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Climate and Weather

Unit 3_Meterology

What do you think?

What is the difference between climate and

Average weather conditions in an area over a
long time.
Factors: temperature & precipitation
Weather - current conditions of the

What do you think?

Describe what you expect of climate in Texas in
the summer v. Michigan?
Why are the climates different?

Climate Zones

Factors that influence the annual

temperature pattern
Latitude & Seasons


-location of large bodies

of water
-ocean currents

Seasons and Latitude

Most places in the US
has 4 seasons.
How are the seasons
different? why?

distance north or south from the equator.
The temperature of an area depends on its
Higher latitude = colder climate.

What happens to temperature as elevation

Prevailing Winds
blow mainly in one direction.
Winds affect the amount of precipitation that a
region receives.
Warm air =
Cold air =

Winds and Precipitation

Precipitation affects
Equator - Tropical forest
0-30 - Tropical
30 - deserts
30-60 Temperate
60 - cold & polar

Ocean Currents
Water absorbs and releases thermal energy
(water cycle).
Currents carry warm and cold water to different
cool currents cool the surrounding air causing
cooler temperatures.

Ocean currents

El Nino - Southern Oscillation

cycle of changing wind and water current
patterns in Pacific Ocean.
El Nino - warm water phase - increase in
typhoons, cyclones and floods.

El Nino

Generally wind blows E to W

This piles up water in Pacific
Warm water in W
Cold water in E
Every 3-7 years, these winds (E to W) get
Result: Some of the warm water piling up
W, goes back East.
E Pacific is warmer

El Nino

Temp. warmer than normal in
N. Central States
Temp. cooler in SE and SW

El Nino

Heavy rains in S America
Drought in S. Africa,
SE Asia, India

How El Nino Affects Us

Drought Leads to wildfires

Heavy rains- Hurricanes, typhoons
Changes in weather
Changes in economy (affecting farmers,
crops, harvest)
Destructive flooding
Upwelling is reduced No nutrient rich
food for fish/sea animal

Geography - Mountains

Local Winds
influence by geography of area
Shoreline or mountain/valley
temperature differences

Sea breeze from sea to land (during

day). land is warmer warm air rises and
cool air comes in to replace.
Land breeze- from land to sea (during the
night) water is warmer cool air from land
moves to replace warmer air over sea.

large region with a specific type of climate and
the plants and animals that live there.

What do you think?

Weather changes constantly - what about
climate? does it change?

Air pollution
Pollution sources

Primary pollutant
Secondary pollutant

Air pollution cont.

Pollution sources

Primary pollutant- Pollution put directly in

the air
Secondary pollutant- reaction of primary

Air pollution cont.

Pollution sources
-power plants
- oil refineries

Primary pollutant- Pollution put directly in

the air
Secondary pollutant- reaction of primary

Air pollution cont.

winds move the pollution around

Air pollution cont.

winds move the pollution around
Acid rain
Hole in ozone

Clean Air Act

EPA controls how much pollution is
put in the atmosphere
Ex: Factories are required to use
scrubbers to emit less pollution

Climate Change
Natural factors:
1. slow drifting of the continents (plate
2. changes in the suns energy output
3. variations in the position of the earth in
relation to the sun (orbital changes).

Climate Change
IMPACTS of change
-Ice Ages
colder temperature - glaciers grow,
changes in precipitation
-Global warming
warmer temperatures - glaciers melt,
flooding, changes in precipitation

Global Warming
a gradual increase in the average
global temperature.
The debate

Climate Change
Possible HUMAN impact (unnatural factors)
1 Increase in Greenhouse effect
2 Deforestation

Global Warming

Ocean currents bring warm surface water up from

equator into northern region (otherwise it would be
covered with ice, even in the summer)
Great Conveyor Belt- Shaped by coriolis effect
(caused by diff in temp & salinity)
N. Atlantic is saltier & colder than Pacific
Warm water of GCB evaporates out of N. Atlantic
(makes it saltier)
Salty water makes level of Atlantic slightly lower
than Pacific
Draws strong surface current of warm fresh water

Global Warming
If enough cold fresh water (from melting
ice caps) from Greenland flows into N.
It shuts down the gulf stream-which
keeps North America warm.
As a result:
Full blown return to ice age (2-3 years

Explain the difference between climate and weather
Explain air mass and 4 different air masses and the weather associated
Advective vs. adiabatic cooling
Doldrums vs. trade winds
Explain how temperature differs in the 4 layers of atmosphere (ie warmest,
Name 3 climate zones
3 things needed for cloud to form
Name of tornado vs. hurricane scale
2 factors that affect climate
What is a hurricane?
What is a tornado?

Give 1 example of conduction, convection & radiation
2 most abundant gases today
Compare sleet, freezing rain and hail
Compare local and global winds
Explain jet streams
Explain how elevation affects density and temperature
What is relative humidity and how do you measure it?
During what time of the year are you most likely to have tornadoes?
Draw a warm, cold and stationary front (symbols)
What is needed for a tornado to form
What is El Nino?
Name type of cloud associated with storms