 NR)
D.C

SHUNT MOTOR TAKES

ARMATURE RESISTANCE IS
CURRENT IS

E STIMATE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE


CURRENT IS 100 A MPERES . (2010)

T HE

FLUX PER POLE IS

ARMATURE IS DRIVEN AT

600

T HE

OHM AND SHUNT FIELD


MOTOR

POLE DC GENERATOR WITH LAP WOUND ARMATURE HAS

CONDUCTORS .

EMF .

ON NO LOAD .

AMPERE .

WHEN THE INPUT

A4

0.2

4 A MPS

RPM .

50

960

MWB AND THE

C ALCULATE

THE GENERATED

(2009)

I N A 110

VOLTS , COMPOUND GENERATOR RESISTANCES OF THE

ARMATURE , SHUNT AND SERIES WINDINGS ARE


OHM AND

0.04

0.06

OHM ,

OHM RESPECTIVELY .

LAMPS EACH RATED AT

T HE LOAD CONSISTS
60 WATTS , 110 VOLTS . F IND THE

25

OF

200

TOTAL

E . M . F ., TERMINAL VOLTAGE AND THE ARMATURE CURRENT IN


CONNECTED I ) LONG SHUNT AND II ) SHORT SHUNT .

A 600

(2008)

D.C SHUNT MOTOR HAS ARMATURE AND FIELD


RESISTANCES OF 1.5 OHM AND 600 OHM RESPECTIVELY . W HEN
RUNNING UNLOADED , THE TOTAL CURRENT TAKEN IS 3A FROM THE
SUPPLY AND THE SPEED IN 1000 RPM . C ALCULATE THE SPEED
VOLT

WHEN THE MOTOR IS FULLY LOADED AND THE TOTAL CURRENT


DRAWN FROM THE SUPPLY US

30A. N EGLECT

ARMATURE REACTION .

(2008)
A 4- POLE

SHUNT GENERATOR WITH LAP CONNECTED ARMATURE

HAVING FIELD AND ARMATURE RESISTANCES OF

OHM

0.1 OHM RESPECTIVELY SUPPLIES 60 NUMBERS 40 W LAMPS


100 V. C ALCULATE THE TOTAL ARMATURE CURRENT , CURRENT

AND
AT

50

PER PATH AND THE GENERATED EMF .

IV

PER BRUSH .

A SSUME

A CONSTANT DROP OF

(2007)

A 220 V DC SHUNT MOTOR TAKES 4A AT NO LOAD , WHEN


RUNNING AT 700 RPM . T HE FIELD RESISTANCE IS 100 OHM . T HE
RESISTANCE OF ARMATURE AT STANDS STILL GAVE A DROP OF 6 V
ACROSS ARMATURE TERMINALS WHEN 10 A WERE PASSED THROUGH
IT . C ALCULATE I ) SPEED ON LOAD , II ) THE TORQUE IN N M AND III )
EFFICIENCY . T HE FULL LOAD POWER INPUT OF THE MOTOR IS 8 K W.
(2007)
A 4- POLE ,

LAP WOUND , LONG SHUNT ,

DC COMPOUND GENERATOR
HAS USEFUL FLUX PER POLE OF 0.07 WB . T HE ARMATURE CONSISTS
OF 220 TURNS AND RESISTANCE PER TURN IS 0.004 OHM .
C ALCULATE THE TERMINAL VOLTAGE IF THE RESISTANCE OF SHUNT
AND SERIES FIELDS ARE 100 OHM AND 0.02 OHM RESPECTIVELY ,
WHEN THE GENERATOR IS RUNNING AT 900 RPM WITH ARMATURE
CURRENT OF 50A. A LSO CALCULATE THE POWER OUTPUT IN K W
FOR THE GENERATOR . (2006)
A DC SERIES MOTOR RUNS AT 500 RPM DRAWING 40A FROM 600
V SUPPLY . D ETERMINE THE VALUE OF THE EXTERNAL RESISTANCE
TO BE ADDED IN SERIES WITH THE ARMATURE FOR THE MOTOR TO

450 RPM . T HE LOAD TORQUE VARIES AS THE SQUARE OF


THE SPEED . A SSUME LINEAR MAGNETIZATION AND TAKE ARMATURE
RESISTANCE AS 0.3 OHM AND SERIES FIELD RESISTANCE 0.2 OHM .
(2006)
RUN AT

A 220 V, DC COMPOUND GENERATOR IS SUPPLYING A LOAD OF


100A AT 230 V, THE RESISTANCES OF ITS ARMATURE , SHUNT AND
SERIES WINDINGS ARE 0.1, 50 AND 0.66 OHMS RESPECTIVELY .
F IND THE INDUCED EMF WHEN MACHINE IS CONNECTED IN SHORT
SHUNT . N EGLECT ARMATURE REACTION AND BRUSH CONTACT DROP .
(2005)

5 TH U NIT (AC C IRCUITS ):


2 MARKS

QUESTIONS :

1. D EFINE THE TERMS POWER FACTOR , PHASE


A.C CIRCUIT ANALYSIS (2009 NR).
2. D ERIVE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LINE AND PHASE

VOLTAGES IN A STAR CONNECTED SYSTEM .

3. W HY

DIFFERENCE IN

(2007)

DOES THE CURRENT DRAWN BY A CAPACITOR LEAD A

QUARTER OF A CYCLE IN FRONT OF THE APPLIED VOLTAGE ?

4. W HAT
(2007)

(2007)

IS THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON INDUCTIVE REACTANCE ?

5. D ERIVE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LINE AND PHASE

VOLTAGES IN A DELTA CONNECTED SYSTEM WITH A BALANCED


LOAD .

6. W HY

(2006)

DOES THE CURRENT TAKEN BY PURE INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT

LAG BEHIND THE APPLIED VOLTAGE BY

7. W HAT

90 0 ? (2006)

IS THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON CAPACITIVE

REACTANCE ?

(2006)

8. D EFINE POWER
FACTOR ? (2005)

FACTOR .

W HAT

9. W HAT

IS BALANCED CIRCUIT ?

7 MARKS

QUESTIONS THEORY :

1. E XPLAIN
RELUCTANCE

IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF POWER

(2005)

THE FOLLOWING W . R . TO

(B)

A.C

CAPACITIVE RELUCTANCE

CIRCUITS .

(C)

( A ) I NDUCTIVE

POWER FACTOR

( D ) A CTIVE POWER ( E ) A PPARENT


A DMITTANCE . (2010)
2. D ERIVE

SYSTEM .

STAR CONNECTED

QUESTIONS SUMS :

RESISTANCE OF

TWO COILS CONNECTED IN SERIES TO A


SUPPLY .

T HE

FIRST COIL HAS A

OHMS AND INDUCTIVE REACTANCE OF

SECOND COIL HAS A RESISTANCE OF

REACTANCE OF

OHMS .

POWER FACTOR OF THE

A 3- PHASE

10

OHMS .

OHMS AND INDUCTIVE

C ALCULATE ( A ) THE
CIRCUIT (2010 NR)

CURRENT AND

(B)

SUPPLY IS

415

OHMS AND INDUCTANCE

0.3H.

50 H Z . C ALCULATE ( A ) THE LINE


CURRENT ( B ) THE POWER FACTOR ( C ) THE TOTAL POWER WHEN
LOAD IS STAR CONNECTED . (2010 NR)
T WO

THE

LOAD CONSISTS OF THREE SIMILAR INDUCTIVE COILS ,

EACH OF RESISTANCE

T HE

3- PHASE

(2009)

A CIRCUIT CONSISTS OF
200 VOLTS , 50 H Z A . C
T HE

( F ) I MPEDENCE ( G )

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINE AND PHASE VALUES

OF CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES FOR

7 MARKS

POWER

VOLTS ,

THE

IMPEDANCES Z 1=(12+J16) OHMS AND Z 2=(15-J20) OHMS

ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL ACROSS A


VOLTS POWER SUPPLY

. C ALCULATE

230 53 0 8

THE POWER FACTOR OF THE

COMPLETE CIRCUIT AND THE POWER CONSUMED BY IT .

(2009 NR)
A

(8+J6) OHMS
3- PHASE , 50 H Z , 230 VOLTS

BALANCED DELTA CONNECTED LOAD OF

IS CONNECTED TO A

PER PHASE

SUPPLY SYSTEM .

C ALCULATE
LOAD .(2009 NR)
A

TOTAL POWER CONSUMED BY THE

(8+J6) OHMS
3- PHASE , 50 H Z , 230 VOLTS

BALANCED DELTA CONNECTED LOAD OF

IS CONNECTED TO A
SUPPLY .

F IND

PER PHASE

THE LINE CURRENT , POWER FACTOR , POWER ,

REACTIVE VOLT AMPERES AND TOTAL VOLT AMPERES .

(2010)

AN

40 H Z IS
100 VOLTS

INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT SUPPLIED WITH

100

VOLTS AT

10 A MPS AND WHEN SUPPLIED WITH


AT 200 H Z , IT TAKES 2 A MPERES . D ETERMINE THE CIRCUIT
CONSTANTS R AND L ASSUMING SINUSOIDAL CURRENT .(2009)
FOUND TO TAKE

BALANCED , STAR CONNECTED LOAD OF

IS CONNECTED TO A

PHASE

400

(8 + J 6)

OHM PER PHASE

VOLTS BALANCED SUPPLY .

F IND

THE LINE CURRENT AND THE TOTAL POWER CONSUMED BY THE


LOAD .

F OR

(2008)

THE CIRCUIT SHOWN IN FIG ., FIND THE VALUE OF THE APPLIED

VOLTAGE

9.

(2005)

BALANCED STAR CONNECTED LOAD WITH PER PHASE

IMPEDANCE

100V

AND THE CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR .

20/-30 0

OHMS IS SUPPLIED FROM A

LINE TO NEUTRAL SUPPLY .

D ETERMINE

3- PHASE 4- WIRE

THE PHASE CURRENTS

AND THEIR PHASE ANGLES WITH RESPECT TO SUPPLY

(2005)

VOLTAGE .

6 TH U NIT (TRANSFORMERS):
2 MARKS

QUESTIONS :

1. S TATE

THE VARIOUS LOSSES IN A TRANSFORMER AND STATE HOW

THEY VARY WITH LOAD .

(2010 NR)

2. W HY IS THE S/C TEST PERFORMED AT REDUCED VOLTAGE ON


THE H.V SIDE OF THE TRANSFORMER ? W HY IS THE CORE LOSS
ALMOST NEGLIGIBLE IN THE TEST ?(2010)

3. D EFINE

R EGULATION AS
IT BE NEGATIVE ? I F

THE TERM

TRANSFORMER .

C AN

APPLIED TO
SO , WHEN ? I F NOT WHY ?

(2009)
4. D EFINE

THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SINGLE - PHASE

TRANSFORMER AND DENOTE ALL THE RELEVANT QUANTITIES

(2009

NR)

5. D RAW

THE APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A

TRANSFORMER REFERRED TO PRIMARY SIDE AND INSERT THE

P ARAMETERS
6. D RAW

ON IT .

(2008)

THE PHASOR DIAGRAM OF A TRANSFORMER FOR UNITY

POWER FACTOR AND LEADING POWER FACTOR LOADS .

7. D RAW

THE PHASOR DIAGRAM OF A TRANSFORMER FOR UNITY

POWER FACTOR AND LAGGING LOADS .

8. W HAT

(2007)

(2006)

ARE THE VARIOUS LOSSES THAT OCCUR IN A

TRANSFORMER ?

(2005)

7 MARKS

E XPLAIN

QUESTIONS THEORY :

THE TESTS TO BE CONDUCTED WITH CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

FOR PREDETERMINING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TRANSFORMER .

(2010 NR)
2. W ITH NEAT CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS , EXPLAIN HOW DO YOU CONDUCT
S.C AND O.C TESTS ON A 1- PHASE TRANSFORMER (2010)
3. D ERIVE

THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A

REFFERED TO SECONDARY SIDE .

4. E XPLAIN

TRANSFORMER

(2009)

THE ACTION OF A TRANSFORMER

WHEN LOADED

5. E XPLAIN

1- PHASE
(A)

ON NO - LOAD

(2009 NR)

IN DETAIL THE VOLTAGE REGULATION OF A

TRANSFORMER AND DERIVE THE EXPRESSION FOR VOLTAGE


REGULATION ?

.
(2007)
6. E XPLAIN

THE PRINCIPLE OF GENERATION OF A SINGLE PHASE

TRANSFORMER AND DERIVE THE EMF EQUATION OF A


TRANSFORMER ?

7. D EFINE

(2006)

REGULATION OF A TRANSFORMER ?

CALCULATE IT FROM THE EQUIVALENT

7 MARKS

QUESTIONS SUMS :

H OW DO YOU
CIRCUIT ? (2005)

(B)

A 600 KVA, 1- PHASE

TRANSFORMER HAS AN EFFICIENCY OF

92%

BOTH AT FULL LOAD AND HALF FULL - LOAD AT UNITY P . F .

D ETERMINE

ITS EFFICIENCY AT

FACTOR LAGGING .

60 %

OF FULL LOAD AT

0.8

POWER

(2010 NR)

A 7.5 K VA, SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER WITH VOLTAGE


500/250 VOLTS HAS PRIMARY RESISTANCE OF 0.2 OHM
AND A LEAKAGE REACTANCE OF

0.2

RATIO

OHM AND A LEAKAGE

0.6 OHM . T HE CORRESPONDING VALUES FOR THE


SECONDARY ARE 0.05 OHM AND 0.15 OHM RESPECTIVELY . F IND
THE TERMINAL VOLTAGE AT FULL LOAD ON THE SECONDARY AT 0.8
P . F LAGGING (2010)
REACTANCE OF

TRANSFORMER HAS THE SAME EFFICIENCY AT

AND

125%

FULL LOAD BOTH AT UNITY P . F .

75%

W HAT

FULL LOAD

IS THE

RATIO OF COPPER LOSSES AT FULL LOAD TO IRON LOSSES

(2009)

T HE

SINGLE -

40 K VA,
850 W ATTS

IRON AND FULL LOAD COPPER LOSSES IN A

PHASE TRANSFORMER ARE

450 W ATTS

AND

RESPECTIVELY .

F IND ( A ) THE EFFICIENCY OF TRANSFORMER AT FULL


LOAD WHEN THE P . F OF THE LOAD IS 0.8 LAGGING AND ( B )
EFFICIENCY AT HALF FULL - LOAD AT UNITY POWER FACTOR (2009
NR)

A 5 KVA, 500/250

VOLTS ,

GAVE THE FOLLOWING TEST

O.C. T EST : 250


S.C. T EST : 15

VOLTS ,

VOLTS ,

50 H Z , SINGLE PHASE
RESULTS : (2008)

AMPERE ,

50

6 A MPS , 21.6

TRANSFORMER

WATTS ( ON

WATTS ( ON

L.V

SIDE )

H.V

SIDE )

D ETERMINE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TRANSFORMER


LOAD WITH 0.8 POWER FACTOR LAGGING .

AT FULL

O BTAIN THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF 1- PHASE , 4 K VA, 200/400


V, 50 H Z TRANSFORMER FROM THE FOLLOWING TEST RESULTS .
(2007)

OC T EST : 200 V, 0.7 A, 70 W


SC T EST : 15 V, 10 A, 80 W

ON

ON

LV

HV

SIDE .

SIDE .

A 500/250 V, 150 K VA, 50 H Z SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER


HAS FULL LOAD COPPER LOSS AS 1.8 K W AND NO LOAD LOSS AS
1.5 K W. C ALCULATE ITS EFFICIENCY AT FULL LOAD AND HALF LOAD
AT 0.8 P . F . LAGGING . A LSO FIND OUT THE K VA LOAD OF THE
TRANSFORMER AT MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY ? (2006)
T HE

100 KVA SINGLE PHASE


TRANSFORMER ARE 650 W AND 1050 W RESPECTIVELY . F IND ITS
EFFICIENCY AT HALF FULL LOAD AT 0.6 P . F . LEAD . (2005)
IRON AND FELL LOAD CU LOSSES IN

7 TH U NIT (I NDUCTION M OTORS ):


2 MARKS

D RAW

QUESTIONS :

THE TORQUE - SLIP CHARACTERISTIC AND INDICATE THE

STARTING TORQUE POINT AND THE MAXIMUM TORQUE POINT .

(2010 NR)
2. D RAW THE TORQUE - SPEED CHARACTERISTIC OF A 3-P HASE
I NDUCTION M OTOR AND INDICATE ( A ) MAXIMUM TORQUE POINT

(B)

THE STARTING TORQUE POINT (2010)

3. E NUMERATE THE POWER STAGES ( IN


I NDUCTION M OTOR . (2009 NR)
4. G IVE
(2009)

THE POWER STAGES OF

5. D EFINE

SLIP IN A

3- PHASE

3-

ORDER ) IN A

3-P HASE

PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR .

INDUCTION MOTOR .

H OW

DOES SLIP

AFFECT THE ROTOR FREQUENCIES IN INDUCTION MOTOR ?

(2008)
6. H OW

DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THREE

MOTOR CAN BE CHANGED ?

7 MARKS

PHASE INDUCTION

(2005)

QUESTIONS THEORY :

1. E XPLAIN

3- PHASE
APPLICATIONS . (2010 NR)

THE PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF

MOTOR AND STATE ITS

2. D ERIVE THE TORQUE


MOTOR . (2010)
3. D ERIVE

EQUATION OF A

3- PHASE

THE EXPRESSION FOR TORQUE IN A

3-

INDUCTION

INDUCTION

PHASE INDUCTION

MOTOR AND ALSO DERIVE THE CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM TORQUE .

(2009 NR)
4. E XPLAIN ,

WHY SLIP IS NECESSARY FOR

MOTOR OPERATION .

D ERIVE

W HAT

3-

PHASE INDUCTION

HAPPENS IF SLIP IS ZERO ?

(2009)

THE TORQUE EQUATION OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR AND

EXPLAIN THE TORQUE - SLIP CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUCTION


MOTOR .

(2007)

E XPLAIN

THE PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A THREE PHASE

INDUCTION MOTOR AND DESCRIBE ANY ONE METHOD OF SPEED


CONTROL FOR A

D ERIVE

3- PHASE

THE TORQUE

INDUCTION MOTOR .

(2006)

SLIP RELATIONSHIP OF A

MOTOR AND ALSO EXPLAIN THE STAR

3- PHASE

DELTA STARTER USED FOR

STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTOR WITH NEAT SKETCH .

7 MARKS

INDUCTION

(2005)

QUESTIONS SUMS :

A 3- PHASE , 50 H Z INDUCTION MOTOR DRAWS 50 K W FROM


MAINS . I F THE STATOR LOSS IS 2 K W AND ROTOR EMF IS
O BSERVED

THE

100 COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS ( ALTERNATIVE )


PER MINUTE , DETERMINE ( A ) ROTOR COPPER LOSS AND ( B ) GROSS
MECHANICAL POWER DEVELOPED BY THE MACHINE (2010 NR)
A 3-

TO MAKE

PHASE ,

MOTOR HAS

400/200
0.06 OHM

VOLTS

Y-Y

CONNECTED SLIPPING INDUCTION

PER PHASE ROTOR RESISTANCE AND

OHM PER PHASE OF ROTOR STAND STILL REACTANCE .

F IND

0.3

THE

ADDITIONAL RESISTANCE REQUIRED IN THE ROTOR CIRCUIT TO MAKE


THE STARTING TORQUE EQUAL TO THE MAXIMUM TORQUE OF THE
MOTOR .

D ERIVE

ANY FORMULA USED IN SOLVING THE PROBLEM

(2010)
T HE

POOR INPUT TO A

500

VOLTS ,

INDUCTION MOTOR RUNNING AT


STATOR LOSSES ARE
TOTAL

1KW

50 H Z , 6 POLE , 3- PHASE
950 RPM IN 50 K W. T HE

AND THE FRICTION AND WINDAGE LOSSES

1.5 K W. C ALCULATE

THE SLIP

THE ROTOR COPPER LOSSES

AND THE EFFICIENCY AT THIS OPERATING POINT .

T HE

3- PHASE , 400 VOLTS , 6 POLE , 50 C / S ,


RUNNING AT 960 RPM IS 50 K W. T HE

POWER INPUT TO A

INDUCTION MOTOR

(2009)

1.5 K W AND THE FRICTION AND WIND AGE


LOSSES ARE EQUAL TO 2.5 K W. C ALCULATE THE SLIP , ROTOR
COPPER LOSS , POWER OUTPUT AND EFFICIENCY OF THE MOTOR .
STATOR LOSSES ARE

(2009 NR)
A 3- PHASE , 8 POLES , 50 H Z , INDUCTION MOTOR HAS A
SLIP OF 5%. T HE ROTOR RESISTANCE AND STANDSTILL
LEAKAGE REACTANCE ARE
RESPECTIVELY .

F IND

0.01

AND

0.1

FULL LOAD

OHM PER PHASE

THE RATIO OF MAXIMUM TO FULL LOAD

TORQUE AND THE SPEED AT WHICH MAXIMUM TORQUE OCCURS .

(2009 NR)

AN 8

POLES ,

3- PHASE , 50 H Z INDUCTION MOTOR HAS A ROTOR


IMPENDENCE OF (0.025+ J 1.0) OHMS PER PHASE AT STAND STILL
CONDITIONS . A T WHAT SPEED IS THE TORQUE MAXIMUM ? W HAT
PORTION OF THE MAXIMUM TORQUE IS THE STARTING TORQUE ?
(2008)
A 3- PHASE , 500 V, 50 H Z INDUCTOR MOTOR WITH 6 POLES
DEVELOPS 20 BHP AT 950 RPM WITH A POWER FACTOR OF 0.86
LAGGING . T HE TOTAL MECHANICAL LOSSES ARE 1 BHP. C ALCULATE
FOR THIS LOAD
(2007)
I ) THE SLIP ;
II ) THE ROTOR COPPER LOSS
III ) THE INPUT IF THE TOTAL STATOR LOSSES ARE

1500

W AND

IV ) THE LINE CURRENT .

A 6- POLE , 3- PHASE , 50 H Z INDUCTIONS MOTOR GIVES FULL


LOAD OUTPUT OF 20 BHP AT 945 RPM . S TATOR LOSSES AMOUNT

TO
IN

1 K W. A LLOWING 13.65 N- M FOR MECHANICAL


FRICTION . F IND I ) ROTOR COPPER LOSS
II ) INPUT TO MOTOR AND III ) EFFICIENCY .

TORQUE LOST

(2006)

A N 8- POLE , 3- PHASE , 50 H Z INDUCTION MOTOR IS RUNNING AT


710 RPM WITH AN INPUT POWER OF 35 K. W ATTS . T HE STATOR
COPPER LOSS AT THIS SPEED IS 1200 WATTS AND ROTATIONAL
LOSSES ARE 600 WATTS . C OMPUTE I ) R OTOR COPPER LOSS II )
G ROSS TORQUE DEVELOPED III ) N ET MECHANICAL POWER
DEVELOPED AND IV ) S HAFT TORQUE . (2005)

8 TH & 9 TH U NITS (A LTERNATORS , S YNCHRONOUS M OTORS ):


2 MARKS

D EFINE

QUESTIONS :

THE TERM

ALTERNATOR .

C AN

VOLTAGE

REGULATION WITH RESPECT TO

IT BE NEGATIVE ? I F SO WHEN ? I F NOT , WHY ?

(2010 NR, 2010)


2. N AME THE VARIOUS
MOTOR . (2010 NR)
3. W HAT DO YOU
MOTOR ? (2009)

METHODS OF STARTING SYNCHRONOUS

UNDERSTAND BY

CURVES OF SYNCHRONOUS

W HAT

IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SALIENT AND NON - SALIENT

POLE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE ?

(2008)

A 4 POLE ALTERNATOR ON OPEN CIRCUIT , GENERATORS 200 V AT


50 H Z WHEN THE FIELD CURRENT IS 4 A. C ALCULATE THE OPEN
CIRCUIT GENERATED EMF AT A SPEED IF 1200 RPM AND FIELD
CURRENT OF 3 A, NEGLECTING SATURATION .(2005)

7 MARKS

D ERIVE

QUESTIONS THEORY :

THE

EMF

EQUATION OF

3-

PHASE ALTERNATOR WHEN THE

ARMATURE WINDING IS CHORDED AND DISTRIBUTED .

(2010 NR)
2. W RITE SHORT NOTES
MOTOR (2009 NR)
3. D ESCRIBE

THE CONSTRUCTION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF

OPERATION OF

S HOW

ON STARTING METHODS OF SYNCHRONOUS

3-

PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

(2009)

THAT THERE IS NO STARTING TORQUE AVAILABLE WITH

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR .
DETAIL .

D ISCUSS

ONE METHOD OF STARTING IT IN

(2008)

E XPLAIN

IN DETAIL THE CONSTRUCTION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF

OPERATION OF AN ALTERNATOR .

E XPLAIN

(2007)

THE CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR .

(2007)

E XPLAIN

THE PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF AN ALTERNATOR AND

DERIVE THE EXPRESSION FOR THE INDUCED EMF IN AN ALTERNATOR .

(2006)
D ISCUSS THE STARTING
MOTORS . (2006)
E XPLAIN

3- PHASE

SYNCHRONOUS

STARTING METHODS OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR .

7 MARKS

1. T HE

METHODS OF

(2005)

QUESTIONS SUMS :

11 K V, 3- PHASE , STAR CONNECTED


SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR IS 60 A MPS . T HE EFFECTIVE RESISTANCE
AND SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE PER PHASE ARE 1 OHM AND 30
OHMS RESPECTIVELY . F IND ( A ) THE POWER SUPPLIED TO THE
MOTOR AND ( B ) THE EMF INDUCED FOR A POWER FACTOR OF 0.8
LAGGING . (2010 NR)
INPUT TO A

2. A 3- PHASE , 16

POLE ALTERNATOR HAS A STAR CONNECTED

144 SLOTS AND TO CONDUCTORS PER SLOT .


T HE FLUX PER POLE IS 0.03 WB , SINE DISTRIBUTED , AND THE
SPEED IS 375 RPM . F IND THE FREQUENCY AND THE PHASE AND
LINE EMF S UNDER NO LOAD CONDITIONS (2010)
STAR WINDING WITH

3. A 3- PHASE
KVA, 13,500

STAR CONNECTED ALTERNATOR IS RATED AT


VOLTS .

T HE

1600

ARMATURE EFFECTIVE RESISTANCE AND

SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE ARE

1.5

OHMS AND

C ALCULATE
OF 1280 K W

30

OHMS

RESPECTIVELY PER PHASE .

THE PERCENTAGE VOLTAGE

REGULATION AT A LOAD

AT

0.8 P . F

LAGGING .(2009)

4. A 3- PHASE , 2200 VOLTS , STAR CONNECTED ALTERNATOR IS


RUNNING AT 300 RPM AND HAS 24 POLES . F IND THE NUMBER OF
TURNS PER PHASE OF THE STATOR , IF THE MAGNETIC FLUX IS 50

MILLI WEBERS PER POLE .


DISTRIBUTION FACTOR IS

A SSUME FULL PITCH


0.96(2009 NR)

5. C ALCULATE THE VOLTAGE INDUCED


H Z ALTERNATORS HAVING A FLUX PER
T HE

COILS AND THE

3- PHASE , 50
0.1515 WB .

PER PHASE IN A
POLE OF

360. A SSUME
0.96. (2008)

NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN SERIES IS

PITCH COIL WITH A DISTRIBUTION FACTOR OF

FULL

6. A 3- PHASE , 16- POLE ALTERNATOR HAS A STAR CONNECTED


WINDING WITH 144 SLOTS AND 10 CONDUCTORS PER SLOT . T HE
0.03 WB , SINUSOIDALLY DISTRIBUTED
375 RPM . C ALCULATE
(2007)

FLUX PER POLE IS


THE SPEED IS
I)
II )

T HE

FREQUENCY AND

T HE

INDUCED LINE VOLTAGE .

7. A 3- PHASE ,

STAR - CONNECTED ALTERNATOR ON OPEN CIRCUIT IS

REQUIRED TO GENERATE A LINE VOLTAGE OF

HZ

AND

3600 V

AT

50

500 RPM . T HE STATOR HAS 3 SLOTS PER


10 CONDUCTORS PER SLOT . C ALCULATE

WHEN DRIVEN AT

POLE PER PHASE AND

I ) THE NUMBER OF POLES AND II ) USEFUL FLUX PER POLE .

A SSUME

ALL THE CONDUCTORS PER PHASE TO BE CONNECTED IN

SERIES AND THE COILS TO BE FULL - PITCHED .

8. A 24

300
HAS 5

POLE

ALTERNATOR

RPM

3- PHASE

STAR CONNECTED SALIENT POLE

SLOTS PER POLE PER PHASE AND EACH

SLOT TAKES TWO COIL SIDES OF


FLUX PER POLE IS

C ALCULATE

(2006)

0.01

10

CONDUCTORS EACH .

WB AND IS DISTRIBUTED

T HE
SIMUSOIDALLY .

THE EMF INDUCED BETWEEN THE LINES , IF THE

COILS ARE SHORT PITCHED BY

SLOTS .

(2005)

10 TH U NIT (EM):
2 MARKS

1. A

QUESTIONS :

MOVING COIL AMMETER CAN NOT BE USED IN THE A . C

CIRCUITS . J USTIFY THIS STATEMENT .

2. A

(2010 NR)

MOVING COIL AMMETER IS CONNECTED TO MEASURE THE

CURRENT IN AN

R-L

SERIES CIRCUIT , THOUGH IT IS NOT A

FAULTY METER , THERE IS NO READING WHEN A . C VOLTAGE IS


APPLIED TO THE CIRCUIT .

3. N AME

THE REASON .(2010)

THE THREE TORQUES DEVELOPED IN A MOVING COIL

INSTRUMENT .

4. H OW

G IVE

(2009)

DO YOU DISTINGUISH A MOVING COIL AMMETER FROM A

MOVING IRON AMMETER BY SEEING THE METER ?


REASON .

7 MARKS

G IVE

(2008)

QUESTIONS THEORY :

( A ) D ESCRIBE THE CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION


OF PMMC METER TO MEASURE CURRENT IN A D.C CIRCUIT . (2010
NR) ( B ) D ESCRIBE THE CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF
OPERATION OF DYNAMOMETER TYPE OF WATTMETER .
(2010 NR)

2. ( A ) D ESCRIBE

THE CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF

OPERATION OF MOVING COIL VOLTMETE ( B )

D ESCRIBE

THE

CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF ELECTRICAL


CONDUCTIVITY METER .

3. W RITE

(2010)

SHORT NOTES ON

ENERGY METER

( B ) D RAW

(A)

WORKING OF SINGLE PHASE

RELEVANT FIGURE AND EXPLAIN

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF

4. ( A ) D ESCRIBE

M EGGER . (2009 NR)

THE CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF

OPERATION OF DYNAMOMETER TYPE WATTMETER .

D ESCRIBE THE
M EGGER (2009)
5. D ESCRIBE

CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF

THE CONSTRUCTION , PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF

DYNAMOMETER TYPE WATT METER .

6. E XPLAIN ,

(2008)

WITH THE HELP OF A NEAT SKETCH , THE PRINCIPLE OF

OPERATION OF A SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER .

7. E XPLAIN ,

DC

POTENTIOMETER .

(2006)

WITH A NEAT SKETCH OPERATION OF SINGLE - PHASE

ENERGY METER .

9. E XPLAIN

(2007)

WITH THE HELP OF A NEAT SKETCH , THE

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF A

8. E XPLAIN

(2009) ( B )

(2005)

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF

THE END

M EGGER . (2005)