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Translating Cultures
An Introduction
for
Translators, Interpreters and Mediators

DavidKatan

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S1' JE ROME
PUBLISHING

First published 1999 by
St. Jerome Publishing
2 Maple Road West, Brooklands
Manchester, M23 9HH, United Kingdom
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Framing Culture: the Culture-Bound Mental Map of the World
1:

ISBN 1-900650-14-2

© David Katan 1999

All Rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this publication
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The Cultural Mediator
1.1 The Influence of Culture
1.2 The Cultural Mediator
1.3 The Translator and Interpreter

2: Defining, Modelling and Teaching Culture
2.1 On Defining Culture
2.2 Approaches to the Study of Culture
2.3 McDonaldization or Global Localization?
2.4 Models of Culture

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Chapter 3:

Frames and Levels
3.1 Frames
3.2 Logical Levels
3.3 Culture and Behaviour

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Chapter 4:

Logical Levels and Culture
4.1 Environment
4.2 Behaviour
4.3 Capabilities/Strategies/Skills
4.4 Values
4.5 Beliefs
4.6 Identity
4.7 Imprinting
4.8 The Model as a System

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Chapter 5:

Language and Culture
5.1 Context of Situation and Culture
5.2 The Sapir-WhorfHypothesis
5.3 Lexis
5.4 The Language System

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Chapter 6:

Perception and Meta-Model
6.1 The Filters
6.2 Expectations and Mental Images
6.3 The Meta-Model
6.4 Generalization
6.5 Deletion
6.5.1 The Use of Deletion
6.5.2 Modality
6.5.3 Unspecified Referential Index
6.5.4 Missing Performatives

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6.5.5 Value Judgements
6.5.6 Disjuncts
6.6 Distortion
6.6.1 Nominalization
6.6.2 Presupposition
6.6.3 Mind Reading
6.6.4 Cause and Effect
6.7 Example Text

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Part 2

Shifting Frames: Translation and Mediation in Theory and in Practice

Chapter 7:

TranslationlMediation
7.1 The Translation Process
7.2 The Meta-Model and Translation
7.3 Generalization
7.4 Deletion
7.5 Distortion

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Chapter 8:

Chunking
8.1 Local Translating
8.2 Chunking
8.3 Global Translation and Mediation
8.3.1 Culture-Bound Lexis
8.3.2 Culture-Bound Behaviour
8.3.3 Chunking and Cultural Values

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Part 3

The Array of Frames: Communication Orientations

Chapter 9:

Cultural Orientations
9.1 Cultural Myths
9.2 CulturalOrientations
9.3 A Taxonomy of Orientations

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Chapter 10: Contexting
10.1 High and Low Context
10.2 English - the Language of Strangers
10.3 Contexting and the Brain
10.4 Medium
10.5 Author/AddresseeOrientation
10.5.1 Information Load
10.5.2 Clarity
10.5.3 Facts
10.6 FormallInformal Communication
10.6.1 Formality/Informality in the Text
10.6.2 Distancing Devices
10.6.3 Formality in Titles

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11: Affective Communication
11.1 Direct and Indirect Communication
11.1.1 Indirectness and Miscommunication
11.1.2 British Indirectness
11.2 Expressive/Instrumental Communication
11.2.1 Facts/Feelings
11.2.2 The Verbalization of Emotion
11.2.3 Under/Overstatement
11.2.4 Self Expression
11.2.5 Involvement
11.2.6 Non-Verbal Language
11.3 Action
11.3.1 Be and Do Orientations
11.3.2 Grammatical Be and Do
11.4 Conclusion

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oumeci Index

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HORATIO o day and night. it aims to awareness of the role of culture in constructing.. This book should serve as a framework for interpreters and translators (both actual and potel1ltia. Part 3:The Array of Frames: Communication Orientations. Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. catalogue and construct reality. There are more things in heaven and earth. 1 The rest of the book should serve as an introduction for what a mediator will need to know. Each culture acts as a frame within which external or 'reality' are interpreted. The proposal is for a new role for the traditional translator and interpreter. Part I continues by introducing the subject of culture.l) working between English and any other language. . in clarifying the 'X' factor. Horatio. Mona Baker (1996:17) warns that many scholars have now adopted a !!f. Framino Culture: The Culture Bound Mental Map ofthe World Part I begins with a discussion of the role of the traditional translator and interpreter. ?Tral1ls1fltinlg across cultures' and 'cultural proficiency' have become buzz words in translatinterpreting. that of a 'cultural mediator'. Part I concludes with an in-depth analysis of how individuals perceive. a dangerously fashionable word that almost substitutes for rigour coherence". The aim of this book is to put some rigour and coherence into this fashionword. the professions will need to change from being seen as inefficient human dictionaries to facilitators for mutual understanding between people.. but is a simplification and distortion changes from culture to culture. and in doing so unravel the 'X' factor involved in teaching culture to translators. it aims to the culture-gap inherent in books or courses focusing either on translation theory and practice. translation and interpretation. Iiute:rpJret. The first task is to sort the various definitions of and approaches to teaching it. As such. but this is wondrous strange! HAMLET And therefore as a stranger give it welcome. and also for those working living between these cultures who wish to understand more about their cross-cultural successes and frustrations. The book is divided into three main parts: Part I:Framing Culture: The Culture-Bound Mental Map of the World. More importantly. Part 2:Shifting Frames: Translation and Mediation in Theory and Practice. It is an introduction to current understanding about culture importance in communication. into one unifying framework.ers and other mediators. and how this perception is communicated through language.culltul:al' perspective . With the continuing globalization of English and the use of computers. Culture is perceived throughout this book as a system for orienting experience. A basic presupposition the organization of experience is not 'reality'. language or 'institutions'. perceiving and translating reality. The approach I The termis taken from Bochner (1981).

is here viewed as "essentially an aspect of a larger domain. The Array of Frames Part 3 is an outline of the major influences culture can have on communication. Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory. Steiner (1975:47) in his aptly titled After Babel takes an even wider view of translation: "inside or between languages. American and other cultural orientations influencing the language is investigated from the viewpoint of social anthropologists working in a business context. Bell. Translation itself. such as Gregory Bateson's Logical Typing and metamessage theories. Snell-Hornby and Wilss. with practical examples taken both from the national press and from translations. human communication equals translation". . and Hallidayan Functional Grammar. Holmes. which discusses the changing importance of implicit and explicit communication between cultures in the transmission of a message. It begins with a development of Edward Hall's theory of contexting. taking ideas from anthropology. Bandler and Grinder's Meta-Model theory. namely. Neubert. following Nida (1976:65). The unconsciousness of basic British. translation is discussed within the wider context of communication. It includes a short synchronic and diachronic description of culture and theory of the translation process. that of communication". Newmark's (1995) two statements: "translation is the most economical method of explaining one culture's way to another" and "translation mediates cultures" take us back to the main concern of this book: improving communication across cultures. Shifting frames: Translation and Mediation in Theory and Practice Part 2 begins with a discussion of the strategies a cultural mediator needs to adopt to make the frames explicit. Newmark. Practical examples of translations with commentary are given. Speech Act Theory.2 David Katan is interdisciplinary. extending ideas put forward by a variety of translation scholars such as Baker. Honig. Sociolinguistics. Hatim and Mason. Bassnett. Hence.

Framing Culture The Culture-Bound Mental Map of the World .

for example. The language provides. The three levels to be considered are technical. The two extreme views are everything can be translated without loss or that nothing can be translated without in the Italian expression traduttore/traditore / 'translator/traitor'.l year 2000 and beyond. unschooled Punjabi family. no culture is so 'primitive' that it cannot embrace the terms of. conceptual terms will become easier to translate as different come together under the global communication umbrella. the dictionary denotative meaning which to be translated. and terrestrial lines were few and far between. For example. say. with business and industry i\l(orkirlg to the same standards throughout the world. neither for the translacultural mediator. formal and informal (or outRaw'arenes:s). communication is explicit. nor for the target language reader. In terms of language it is the proposition. It is i$cientijt"ic. In fact. "to watch sheep sounds perfectly natural in English. both correct. I> Negl:JtilltiCJil of meaning is reduced to the minimum. there telephone per 200 houses in India. This form of culture is indeed now global. The theory is discussed in detail in Chapter 2. is now investing resources in state-of-the-art satellite technology. and ideas are consciously transmitted. as far as Itj(jssibll~.4. the words 'culture' and 'translation' are being increasingly Questions regarding whether or not translations can account for culture. a technical level. This technology will be imported Europe and America. In Quiche (Guatemore advanced in this line of technology. This we have already mentioned. computer fact that it might be necessary to use more text to explain the concept. for example. and can be sensibly discussed by dividing the argument into three levels. The Cultural Mediator this chapter is to: translation and interpretation problems in terms of a Triad of Culture the concept of cultural mediator the changes necessary for translators and interpreters to become cultural mediators Influence of Culture ent:iorled in the introduction. only one word is necessary (Beekman & 1974:54-55). because the is categorized in different ways. yet requires five words. In 1995. or to what is relevant are very much at the centre of the debate. at the technical level little or no loss or distortion of meaning need ever occur. Peter Newmark (1981:6) is entirely correct when he states: language. These viewpoints fact. will certainly not pose a problem. due to the fact that communication at this level has no levels were introduced by Hall (1990).1. allowing it to move from reliance on public to personal mobile phones. Translating or interpreting this (or any other) new technolcultures. whether for the technicians themselves or for the end-user. is certainly not a problem. . its own context.

thesauruses. in human form. ark (1988: 156). on the other hand. only some of the items on the label are compulsory at an ED level. In both. in fact. functioning as a modifier. and this means . at a technical level. In this case. As a result. well-written. has the same problems. and it is clearly spelled out. for ~l ~~i. See for example Stefania Novelli's unpublished thesis (1996) on Internet services for the translator. too. A non-native speaker. and more importantly they would not know if any faux-pas had been made. of course. computer and. industrial plant specifications or medical papers will know. ed and implemented by people working within their contexts of culture. ar~mes. have to be discussed. preparation de fruits 24% (soit fruits: 12%). Act specifies that the term has to be 'preparation pour nourissos'. glossaries. in fact.David Katan 9 extra-linguistic context: the text is the authority. is certainly not pan-cultural. of course. . but is forbidden by legislation. As the above examples illustrate. She notes (1995:65-6). Let us take the following example. dictionaries. Received wisdom would that harmonized ED regulations and the labelling of ingredients would be a simple case d-for-word translation. if not better than. taken from a steel rolling mill brochure. as are the numerical discrepancies." and explains that these will need to be into account when approaching a technical text. 1997: 161-62). the problems at this level are h country has its own preferred way of doing things. the general native speaker. will almost certainly be able to comment on the translation at the level of meaning. and what i~i>i»Uley deem to be important. the Food and . How countries deal with technical information. as any target language native speaker called upon to translate patent law. aviation insurance. such as satellite communications technology. will still have problems with "tundish 'on the fly"'. the dictionary correctly cites the actually used by speakers. Computer software programs are. With 'on the fly' there was the problem of the dictionary definition not Ij~e(:essar'ily reflecting actual use by speakers. The general translator will not know if in this case 'tundish' requires the article. while others are not. We would naturally expect the same type of lexical problem as nd above with translation at the technical level. An improvement would be to break the sentence into two and at least add a verb: Ingredients: Laitdemi-cScrcSmcS. but will also need to know where to find technical information efficiently: from concordances. Even though all countries follow the European food labelling laws and technical requirements. now beginning to make these translations as well as. However. but whether it is a good or bad translation is another matter: 'ychnical concepts. Comparison with other. if "tundish 'on the fly'" is the right expression. There is also a huge resource of goodquality undergraduate thesis specialist glossaries produced at the Interpreter's School. In these cases. ferments lactiques. Even more important help will come from similar texts written in the target language by native-language speakers. To what extent translators need to know about cross-cultural differences in legislation i(ygardirlg food labelling. do things in different ways.• ~~G~~~~ that in Quebec 'infant formula' is known as 'Iait rnaternise'. in fact. having decided that 'machine' implies the 'complete machine' and simplified the sentences to a perfectly cohesive piece of discourse in English. on paper. w is an example full text of a translation of food labelling. and usually out-of-awareness. The only person who can be blamed is. Even more problematic is the fact that a general translator will not know if a specialist would actually use the term 'on the fly' even if it is the dictionary definition. the successful interpreter and translator. However. The translator. cases flictionaries are not a translator's best friend. with minimum post editing necessary. for example. sucre. One of the main features of the (complete?) machine are the cantilevered cars. marketing and promotion is discussed by Candace Seguinot (1995) ilL I Jp her paper and the debate on "Translation and Advertising". fluent in metallurgy and the continuous cast steel process. It is a fairly literal translation from the original (in Italian). Trieste. technical texts would tell us that the translation at the level of discourse is not good. is a collective noun or is. However. cautions about "the possible cultural and professional differbetween your readership and the original one. These runon tracks on an elevated steel structure which ensures a rapid change of the tundish 'on the fly'. yet opposite. We now move on to the formal level. However. will clearly not be effective. People. in this case labelling: 8 French YAOURT AUX FRUITS Grammatically it is correct. very few native speakers would understand the meaning. will not only need to have a near-native command of both languages. the translator or interpreter. the native human translator. as tatives of their culture. Not only is the translator or interpreter expected to have full grasp of the Iexico-grammar and much of the technical language. "which no speaker Ipcttlall[y uses". many companies are investing in in-service language training instead of hiring interpreters (Kondo et al. However. encyclopaedias. at this level. An interpreter without the technical language of. and may well be able to provide a less accurate but more meaningful translation. 2 The differences between the technical labelling required are notable. it is also at this level that the business community is most aware. and notices the shortcomings of a translator and interpreter. general translators and interpreters are always going to be at a disadvantage in a specialized field because they can never be sure. but also: "Translators are implicitly expected to understand the requirements of different markets.ne of expiry. such as ri/g.

personal communication). need to be well versed in the customs. "alongside translation proper . Thereare numerous other publications. The translation. general interpreter and translator will again be at a disadvantage. difference concerning consumer protection within Europe can be seen in the following labelling practices for a 'Whirlpool' Microwave cooker. The Its of a University of Nottingham research report by Carol Arijoki (1993:20) echoes the idea: "[Business] respondents were very much in favour of independence from inters". in other areas the percentage is declining. but reported that these often not regarded as important by headquarters management. they ~<d:iverge and are inconsistent. Differences in technical consumer information provide just one example of the fact that each culture has its own appropriate ways of behaving. someof which willbe mentioned in the following chapters.'56). Companies are only too aware of this phenomenon. conversations do not only converge.. where software program references ball had to be changed to soccer.. More than 50% of the sample reported cultural differat work and managementproduction giving rise to tensions. discusses the tial role of a translator or interpreter as a cultural mediator. These form the backbone of a culture's cognitive environment.. but not one that a 'black box' interpreter or translator For interpreters. Even more difficult was the translation of Wizard. and even where cooperation exists. Though translation and interpreting take up a substantial portion of the EU budget. TV. respectively. the level at which the should be able to intervene and mediate. The Economist (IQ/ magazine published a story entitled 'The Trouble with Mergers'. His paper on cross-cultural issues and the role of training the fact that culture poses no problems at a technical level. in fact. means that accepted business practices vary not only at a national level and between anies (such as the well studied Apple Macintosh and IBM cultures) but between india! offices too. and increasingly they are becoming more dent about handing over interpreting and translating tasks to their own department". the world-views of the participants to converge". Federica Scarpa (forthcoming) notes that a new term has been coined to help translators of computer software in their task: 'localization'. This is particularly bad news for the traditional reter. according to n Hagen (1994. personalities. other area to be included at this formal level is 'corporate culture'. technical and formal level.'55-1. Examples include JohnMole's (1992) Mind Your Manners. In 10 European languages (excluding French) we have the equivalent of: OPTION: 8 YEAR GUARANTEE FOR SPARE PARTS: details inside. 1997:1. particularly the geography and contemporary social and political history. due to scales of economy and expl()it~lticm of know-how. In fact. However. as Carol Taylor Torsello (1984:78) notes. takes us to the informal or out-of-awareness level of culture. As she suggests. a business-oriented guideto appropriate behaviour in the individual European countries. Akira Mizuno. able to mediate the nonerging world-views or maps of the world. the evidence suggests between 50% and 7. Whether or not the following is a case of understanding different cultural requirements and localization is a moot point. "Companies are cynical the use of university trained interpreters. It concerns a Christmas present of a toy pistol and IQ rounds of shots. Translators. there are now a number of books on national cultures. However. Yet. and interpreters in particular.David Katan II that translators need to understand the cultures towards which they are translating" (Seguinot 1995:56). is a problem of communication. "business is business" and. author of a number of university and DTI red research studies on the European business environment. films. habits and traditions of the two cultures they are mediating between. An even more striking. the translator's task entails also an understanding of the different cultural requirements of the computer users of various countries and ensuring that the products meet those needs".. whether or not they are involved in labelling or advertising.Voir les modalites des garanties legales et contractuelles dans le livret d'information sur le SAV.'5% of joint ventures and mergers fail. Even more importantly: "convergence is probably impossiWith()ut cooperation. which makes welding them tricky".). into French (the age is given in bold) and English. though less worrying. without achieving the objecfor which they were formed". so allowing the participants to cooperate to the ee they wish. The guides specifically for the business market are among the mostuseful. suggests a very different culture: NE CONVENIENT PAS A UN ENFANT DE MOINS DE 8 ANS and NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CHILDREN UNDER 8 YEARS. at the according to John Harper (1993:76): "in many instances. the 'translation' is as follows: CETTE GARANTIE OPTIONNELLE DE 8 ANS NE S'APPLIQUE PAS EN FRANCE . The 'Super Disc Shot' is made in Italy by Edison Giocattoli and carries the following warning: NON ADATTO AD UN BAMBINO DI ETA' MINORE DI 36 MESI (not suitable for a child of an age less than 36 months). which discussed ate cultures and the problems (not of international but of national mergers): "Even ementary firms can have different cultures. joint-ventures are becoming increasingly popular. hcompany. as they will not be part in-group. The next section. 3 a joint venture or merger is based on cooperation and a convergence of interests. a which enables the semi-automatic creation of documents. there is a need for a new style of interpreter. at another culture becomes an obstacle to communication: 10 the researchers concluded that technical solutions were less instrumental in producing conflicts in work relationships than the difference between the two countries in the area organisational behaviour . states that popular culture presents one of the greatest challenges to Japanese broadcast interpreters (Kondo et al. a practising broadcast interpreter in Japan.' Both the translator and the interpreter will also need solid background information about the cultures they are working with. indeed each branch or department has its own accepted set of priorities. As a result. etc. andChristopher Englehorn's (1991) When Business East Meets Business West: The Guide to Practice and Protocol in the Pacific Rim. . In French. This also means being aware of the popular culture (the culture's heroes. He gives a list of some recurring American favourites which have caused him problems in interpreting: same problem is echoed by Scarpa (forthcoming).

for example. as expressed in Bochner's book is that cultural mediation is much more than translation or interpretation. A move in this direction has already been made. evertheless. as we have already .g. explicit permission to stopa cont'erence it' they feel a misunderstanding is prepare materials for cross-cultural meetings for participants to read. rather he will ulUnicate the ideas in terms that are meaningful to the members of the target audience" t1981 :58). such as Cynthia Roy (1993). The word-for-word correspondence between the source and the target has virtually ce in our work". appropriate dress. for example. suggest that the interpreter should become a visible third party. from arbitrator to therapist. and "within certain its may develop his or her own initiatives. The Translator <Taft (1981:58) asks whether a mediator is a translator. Gary Ferraro (1994:142). He concludes (emphasis in the original): "essentially speaking. for example. and action between persons or groups who differ with respect to language and culture.". As a cultural mediator. neighbouring people. give comments and exilations. the emphasis is linguistic mediation. R. prohibitions. Hence. His own answer. folklore. computer literacy. intentions. Technical skills: those required by the mediator's status. "In some cultures the interpreters' role may become a more active one. to consternation of the American who is likely to interpret it as inefficiency or perhaps 19yalty". others do suggest a h greater active role. In order to serve as a link in this sense. black-box and as a walking generalist translator of words. Annelie Knapp-Potthof and Karlfried Knapp (1981: 183). and expectations of each cultural group to the other. The mediator needs not only "two skills in one skull" (Taft 1981:53) but "in order to play the role of mediator. etc. • Communication Skills: written. present arguments.: the appropriate level of self-control." However. The concept of cultural mediator. His suggestion is to make both the role and the limits of an interpreter's ntion clear to participants before the interpretation begins. if not invisible. is not new. due to factors at the informal level of culture. • SocialskUIs: knowledge of rulesthatgovern social relations in society and emotional competence. in his contribution to the volume. however. According to Taft (1981:73). values. spoken. the mediator must be able to participate to some extent in both cultures.3 The Translator and Interpreter Theories of the translation process itself are discussed in Part 2. he suggests increasing the of the interpreter. George Steiner (1975:45) pointed out that: "The translator is a bilingual mediating agent between monolingual communication participants in two different language communities. the debate is . perceptions. wever. suggest limited strategic intervention regard. tain interpreters. e. Taft (1981 :53). and will have reached the level of 'contextual evaluation'. the natural environment and its importance.cipants before the meeting to make the rules clear. including viour. We will return to these issues when discussing belief systems in Chapter 4. the article Kondo wrote (emphasis added) is entitled 'What Conference Interrs Should Not be Expected To Do'. However. traditions. defines the role as follows: A cultural mediator is a person who facilitates communication. Here. but now we should look more closely at the translator and interpreter as cultural mediator. an individual has to be flexible in switching his cultural orientation". takes up the idea of the interpreter informing the .David Katan 12 1. understanding. non-verbal. a cultural mediator will have developed a high degree of intercultural sensitivity. he or she will need to be a specialist in negotiating understanding between cultures. 1. to check for any possible cross-cultural problems. However.g. As Edward Stewart (1985:53) notes in his American ral Patterns. e. customs. introduce new topics. etc. and intercultural communication points. Richard Brislin (1981:213). • The Interpreter The interpreter's role has long been thought of as a discreet. The idea of a translator as a mediating agent. The role touches that of a mediator in any other field. This means. to the organization of turn taking. important people in the society. However. His specific suggestions regarding "speculative strategies" (slightly ted here) revolve around the interpreter as chair or referee: [thaIl parties bet'orrethe event to be interpreted. a research associate at the Institute of ture and Communication in Honolulu. is strikes against Western cultural orientations with regard to the meaning of 'profesat' in 'professional interpreter'. that is. The endless debate between literal and 13 unicative translation in the world of interpreting seems to be moving towards consenasaorni Kondo (1990:62) has written a great deal on both interpreting and cross-cultural unication. in the business world there are those who realize that involving the inter~r can help in meeting negotiating goals. Kondo (1990:59) feels that icipants can then take it upon themselves "to achieve better results in interlingual and cultural communications". The role of the mediator is performed by interpreting the expressions. any oved communication results will be through accident rather than by design. Thus a mediator must be to a certain extent bicultural. by establishing and balancing the communicationbetween them. a mediator must possess the following competencies in both cultures: • Knowledge about society: history. but that also the interpreter would be out of a job took that role. El is a first move towards the more extreme communicative role of a cultural mediator 'may never be called upon to engage in the exact translation of words. etc.2 The Cultural Mediator The term cultural mediator was first introduced in Stephen Bochner's (1981) The Mediating Person and Cultural Identity. underlines importance of briefing the interpreter on objectives and that "The purposeful development cordial relations with your interpreter can only help to facilitate the process of communican at the negotiation table". we will concentrate on what being a cultural mediator means for those involved in translating texts or interpreting for people. He raises the point that very often a cultural mediator essary during intercultural negotiations. in their contribution to Bochner's !ume.

which will be discussed in Chapter 7. the goal of translation as seen by Gentzler is to mediate between cultures as follows: "Its mediating role is more than synchronic transfer of meaning across cultures. informal modelling of the target culture. With regard to who the translator is. . This brings us back to the teaching of culture for translators and interpreters. Cultural mediators should therefore be extremely aware of their own cultural identity. According to mark (1988:17). Though they do not provide detail. so that any translation will.seen. university trained. Fans Trompenaars (1993:57). suggesting that: "The notion of mediation is a useful way of looking at translators' decisions regarding the transfer of intertextual reference". One of the handbooks is entitled lating and Interpreting and focuses on the need for a professional culturally aware reter and professionally trained translator for successful international business. engaging them in lengthy asides and attempting to mediate misunderstandings from the culture as well as the language". attitudes and so on into our processing of texts. 223-224) also use the term mediation. but that a mediator is more than a translator. The authors conclude with two specific ways in which a translator is a mediator: Lance Hewson and Jacky Martin (1991:143). Edwin Gentzler (1993:77) adds to this idea with the point that a text is always a part of history. in their Redefining Translation: The Variational Approach. general interpreter or translator to take a more high profile le in actively promoting understanding across languages and cultures. both in Britain and abroad. 161) and discuss "the identity and motivations of the translation operator". verse or fiction just as much as it is of the simultaneous interpreter. for example. They continue. Hans Vermeer (1978) has described the translator as "bi-cultural".T. One particular example is the translation of Shakespeare. is a fundantal issue in the success or failure of cross-cultural ventures. Albrecht Neubert and Gregory Shreve (1992:54) go one stage further with the concept. The following chapters will investigate that intuition. t is still needed in the West is a second development working in tandem with the wider of the mediator: that of raising general awareness for the importance of the cultural r. There are signs that this is beginning to happen. much of the analysis of the cultural aspect of the SL text "may be lve". reflect the translator's own mental and cultural outlook. To do this. and for this reason will need to understand how their own culture influences perception. it mediates diachronically as well. who can be seen to be mediating in a very direct way. in multiple historical traditions". Basil Hatirn and Ian Mason (1990:128. Future translators and interpreters will have to be fluent in cross-cultural communication. Hewson and Martin talk of 'The Translation Operator as a Cultural Operator' (1991:133-155. knowledge. ny other countries. As we have stressed. with the following: The translator is first and foremost a mediator between two parties for whom mutual communication might otherwise be problematic and this is true of the translator of patents. producing a 'hyperreading" of the original to the extent that people might well consult a translation in order to have a better (or more complete) understanding of the original". contracts. at all levels. As they say. who is an international consultant and on cross-cultural management at the Centre for International Business Studies in the rlands. an interpreter will have to tread very carefully when it to active participation in the communication process. Hatim and Mason (1990:11) make the same point: "inevitably we feed our own beliefs. hence. there is a steady ase in the number of business training courses on culture. as Kondo (1990) points out. Secondly. suggesting that translations should serve as "knowledge breakers between the members of disjunct communities".5. despite the best of impartial intentions". e British Department of Trade and Industry is also contributing with.I. is that translating is one of the skills. in the chapter entitled 'The Translator as Mediator'. and Mary Snell-Hornby (1992) has described him or her as a "cross-cultural specialist". so it should be possible for e humble. and manipulating the words to aid further understanding across cultures. the Western community at large still sees slator and interpreter as a walking dictionary. and not as a cultural mediator. agree that the translator is also a critic. notes: "The translator in more collectivist cultures will usually serve the nagroup. they are clear on one point: "Our aim is simply to underline once again the [Translator Operator's] socio-cultural identity as being one of the many factors which account for translation being what it is". particularly in the very pragmatic ess community. same is still true for the translator. So. "Certain texts have been subjected to what one might call an intense and loving scrutiny. many of which will be quoted in these chapters. ver. a s of sixteen-page handbooks distributed free to companies to heighten the awareness of cultural factor in international business (D. They are intended to form of the formal learning about culture and the way it guides how we communicate. where any idea of deliberately making changes to of the text. viewed with suspicion. 1994). s the business environment itself begins to realize that culture. 4 15 David Katan 14 The concept of 'hyper-reading' comes from Ladmiral (1979). First. to some extent. 160. potential ediators should combine formal learning about language and culture with a sojourn abroad. both interpreters and translators are already carrying out some of iating functions. there are a number of business publications focusing on the culfactor.

High Culture is not the concern of this book. The culture we are interested in is acquired before the formal ing of Culture atschooI. people continually absorb. This definition of culture we might call high culture or culture with a capital C. unaware. 'refined'. and to language nts in general. even though we all know to which culture we belong. sports and hobbies. i~ R(lbillS0U' s understanding ii same name. word comes from the Latin cultus. 4:657) to introduce the topic. wever. The model is a system of conand interrelated beliefs. 20 years after Britain's referendum on its membership of the European Union. Whether or not they are culturally proficient is another matter. relate to a part of this del'inilticln of culture. 'cultured'. but because the definition delimits how culture is perceived and taught Put simply. expresand tastes valued by a society or class" (CED 1991) we will be teaching national ure. morals. the traditional teaching of culture to translators. such as England in the Nineteenth Century. of 'institutions' is clearly different to that generally taughton a courseof the . there was in the early 1990s no agreement among anthropologists regarding its nature"..' However. It is. Modelling and Teaching Culture The aim of this chapter is to: • discuss the various definitions of culture • introduce various models of culture • discuss various approaches to the teaching of culture • introduce the concept of ethnocentrism and culture-bound behaviour 2. and a grounding in in national bureaucratic and political institutions. Evelyn . nearly one in two respondents said they did not feel European. e culture under discussion here is not visible as a product. Finally. values. Each aspect of culture is linked in a system to form a unifying of culture which identifies a person and his or her culture. as conditioning elements of future action. definition of the word has been notoriously difficult One of the oldest and most quoted definitions of culture was formulated by the English anthropologist EdwardBurnett Tylor in 1871. for example. on the other hand. customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society". we define culture in terms of "the artistic and social pursuits. art. By 1952. (Hanns Johst in Schlageter. in many institutions. used by the Encyclopedia Britannica (1983. if we define culture as "a particular civilization at a particular period" (CED 1991). and articular (upper) middle-class upbringing.. then we will teach history. and ended with the death of the novel. be considered as products of action. but is internal. in fact. including their embodiment in artefacts. though it is not the main focus. It tends to be associated with 'welled'. Acquisition is the natural. from the Center for Language and Crosscultural Skills in San tandsco. reportedon Radio4 (416/95). vital elts from their immediate environment which influence their development within the system. constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups. definition of culture proposed here is in terms of a shared mental model or map of the which includes Culture. not as an academic exercise. In the same way. As a first step in the organization of the various approaches to culture.. Their lengthy (165th) contribution was as follows: Culture consists of patterns. defining culture is important. includes a module on ature and history up to. the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i. then suggests that each of the definitions can be seen in terms of a variety of apEach of these approaches will affect the teaching style and content of a course on '~V. The metaphorical ion is apt.1 On Defining Culture Whenever I hear the word 'culture' . American anthropologists Alfred Louis Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn (1961:181) had compiled a list of 164 definitions. is formal is consciously taught. For example. strategies and cognitive environments which guide the basis of behaviour. And more recently. according to the Ifl-volume Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (Asher 1994:2001) we have further confirmation that "Despite a century of efforts to define culture adequately. Culture systems may. A course on the subject. By the eighties we have the following comment from Teaching Culture (Ned Seeleye 1984:13): "I know of no way to better ensure having nothing productive happen than for a language department to begin its approach to culture by a theoretical concern for defining the term". Again. vol. explicit and implicit of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols. on the other hand. Robinson (1988:7-13). What is fascinating is that the students more proficient in these subjects than the vast majority of people that they will be fiUlIslfltirlg Or interpreting for. and colere 'to till'. belief. and Edward Sapir quoted it widely: "Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge. or rather the ecosystem. interpreters. has not focused on culture as a shared system for interpreting reality and nizing experience. collective and quired rather than learned. has grouped the various definitions into two basic levels: external and internal. a quotation often attributed to Goering) People instinctively know what 'culture' means to them and to which culture they belong.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values. of the 164 definitions cited by Kroeber and Kluckhohn. Seeds continually absorb elements from the land. law. 'culture vulture'. Chapter 2. but not necessarily including. 'the old days' or some other appropriate time marker. the 20th century.1l:rll~S. ure their development. 'a man of culture' (rather than woman). and Culture for these people is fixed in time. 'cultivation'. However. This Culture is external I The results of a BBC commissioned poll to coincide with the 20th anniversary of the referendum. on the one hand. Trompenaars (1993:22) admits that "In fifteen years I have seldom encountered two or more groups or individuals with identical suggestions regarding the concept of culture". unconscious learning of language behaviour through informal watching and hearing.17 individual and relates to a particular and restricted body of knowledge learned. this is not the culture under review here. I release the safety-catch of my pistol. Learning. Defining. on the other hand. in 1995.

The bias towards one or another culture tends to be ideologically based. The main problem with an approach like this is that it is ethnocentric. Ives above all the culture's 'ground of meaning'. Howard trand (1989:51). change and movement have made the people more innovative. Even more recently both the British Council the University of Warwick have changed the name of their courses from 'British Civilizato 'British Cultural Studies'. Various authors have also used the analogy of computer programming to explain these t>Por a history and description of what studying British Culture now entails. a Baker (1996:13) points out that "However much they might differ in their attitudes to understanding of the meaning of culture. . and otherwise interpreting them the dynamic interplay of internal models and external mechanisms We will now look at each of these approaches in turn. This approach can load the student with facts of dubious relevance. their models for perceiving. change and movement".and 'liveliness' is only one of a number of ible responses to impermanence. for example. she says.e. banalities. "irnperence. habitual tterns of thought. The book was originally published by (emeritus professor) Peter Bromhead (1985:6) in 1962. its system of major values. or erred. from which the following extract is taken: I I I 11 The British do not kill thrushes or blackbirds or sparrows. that nothing is surprising". As a logical result. It tends to use the concepts of modelling. and talks of ping. Culture is. She argues that people are re-bound. agrees. In the past hundred years the British have done much to spoil their country. In this particular case it would seem that the substantive catalyst. been a move to put Britain into a European context. This is a good example of a Behaviourist approach: selected facts about what people do and do not do. the place more lively.2 Approaches to the Study of Culture uage and Culture Centre at the University of Houston. an implicit view that what the British choose to do. One wonders what a Pedro Bromcabeza might have included in a possible best-selling La vida en l'Espaiia moderna about British lack of care for people: the elderly. However. relating. which is also the title of her book. An ethnocentric approach to the teaching of British. its green variety and its modest scale. Director of the an approach looks behind the behaviour for the reason.. University of Warwick. people do not see the nes of their own culture. Our task is to understand rather an argue that we. it is the belief in the intrinsic superiority of the culture to which one belongs. with more recent . and certain prevalent assumptions about human nature and society which . Returning to Bromhead (1985:11). and observable through behaviour the form of things that people have in mind. discrete behaviours or sets of behaviours. This is a functionalist approach to culture." The change of hasis is a definite move away from Behaviourist ethnocentrism and purports to be above idual cultures. Culture is deeper than politics. such as lture's tolerance of uncertainty. Cognitive . underlying patterns and the culture-bound categorizing of experience.. see themselves and their compatriots not as culture but as 'standard' or " and the rest of the world as made up of cultures". mental reasons for the links between a particuause and a particular effect. 'Impermanence' in cannot cause London to be more lively . or not do. nctionalist • Behaviourist One book which exemplifies the behaviourist approach is the very popular Life in Modern Britain. approach attempts to account for internal.lilassnett is Professor at the Centre for Britishand Comparative Cultural Studies. It is these factors which form the basis of the cognitive approach. 2. the homeless. There is little or no contextualization of the behaviour nor an investigation as to why it does or does not take place. is also the underlying cause. shared and observed shared rules underlying behaviour. and. see Bassnett (1997). and so on. whether it prefers to focus on the future rather than the st. the functionalist roach tends to stay locked within ajudgrnental frame based on one culture's dominant. of late. and by 1995 was in its 18th edition. The reaction to change depends on other factors. have the truth. is naturally better or superior. foreigner should be prepared to encounter". values. Beverly McLeod's (1981:47) definition of culture in her 'The Mediating Person and Cultural Identity' is an indication of what is at the heart of the problem in teaching 'culture'. and so on. he often does state the reason for the behaviour. he explains: "So much impermae. Cornish fishermen do not slaughter mackerel wholesale. Being culture-bound. A principal theme tends to be the criticism of one culture gender) for having dominated another. does not help the student to reason. but they have done more to preserve its character. ::i. scholars working within cultural studies tend to of culture in political terms".19 David Katan 18 I Definition • behaviourist • functionalist • cognitive • dynamic Approach focuses on •. As we shall see when discussing the Meta-Model.. so of surprises. this type of language does not help to ify culture. or any other culture. • Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the belief that the worldview of one's own culture is central to all reality (Bennett 1993:30). of course. and only we. Le. and will orient a bup of people towards dominating or accepting domination. but instead focus on those of other cultures: "Most people of ver nation. However. re has. nor are they happy when others deplete the sea to satisfy today's demands. but this approach concentrates on institutions. "what seems natural and right". with courses entitled 'Cultural Studies'. The book opens with a panorama of Britain and its people. and is often accompanied by feelings of dislike and contempt for other cultures. and briefly discuss the teaching methodology implied. In king about London and how it has changed since 1921. such as Profile UK (McLean 1993) with unit headings such as 'How European is n?' Students are actively encouraged to compare their own country with Britain. Joyce Valdes (1986:vii). talks of a culture's 'central code': "The central code .

much of this book is devoted to explaining them. Kramsch (1993:228) categorically does not agree (emphasis in the original): What we should seek in cross-cultural education are less bridges than a deep understanding of boundaries. the fish and chip the traditional American diner. software of the mind. Using the analogy of the way computers are programmed . in fact. Or . tthan the teacher being the only active person. constantly being negotiated by those involved. many believe that. Trieste.. political and ideological. in learning about any other culture. but that it is a dialectic process between models of the world and external reality. through culture-bound evaluations made within the context of one particular culture. We can talk about and try to understand the differences between the values celebrated in the [American] Coca-Cola commercial and the lack or the existence of analogous values in its Russian or German equivalents... as the global village be~es more of a reality. so these changes in culture will lead to a levelling of difference.. It suggests that cultures model reality in different (rather than better or worse) ways. Robinson(1988:11) that "The concept of culture as a creative. :dy'naJlllic process of globalization of culture can be clearly seen in the converging style of eating habits among the young. According to Ritzer. 3-7 July. It does this. we cannot teach the bridge. one of the most influential writers in the field. though. In fact. it is in fact an acceptance that there is r approach to culture. First. rth approach to culture is to perceive it as a dynamic process. and indeed. 'meaning' in culture is not an independent fact to be found by lting books. one needs first to learn about how one's own internal programming functions in one's own culture. Nostrand (1989:51). at the World Sociology Congress" two of the ten sessions were dedicated to what in sociology led 'McDonaldization'. according to George Ritzer (1993: 1) who coined the word. feeling. • Summary of Behaviourist. It is taught in terms of institutions and culture with a big 'C'. and acting mental programs. for example. and that the difficulty of understanding cultural codes stems from the difficulty of viewing the world from another perspective. Claire Kramsch (1993: 11. 20 Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another . For example. states: this might sound like an admission of defeat. students or trainees become actively ved in learning about culture through 'hands on' experience. historical system of symbols and meaning has tential to fill in the theoretical gaps left by behaviourist. what Robinson (1988:11) terms the 'symbolic' definition of which is the subject of the next section. we will call such patterns of thinking. 1995. who has written a great deal on teaching culture. thus making sojourns abroad an essential onent of any course on culture. This view of culture suggests that. It is influenced. not of grasping another lexical or grammatical code. calls herself "a French woman. We cannot teach directly how to resolve the conflict between the two. The functionalist approach attempts to look behind the behaviour and account for it. In fact. We can teach the boundary. Brislin (1993:227-243). in fact.. to a greater or lesser extent. Valdes (1986). functionalist and cognitive ording to this theory. Encounters can also be simulated through cultural asators and critical incidents. It is. His thesis is. change is possible not only idually but in society as a whole. all these models suffer to the extent that they treat culture as a frozen state. the behaviourist approach tends towards ethnocentricity. However.David Katan 21 habitual patterns of thought. of the need for "inter-cultural encounters". in that the human brain can react and change in unexpected and creative ways. that each culture will have a set software which every member of that culture will acquire. has the following optimistic words as the subtitle to her book: Bridging the Cultural Gap in Language Teaching. This is a move away from the functionalist approach. cognitive maps or any other static system. Functionalist and Cognitive Approaches To summarize. 188). teaching at this level cannot simply erms of a teacher explaining facts. this t mean that culture is constantly changing. They also suggest that mediation between cultures is relatively straightforward. by past meanings and it establishes precedent for future meanings. iP'ia!IDglJle betweenCultures and Changesin Europe and the World'. Hofstede does accept that there are differences between a human brain and a computer. Those who write or who are involved in intercultural training at this level (in marked difference to Bromhead) explicitly state Who they are. National fast or cheap food places. and ove to the lowest common denominator: McDonaldization. She is convinced that language students cannot be expected to fully understand another set of institutions or even authentic material such as newspaper articles because the students (almost literally) cannot see past their own culture: The issue that is raised by the use of real-life materials is that culture is a reality that is social. These are very useful models for providing a general framework of culture. re are two important conclusions to be drawn from viewing culture at this level. Culture here is viewed as a ic process. Germanist and teacher of German in the United States" (at the MIT). but not ded. there are four or principles: example." e second point to note is that because culture is not static. The teaching at this level includes the presentation of generalized models of culture which all cultures are a part of. and where their own preferred patterns lie. Geert Hofstede (1991 :5). the Italian osteria and even the Malay satay centres are spurned by the young in favour of the queue-to-be-served hamburger. The cognitive approach emphasizes the context and boundaries.. efast-food principles are those of rationalization: a studied programmable system which pts to standardize both the process and the product. Clearly. However. . recess by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more Ore sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world". though.

Professor of Psychology at the University of New South Wales. However. What does not blur are the more ant yet invisible elements of what actually make up a culture. good supply for a good price. operational checklists. in fact. As Kramsch (1993:227. jeans and trainers. and dedicates his book on the subject of beliefs and change "with deepest respect to the peoples of Eastern Europe who have shown the world the power and the reach of true belief change". a dynamic process is going on. and on the right the reality in the Moscow aid's in 1995: importantly. applicable worldwide. Talbott's other points show that Muscovites do not go to McDonald's for same reasons as the Americans. points out: "Numerous and repeated changes may occur in. superficially. followed by Hollywood entertainment have. Pepsi means the same for them as for Americans". Below is a summary of the differences found by Talbott. Also. united the world. McDonald's management in Moscow have adapted to ovite ways by allowing clients to make McDonald.g. On the contrary. ond. the American hamburger. He is known for his work on human belief systems. At the level of behaviour. of both employees and customers in terms of standardized practices.22 David Katan product ordered and consumed in minimum time. Rationalization also pervades the language (verbal and non-verbal) to such an extent that counter-staff world-wide are observed for performance down to the last discrete detail. nor do they behave at McDonald's in the same way as Id be expected in America. sis in the original) says. e. many authors believe.s a 'slow-drink' rather than-a fastoutlet. not all agree that this particular dynamic process is the result of a change of belief. In fact. say. Whatever the reasons. and cognoscente of McDonald's in Mospoints out that none of the four principles actually fits the Russian interest in eating at riald's. waiting and sitting times. product range identical at home and abroad and reproducible worldwide. the four principles of McDonaldization are not. blurs national differences. as does Kaynak (cited in Seguinot 1995:65) that: 23 :thegrowing significance of global communication . On the left is the aIdization theory according to Ritzer. The box below is a much shortened summary of the performance evaluation sheet used at McDonald's for service-counter operations (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars 1993:42-43): The dynamic process whereby McDonaldization is changing the behaviour of consumers worldwide may also be seen at a deeper level.'ever. it may be the fact that underlying cultural beliefs have been allowed to surface as a result of a weakening political culture (see Mead 1994). as we shall investigate in more later. \1. Thanks to satellite TV. adoleslientsthe world over have more in common with their peers in other countries in terms of eir tastes than with other age groups from the same culture. The logist Shannon Peters Talbott (forthcoming).. As James Ritchie (1981:222). political systems without disturbance to the basic set of premises that lie behind behaviour". .. First. Age and lifestyle may be more important than national culture. the blurring of differences is at a visible level. there are two main points to mention here. "it is a fallacy to believe that because Russians now drink ola. One example comes from Robert Dilts (1990).

The principle of fines for speeding had been interpreted differently in Mexico. In fact. and none of y themselves totally cover all aspects of culture. cognitive and dynamic operate at different levels. What happens is that an imported system such as enforced speed control or eating at McDonald's dynamically adapts to an already existing way of doing things.David Katan 25 The American anthropologist Edward T. Hall (1990:83) gives us another example of local adaptation of what the Americans thought was a universal system well before McDonald's arrived on the scene. The company. brings them together. According to many (Waters: forthcoming).e. piadine. In-Mexico. Hence. The culture operating within the multi-ethnic workplace and within the domestic market will have some effect on the company.fl. taken from a training management course (Brake et al. The next stage is global. with the choice of whether to go global or local being decided on a day-to-day basis. When the company begins to export. one global product" stage. also has a global name. Must I reduces need fur cross-cultural awareness Global Global structure Need to manage cultural di verslty requiring inside and outside networked the company. i. working with diverse cultures. there will always be global localization (or glocalization). The final stage. particularly in countries such as Australia and the United States. and the market is global. and successful individuals and multi-nationals like McDonald's will always dynamically adapt to local cultures. paid the fine. The product. iness theory fits more closely the Bologna and Moscow McDonald's' experience than cDonaldization Theory: Multinational 11 Localized structure negotiatiions. but at over twenty. such as the Ford Mondeo. nalist. are also doing very good business. the more important the cultural factor. transcends the "one global market. but each individual working across cultures will react to the fact that he or she will be communicating with a foreign tax or legal system. not at sixteen miles an hour. Urban speed limits of 15 mph had been introduced in Mexico in the 1930s. a potentially richer culture. except for the most serious of offences. and the models underline the fact that the more a company develops.~gbal basis Importance of culture approaches to culture we have just discussed are not mutually exclusive. All multinational skills and abilities with a management skills critical underlltandi:ng of l()()lll for maximum rellponsiveness. The transnational company consciously responds to the needs of local cultures and exploits the strengths of cultural y within its own departments. as it happens. The result of global localization is. the culture factor affects every department. At which point there is no discussion. 1995:20). almost everyone knew someone who could help in tearing up the ticket once it had been written. We will now discuss a number of s which aim to unite these approaches. This dynamic process of interaction between the global and the local culture has been taken up in recent business development models. chains such as McDonald's have already reached their limits. on platform 2 the local traditional snacks. in fact. flexibility levels need crosscultural integrnt'1ng and ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ rn:cbuism of corporate culture ~ . though. business consultants. from research and development of new products and services to sales and after-sales service. It shows five stages in the growth and development of a company. McDonald's has also adapted on platform one by sharing its premises with a well-stocked Italian bar. According to Talbott and others. agent or customer. The various theories: behaviourist. A typical company begins life operating exclusively on the domestic market. it will need to understand and take advantage of cultural differences.and in rage. The global company experiences the effect of cultural diversity within its own departments. The foreigness will be compounded by language. according to the local informal way of doing things. An important second point regarding the invasion of McDonald's is that although there is now a McDonald's on platform one at Bologna station. A good example of the effects of culture at the domestic level is given in an Australian video entitled Cultural Diversity at Work: The Business Advantage (SBS 1996).oIl. and how it is used to communicate. They have all been suggested by social anthroists who are also. in America at least. it was possible not to pay. at that time. in much the same way as the discussion on translation and the cultural factor. it is again operating mainly with locally recruited personnel working within their respective domestic cultures. The traffic police will only give a ticket to the most serious of offences. When the company becomes a multinational. the importance of local cultures is being taken extremely seriously by big business. The intensity of competition will help to ensure that if a 24 is to succeed. The diagram below is an adaptation of a typical model. Not only are departments affected. . and does not even attempt to compete with Italian coffee. The American understanding and application of the rule starts from another viewpoint. The Americans working there were constantly getting speeding fines from a particular traffic policeman when they were driving one mile an hour above the legal speed .

Many bilinguals find themselves in the same position: they are bilintnot bi-cultural. The business training programmes now available include courses on communication and culture. We have mentioned in the dynamic approach to culture that learning facts is not enough. norms and values) and makes it clear that of culture is formed by values" (emphasis in the original). Adler (1991). but simply there are superficial and deeper layers. is included here. changing the language is also easy. which ~necessarily mean that there has been any cultural switch. while Hofstede has two main layers: and values. Medina Walker and Walker.David Katan 27 Modelling is a process which simplifies how a system functions. and so on. are aspirations. They are semiotic signs recognized as fig to a particular group. and has also written a number of authoritative guides. such as words. we have the core. Trompenaars calls this 'explicit'. ifically uses the metaphor of "skins of an onion" not because of any tears. Trompenaars' term is 'implicit'. Hofstede groups symbols. and the most inaccessible. can be taught and are much more useful in understanding how culture functions. and was onsible for opening management's eyes to the importance of the subject. and bridges between cultures cannot be taught. al. The norms relate to social rules of conduct. 1994). and he er take on American behaviour and say "My name's Bond. It contains basic assumptions about life which will have been handed down unconsciously from generation to generation. Values. (1992). which as the word suggests. dress. c()me heroes. de's Onion ofstede is one of the most influential authors in the field and has been quoted by including Trompenaars (1993:xi) himself. and toa large extent dictate. the modelling of SCreen heroes plays an ~ decisive role in providing culturally diverse role models. published by The Economist Books. They concern. bols' represent the first level of practices. The models discussed below come from some of the major influences on training in culture for the business community: Trompenaars. but they have much to do with long-forgotten survival responses to the environment: Figure 2: Trompenaars' Layers nks also to Geert Hofstede who introduced me to the subject of intercultural manageWe do not always agree. One. Finally. is not visible. heroes and rituals under practices (as comTrompenaars' artefacts and products. 9) chapter on defining culture is actually entitled 'Levels of Culture' . and they generally provide models of culture and cross-cultural communication skills rather than facts about a country or rules of conduct. Mead (1990. on the other hand. It is certainly true that twood. like a hairstyle. Brake. The middle layer differentiates between norms and values. (1994).le feels that with the advent of television. but he has made a major contribution to the field. and they will be referred to later in the book. who says the following in his 'Acknowlnts': 26 • Trompenaars' Layers Fans Trompenaars (1993:22-23) has been studying culture and how it affects business for over 20 years. This is the heart of culture. Ian Fleming's British secret agent is anything but an outsider. Hofstede. The organization of institutions. take ck in sending up the English who manage to speak French while remaining English other respect. His interpretation is in the form of a model which has three concentric rings or 'layers of culture': The outer layer is the most visible layer. Rambo and Superman provide (and reflect) one particular culture's belief in ero: the outsider who single-handedly defeats evil in society. Jimmy Bond". We will look at 'praclittle more detail. and Hall. Hofstede is unusual in highlighting the importance of real or imaginary . These unquestioned assumptions may have little to do with the present. how one should behave in society. they can be changed easily. on the other hand. Hofstede includes these in the ost superficial layer because. . which he suggests are as follows: values difference between Trompenaars' and Hofstede's model is that Trompenaars has view of culture (like Hall as we shall see). Brake et. A is any perceivable sign that communicates a meaning. in fact. Comedians.(. pictures. is entitled Riding the Waves of Culture and includes a chapter devoted to the meaning of culture. such as the legal system and bureaucracy. All the models provide useful ways of understanding culture. He has lectured and trained widely on the subject to a range of multinational companies. On the other side of tic Ocean. Models. This is the level of culture with a capital 'C': the artefacts and products. which may never actually be achieved. ede's (1991:7. ose who speak two or more languages. objects. gestures. It would be difficult e any of these as being the national heroes of any other culture.

As can be seen from the examples above. routines. well Hofstede and Trompenaars. are shown the waterline and will be discussed in detail in Part 3: . and is a major Hollywood hero in his own right. a presentation or a casual encounter. from "doffing one's cap". eory was popularized through the works of Hall. Brake et al. Emphasis added. as the has it. first coined by Florence Kluckhohn in 1953 ohn and Strodtbeck 1961). within a culture. At times. is e and lies precisely and only in the way these meanings are interpreted by the insiders. Value orientations are preferences for in outcomes over others. They suggest a division as follows: ws. as listed by Walker et al. and deservedly also provides the essential link between studies on meaning in language and meaning re. er (visible/hidden) divisions included Clyde and Florence Kluckhohn's 'explicit' and cil'. ritual is so much part of our way of doing things that we can even have difficulty in ng it. been used to describe culture for many years. Linton was one of the influential psychologists regarding role-theory. to comment on personal appearance. shaking hands. heroes and rituals are and can therefore be subsumed under practices: "their cultural meaning. rituals. most recent development of the Iceberg Theory has been made by a team of American ement consultants. having netted two Academy awards: "Count the number of truly classic animated films and the list would begin with Waft Disney's Pinocchio . cross-cultural ainer and writer. a number of heroes are pan-cultural. term 'value orientations' was. food and drink and methods of ting. a highly successful business consultant. customs. whether the context is an international conference. Rituals permeate all communication. while in Malay. a tacit acceptance that such ritual activities do take place and have little to do with the desired ends.. remains one of the great popularizers of 20th century anthropology and was also. ways of dressing. in casual conversation. gestures. important point that Hofstede (1991 :8) makes is that symbols. in fact. or rather Topolino as its own Italian hero.. however. According to Hofstede (1991:8). the accent is on the weather and activities (work. 28 Iceberg Theory eberg Theory has.). counter examples are in Italian: other examples of formulaic expressions which form part of more elaborate language e to be found in phrase books. under 'practices' we find 'rituals'. and one of the most enduring metaphors is that of the iceberg. health and family. On the other hand. Pinocchio (outside Italy) is associated with Disney rather than with Collodi. conversations tend to open with a food question ("Have you eaten yet?"). though we hear comments such as "[the meeting] is a bit of a ritual". 'just the tip of the iceberg' . Clyde and Florence Kluckhohn have similarly lauded. Even dictionaries are now beginning to include sections on also The Collins (1995) bilingual dictionaries have now published Frenoh-English n-English dictionaries each with over 60 pages on how a language-culture has what is to be communicated. For example. His theory on contexting is discussed in detail in Part 3. with his own magazine. These are all part of culture.David Katan 29 On the other hand. Communicative interference is the term used in linguistics to describe the problem of using Ll rituals in L2. a negotiation. The idea of the visible/invisible in culture is not new. and Ralph Linton's distinction between 'covert' and 'overt'. these are "technically superfluous in reaching desired ends. literal n is rarely appropriate. are considered as socially essential". In the 1950s... and revered by Hall as "the late great Linton". Mode of address is another example of ritual.. re of culture . we find that they travel between the cultures highlighting cultural similarities. and in particular in Silent Language reprinted in 1990). As Hall notes." Finally. the concept was one of many being used to explain e most important part of culture is completely hidden. If we look at Italy and the US and compare children's heroes. (1995:34-39). in fact. etc. In Italian there is a tendency. 7 Back cover text to Wait Disney video Pinocchio. in any conversation (except for restricted or artificial language talk) there is a ritual 'ice-breaking' or introductory rapport building chat. is formed by values". bowing. let alone understanding that another culture might have another and different stem. and saying goodbye . Each context will have its own culturally appropriate introductory ritual. most powerful elements of culture are those that lie beneath the surface of everyday raction. to the use of the following. and their works separately and together are still considered authoritats. We call these value orientations. The two American anthropologists.. a timeless adventure for all who have a dream in their heart". In English. The orientations. but they are just the tip of cultural iceberg. but which. He is certainly the most widely respected in his field. and what can be seen is. Italy has adopted Mickey Mouse.

which lies sometimes above. and has no meaning outside itself. on the other hand. They usually consist of ely formulaic constructions. that which can be measured accurately. or syntax and semantics (which is the study of idealized meaning) is taught. but only some of what he has written is quoted today. with a conventionalized prosody or typographical layout. by their very nature. an adult will invariably prompt him or her with a question such as do you say?" or "What is the magic word?". This model. e languages are. he does distinguish between denotative and cone meaning in terms of speech communities: "[Denotative meaning] refers to meaning is referential. One of its basic isolates is a second. learn this form of through trial and error with their family. breaking down the interaction into a series of mechanical moves: the culltomer & asking for repeat business always a thank you Yes hnical culture. It is no longer objective. stoms. Two engineers. but awareness is immediate when the convention ~d. They soon learn the textbooks may. Teaching at vel isolates the parts. refers only to the technical understanding of the concept and can be broken down into its 'isolates' and analysed. We are generally not aware of the conventions sur(in Hall's words) the routines of life. idea of English as an international language and the use of a standardized internationnical language are attempts at making both language and culture technical. has written a great deal on culture. oks" and manuals tend to be written at this level of culture. as we have mentioned. hence. taught. This is how grammar. In linguistics. The three levels • Technical culture • Formal culture • Informal culture or out-of-awareness culture • Technical Culture This is communication at the level of science. then. It is probable. and sometimes below the waterline. Let us take the word 'time'. in fact. such as Esperanto. which we all have a feel for. Roger Bell (1991:98-99) very clearly the concept of the denotative meaning of a word. al Culture s his second level of culture 'formal'. for Figure 4: The Iceberg • Hall's Triad ofCulture Hall.2. A technical 'second' has no feeling but a clear unambiguous scientific definition (CED): can discuss the tolerance levels of metals at this level with little or no communicalem. is scientific. which he termed a 'Triad of Culture'. and then later in school. 'technical'. This is the culture of traditions. In The Hidden Dimension (1982) he proposed an extension of the Iceberg Theory and suggested the addition of a third level. is taught as an independent and idealized system. The most e examples of this are the artificial or auxiliary languages. However.. The fact that they are culture free may well account for their lack of success tice.. however. As David Crystal (1987:56) says. it is possible to analyse the isolates of rsation technically. analysable and can be taught by any expert in the In a technical culture (apart from the study of areas such as particle physics) there is ne right answer. The lanat this level. Time' has a variety of meanings. Children. procedures and so on. For example. limited vocabulary". and indeed is. utterance or complete ough he does not mention culture. but is part of an way of doing things. We will look here in more detail at this theory of levels specifically with regard to culture and communication. very few would be able to define a second. .David Katan 30 31 the basic SI unit of time: the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of radiation corree transition between two hypcrfine levels of the ground state of caesium-l 33. we have seen with the McDonald's example. give the impression of belonging to technical culture. objective and cognitive and. if a child (brought up in Britain) forgets to say "thank you" at the tiate moment. the shared property of the speech unity which uses the language of which the word or sentence forms a part". this is equivalent to the denotative level. that Trompenaars has been influenced by the idea. depending on context and culture. These are the restricted languages Seaspeak. "The language is so tightly constrained ontext that only a small degree of variation is permitted . Technical time. we have seen that Life in Modern Britain was written within both formal and informal frames. It can. We have already used Hall's Triad in discussing the importance of culture in translation. which lture-free. It is mentioned in passing in a book entitled Managing Cultural Differences by Philip Harris and Robert Moran (1991:39-40) though in none of the other books cited here. analyses and then recombines them. deserves a great deal more attention. which will be based on an objective technical principle. on the surface.

After entering the lift (or rather elevator) he is joined by a neighbour. spelling out the the language becomes technical: chapter looks in detail at frames and levels. 'out-of-awareness'. without a trace of a smile. these patterns become technicaL So. Sherman'. for example. 'master of the house'. The book is set in present day New York. A service counter conversation. 'Hello. see and feeL . Sherman McCoy. The language of these routines of life would now in linguistics be called genres. leaving his luxury apartment to take the dog for a walk. this term was coined by the Washington psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan to distinguish that part of personality which we are conscious of (in-awareness) and that part which is visible to others but is outside our own awareness. An extract from almost any novel (or recording of any conversation) brings out the fact that it is the unconscious part of our brain which dictates our response. as Sherman finds. even more importantly. governed by the Unconscious (the outof-awareness) which is formed from crucial memories in childhood and guides our adult life. One of the researchers. It is the "not what-he-said but how-he-said it" leveL In terms of Speech Act theory it is the illocutionary force of a proposition that we respond to. The extract below. out-of-awareness. Though genres are not usually analyzed in everyday life (and hence are part of formal rather than technical culture) they can be scientifically studied and technically taught to others. as the following dialogue illustrates. It is this out-of-awareness level that we respond to emotionally and identify with. in fact. Sherman's reaction was not governed by his mind. Laura Gavioli (l993::!\90) points out that "the analysis shows that in presumably similar settings like self-service bookshops in England and Italy. Hall means that there are no 'rules' as such. It explains how they interact and help t individuals in attaching meaning to what they hear. This effect ed. Margherita Ulrych (1992:254) also points out. As the parent becomes more aware of the need to focus consciously on the so his language moves from the informal to the formal. As Hall suggests. for instance. According to Hall. rather than the locution. picking up the dog is the perlocutionary effect. It is also possible to change level almost . like the McDonald's sequence. this level of culture is sometimes above and sometimes below the conscious waterline. This concept relates back to Freud who believed that the conscious self is not. captures the 'out-of-awareness' emotive force of communication. • Informal Culture By suggesting the term 'informal' for his third level of culture. Onceanalyzed. we react out-of-awareness at this informal level ~ and not at the technical level. has made an extensive study of this particular genre and has been able to decipher the different Italian and English patterns in requesting information in a bookshop. s of Speech Act Theory. It is an illustration of a typical parent-child n. We are.32 33 David Katan accepted way of doing things. and finally. a realism that would portray the individual in intimate and inextricable relation to the society around him". contains much that is routine. Guy Aston (1988). that it is at the level of connotative meaning that we judge and react to words.' Only if we are steeped in the culture of a Park Avenue co-op apartment could we appreciate and react to Browning's "Hello Sherman". 'Hello Sherman' was on the end of a ten-foot pole and in a mere four syllables conveyed the message: 'You and your clothes and your animal are letting down our new mahogany-panelled elevator. from Tom Wolfe's book The Bonfire ofthe Vanities. Triad ivity can emphasize any of the three levels. This form of culture is neither taught nor learned. but by something much deeper: was furious but nevertheless found himself leaning over and picking the dog up the floor. different patterns of action are 'proper'". and Wolfe (1990:xvii) explains in his 'Introduction' that his objective was to produce "highly detailed realism based on reporting. he claimed. These are "the culturally or socially determined value judgements that are implicit in the semantics of a word". Pollard Browning: Browning looked Sherman and his country outfit and the dog up and down and said. in her publication on translation. but acquired informally and. In the first few pages of the book we find the protagonist.

nen (1993a:9) is clear that frames are culturally determined. In linguistics it now means 'about'. meta is specifically a higher order logical level which provides the key to interpreting the meaning of the level beneath. and in this book. sentences in the frame create a paradox and are basically nonsensical: I hate you I love you if we frame the statements. These frames can be each affecting the interpretation of what is framed below. at an art gallery we can either associate with the picture and forget the wider context of the gallery itself. her introduction: 'What's in a Frame?'. 'actor'. For a full discussion of the history and the various meanings of the term 'frame'. It tells us what to expect and also orients us in the area. 1988:122-37) pointed out that all animals communicate about their communication. 'schemata' and 'script'. however. For example. you' at a wider or deeper level. [Schema:] patterns of experience and assumptions about the world. A map also has very borders.35 Chapter 3. 'schema'. its inhabitants and objects. Ervin Goffman (1974: 10) follows suit by defining frames as "principles of organization which govern events". though she would ly prefer the metaphor of a moving film rather than a static picture or a map. differentiate between 'frame'. The example Sherman" from the previous chapter illustrates how even the most simple of messages comes with another message. There are always at least two possible interpretations. Robinson (1988:52) also discusses the same concepts from a cross-cultural point of view. though he also warns that "the analogy . yet sometimes the symbol. after Whorf ). It is more an indication of the "sort of thinking in interpreting" (Bateson 1972:187). have already mentioned. as did Goffman (1974). is to be understood in terms of the title of the picture. Many authors. as Bateson (1972:183) again notes. Hence 'metalanguage'. What is outside the picture and its frame is to 6. given unto us'. What is within the picture. in particular. becomes as important reality it represents: in the dim region where art. etc. For Bateson. A frame is not 'real' in the same way as our map of the world is not the actual territory it represents.. is excessively concrete". When we associate y with the picture. for example. Tannen ~ynthia Wallet (1993:73) define frames and schema in the following terms: [A frame] refers to participants' sense of what is being done.. human beings evolvedthe 'metaphor that was meant. The example Bateson uses the theory of frames is as follows. is language used to talk about language: 'verb'. More specifically. as understood by Bateson (1972). The relationship between the 'context' and 'frame'. grew directly out of the teachings of Bateson. 1993b) and. A map is designed to cover a '0 area. Frames and Levels The aim in this Chapter is to: • introduce the idea of the 'metamessage' and framing • introduce the theory of logical levels • link the various levels to theories of culture • introduce the concept of congruence • differentiate between culture-bound and non culture-bound behaviour stood from a wider frame. whereas context is an external representation of reality. The English anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1972. and the /S!lcflim. or we can focus on the as a whole and interpret the picture in relation to the other pictures. we might entitle the frame 'play': We have already discussed the fact that culture exists on a number of levels. there is the possibility that we mistake it for reality. a frame can be thought of as a picture frame. it is this metamessage which carries the force of the message and provides a clue to its interpretation. originally in the 1940's. The picture is a 01. for example Norman Fairclough (1989). This discipline. It uses frames to help clarify problems in human communication. and hence the frame. Bateson (1972:184-92) also discussed the closely related term 'frame'. between or among'.cnt that is felt to be more than 'an outward and visible sign. However. Here we the nature of levels themselves and how they function in communication. see Deborah Tannen's Framing in Discourse (1993a.' the flag which men will die to save. in the same way as our understanding of an event has a culture-bound frame. . as a basic presupposition. affect our interpretation Each frame will in turn be subject to a yet wider frame. a branch of cognitive psychology. the picture frame tells the viewer that a different form of retation is necessary. application of the concept is most developed in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (O'Connor & Seymour 1990:154-56). This wider frame will. For our purposes it will be enough to distinguish between 'frame' and 'context'. 'parataxis'. Bows Bateson in understanding a frame as an interpretative device. Following Bateson. and religion meet and overlap. one from the frame and one from outside. 'noun'. and this 'communication about' he called 'metacommunication' (1988: 124. that the map is not the territory. we have the beginnings of a hierarchy of meanings. The Greek suffix meta originally meant 'after. magic. lng the mental representation of reality to a map and reality to territory is a particularly F metaphor when talking about culture and translation. is that 'frame' is an internal psychological state and makes up part of our map of the world. Paradox Framed and Solved Bateson (1972: 187) says. as is Goffman (1974:18). Here can recognize an attempt to deny the difference betweenmap and territory. the hierarchy can explain how 'I hate you' is to be Hence.

or eating the menu card instead of the dinner [is] an error of logical typing. that a name is not the thing named. The same levels operate whether we are talking about an individual. Halliday. This principle has formed the basis of many solutions to problems of miscommunication and will be referred to often during this book when discussing culture.and so forth . the eo-founders of the discipline: 37 sequenced into models and strategies through language and communications systems. er. or. One of the originators of the concept of a hierarchy of levels of meaning was Bertrand Russell.? One of the principal differences. The errorof classifyingthe name with the thing named . I which is the ideal or idealized example held in a frame. who introduced the theory of 'Logical Typing' (Whitehead and Russell 1910). This postulates the fundamental principle that whatever involves all of a collection cannot be one of the same collection. though. if it were to remain a useful concept. change and communication function.apartment in NewYork. in formal logical or mathematical discourse. a hierarchy of frames which all biological or social systems within. Bateson (1972:280. must be subject to logical typing: "Either we must discard the notion of 'context' . i. has proposed a communication model. an organior a culture. similar frameworks for the organization of the communication process have been ed by linguists and ethnomethodologists. Many of these frames together make up our map of the world. ially isolated five levels. NLP World: the lntercultural Journal on the Theory and Practice ofNeuro-Linguistic Programming (first issue in 1994). which he develafter Bateson to explain how individual learning. for example. context of stimulus. is 'prototype'. K. It is who or what can be seen. 'the context of situation'. with the publication of a scholarly journal. The frame itself is an internal mental representation which can also contain an idealized example or prototype of what we should expect. The stated aim of NLP is the study of excellence and the modelling of how individuals structure their experience. However. In translation. 289) worked on the theory further (emphasis in the original): the theory asserts that no class can. ben this particular classification and others is that here.". every message contains another message: the metamessage. an oak-panelled elevator in a luxury p.. for example.or we retain this notion and. how individuals construct their map of the world. (1980:2). the S are hierarchically ordered and interrelated. or felt h the senses. context of context of stimulus etc. . following RusseII and Bateson. According to Dilts et al. a -one meeting. He also noted that context. As a relatively new discipline it has not always been accepted by mainstream communication theory or by psychologists.36 David Katan Another term related to frame. 'Linguistic' indicates that neural processes are represented. and Snell-Hornby (1988) has formally appliedthe theory to translation. as he says (1989:12) "serves to interpret the social context of a text.1). The reverse can happen. The levels are as Who? Why? Before discussing how the logical levels relate to culture or communication we should explain ina littlemoredetail what each level represents. . accept the hierarchic series . ne of the guiding principles behind NLP is Dilts' work on logical levels. How? What? Where? When? "vi.e. the environment in which ings are being exchanged". this situation may change. For communication to take place there will have to be some form of matching between the event in reality and the internal representation which would include the prototype in a frame. To summarize. ordered. used increasingly by linguists. (see also Chapter 10. and will generally (but not always) be visible to I Prototype theory was developed by Eleanor Rosch (see. that a class of classes cannot be one of the classes which are its members.. 'Neuro' stands for the fundamental tenet that all behaviour is the result of neurological processes. but this is less usual. The metamessage is located at a higher level and frames the message. that 'John Bateson' is the class of which that boy is the unique member. and haviour: What? nizations and individuals react to and operate on the environment through their behavBehaviour can be verbal or non-verbal. Bell (1991) discusses the importance of 'the ideal type'. be a member of itself. language and translation. and indeed the development discussed below has its roots in communication systems and family therapy. Rosch I 978) and discussed in detailby George Lakoff (1987).The environment could be an international conference.stimulus. Tannen (1993:6) notes that Bateson's findings have been more keenly taken up by researchers in communication and psychology than by linguists. 'Programming' refers to the process of organizing the components of a system to achieve a specific outcome. a eo-founder of NeuroLinguistic Programming (NLP). in time and space. in that the higher level organizes the inforn on the level below.rOniment: Where? When? level is the surrounding enviroment. heard. This is the sum of external factors or conaffecting an organization or process. One of the pioneers in the development of Bateson's findings is Robert Dilts. with it. in the case of Sherman McCoy.

Knowledge. The specific behaviour that satisfies a criterion (a conaIized value) is termed a 'criterial equivalent'. In organizational terms we have. Behaviour by an organization could be a verbal protest by the Americans about an international conference resolution. • Capabilities: How? Without appropriate skills or knowledge (capabilities). we can see that the approaches discussed earlier define of culture at only one or some levels. though we will also use the term rial equivalent'. In general. will tend to fulfil the negative prophesies because the capabilities will. its organization and repeated use as a strategy (which Hall calls 'action chains'). who we are. for either him or anyone else listening to be convinced that he speaks for America. bluff one's way through areas where there is no genuine capability. an individual Brazilian negotiator might decide to get up and walk away from a meeting. Alternatively. we may. depend on capability. information giver/seeker). This is a complex area. If he did not believe this. and ate us either away from or towards particular options..UTOW on it: they have a plus and a minus side". a university or a committee. person holding authorpecialist. attitudes and criteria. • Beliefs: Why? The next organizational level is that of beliefs. on the other hand. who is able to watch Sherman stooping down to pick up the dog. But if we do not have a sufficient command of it. are polar opposites and tend to be expressed as nominalizations. For example.. Attitudes. but they organize our visible verbal or nonverbal behaviour. certain strategies will be selected resulting in a particular behaviour in response to the environment. like any other organization or . !When X tells me. are the most superfid can change in time or through force of argument. As Hofstede (1991:8) puts it. This 'assumption' is of course only valid within own map of the world. lues embody what is important to us and act as fundamental principles that we live by. They provide the idealized examples (for instance of conduct) for the frames. Students who learn this learn not only to perform well at oral exams but in many other areas of life. believe we can speak a language. . organization or culture in that ular context. and are formed in response to perceived needs. as well as the values and that underlie overt behaviours". Sherman believes that he is a good citizen and that good citizens should follow the rules of social conduct. For example: I can't do (the presentation) It's impossible to do (the exam) I'm not up to doing (the interpretation) What if! can't do (the job)? No matter what one's actual capabilities are. of course.. The decisions to be made can e everything from general lifestyle to which TV programme to watch. and that culture. and from type of choice to menu decisions. This will be particularly useful when discussing the different ways res interpret the behaviour they witness. then objectively our performance will be limited.38 David Katan 39 interlocutors such as Pollard Browning. we will use the all-embracing 'values' when talking about general values or criteria. Who? s and beliefs will be determined by the type of person. When X listens and doesn't talk/When I feel good. Saville Troike's (1986:47-48) ethnomethodologist definition of most closely encapsulates the theory of interrelated logical levels: "Culture encomall of the shared rules for appropriate behaviour that are learned by individuals as a uence of being members of the same group or community. The American delegate (representing American interests at the international conference) will need good presentation skills to deliver his protest speech. When there is no interruption. will enable capabilities. will also change. "values are feelings with an .. as in the previous examples. for example. beliefs can be limiting rather than permitting. he would not have picked up the dog. . even if he had the knowledge. In linguistic terms this is the role being played (e. including many facets: core beliefs. People see a behaviour and assume that it is alent to a particular criterion or value. held to be true or valid. to a large be blocked. translating a manual. theoretical constructs. Beliefs are the vital motivational factor and can stimulate capabilities to such an extent that one can. We have already the identities of our example cases: Sherman McCoy. els of Culture regard to a definition of culture. without affecting core values. part of our cognitive environment or mental map. and be prepared for difficult questions. () find an individual's criterial equivalent we can ask the following question: "How do you that [a value in a particular context] is being achieved?". The Brazilian 'walkaway' will be based on a particular strategy designed to bring about further concessions from the other party. Similarly. Depending on one's values and beliefs. If they do change. Once they are formed they very rarely change. Capabilities also relate to patterns of behaviour. Beliefs are mental concepts. distinguishes between general guiding values and values in a particular situation. in fact. Without this knowledge. The Brazilian will believe that direct expressive action will help him achieve his target. Q: A: How do you know that [successful communication with X in context Y] is being achieved? When I see nodding/smiling/. desired behaviour cannot be accomplished. then ntity. he would not have picked up the dog.. clear and logical presentation of his views will be the best way to convince the delegates.g. and as such provide us with expectations about what the world should be like. strategies and skills are all invisible. Sherman' s behaviour is based on the knowledge of the informal rules of social conduct. a limited partnership. whether it be in the booth interpreting at a conference. We should also remember that the application of beliefs will. The s with a plus sign are what motivate us. have prepared his speech. This is the first level that frames the interpretation of behaviour. On the other hand. or mediating a negotiation. for example. a state chemicals company. Brazilian negotiator and Ameriokesperson. When X talks about self/When X asks me questions. if one has such limiting beliefs resulting es: Why? s embody values. operates at all levels. values. skills and encyclopaedic knowledge to be employed to their maximum. etc. Criteria guide choice in a context. The American delegate will actually need to have good presentation skills. A belief in one's capabilities to do something in a particular environment. the American will need to believe that a crisp. The they call 'criteria'. Our core values are the basic unconscious organizing principles that \JP who we are.

One of the articles included is entitled 'A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication' (Maltx & Borker 1992:171). Between the two there will be fuzzy cut-off points: : . There will also be times when there is no party line. As a the behavioural distribution curves will not quite overlap: . though the behaviour is atypical in Britain.: Greeting friends in B rituin warm smile noses (0 n c ej 8. we will find a distribution of behaviour g from totally stereotypic of culture A to atypical.g.. Men and women.: Greeting frien d s in Italy • Individuals are Members ofMany Cultures Second. while we are in the environment of one culture we may well be responding as members of a second culture.:r '------+--.It-~::-----Culture-bound Behavioural Distribution Curve E. there will be le within each culture who behave in the same way. 3 . Giuseppina Cortese has also done much research on these different worlds.!$~~~ Typical A typIcal behaviour behaviour Unrecognisable behaviour kissing shaking h an d s ru b b in g no se!'! kissing on th e cheek rubbing on rh e cheek (twice) E. entitling a recently edited book Her & His Speechways: Gender Perspectives in English (1992). Hence. for example. So. may well vote against the party line for personal reasons.'. So. The modality of the kiss is also differowever.. In this case members may act or vote according to individual conscience.David Katan 41 Below is a table linking the NLP Logical Levels to the theories of culture discussed so far: -sex and cross-ethnic communication as two examples of the same larger phenomenon: difference and miscomrnunication''. and then finally as unrecognizable as re A behaviour. Distribution ofCulture ird point to remember with regard to culture and behaviour is the fact that every culture s for a certain deviation or eccentricity. are highlighted in Tannen's You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (1992). as shown above. However. Trompenaars. but the typical behaviour shifted.g. we are all members of a number of different cultures. in which they say "We prefer to think of the difficulties in both For the sake of clarity. ltural difference can be manifested in a wide variety of ways. but also many who do not. while other cultural differences may be It of more personal choice: 40 Robinson Hofstede Trompenaars Hall ---t----~ Visible Explicit Symbols Heroes more personal choice • neighbourhood • friends • education • corporate culture • profession 3. both cultures would feel the same way about nose rubbing.3 Culture aud Behaviour • • • • • Culture is only one of the filters affecting behaviour Individuals are members of many cultures Culture is a cline Congruence Ecological fallacy • Culture is a Filter The first point to be made is that culture is only one of the filters responsible for affecting behaviour. Both cultures recognize kissing on the cheek as a sign of hip.. Her first chapter is tellingly entitled 'Different Words. and a free vote takes place. at the same time. places his 'norms and values' between 'implicit' and 'explicit'. Some of the differences ve little or no choice over (such as ethnic group). Greeting Friends culture will display the same type of behaviour curve. for example.': ~. the levelshave been harmonized. are as different in their ways of doing and being as any other cultures. and vice-versa. Different Worlds'. The problems in translating meaning from woman to man. This is rather like saying that members of a political party may accept the underlying party culture but.

However. Incongruence occurs when there is an internal conflict of values or beliefs. Sherman believes that he is both. we believe we are. And this is non-verbally crystal clear through p look" on his face and "the shrillness of his voice"..the object of his rising sap: You know the difference between you and me. the only way he can act logically is by verbally lying about the existence of another woman. as a first condition. as explained to him by his girlfriend . Edward Sapir (1994:36). Le. life begins to turn sour on him when he has to juggle two incongruent beliefs. this belief about himself clashes with another fundamental belief. a Master of the Universe. ere there is internal congruence.. In the same *f behaviour is to be seen as part of culture it will have to be congruent with a set of shared by that culture. On this level of analysis. A Master of the Universe cannot feel sorry. so her role (identity) and her our changed. She found in her discussion on psychotic discourse the patient in question underwent her psychotic crisis. We act according to our beliefs and values. Behavioural Distribution Curve • Congruence An important point in the Logical Levels Theory concerns congruence. So. Austin (1962) who introduced the concept of 'misfiring'. These he termed 'felicity conditions'. His incongruence shines through both visually and audibly and is due to a clash of two incompatible beliefs. a daughter talking to her mother. behaviour and appropriate environments. and I don't feel sorry for Arthur. he is attempting to prove to his wife that he is not in the middle of an affair (emphasis in the original): [Sherman's wife. Instead. points out that "culture is not mere behaviour. behaviour was. 'I love you. What he is suggesting is that culture-bound iour is part of an analyzable historical tradition. One important belief comes out in the following short conversation Sherman imagines he might have with his wife (emphasis in original): Look. if she has sense. as meaningful"..' he is using words to convey that which is more vincingly conveyed by his tone of voice and his movements. she never 'misfires' . it have to be proved to be congruent with that tradition of observable culture-bound viours. . Judy] 'Please don't botherlying. Judy. However. the metamessage his wife receives is that he is unable to believe what he is saying. which resulted in what he called an 'unhappy' tion'. variety of other people . It actually has its own internal nee and is not normally thought of as a thought disorder. His pupil John Searle (1969:39-43) developed Austin's ideas. terming one of the conditions 'the sincerity condition' . which is in fact generally categorized as an incongruent thought disorder. in his posthumously published leetes. as J. but sitting uncomfortably with this is the fact that he is 'a liar' . and the girl. Sherman? You feel sorry for your wife. and he was rotten.all of whom were not present: "What emerges is that [the spotic patient] uses language to mirror the different functions that each participant has in qiscourse. a young man still in the season of the rising sap. Branca Telles Ribiero (1993: 110) is one of the conrs in Tannen' s Framing in Discourse.' 'I don't know what you're talking about!' The shrillness of his voice made her laugh. and he was a liar. He is still a Master of the Universe. congruent with a slight modification to the beliefs he had identity. a sister talking to her sister. liar) is reminiscent of hrenia. but the levels may not all be working congruently. e turn now to the logical levels of culture. In the extract below. we can only (in general) be members of a lar culture if. We also need to 'sincerely' share beliefs about values. sensitive husband. 'I wish you could see the cheap look on your face. which permits him to believe that he can deserve more than just his wife (albeit only from time to time). strategy. So.. the belief that the proposition is true. on (1972:412) points out the supremacy of non-verbal communication in conveying boy says to girl. but a sensitive husband can.it's just that I. 1 still love you '" and 1 don't want to change any of it . pf his 'infelicities' was 'insincerity'. triple identity (Master of the Universe. Culture 1 Culture 2 Figure 9. Yet. Returning to Tom Wolfe'sbook and Sherman McCoy.David Katan 42 Cultures 43 to avoid upsetting his wife. Here his identity is 'Master of the Universe'. and (b) at the same time type of external incongruence is part of daily life. deserve more from time to time. The patient alternately took the role of a variety of participants: a patient g to the doctor (present). will pay more attention to those accompanying signs than to the words. L. He has had a very erable influence on the development of analytical philosophy since the Second World LHe points out that certain conditions have to be met before words can mean what they ~nd for successful communication to take place. for behaviour to be culture-bound. and goes y: "We might even say that the test of whether a type of behaviour is part of culture is lity to historicize it . when the spirit moves me.' [Sherman] 'Lying ~ about what?' She was so upset she couldn't get the words out at first. but significant behaviour". thereby (a) protecting what he believes he deserves.. in fact. a rather unexpected accoment for a 'thought disordered patient' l". as Sherman admits If: Master of the Universe was cheap.

such as the Alps. and mountains constituted cultural barriers to the lack of physical contact.. There should always be congruence between the levels.. as a result. The metamessage is non-verbal. or may simply be implicit from the context. There are many cultures one will be a member of. Nevertheless. The extract below comes from a collection of poems which dwell the life of the Alpine emigrants who were obliged to find work abroad. the examples which will be given in the following chapter to illustrate the various levels of culture lie within the cognitive environment of that culture rather than within every individual member. e will focus only on the aspects itemized above. However. pter 4. and culture-bound behaviour itself is on a cline from typical. he words of Leonardo Zanier (1995: 17). The Logical Levels model provides a unifying framework within which all the approaches to culture can function. Finally. Today there are very few cultures physically cut off from r cultures. are congruent with that culture. and any of these may act as an important frame responsible for behaviour. • Summary All communication is bounded by frames. . So. What is true is that every person within that culture would accept that those underlying cultural values. This would also include culture with a big C. 'hysical Environment '1recently. culture is not the only factor influencing behaviour. a migrant culture. Have to Leave. but relayed through the quality of the voice. poet from a mountain community in the Northtern tip of the Alps (Carnia. Italy). which he likens to a musical score. This mountain chain has witnessed massive emigraand. physical barriers such as rivers. The English translation follows the original Friulian dialect more closely the Italian. and associated beliefs and patterns of behaviour. and it is these frames which orient the addressee as to the metamessage. there are many cultures which still regard their physical boundaas cultural boundaries. through atypical to unrecognizable. we should be aware of what Hofstede (1991:112) calls the 'ecological fallacy'.r 11 44 David Katan • Ecological Fallacy Finally. clearly expresses the close relationship that is felt een the enclosed valleys and the unfulfilled desire of the inhabitants to be free from the onmental constraints. These are all framed at a higher level by the role or the identity. The Logical Levels function as a hierarchical series of metamessages linking behaviour in an environment to a pattern of strategies (how) organized by a set of values and beliefs (why). gestures. Logical Levels and Culture aim of this chapter is to: e a comprehensive view of how culture reveals itself at each logical level e practical examples of cultural differences oduce translating and interpreting issues follows is a brief discussion of some of the isolates' of the environment responsible for ncing culture-bound behaviour. One example of the physical environment having a direct bearing culture is mountains. They are not intended to be a conclusive the isolates of the environment but to provide practical examples of the variety of factors determine culture at this level. seas. which reduces the metaphor tra un cil CUSSl strent ('between a sky so narrow') more prosaic in valli COSl strette ('in valleys so narrow'): ith the advent of mass-transportation and communication links these physical barriers is is the term used by Hall (1990:27) to describe the individual building blocks of culture. and is entitled Free. It would be a fallacy to say that all the underlying cultural values are held to be true by every person in that culture.

The 'us' and 'them' in many countries revolves first around a north/south or east/west divide. emphasis added). in the very sort of Park Avenue co-op apartment that so obsessed the mayor . stUpid andtoowil1ing to have sex" Longman (1992:435) People fromVicenzaeat cat At that very moment. We receive information about e through our senses. In the US your address is an important cue to status (this applies not only to one's home but to the business address as well). Only 50 years ago. andthere· for without personality Young. By the beginning of the 20th century metalled roads linked mountain areas. see Chapter 2. For example.. With time many stereotypic comments such as the following lose their historical force: 2 Trompenaars echoes the same point. Climate. hill remarked "an iron curtain has descended across the Continent". And other characters are introduced in a similar way . right-wing politics. and today there are number of areas where either a political or religious regime has encouraged the drawing boundaries and the polarization of religious or political beliefs.. So. rding to Bill Bryson (1991:5). We should. fast car . [The 3 assistant district attorneys] had been born a million miles from Wall Street.. one of the first questions to ask someone on a first meeting is "Where are you from?". Yet the people still see and react to their "narrow skies". As Hall (1982:138) points out: In the US we use space as a way of classifying people and activities.. meaning the outer boroughs. and is part of. By the 60's televisions and telephones had linked every house. fashion and sophistication FromRQme downit's all Africa Dirty Southern thieves/the workshy South Northerners areallfat polenta eaters. points out:" "A people's response to their environment is conditioned by their cultural heritage. uicalEnvironment a1 geography will have a determining effect on culture at all levels. By the end of the Second World War. The weather. vtllgar. and more recently Alpine web sites now communicate with the world. is not immediately pan-cultural. As Sapir.. whereas in England it is the social system that determines who you are. The hero is introduced via his address in the first paragraph of the second chapter: TranslationlExplanation Thereis no civilization Northof London Thedirect.David Katan 46 47 have become less of an obstacle. loweducation. ly dressed. It is very important for most people to categorize others according to their physical environment. With the answer to this question we begin (and also often conclude) our membershipping of the other person's culture. though. from his lecture notes again. To their families. Brooklyn. The addresses in The Bonfire of the Vanities identify the people talked about. from the swell-looking doorway of 44 west seventy-seventh Street emerged a figure that startled him. strength of belief regarding the importance of territory is epitomized by the Balkan . Roosevelt. ate vironment is not only visual or auditory but also sensory. Queens. district and finally neighbourhood. and then by region. and the Bronx. motorways and tunnels began to criss-cross the barriers. Though we may never have had any direct or indirect contact with the person. and the world has indeed not only become a global village but a global multi-medial living room. it is not an immediate response. loud. to such an extent that there is a 'to balkanize'. their going to college and becoming lawyers had been the greatest thing since Franklin D. we will construct a set of behaviours for him or her based on certain value judgements and beliefs that we have about people living in that particular place. This may be even more true in America than in Britain. The dampness of much of Britain and the heat in the Italian giorno has an effect on. is the subject of headlines at much milder levels than would be the case in Southern or in any of the Americas.. we tend to attach an identity to an address.4 "Trornpenaars' Layers". Historically these states have been at war over territory. meaning to divide a territory into small warring states. the culture. remember that the response to the environment is not necessarily based on the present environment. Communication between people can now be instant. "loud. himself a naturalized American in Britain and writer on language and travel: . The "narrow skies" once constituted a physical barrier to communication and social interaction. bluntstyleof talking in thenorthof England The Northerner's negative viewof the SouthEast and its emphasis on appearance. Shennan McCoy was kneeling in his front hall. The more a group of le identify their beliefs with a physical environment the more Balkanization will take This is what Isiah Berlin called "the politics of the soil". stereotypically a national British preocn. and the meaning of the . We see nothing beyond what we are trained to see" (1994:73.

frustrating "that desire to be free". On entering mosques. as Hall (1990: 141) notes: "The size and scale of the United States and the feeling of open spaces are overpowering to visitors who are accustomed to the smaller scale of Europe". by most of the people most of the time. one of the stereotypic images of America is that it is a country where there is space to do everything. is an indication of one's corporate identity. so do TV and movie stars. The Mediterranean and Arab cultures will find these distances too restrictive. Here the climate defines a country. and in particular the reception. this is a strategy in response to the lack of physical space in Britain. is regarded as (too) informal by European standards. The same is true. The I of formality in clothes usually coheres with formality in behaviour. In our culture women walk to work in them for two reasons: comfort and equality. eakers' for instance have become universal footwear. • Space The natural environment can be oppressive. The Independent Magazine (02/09/95. though. As the American NBe 20120 report (18/08/ stated: Sneakers: everybody has them and everybody likes them. whether for work or play. but a land where it is always afternoon. with the introduction of air-conditioning. On the . while they fled the Mediterranean resorts under a torrent of rain. Built Environment dual buildings set the scene for the identification of institutions or social groupings: the us. open plan office. 'run down'. After the 1950s. For some other res these distances may be too close. and that if he or she should decide to find some otherjob in preference to fruitless hours spent staring out of the window. such as ian cultures. for example. the 'window people' (Mead 1990: 149) would be regarded a better position in the West. Rock stars perform in them. who have a formal set of rules about the appropriateness of the athletic shoe. are culture-specific.48 49 David Katal1 A Londoner has a less comprehensive view of extremes of weather than someone from the Middle West of America. Hall also suggests that the presence or absence of physical space is a determining factor in the culture-bound meaning of 'private' and 'public'space. The British place a high priority on private space.' The grey smudge of sludge that passes for the ocean turned a Mediterraneanblue . In the US it is one in Ur". be a flurry. i. the focus of attention changed from the outdoors and the community to the sitting room and the concerns of the immediate family. in erica. the type of furniture.e. Physical space needs are discussed at length in Hall's Hidden Dimension (1982:123). In Japan.14-26:19) focused on 'The Summer of 95' (emphasis added): 'All round the coast languid air did swoon. In comparison with the leans. and to the Italians and French in ticular. style can be seen as part of the environment. people used to sit outside on the porches and would chat to all-corners. there is only one pair of Nikes for every twenty people. however: employee moved to a window desk is being discreetly told that his or her services are crucial. Originally. American dress style. in 1995 Britain really did sizzle at ninety-five degrees Fahrenheit. Britain wasn't Britain anymore. and our response to it. At least part of this stereotype is borne out in reality. What a Briton calls a blizzard. churches temples there are specific written rules about appropriate dress and behaviour. There were hosepipe bans and people swam in the lochs in Scotland. On the other hand. He also regales his readers with the following headline from an old London Evening News (70 degrees Fahrenheit is approximately 21 degrees centigrade): However. this would not be regretted. and a British heat wave is often a thing of merriment to much of the rest of the world. ding to Hall. and for two solid months there was no rain. such as Zanier's representation of high valley sides and enclosing mountains which restrict space to move.. This level of informality is totally foreign to Europeans. and is usually the first sign of identity.a natural obsession and you can do almost anything in them. but only in America worn univery. American magazine Business Week (25/4/94) gave the figures for relative sales: "In Eu. are culture-bound. and so on. or space 'bubbles' as he calls them. they are particularly restrictive as to who is allowed into those private spaces. Sneakers have acquired a special mystique in ourmodern-day culture. When a definite change in climate occurs so can cultural priorities at the level of values. Brislin (1993:5-6) cites an article by Arsenault which discusses how the introduction of airconditioning (a man-made change to the local climate) in the Southern States of America made an impact on "the cultural value of Southern hospitality". the company offices. and certainly behaviour changed radically in response to the sun. The criteria. especially when gender is taken into account. 'warm'. now move on to briefly discuss some of the more man-made-aspects of the environment influence culture. for example. from the managing director's office to a friend's living e size and position of the office. but with unwritten rules. in response to the hot and humid summers. which also includes a useful chart of approximate accepted mainstream North American distances (in feet and inches) and the associated language: 11 noted that these distances. In a special ten-page feature. where sneakers are not widely worn for casual street-use. In Japan it is one pair for every fifty people. though the meaning finformal or 'casual' is strictly culture-bound. This feeling is then generalized whole institution and to the people working there. one in two shoes sold is an athletic shoe. also automatically change behaviour according to building. We all tend to size up an instituy its entrance: 'imposing'. would in Illinois or Nebraska. Statistically.. They're a symbol of fun and joy . and indeed whether or not one has fice.

David Katan

50

other hand, it is not unusual for American politicians or businessmen to be pictured wearing
sneakers. For the French and the Italians, the wearing of casual dress signifies non-professional
behaviour. The distinction between professional and non-professional contexts in these countries is less clear-cut.' In general, casual dress for professionals in Europe remains formal (by
American standards), even if the environment and the subject of conversation is not related to
work. However, at the 1997 Denver Summit of the G8, all leaders (including the French and
the Italian) gamely dressed up as cowboys for Bill Clinton. The only exception was Germany's
Helmot Kohl, who refused. He felt that he would-look ridiculous. This may well have been a
personal belief, given his particular size and shape.
Dress not only delineates national cultures, but almost all other cultural groups. The most
immediate and obvious case is that of men and women. There is even a word for the infringement of the unwritten Western gender dress code: 'cross-dressing'. However, what counts as
cross-dressing is culture specific. The sarong or pareo, a wraparound skirt-like garment, is
equally worn by women and men throughout Southeast Asia. This would be considered inappropriate wear for men throughout the West. Closer to home, it borsello, the hand or shoulder
bag carried by (older) men in Italy, is still considered effeminate in Britain.
Dress also delimits class in Britain, to such an extent that the language categorizes class by
dress: blue or white collar worker. There is a literal equivalent in many languages: colletto blu!
colletto bianco (It), col bleulblanc (Fr). In Italian there is another identification by clothing:
tuta blu/blue overalls. Turkish, apart from having borrowed the same expressions, has "the
poor man particular in his dressing wears white in winter", which means to look ridiculous
when trying hard to be appropriately dressed.
At a practical level, all those involved in face to face cross-cultural encounters, such as
interpreters, will have to dress appropriately if they are to be regarded as professional and
competent. However, what 'appropriate' means is culture specific. Italy and France will tend to
the more formal in comparison with Americans. General cultural orientations will need to be
checked (see Part 3), but more importantly, open eyes, previous contact and the use of a
cultural advisor will always be the best strategy.
Translators, who deal with texts rather than face-to-face encounters, need to be aware of the
culture-bound meaning behind references to dress, as in the following texts. Often a literal
translation will be of little help to a target audience. This is quite simply because each culture
has very strong beliefs about the identity portrayed through dress style. For many "you are
what you wear", as the following two extracts show. The first is from a Sunday Times series on
Wordpower(1994, 3:21; emphasis added):

While some people would not be seen dead in a shell-suit, some feel equally uncomfortable in
Lagerijeld
ani creations. Yet over recent decades certain modes of leisurewear have become
.
situations that do not require business dress. There are still subtle distinctions
BJtS).

Behind each of the emphasized words are culture bound beliefs regarding identity. The
same is true with this second extract, which explains change in beliefs in terms of dress. It is
from an article entitled 'Ruled by the Sixties', which appeared in The Sunday Telegraph
(8/3/92):

51

Major, ex leaderof the Conservative party] speaks ... in that neutral Sonth-East voicewhich
listener to make classjudgements. For this was one characteristic of the Sixties: even the
modes of ijpeech and dress.
Cambridge in the late Fifties, jeans were rare. (I CM recall only two
ore them) ...
sports jacket and Rannel, corduroy or cavalry twill trousers. Suits,
.
, were frequently worn ...
double-breastedsuits and the sober-colouredshirts [of British political partyleaders
lurks a T-shirt witha Sixties slogan: "Do your ownThing".
ranslators and interpreters also need to be aware that clothes change their symbolic mean-

as they cross borders. For example, the Barbour jacket in Britain is worn especially by
le who live or spend time in the country, and especially so by the genuine country 'Green
ie Brigade'." More recently, the Barbour has also attracted the attention of the Sloane
er (emphasis added):

Barbour jacket in Italy has a completely different message, and price tag. It has never
worn by country people, but by those who wish to have a 'casual' jacket which can be
both for the office and outside. It would be more likely to be worn with Fendi rather than
lington boots. There is also a certain social status gained from the fact that Barbour symzes aristocratic English.

/faction and Food
variety of food and drink and the taste is also a facet of culture. The olfactory organ is
'cularly efficient at registering smells. But what constitutes a 'smell', 'perfume' or 'odour'
nds on one's cultural upbringing.
milk products are rarely consumed by Asians, they can perceive the fermentation of dairy
ts emitted by sweat glands. Hence, westerners 'smell' as far as Asians are concerned.
.ers, On the other hand, complain about the smell and taste of the Asian (particularly
) speciality, Durian fruit. Most Westerners describe the experience of eating it as a cross
en chewing gum and inhaling lavatory cleaner. Yet this fruit is treated with the greatest of
t in Malaysia, and selected fruits are often brought by friends when invited for dinner.
tandably, in more cosmopolitan Singapore, Durians are not allowed on the spotlessly
d odour free underground system.
British stereotype of the Mediterranean (and the French in particular) includes the smell
ic. 'Garlic' for the British collocates with the verb 'to reek' (Le. to have a strong and
sant smell). Whatever the culture, olfaction is part of what Hall (1982:47) calls 'the
dimension'. He observes that "The body's chemical messages are so complex and
name given to the richer classes of British society who enjoy country life esp, hunting,horse riding

3

See the Action (Being/Doing) orientationdistinctionin Chapter 11.9.

Longman (1992).

David Katan

53

specific that they can be said to far exceed in organization and complexity any of the communication systems man has yet created as extensions [such as the computer]".

These reactions are totally natural and normal, though not particularly useful for crossral encounters or as strategies for improving communication.

52

Temporal Setting
In Western cultures time can be seen to pass, and ingenious devices have been devised to
measure it. Though time cannot actually be observed, change can be, so we reasonably talk
about 'the 60s culture', 'the Thatcher years', 'the Me generation', 'the caring and sharing
nineties', and so on. Each period has an identity which constitutes a framework for that
culture.
Literary and artistic styles change, and literary critics argue as to whether a text needs to be
analyzed with respect to its temporal setting. The structuralists argue that there is no meaning
outside the text and that the time of writing, or the time of reading, has no effect on interpretation. But the number of new interpretations of classic texts over time shows that accepted
response patterns do change with time as the following examples taken from book catalogues
show:

11

FeministReadingsin MiddleEnglishLiterature
The Wife of Bath and all her Sect.
RuthEvans and LesleyJohnson
• How has feministcriticismchangedthe way that medievalliteratureis read?
Routledge Literature Catalogue (1994:41)

FRENCH LITERATURE
... recent stage adaptations of Liaisons Dangereuses and Hugo's Les Miserables show that there is
much to rediscover in One of the world's richestCUltures, through a continuingprocess of translation
and re-evaluation, vital to our understandingof our nearest neighboursand of ourselves.
Penguin Classics Catalogue (1995:35)

In conclusion, to quote from Sapir's lecture notes once again (1994:73): "What is important
is environment as defined by culture - what the natives have unconsciously selected from the
environment, and their cultural evaluation of it".

4.2 Behaviour
This level of culture informs us about what a culture does, its perceived actions and reactions. It
is the level of do's and don'ts that a culture tells itself, through proverbs or old wives' tales. In
the table on page 53 is some good behavioural advice on bringing up a daughter and getting
her married (in Turkey)."
It is also at this level that stereotypes about other cultures are most prominent. The following
examples of 'behavioural' comments made by the Italians and the English about each other are
taken from Jocelyne Vincent-Marrelli's (1989:465) article on the subject:
OH inglesi sono fl'eddi/The British are cold
OH inglesi sono distanti/The British are distant
OH inglesl sono ipocritllTheBritish are hypocrites
Oll hlglesi sono pignoli/The British are pedants
.
OH inglesl sono ottusi e lngenuilThe British are melitally

5

I am grateful to Sule Aytac for her excellent Turkish examples.

do's and don'ts in Turkey

Meaning
If you don't beat up your daughter you will end
up beatingyourself up!

Do not leave it to your daughter; she'll either
marrythe drum player or the clarinet man.
[The implication is that the daughter's choice
may look and sound interestingbut he won't
earn good money or have a highstatus].
It is unlucky to marry between the two fetes.
[Ramadan and fete of Sacrifice].
Each culture has its own rules of behaviour, and this observation has been noted for some
e. The traditional aphorism for both tourists and business people, "when in Rome do as the
ans do", comes from St. Ambrose (c. 339-397), the bishop of Milan. He was asked the
owing question by St. Monica and her son St. Augustine: "In Rome they fast on Saturday,
not in Milan; which practice ought to be observed?". He actually said "Si fueris Romae,
ano vivito more; sifueris alibi, vivito sicut ibi". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotans (1981) translates the response as "If you are at Rome live in the Roman style; if you are
ewhere live as they live elsewhere".
The French have also adopted the aphorism Cl Rome if faut vivre comme les Remains.
terestingly, the Italians themselves have decided to ignore St. Ambrosio. Their 'equivalent'
Paese che vai, usanze che trovi (CID 1995), "the countries you go to, the customs you find",
"different country, different customs". This advice is at the level of environment - there is
advice on how to behave.
Since St. Ambrose's day, guides to behaviour can be found everywhere. They tend to be
gorical, laying down behavioural rules. Below is a deliberately extreme example of what
rists should and should not do in Reggio, Italy:
Corriere della Sera, Sette

Translation

Giusto e sbagliato a Reggio

Right and Wrong in Reggio

GIUSTO
A cena si va dl London Bistrot,
al Boccaccio 0 da Giovanni.

RIGHT

SBAGLILfI'O
Non si va piu a teatro, perche,

praticamente, una vera stagione
non c'e piu.
(Sette, N. 25, 1993)

Dinner at the London Bistrot, the
Boccaccio or Giovanni's.

WRONG
The theatre. Basically, there's no
real season anymore.

There are innumerable guides to conduct, and many of these socially accepted rules of
haviour change from time to time; for example V and non V, which was a guide to upper

55

David Katan

54

class language usage in Britain. It was originally published by Alan Ross as an essay, and then
incorporated in Nancy Mitford's highly popular Noblesse Oblige (1959). It was U then (according to Ross) to say 'looking glass' and Non-U to say 'mirror'. Today, his U forms have
become obsolete, and this includes much of his 1969 update: Who Are U? In 1969 (he claims)
it was still considered non-U to say 'toilet', while the U form was 'lavatory'.
According to Il Vero Galateo Moderno ('The Real Guide to Modem Manners'), published in
1996, Italian etiquette has also changed recently. It is now not appropriate to say "buon appetito"
at formal lunches whether in the restaurant or at home (Montorfano 1996:82). In theory this
should obviate one cultural translation problem noted by Bassnett (1991:22) - at least in part.
She rightly points out that there is no English equivalent for the continental invitation to have a
good appetite.
Advice on appropriate behaviour has recently spread from what is etiquette in society to
what is etiquette (rather than just good style) in professional and academic writing. The advice
reprinted here comes from The Open University (1993 :8). It tells the potential writer what he or
she should do and not do when writing about ethnic groups:"
Avoid patriarchal or white philanthropic approaches to black people, for instance equating
white as civilized or best, or black with backward or of less worth ... Make sure that
cultures and societies are represented accurately, not from the author's ethnocentric point
of view.
Observable behaviour (or advised behaviour) is part of a larger pattern, which is the subject of
the next level.

4.3 Capabilities/Strategies/Skills

cultural factors also play a part, and you cannot jump to the conclusion that the same
factors that influence your perception of the appropriate medium are significant for the
other culture. In other words, you need to consider the cultural implications of your selection before committing yourself.
Maria Sifanou (1989:527), for example, reports different strategies regarding the use of the
hone. Her conclusion is that "In England, the primary function seems to be transactional,
hereas in Greece, the principle function seems to be interactional"(emphasis in the original)."
As we shall see in Part 3, the use and meaning of, for example, direct face-to-face
ommunication rather than more indirect formal written memos will depend on a culture's
riorities in terms of text and context. Not only is an appropriate use of the channel cultureund, but the style is too. A common remark about another person in many cultures begins
ith "It's not what he says but how he says it that I like/hate", When this happens in a crossultural encounter, very often individual personality will have little to do with the evaluated
ehaviour. The observable visible behaviour will simply be an example of conforming to a
ifferent cultural pattern (Mead 1990: 162):
A voice feature that is stereotyped positive in one culture may strike the outsider very
differently. The listener reacts in terms of his or her own cultural preferences, and hence is
in danger of stereotyping the speaker on the basis of voice.

This is the first level of interpretation of behaviour or environment. The focus here is not on
what is read, seen, heard or felt, but how a message is transmitted and how it is perceived. It is
also at this level that culture-bound frames are accessed. The frames tell us what to expect; and
we tend to assess or judge in terms of what we expect.
• Language Channel and Style
With regard to how a message is sent and understood, there are a number of culture-bound
factors affecting interpretation. These are discussed in depth in Part 3. However, it will be
useful to give an idea of a number of practical differences before going into detail.
The medium is the means by which a message is conveyed from one person to another.
There are three main channels:

• written
• spoken
• non-verbal,
The choice of medium, and how it will be used, will depend on a number of factors, such as:
6

The Open University style guide is discussed later under 'Political Correctness', Chapter 5.3.

Hall (1982: 142), for example, notes that distance between people is maintained partly through
and that what is considered appropriate varies from culture to culture: "In
'l$ngland and in Europe generally, Americans are continually accused of loud talking". For the
~mericans, loudness is part of their openness showing that they have nothing to hide. The
glish, on the other hand, interpret loudness from within a different cultural frame. We have
eady mentioned that space is an important variable affecting culture, and Hall for one
lieves that soft speaking is another important strategy for the English as a response to the
k of space. As the lexico-grammar changes according to space bubble, mediators need to
particularly aware of how their own space bubble will be interpreted and tune their voice
language accordingly.
Finally, Hall & Hall's advice (1989:28-29) to those hiring interpreters is to make sure that
e interpreter's accent and dialect is acceptable to both parties, and that their use of language
fleets a good level of education. They point, in particular, to problems with the Japanese who
ply may not be 'forthcoming' if the interpreter has an inappropriate style. The French and
~ppropriate loudness,

?'Transactional' and 'interactional' refer respectively to communication exclusively for the transmis*10n of facts and communicationwhich has a personal, social or phatic component. See Brown & Yule
(1983).

We have already noted one difference between a British and an American hierar.and never thepavement without looking first. The removal of the business ket is perfectly acceptable behaviour in many business situations. These will be in a hierarchy of 'feeling' or ortance. but the metamessage fers significantly. In the West. on the other hand. where most of the population is in a situation of diglossia. but e metamessages that are received while discussing business may well be misperceived. Interestingly. and affect the business itself. is that the Thames Estuary speak is engulfing large parts of England. either the preferred national (a small minority) or a regional dialect (the vast majority). An open door here suggests disorder. If you are American. what counts as appropriate siness strategy in one country may well be regarded as banditry in another. Italian drivers aren'tkeenon stopping when they cansimply andeven on pedestrian cl'ossings youcan undergo some closecalls. Againthe answer is to be and stride straight out withgreatdetermination. A closed office door. The British tend to value privacy over openness. To a large extent this connotation will end on one's values or cultural orientation: positive interpretation recommendation cut/commission gift patronage negativeinterpretation string-pulling bribe/kickback palm-greasing nepotism map of the world contains many values. Much strategic (or patterned) behaviour is carried out out-of-awareness. One example is the 'loss' of the 't' sound in all but the word-initial substituted by the glottlestop. and may well be viewed gatively. untidiness.see Katan (l996a). America and Germany for example) oval can often signify getting down to work in a warmer. and they involve a variety of behaviour. The same strategic behaviour (removing the jacket) can actually mean t's relax and get more comfortable".Justwalking around. given the choice of talking to a stranger about the weather or about your ivate life a British person will tend towards the former and an American towards the latter. The metamessages clearly understood within the intended cultural frame. while the Americans value openness over acy.. then the metamessage that the participant is ready to "get down to business" and work hard on the subject at hand. it very clear what you're goingto do. emphasis in the original and added). 8 9 57 David Katan GETTING AROUND . If we take business as an example. strategy with a ber of alternative metamessages. 3:21). The secret is to .. Rolling sleeves up is simply unprofessional. and indeed fossilized as a set of rules or action chains. If 's is associated with rolling sleeves up/ die hemdsaermel hochkrdempelm. using yourhorn as much as possible. Most of the (British) frames contain negative stereotypes about accent. The authors finish by noting that "This facet of communication cannot be overstressed. according to him and a number of other influential people. However youget around on theroads. EstuaryEnglishis a termcoinedby DavidRosewarne of BirkbeckCollegein the 1980s. Finally. and then do it with determination. once learned. but it is only used in professional ations figuratively. The business card in the West will usually be exchanged during leave taking.56 Germans are also mentioned as sticklers for a 'well-educated' and 'well-mannered' style. Italians acquire both the national and the local dialect and can therefore switch dialect. The following tourist guide. Each culture. Italy. it is usual to shake hands and to exchange names and company position verbally. there is the same expression for rolling sleeves. foreign accents do not always generate such an automatic negative response among the British.. on the other hand. 'how' we speak has been the subject of earnest debate for some time. and aybe disrespect (Kramsch 1993:209). an extract from Italy: The Rough Guide (1990: 14. In Anglo-Saxon countries (Britain. Fortunately. Below is an mple of two interpretations of the same act. tends to fossilize. as Sapir (1994: 105) points out in his lecture notes. for example. gives strategic rules on how a pedestrian should act in front of Italian motorists: For a discussion on standards of English. If they do change dialect it is generally incongruent with identity and understood usually as an imitation of someone else or another culture. signifies privacy. many are used to promote products. In Japan. it will suggest "I'm open for busi". Two short examples will suffice. a formal business introduction begins with a bow and an exchange of business cards. the same is not true in other countries such as Italy. has its own way of conducting business. The way we speak is immediately interpreted according to ready-made frames..4. • Rituals We have already noted the existence of rituals in Chapter 2. In British English. as George Bernard Shaw famously remarked in the Introduction to Pygmalion: It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without some other Englishman despising him.don't assume thatas a pedestrian you'resafe. the maxim 'business is business' may well be true.(The Sunday Times Wordpower Series 1993. Hence." and recently an article on 'Estuary English'? says: "The way we speak says just as much about ourselves as the clothes we wear. and tends to take place only among people who know h other. and cuts right across class barriers". Communication acts are often formalized. and it's business as usual". bearin mind thatthe traffic can beappalling. The distinction between Italian and dialect has no formal correlation with social hierarchy . The 'how' of speaking. It is a varietyof modified regional speechgroupedbetween RP (Received Pronunciation) and London speech. • Strategies Guides to behaviour can either be at the level of isolated 'do's' and 'don'ts' or they can be at the level of strategies. the office door is closed in Germany. The British in general acquire one dialect. . such as French for perfume and Italian for ice-cream. and of '1' in the word-final or near final position. in particular. Leaving the office door open at work is another. more cooperative atmosphere. Indeed. too. No mention is made of position in the company. the signal is "everything in order. yet it is one of the most frequent violations of the unwritten laws of communication abroad". The Italian words (in the left hand column) can interpreted as either good or bad business practice. However. The danger. in cross-cultural encounrs misunderstanding of the unconscious strategy (or pattern) can easily take place. If.. Strategic rules are more useful than behavioural rules because they can be applied to a number of contexts. Anna and Giulio Lepschy (1988: 12) note the class connotation of accent in Britain and confirm that "The situation is quite different in Italy . usually unconscious.

Hence. The informal. on the other hand. As far as they concerned the only logical congruent explanation for Jesus washing feet that coincided their map of the world was a typing error . values can interpreted in different ways. the Japanese for instance. and what does it avoid?". Culture-bound beliefs affect the meaning we assign to language and to behaviour and are the is for cultural misunderstanding. for example. The variant orientation will tend towards the opposite end of the orientation cline and will be held by those who historically do not have power. Other (Anglo) American proverbs show similar beliefs ut 'present time': 58 4.even if grammatiy and lexically correct . so out-of-awareness that they are believed to be true. Believing a proverb to be a fact of experience rather than a lief means that the frame of interpretation for the CED is 'reality' rather than 'a saying' or 'a verb'. Meaning attached either to a visible behaviour as above or to a word itself has little or ~hing to do with reality. because it saves time. suggests listening for these and ing oneself "What does a society recommend.may still clash with the belief system or the cultural viewpoint of readers". However. The lawyer in question regards lunchas a waste of time. These beliefs will determine which particular guide to follow. er cultures (French.always in terms of time. A hierarchy will mean that one value will prevail over another. As we discussed 'er. Culture-bound beliefs can be analyzed through common sayings and proverbs. Hampdenmer and Trompenaars note (1993:135): "One of the consistent competitive advantages ibuted to the Japanese is that of strategizing long-term". Groups of people tend to behave according to particular orientations. and to a certain extent Italian) tend to interpret practicality. Nancy Adler 10 Theseconcepts wereoriginally discussed by Kluckhohn between 1950 and 1953. We will be focusing later on the dominant/variant orientations of the professional and the working classes. believe that practicality includes the future. out-of-awareness level is the one we react to. The original article is reprinted in Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961). The Vietnamese readers believed that appropriate behavfor Jesus might include the washing of hands. it is a mmonplace fact of experience". d that the future is not practical. One example they give is Jesus' washing of the disciple's feet. 80). Beliefs provide the motivations and the reasons for doing or not doing things. is a group of values which act together and determine a particular orientation or. it has to do with individual and collective beliefs.1 David Katan 59 An important distinction with regard to values and culture can be drawn between a hierarchy of values (such as openness before privacy) and a cluster of values. we can agree with Adler that proverbs contain beliefs which are very deepted and. We also notice that Americans believe practicality to be linked with the idea of the present. Other cultures. are connotative and depend on one's territorial. cultural 'dimension' . A cluster.5 Beliefs The fact that people who are part of different cultures do things differently in similar environments is determined by a system of values articulated in terms of beliefs. whether it be The Bible. However. in the same text. The Koran (or Qur'an). Highly actical and successful company policy in Japan. a criterial equivalent arding a business lunch might well be a sandwich in the office. The values in this table have culture-bound meaning or criterial equivalents. for example. and relates to lawyers and the way theybill clientsfor workdone. in Hofstede's terminology. or where service is icient. in John Grisham's The Firm. word meaning can be understood on a technical (denotative) level. political and gious beliefs: . These embody beliefs that Americans Id to be true. according to the CED a proverb is more than just a belief. She goes on to duce an interesting list of North American proverbs. this is not only a problem for face-to-face ounters but is just as important in translation. a cross-cultural specialist at McGill University. An interesting point made by Florence Kluckhohn (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961:1-49) in her work on value orientations is that in any culture there will be both a dominant and a variant orientation.because a clientcannotbe billed. 991:79. Hence they provide the reasons for following certain strategic rules of conduct. a formal or an rmal (connotative) level. and I have added an example of criterial uivalence for each general value. The translation Vietnamese resulted in laughter. and it is at this level that culture can be observed. Adler the general values attached to the proverbs. 11 Billable time is used. for example.hence the laughter. in terms of a restaurant where there is a quiet corner to talk. The ings below. as the Bible translators John Beekman and n Callow (1974: 160-61) point out: "A statement made in the translation . So. If we take 'practicality' as an example. in the case of the CED. but not the washing of feet. Das Kapital or even How to Win Friends and Influence People. The Torah. IQ The dominant orientation will tend to be the orientation held by those in power. stretches over decades.

mounting a poster campaign showing Tony Blair with red eyes. . language and literature. though there are many. the British Conservative party banked on this belief... as we have seen. he or she will need compensate for the lack of connection in the mind of the target culture reader. We have mentioned identification at the level of continent (America. this particularbelief was shown to be held by a tiny minority. who choose to focus on ther levels of identification and identify the enemy as 'non-human'. to know one more than the devil fare bellafiguralto make a good impression l'arte d'arrangial'si! the art of making the best out ofany situation mangiar bene/eating well la casabrillacomeunospecchio! the house shines like a mirror la buona cudnalgood cooking nna Wierzbicka (1992:31-116) notes the fundamental importance of 3 Russian values: 'soul'. 4. and toska/'yearning/a painful feeling/nostalgia'. Second. To be a member of a culture. fair play democracy compromise privacy an Englishman's borne is bis castle a littlebit of dirt neverdid anyone any barm there's nothing like a goodcupof tea A set of beliefs congruent with an Italian identity would be on the following lines: la famiglialthe family la mammalmother (nonsi tocc'il/ls not to be touched: esempre la mammalis always mother. However. whatever) it rispetto!respect I'esteticalaesthetics saperne unapiu del'diavolo! The problems that arise in translation of meaning here are twofold. change. And connotations are notoriously culture-specific". ' region and so on. Below is sample set of beliefs congruent with being British: Beliefin . there is the widespread belief that translation of the denotative meaning automatically assures a good translation. However. At the highest level 'mankind' is a culture 12 In 1997.60 David Kalan 61 at we all belong to. particularly those at war. New Danger. In translating the core value. as Seguinot (1995:60) . coun. and the slogan: New Labour..6 Identity Culture. Asia). linguistically or religiously.points out. the translator has to be extremely aware that the values are tly and inexorably connected to identity. Cultures also cross geographical and political borders and are sometimes re usefully categorized ethnically. meaning is not inbuilt but interpreted according to individual and culture-bound beliefs. This. These three pts permeate Russian conversation. sud'bal'fate/destiny'. indeed. As all language core values. one will need to share beliefs at every level of culture. Newmark (1988: 123) gives a number of examples of political and historical connotative word meanings and suggests that "where appropriate it is the translator's duty to show which sense such words have in the SL [source language] text". "the motivating force is generally carried by the more hidden messages. along with the acceptance of a Communist party in Italy's government.. First. The range of meaning is and the effect of these words deeper than in English because they are core values. does show that strong beliefs can. Europe. is what we identify with. the connotative meaning . This will be cussed later in chapter 7.citing Barthes .

His levels are discussed below. Personal observation. Later introduction of the real mother could not overturn that first experience. Dilts (1990:102). In his book.. This possible hypothesis takes us insidiously close to Aldous Huxley's (1932) distopia. Maslowe proposed a five-fold classification of motives and needs as below: Safety Physiological Emotional Level e second stage is 'emotional': "Where are my bonds? What is my territory?". With parental encouragement this is repeated until it becomes an automatic reonse at every meal. people are ready to process certain inputs from the environment at certain times of development. happily 'believed' that he was their mother. According to the psychologist Abraham Maslowe (1970). among others. He discovered that ducklings on seeing him first. As such. relating it specifically to logical levels. This stage elops at home and forms much of the cultural imprint. as Lorenz realized. as they are completely out-of-awareness. have both found that the prerequisites for decision-making about role are learned rough the parent's language input. rather than the mother duck. Like ducks. . See also Aitchinson (1989:119) and her discussion of two-word sentences at this age. frame of reference. socially accepted distances. A two-year old will be aware of its ivate space and possessions. is credited with first discovering that early experience is crucial in forming life-long beliefs about identity and relationships. or deepest. children may learn that rules are a fixed reality . The ducklings were convinced that Lorenz was the mother. However. strategies and skills. had very little to do with the matter. particularly as it became clear that he effectively said wer-class children had a more restricted language (restricted code). During adolescence.. r even that their use of language determines their position in society. and that this restricted guage resulted in a more restricted view of the world. He called this type of process 'imprinting'. The British educational ciologist Basil Bernstein (1972) and Ruqaiya Hasan (1989. If we take this ding to its logical conclusion. How it deals with this reality will have long term effects. defining an imprint as "an identity-forming experience . possession and eating habits. privacy. the reality of group territory hether it be Sarajevo. They are the highest. as the child's perception of his/her environment grows. and in particular beliefs about identity. the child is ready to consolidate decisions about his or her 'social' role. Clearly. New World. the acquisition of beliefs about the world occurs according to a hierarchy of need. Intellectual next stage is 'intellectual'. a human child can recognize its mother within 24 hours but is unable to distinguish the dog from the cat until much later. 1992). 11 before school-age. Her results show that the LAP mothers' conversations ed to follow a particular pattern: rules are laid down.7 Imprinting • • • • • • 63 Lorenz's Imprinting Maslowe's Hierarchy of Need Dilt's Developmental Model Bernstein's Codes theory Hasan's HAPILAP theory Enclllturalization Beliefs about identity are such an important aspect of culture that it is useful to look at how they are formed. It is a reflection on your identity". and it learns very quickly how to deal with dependency food. less fundamentally necessary needs will have to wait. caused much controversy. Belfast or the Gaza Strip) and the 'us/them' divide 11 be inculcated through parents and tested with peers. Maslowe's Hierarchy ofNeeds Dilts (1990: 135) has adapted Maslowe's hierarchy. Konrad Lorenz (195411977). his findings have recently en defended by Halliday (1992:70-71). is is the level of beliefs. Hasan suggests that the way in which mothers explain the world and its rules becomes a ng model for the children to follow. it would be simplistic to suggest that all LAPs learn that they have low autonomy. 1991. including "my toy". Bernstein's original thesis. Reality. the Falls Road. it is more important for the child to locate its mother (assuming she is the provider of food and security) than the cat or the dog. This is equivalent to the Logical Level which includes capabili. Hasan. Ethnic conflict has its roots here. and that the mother an outsider." Italian ldren.13 Later. studmother and child language from the two traditional social classes. the first imprinting is 'biological'. but not explained. imprints are difficult to identify. learn to say buon appetito before eating ir meal. and all day-to-day living is carried out within these frames. Physical survival (physiological needs) is the first need to be satisfied. There are no further frames readily available from which imprints can be viewed. renaming them as high ~d low autonomy. Clearly. The human baby's first s are to survive in an environment. has extended the idea to people. who has developed Bernstein's theory. She came to the conclusion that children from low autonomous parents (LAPs) learn from their parents that they too have low autonomy in the world. What we can say is that guage (as we shall see in chapter 6) is one of the filters through which we learn about the orld. For example. in her work on other talk. that social class influenced nguage. Every time he moved they followed. At this stage the child (particularly at school age) begins to develop ability to understand symbols and process them efficiently. children were born pre-programmed Figure 10. Imprints generally become core beliefs. 4.and not to be stioned. The Austrian zoologist and founder of ethology. for example. written half a century earlier. See also Samovar and Porter (1991:55-56) and Brislin (1993:6-8). a child will already respond appropriately to culture-bound beliefs ut the family. "my room" and "my mummy" . and any beliefs relating to higher. who have lunch at kindergarten.David Katan 62 iological Level we have already mentioned.

According to Maslowe. According to Sapir (1949:197) and Bernstein (1972:485) these appeals are a principal means of social control. The final stage. survival or role needs. identity and evolution are considered not only from a personal but from a social point of view. and was genetically adjusted to that level. not yet discussed part of the Logical Levels model. At this level. :BiOIO!iCal Birth Behal:= ! From Ide~ty " Social a HAPworld Figure 11. on the right. betas. Biological need is at the level of behaviour (all ention is focused on doing). Bateson's (1975:x) introduction to The Structure of Magic explains how the originators of NLP "succeeded in making linguistics into a base for [human interaction] theory and simultaneously into a tool for therapy . beliefs. have a richer model of the world. Dilts and others (see IS See alsoBrislin (1993:95). Logical Levels Imprinting & Development stages I WORLD Meta RULE Aesthetic WORLD it LAP world Beltfs Capal:jplities Strattgies Intellectual Emotional In psychology.David Katan 65 in test-tubes. Production was divided into alphas. is the spiritual. 64 Both the HAP and the LAP groups are adjusted to their social positioning: In natural everyday discourse. relates to societal imprinting while ntity relates to aesthetic imprinting (realization of self). At the lower levels. At the next level. The LAP world on the left is smaller and has rules as its frame... one that furnishes them with beliefs about their power to influence change. learn that rules are part of the wider world and can be changed in response to wider world needs. the quote below is not from science fiction but from Hasan (1992. over social belongingness. the chief concerns are using exploiting the world for biological. we can see how the Logical Levels del links with the developmental model. In the 'civilized' world this higher el of imprinting takes place at school. At this level people begin to "develop awareness of things for what they are" (Dilts 1990:135). as there is a wider frame of reference through which rules can be interpreted. through language forms learned from their parents. emphasis in original): irdham 1990:21-30) only when these lower level needs have been satisfied does one have time to look at the world and appreciate it. from birth to adulthood. is the time line. this learning of the rules is known as socialization. Grinder and Bandler have succeeded in making explicit the syntax of how people avoid change and. capabilities. speakers speak their social position. and that therefore. The CED definition is "the modification from infancy of an individual's behaviour to conform with the demands of social life". like the picture in the art gallery. in culture-studies it is known as enculturation. They learn that rules have contexts and justifications (further frames). Vertically. The following level. The various levels of imprinting. This is the level of self-realization and is equivalent to personal identity in the Logical Levels model. eta Level final level goes beyond the satisfaction of self and looks towards purpose in life. First we can identify the 9tfferences between a traditional view of a translator and a cultural mediator. HAPs. Modification as we have already suggested begins at home. It should be remembered that these models are all culture specific.. logical levels and the developmental stages are shown low. These children. these rules can be admired or criticized from a distance. is equivalent to the spiritual level or 'mission' in the Logical Levels model. A HAP and LAP view ofthe world SP~al School to College Adult 12. Y'fe can now use the Logical Levels model in a variety of ways. therefore. how to assist them in changing". from left to right. At this stage the person begins to look for a higher purpose. Each group was destined to a higher or lower level of autonomy in work. This is the ta' level. and through precise linguistic intervention therapists can help their clients have more options. 15 through what Bernstein originally referred to as parental appeals. Children from high autonomy parents (HAPs) have learned the language of change. However. The difference is that for many LAPs rules are the world and cannot be questioned. The two worlds can be shown as below. Along the horizontal axis. The HAP world. the time one is an adult one is expected to have moved from concern with biological needs concern for the aesthetic needs and beyond. Dilts' Imprinting and Development stages • AestheticLevel The next level is the 'aesthetic'. for example. instead. gammas and deltas. then we can look . which we will uss in the following section. is larger. which compares to the meta development e. relating only to those which place individual self-realization. The presuppositions of NLP therapy are very close: people in need of help speak their limited world. intellectual imprinting takes ace (the focus is on how).

culture. 'mission'. The translator. Finally. The necessarily stereotypic example below shows how the various levels interact at a particular moment. a change in aviour. In the case of the mediator. He now believes himself to be a capitalist. they (along with fledgling interpreters and mediators) will be at the biological level: survival in a small and competitive market. [Holz-Manttari] never signs a contract unless she has a guarantee that she can talk to the producers. Le. Let us imagine. Aspects to be clarified will include: reasons for the translation (the skopos). With regard to the translation of promotional material. Finally. so a mediator's insistence on information will be essential for survival. a mediator will be able to identify with both cultures. First. a sixth Logical Level. but by personal success and entrepreneurship. No longer will they focus exclusively on language and the text (whether source or target). Most of the changes will be internal. many other aspects to being a mediator. • Role changes Below is an example of the congruent logical levels associated with being a translator: When beliefs about role identity change. a cultural mediator will believe in the relativity of values. should become more active in obtaining more information. a mediator will have a high tolerance for difference. This will mean a change of direction in rategy and the need to learn new capabilities. The result will be an action. for both translators and interpreters. Dllts' Logical Levels and Change A Dynamic Model of Culture can now put the component levels together to identify a person as a member of a dynamic system. and its elfare. will change from the discrete 'black-box' approach mentioned earlier to more active participation and control. will be more evident. Seguinot (1995:60) lays great stress on the fact that "without access to the product or information about the service" a translator cannot do his or her job. all the other levels are affected. Christina Schaffner (1995:81). any change in a higher level will affect all lower levels (less so the ot~er w~y nd). Two people are talking in a pub on a crowded Saturday night as they go to the bar: . Second. for example working overtime and risking personal investments in his new capitalic environment. The mission goes beyond identity and answers the question "What is my role in society?". There are. information on the target reader. A change in identity ('who') involves complete change in 'mission'. Following Dilts and Maslowe. the mission will be to improve mutual understanding Example: Logical Level changes from translator to cultural mediator evel Changes general. Values. Le. as mediator. Many translators are clearly not in a position to expect such a level of cooperation. and the translator becomes a cultural mediator. There will be two values in particular which will permit a mediator to work well. and that they will take her to the factory for example". for example. referring back to Dilts' meta level. ho saw his role as furthering the interests of the group. the target culture. and mediators will also have their own personal feelings. but on culture. says the same: "You can't give quality without access to all the information available. Capabilities will include a conscious understanding of cultures as well as language. will change. cultures will have more or less beneficial values in particular contexts. as the market becomes increasingly aware of the importance of culture. the belief that no culture has an inherently better or worse hierarchy of values. In the not too distant future. the environment will react differently compared to when it was a ~entrally planned market. Also the visible behaviour of an interpreter. one's place and role in society. The following diagram is a schematic illustration of how Dilts (1990:209-210) understands e changes in the Logical Levels: A change :in Who involves a change in Mission Belief system Pemdssion& Motivation Capabilities Direction DJing Actions Environnrrent Reactions 13. At the level of identity. will be the desired aim. communication and mutual understanding. an Eastern European who has grown up and believed III ommunism.66 67 David Katan at how the levels interact within the system. possibly encouraging him to further explore the market. for example. and similar target-culture texts. be able to change viewpoint (disassociation) and be able to mind-shift (see Part 2). Strategies will be different. of course. now sees his mission as an explorer. though. that of quality. requiring little change in the external environment. He will no longer be motivated by the group. The cultural mediator will need to be able to demonstrate cognitive flexibility. The aesthetic level. t to stake new territories for himself. In this case the communist. but insistence on all the information at all costs will not ensure survival. as we have already mentioned. citing the Finnish translator Justa Holz-Manttari. This may include involving the commissioner of the translation and others to clarify the frames of the translation. Clearly.

Every time we have a negative reaction to someone's behaviour we are attributing our own meaning to the behaviour. A good example is the manager or university professor who is unable to complete a job on Figure 14.6.68 David Katan A (onjostlingpeopleto get to the bar): Thosebeingjostled: For a full picture of how the culture is operating dynamically we should analyze the Logical Levels.. makes sense in :its own context. high use of modals. a culture B hearer (for example. and hence we apply an aspect of our own congruent logical level system to the behaviour. Defensible space. Citing previous research. It's my round. See alsoLalljee's studyon Attribution theoryand intercultural communication: "evaluativemeaning is influencedby context" (1987:41). However. ative speakers can hear grammatical inaccuracy and can therefore contextualize any errors in rms of language learning. If we are viewing other people. 17 18 16 69 ranslating Cultures For a discussion of other work on Attribution see Selby (1975) and Lalljee (1987). looking first at the environment.full of people on a Saturday night. A few seconds' thought will allow us to realize that this is a form of mind reading I? and that behaviour. "Whatwouldyou like to drink?" "Sorry.. 18 The iceberg diagram below shows how the logical levels and attribution combine to produce intercultural misperception. rudeness or aggression. The Attribution theory" was discussed first by Fritz Heider in 1958. for example to indicate anger. On the other hand we will tend to attribute our own behaviour in terms of situational factors. working up finally to identity at the top. the native spe~er likely to attribute the inappropriacy to some personal factor rather than to language or ultural competence. Let's go halves. polite question forms.CultureA ____. Criterial equivalent Speaking English. indirectness and so on. especially when the on-native speaker has a reasonable command of the language. vegetarian dishes. In the British culture the imperative is appropriate in certain situations only. then various values important to culture B may not be satisfied. This process is known in psychology as the attribution process and is discussed below. behaviour will be the same. The importance of this theory cannot be underestimated in cross-cultural communication. Culture-Bound Misinterpretation 'Mind reading' is furtherdiscussed in Chapter7. If this is not the context. Useof conditional. he suggests that perception of behaviour depends on our own personal position. etc. meatpies. Architecture ime due to overwork. As a result. like language. The subordinate. such as deference.whatdid you say?" Pub.. The environment can radically change. we will tend to attribute their behaviour in terms of personal factors. authority or urgency. be thought of as lazy. they are unlikely to have the same conscious awaress of linguistic or behavioural appropriacy (rather than accuracy). As the diagram illustrates. misattribution and miscommunication. who likewise is nable to complete his or her task will. • Attribution Theory Our ethnocentric approach to other cultures and the basic principles of cross cultural communication can be analyzed through the Logical Levels modeL 'Ethnocentric' means that we tend to blame the individual people and their culture for our own internal response. . (Cu)tureB Prawns in a basket. Lowceilings. on the other hand. ( .3. pressing engagements. or student.. the environment will change constantly but is both the most visible element and also the least important. but if there is no change in belief.. Clearly. apologies. badly oranized or untrustworthy. openbeams. "Excuse me". The resulting (mis)attribution of these imperatives is impoliteness. British) hears an imperative such as "tell me!" (the formally correct translation of either the formal subjunctive mi dica or the informal imperative dimmi) from an interpreter or directly from a culture A speaker. such as their personality. Damp outside.

With this information we can begin to construct a cultural identity that is congruent with this behaviour using the clarification questions below: . as in a church on Sunday at 9. Peter Mtihlhausler and Rom Harre (1990:29. The system of rights. for example. the surrounding space is at the level of the environment while the speech acts are behaviour. Scollon and Scollon (1995:33-49) devote a complete chapter to miscommunication due to inappropriate politeness strategies and suggest that when an inappropriate politeness strategy is used the event will be interpreted in terms of power (1995:48). the trait becomes generalized to a form of negative stereotype. hidden. Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. When culture B observers notice a repetition of the negatively valued behaviour. what is a positive communication behaviour in culture A is interpreted as a negative personal trait by a culture B observer. to investigate a text: its semantic meaning. communicative value. Culture-bound communication can be analyzed with the Logical Levels model through a simple set of clarification questions.David Katan 71 On the other hand. in culture A (Italian. taken directly from Kipling. so it takes time for the representatives to understand how their personal map of the world needs to to a different reality. and the force field can be compared to the logical element in the logical levels theory. Roger Bell (1991:7-10) also uses these clarifications. or being thrust to. The idea of a system influencing all its components will be further developed as we investigate the links between language and culture. for the most part. For the moral order to function. written in 1902 calls them the six honest serving men: I keep six honest servingmen (They taught me all I knew). with a group of other people all kneeling at the same time. and what they do. One of Rudyard Kipling's Just-So Stories. The speech acts in the surrounding space. A number f linguists are beginning to think about people. 70 These clarification questions are not entirely new. as we have already mentioned. They envisage speech acts as being constrained by a moral order which changes with changing roles. place in time and space. and participants involved. As the systems are. Let us now see how we can apply these questions to clarify the context of culture.00 am. for example) directness in language may well be positively valued. which then helps to distinguish the various aspects of culture: This hierarchical system of logical levels is a step towards contextualizing culture. are oriented by "the system of rights. duties and obligations . The important point to remember is. They continue by explaining that only a certain number of speech acts are possible in the surrounding space. In NLP terms. a role is like a change coming to be located at a certain point in physical space and gendering a field in its environs". in similar hierarchical stemic terms. 30). We can imagine a visible behaviour such as kneeling in a particular environment. Politeness strategies are discussed further in Chapter 11. by the conversational force field". duties and obligations is at the level of beliefs. that these questions relate to a hierarchy of levels ~ which would have taught Kipling even more. The important point they make is that when change is introduced the top. according to the authors. There is a specific question form to be used relating to each level. Hence. have proposed hat they call a moral order. which is closely related to the NLP concept of congruence between levels.that is. they emphasize the importance of speaker sincerity. so change is induced further down the order: "A person taking on.

He studied the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands and their language (Kiriwinian) and felt that he had to make a number of changes in translating Kiriwinian conversations into English. then.in the way . or meaning in the context of culture. then culture was en more rarely discussed. for example. according to Bloomfield. In her Preface to the book... suffered in the same way.73 Chapter 5. He explains why below: We have not offered. Hymes (1974:4) dedicated one of his books in memorv of Edward . tongue and lips. According to Halliday (Halliday and Hasan 1989:9) the importance of a cultural framework was not extensively studied until thirty years later with Hymes' work and his definition of the ethnography of communication in 1962. he realized that not only the immediate environment needed to be clarified for the English. changeable and indeed vague: hardly a subject for technicians. Sapir. was convinced not only of the importance of the social background but that future language studies would turn to a 'concept culture'. depend upon the entire life-history of the speaker of the hearer".. his thoughts are still very relevant. But in describing the context of situation. This led to a renewal of interest in the different ways which language is used in different cultures. However. not context of culture. on the other hand. he realized that he would need to add a commentary to make explicit what was implicit for the Trobrianders. he needed to explain the immediate situation of the conversation to the English audience. climbs the tree. in 1911 Franz Boas (1986:7) broached the subject of lture (albeit in terms of 'primitive' cultures) and discussed the links between language. too. und meaning. So.. Seventy-five years later. Linguists were very technically oriented. The reasons were what Hall would call a belief in technical culture. NLP has also taken the view that meaning in communication is culture-bound: "We learn what things mean from our culture and individual upbringing" (O'Connor and Seymour 1990: 131). The definition meaning in NLP (O'Connor and Seymour 1990:36) is very similar: "The meaning of the the response that you get". In Britain. and the whole course of practical before and after [the act of speech].. an anthropologist like Malinowski. borrowing and coining.1 Contexts of Situation and Culture language is essentially rooted in the reality of the culture .or produced . it is context of situation which is explained in detail. 'Context' began to receive more attention in 1933 when the American linguist Leonard loomfield (1984: 139) published Language. culture and thought.Sapir and pointed to the importance of examining cultural values and beliefs for their bearing on communicative events. His y point was succinctly put as follows: "the form of the language will be moulded by the state that culture".the study of meaning in language . on the other hand.. it is helpful to build in some indication of the cultural background and the assumptions that have to be made if the text is to be interpreted . Consequently even more subject to [vidual interpretation. He introduced his essay on 'Language Race and Culture' (1949:207) with these "Language has a setting . Meaning.was very largely neglected" (Lyons 1981: 16. Translation. More recently. lexical and grammatical versions) • discuss Political Correctness in terms of language and culture • develop the idea of categorization • discuss lexical gaps. .but as the 1938 republication of his original 1923paper illustrates he was already discussingthe idea of a widerContext. The particular meaning under study here is not semantic (or idealized) meaning but cultureI Malinowski actually coined the term 'context of culture' in his 1935 work (l935:18). He drew on behavioural psychology for his nderstanding of meaning which he illustrated with Jack and JiIL The example. but focused principally on the concept of a of situation. First.. Only when these two factors were taken into account could the texts be said to have meaning. Boas felt that language was not in itself a barrier to ught but that there was a dynamic relationship between language.speecn: "The occurrence of speech . takes up Malinowski's notions of context of situation and culture. however he was much more interested in the role oflanguage in producing meaning than his fellow linguists: "There have been times in the recent past. The logical levels model discussed earlier should go some way towards clarifying the factors (lineuistic and non-lincuiatic) involved in the cultural background. though he does not actually mention culture and its effect on the act of ... the obedient Jack vaults the fence. As such. it cannot be explained without constant reference to these broader contexts of verbal utterance. and the wording of it . The word 'meaning' itself is open to a number of different definitions (Lyons 1981:30-31). no such thing yet exists . a former pupil of Firth. She makes a noise with her larynx. Malinowski was primarily an anthropologist. Halliday (Halliday & Hasan 1989:47). J. when linguistic semantics. many linguists felt that it was not worthy of study. 'Meaning'. . but as a behaviourist grammar-translation activity. is as follows. that of culture. meaning depends on "the situation in the speaker utters it and the response which it calls forth in the hearer". The social background is important for Bloom(1984:23). brings it to her and it in her hand. is part of the informal culture. It was largely taught not in terms of meaning.' In 1923 he coined the term 'context of situation' and noted that a language could only be fully understood. a separate linguistic model of the context of culture. she states that is [Boas] work inspired a generation of anthropologists and sociologists before the applied inguists took up the subject of the effect of culture on language and vice versa". 5. ought and the native environment. when these two contexts (situation and culture) were implicitly or explicitly clear to the interlocutors and hearers. guiding fishing boats home while talking. summarized re. emphasis in original). Secondly. here. If semantics was not part of mainstream linguistics. However. (Malinowski: 1923/1938:305) Bronislaw Malinowski was one of the first anthropologists to realize that language could only be understood with reference to culture: a context of culture.. Language and Culture The aim in this chapter is to: • identify the links between language and culture • introduce Malinowski's contexts of situation and culture • discuss the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (strong and weak. is highly subjective. Jill spies an apple tree. Le.. and in fact serve to oduce Valdes' publication on culture (1986:1).. language does not exist apart from culture". Otherwise the English reader would not have realized that the Trobrianders were. but also that Trobriand traditions and beliefs were encoded in the texts and were not immediately understandable in translation. have meaning. notably in America in the period between 1930 and the end of the 1950s. R. the system intends. Most importantly. takes the apple. developed a number of Malinowski's ideas.

Many others also believe that acceptance of this version of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis means that we can only ever think what our language allows.2 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis That the world is my world. they had a different approach. which would suggest. They interviewed 100 Mexican and 100 North American college students and asked them to make a list of words they associated with a headword.g. For the Mexicans. It is now widely recognized that such a view is untenable". They say that if the strong version of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis were accepted. (Wittgenstein) In this section we will discuss the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in terms of its relevance today. published an expurgated edition of the works of Shakespeare. as well as comparative frames with their perception of their present context of culture. not merely the same world with different labels". emphasis in the original). He felt that Shakespeare's use of language . suggesting that "no two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same reality. His words have been used by many. of course. Maps of the world. make life difficult for a cultural mediator. he went further.. On page 76 is a 'semantograph' of Mexican and American responses to the labels 'United States and 'Estados Unidos'. Hatim and Mason (1990:105). and behind that label was a different reality rather than simply a ·different label. Political Correctness However. of which there have traditionally been two versions: the strong and -the weak. as we discussed in 'Beliefs' (Chapter 4. as mentioned earlier. Apart from there being a strong and a weak rsion of their theory. Halliday (1992:65) would also not call himself a supporter of this strong version of the hypothesis. The next sections look at the theories of Sapir and Whorf and how they can help contribute to the discussion on the context of culture. and what they are collectively predisposed to overlook and ignore". How far this is true has been a subject of discussion for three-quarters of a century. The Sapir-Whorfhypothesis has an obligatory place in all contemporary text books that touch upon the subject. our beliefs. have come to the same conclusion. this would mean that people. was convinced that language could only be interpreted within a culture. beliefs and lues. We will now focus on how language does influence our perception and look in a little more pth at what Sapir and Whorf actually had to say. According the Logical Levels model. by the guage we speak" (emphasis added). In the strong view. like Malinowski. This is an example of the weak version of the Sapir-Whorf theory. This potential is at once both enabling and constraining: that is. Longacre. in an essay in honour of the linguist Robert E. The "rather lengthy response lists are particularly informative in revealing what a particular group feels is important. This version of the theory has many more supporters in anthropology. ir and Whorf had a different understanding of the term 'language'. would be 'prisoners' o-f their native language and would be "incapable of conceptualizing in categories other than those of our native tongue. for example.David Katan 75 Two of the most vigorous exponents of the role of culture in language were.5). 'United States' represents what Mexico does not have: money. The lexical item cues historic frames of exploitation and war. grammar makes meaning possible -and also sets limits on what can be meant". accept that anguages differ in the way they perceive and partition reality . However. 74 S. for example. the determining factors are. wealth. states: "We not foreground reality in discourse unless we have unmediated access to it. as Reddick suggests. both in linguistics (e. These differences in meaning. we do not have to travel to two different languages to see how the lexicon channels thought. which suggests that language has a tendency to influence thought. Reddick (1992:214). or what they called 'stimulus themes'. This view has few supporters today. Steven Pinker (1995:57) in The Language Instinct is adamantly critical of the theory: "The idea that thought is the same thing as language is an example of a conventional absurdity: a statement that goes against all common sense". power and development. The two approaches are now known as e lexical and the grammatical versions of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. And with regard to translation. 'United States' is anything but technical. what they feel sensitive about. In the eighteenth century. shows itself in the fact that the limits of that language (the languageI understand) mean the limits of my world. are culture specific.. . but it is not the determining factor. They also serve as a backdrop to this and the following chapters. hence translators and interpreters too. such as 'equality' and 'the United States'. though he does state that "grammar creates the potential within which we act and enact our cultural being. for the lexicon at least. Hasan 1984:133) and in translation (e. Hatim and Mason (1990:29). Sapir (1929:214). among many others. For Sapir. J. 'United States' has a fairly technical meaning in terms of 'states' and 'America'. language actually determines the way the language user thinks. This situation creates serious blems for the translator". at least in his y years.g. The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds. linguistics and translation. in fact. Our perceptions are always mediated by our assumptions. that bilinguals would automatically change their view of the world as they change language. a certain Thomas Bowdler. It is a testimony to their ground-breaking and controversial ideas that they are still discussed today. Supporters of the weak version suggest that language is one of the tors influencing our understanding of reality. The results show that the 'psycho-cultural distance' between the labels 'United States' and 'Estados Unidos' represents different realities. what they pay attention to. For the North Americans. and. For example. Sapir and his pupil Benjamin Lee Whorf. One recent in-depth study on lexical labels was carried out by Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero and Lorand Szalay (1991:24-25). there is also a strong feeling of love and patriotism. Ulrych 1992: preface). an English editor. This well-known extract forms part of what is loosely known as the SapirWhorf Hypothesis. As far as he was concerned language as a case of labelling lexis. even though the hypothesis was put on paper before the Second World War. the key to cultural reality was in the lexicon. and we never . The quote above is from Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1994:25.

reflecting on the same gender pairing.. or leaving implicit an explicit word. to see how language takes on meaning within a culture and tends to condition our thoughts. sexual orientation. that words associated with women .. physical condition or circumstances leave them vulnerable to the raw power of words. - by Mexicans Figure 15. One only needs to look at a list such as the one isupplied below by Bryson (1994:25-26).. This. Le. Ule CRfNCOS COUNTRY. Though these are generic words. which includes a series of behavioural "do's and don'ts". and this necessarily affects the acceptability of a translation.TES PATRIOTISM COVE~ENT. or politically correct (PC) language. 77 The Open University. The thesaurus contained 'savage' and 'man-eater' as synonyms for 'Indian'." The PC view is that if an evaluative or offensive word is substituted by a standard or technical term. colour. The examples they give concern gender indeterminate nouns and pronouns ('man' as in 'mankind'. borrowed from Martin Montgomery (1986:178).). POLITICS POWER. and submissiveness and inconsequence (on the right). CULTURE PERCEPTIONS AND EVALUATIONS c===J . In ~ach paired opposite. We have already mentioned its own style.by Americans . race. regardless of gender. or other irrelevant distinction.2. in chapter 4. they generally give rise to thoughts of men rather than women. Some examples of the types of changes being sought are outlined in the style guide for academic writing produced by The Open University (1993) in England. disability. the authors state. Whether or not we have indexical offence. religious or political beliefs.JUSTfCE. etc.76 David Katan UNITED LOVE." The areas specifically covered with regard to political rrectness are: STA. The first response here is determined by the language. The target is not so much 'decency' as 'sensitivity' in general.UNfON PEOPLE. there is a difference in connotation: aims to create the conditions whereby people are treated solely on the basis of their merits. The aim of the PC movement is. ethnic or national origin. 'doctor'. then the evaluation or the offence is also removed. age. these paired sets of words do not simply denote gender differences but power (on the left). "to make language less wounding or demeaning to those whose sex. abilities and potential. family circumstance. and they cite research which establishes that (the English) language is biased against women. As Montgomery (1986:178) says. the term 'to bowdlerize' has denoted the attempt to remove or substitute language deemed to be indecent. language which might offend. according to Bryson (1994:425). Perceptions and Evaluations was at times offensive to the reader.. the use of language does affect thought. In all cases. The guide dedicates two pages to language style and a further 17 pages to writing which Muhlhausler and Harre (1990:235-238) devote an entire publication to the use of pronouns. FREEDOM.. Scarpa (forthcoming) notes the importance of localizing a translation with respect to PC and cites the complaints received regarding the racist nature of Microsoft 6 for Spanish users. is convinced that "language eflects and enshrines the values and prejudices of the society in which it has evolved. Since then. the reader will be directed to think in a different way. "It is striking . and is a werful means of perpetuating them. gives rise to what they term dexical offence'. socioeconomic background. according to its official publication.. More recently there has been a great deal of bowdlerizing both in Britain and in America under the guise of bias-free language. the generic 'he'. Those who believe in the effectiveness of this approach believe that by using a euphemism.

which is no different from calling them 'morons or 'spastics' is it? Muhlhausler and Harre (1990:247) would certainly agree that neutral words take on their own connotations. (unconscious?) slip-ups occur. with some cultures believing that the use of language has a significant direct bearing on thought. there are many. In the Anglo-Saxon countries in particular the idea that language should not offend or demean (particularly with regard to gender. Many centre-right publications are now very careful to be technically politically correct. this demonstrates Sapir's main point that there are different realities behind different languages.complaints raised by copy editors and publishers in the Gordon article were American . The PC phenomenon is felt most in the United States. Such a tendency lends support to the claim that English. They believe that 'a shop assistant' is still (just) 'a shop girl'. India. He followed Abelson and Black (1986:1) who state: A fundamentalsupposition throughout our work is that knowledge is schematised. Netherlands."The Guardian Weekend (3/12/94) Contrary to popular belief. No other country deemed it necessary to intervene on behalf of politically correct language. and underneath you may be surprised to find a fairly decent.. the PC movement is almost non-existent. like all technical words used informally. July 1997:31) For many. 68) makes the same point and. . She also cites other changes 'demanded' from other novelists: Original The only other woman I had seen walk like that was a lesbian Irish dl1lnk 'You old scrubber' (foran adult) girlllady Copy editor remark delete line omit nationality change to 'You ex-cleaning womanyou' woman She also reports another writer's thoughts on the matter: Eradicating certain words from fiction does not mean that the feelings they reflect in the real world cease to exist. Scandinavia. who believe that changing the form will not change the offence. 'an office manager' is a glorified 'secretary'. which have already been discussed in Chapter 3 in terms of ames and prototypes. at least.78 David Katan should be consistently downgraded in this way. So. Sherlock Holmes was a master in categorization. Seguinot (1995:61. the same strategy to increase sales. there is a metamessage. s. However. The cover of the magazine has a photograph of a number of top models with no clothes. The problem that needed solving was that there is a sexual connotation (or metamessage) of 'unavailable' with 'Mrs' and 'available' with 'Miss'. Halliday (1992:72. This example (emphasis added) is taken from a 1997 Financial Times publication: Translating Cultures There are two important points to be made here with regard to cross-cultural communication. They describe the attempt to find a PC equivalent of 'Mr' for women. the taxman does not always want to bleed you dry of your pound of flesh. surface lexical choice clearly does influence thought. emphasis in original) notes that: We [in Australia] have a Scientific commission on Language and Sex to deal with the situation (and note in this connection that it is assumed that by working with language you can change social reality. This leads us to e importance of expectations. belying the fact that adhering to correct in-house style has little to do with a writer's actual mental model of the world. the . regional populist just like lan crude to a degree that would horrify the Ulster cleric: "the Northern League. it is generally accepted that we do organize our perception so that we put what we see into a predefined category. However. Isn't it unusual?". More than anything else. is systematically skewed to represent women as the 'second sex'". given a little bit of situational context. which makes sense only if you accept that reality is construed in language). in fact." he is "has got a hard on. citing Boddewyn. these must be mediated if translators are not to offend (or bemuse) their readers or editors. the UK and the US. the variant British orientation is the dominant Italian. Jane Gordon (English) describes with dismay in the conservative Daily Telegraph (03/03/95) how her (American) book editor tried to change a number of words in her first book. and 'between jobs' is.~ Categorization One fundamental aspect of Sapir' s theory is that of categorization.. However. it is possible to talk about the unusuality of something never seen before. race. and that this is not in line with PC thinking. notes that the following had legislation on sexism in advertising: Canada. understanding sort of chap. and in fact most of the . The solution was the technical 'Ms'. what is most interesting about the PC phenomenon is not the debate itself but the fact that it is treated in different ways in different cultures. The reason given by the editor was that the words were not politically correct and might upset or offend. As mentioned earlier. organised in chunks or packages so that. First. 79 The Italian news-magazine Panorama (24/03/95) published a cover story on the PC phenomenon which helps to illustrate the frame within which the PC philosophy is interpreted. appearance or behaviour) is basically accepted. The inside story describes (and treats) PC as a fashion rather than a serious problem: la piu radicale e discussa moda culturale americanal" the most radical and talked about culture-fashion yet from the States". for example. What the British conservatives feel about PC is what mainstream Italy feels. The leader of one of Italy's most important political parties uses language which no politician or influential party leader could ever use in America or Britain: Umberto Bossi of the Northern league . 'unemployed'. different cultures respond to the politically correct movement in different ways. Peel away his (or her) mask. but surface structure does not necessarily mirror underlying thought. Though not all writers agree with the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. especially the more conservative. PC is seen as limiting intellectual and artistic freedom. when looking at something for the first time in a shop window we are able to say "Look at that chair. that is. is a growling blustering.and most of the complaining writers were British. Without this skill he would have lost most his clients. Secondly. but unmarried feminist person". even if the conservative press complains about the extreme applications. For example. To use Kluckhohn's terms. The flfticle notes that all the major Italian news magazines have used. In Italy. 'Ms' "has now come to mean in many instances not married or unmarried woman. Children nowadays are described as having learning difficulties and what has happened?Other children have started to refer to them as 'LDs'. and will continue to use. (The International.

categorization is paramount: "We are forever carving nature at its joints. Real labelling of packets in supermarkets is another example of categorization at the level of environment. in Dilts' hierarchy. or even nine. Both Lakoff and Pinker agree that the categorization of snow in the Sapir-Whorf debate is a red-herring: Possibly the most boring thing a linguistics professor has had to suffer . Though they carry the right force they either lack something of the noise. the Eskimos do not have more words for snow than do speakers of English. Coding by category is fundamental to human life because it greatly reduces the demands of perceptual processes". Newmark (1981 :70-83) covers the possibilities. and is basically a case of Chinese whispers and wishful thinking. "it is a law honoured more in the breach than in the observance".. Many of the examples in the following chapters regarding cross-cultural meaning and translation will be of different conceptual labels. Oscillation upon the pavement always means an affaire de coeur. Bryson suggests "we must borrow the terms from them or do without the sentiment". sex . spagetti number 5. (Pinker 1995:64) The origin of the hoax makes for fascinating reading. So. 'hell' or 'mess'. do without the concept. For example. or two hundred. Holmes casually mentions to Watson: I have seen those symptoms before. such as 'snow'. Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. With regard to translation. is the lowest level. Women. is too weak a sentiment for simpatico. 'Nice' or 'friendly'. the French government actually passed a law. etc. and recommends an exhaustive list of strategies in his chapter on the translation of proper names.. It is not. no change of values is involved. But there is a fundamental distinction to be made between categorization or labelling referential meanings and labelling where culture is involved. (Lakoff 1987:308) no discussion of language and thought would be complete without the Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax. exhibiting pridein demonstrating typically masculine characteristics: prowess in strength. 'balls-up'. Those who spend the winter months skiing will also have a higher number of special words for snow. or forty-eight. For casino (literally a brothel) there are a variety of partial equivalents: 'cock-up'.. 'spaghetti'. though. dividing it into categories so that we can make sense of the world . both Eskimos and skiers will know more about snow. A number of countries have academies whose job it is to keep a check on language borrowing and periodically recommend own national labels. Typical examples of English-Italian late bilinguals speaking are as follows: These are cases of borrowing where there is no real equivalent single label. and speech". perception. however. and as such has little influence on higher levels of values and beliefs. A recent lengthy gloss to enter the Collins Italian/English dictionary (1995) is below: Bryson (1991:4) gives a number of examples of words in other languages which have no conceptual equivalent in English: instantly satisfYing andcosy composure.80 David Katan individual has available many likely inferences on what might happen next in a given situation. Contrary to popular belief. there is nothing more basic than categorisation to our thought. On watching a woman hesitating outside his front door from his upstairs window. Other languages throughout the world are borrowing English to such an extent that there are now dictionaries devoted to the explanation of how to .. • Lexical and ConceptualGaps Apart from different ways of categorizing what is seen. banning the use of English loan words in official texts.. institutional and cultural terms. but as Lakoff underlines. for example. The language can either borrow the language label. action. languages can lack the concept itself. a one-way process.. is the interminable discussion of the 22 (or however many) words for snow in Eskimo. However. And in fact all but hygge have been borrowed and assimilated into the English language. conceptual. They do not have four hundred words for snow. We have already noted that "United States" is conceptually different to Estados Unidos and that a raccomandazione can be conceived in different ways according to beliefs. as David Crystal (1987:4) points out. a change in labelling does become important when it is (to use Lakoff's words). self-possession in 11 difficult moment the policyof publicfrankness andaccountability developed in the USS . the labelling of spaghetti in Britain simply states "Italian spaghetti". However. This is also known as transfer or adoption. confusion or lack of control. This fact will not make the skiers see the world in general any differently. they will see snow differently. This. George Lakoff (1987:5) devotes his book. Bilinguals often make use of a second language to fill in the lexical gaps. However. spaghetti is sold in a variety of prominently labelled sizes: spaghettini number 1.2 or 3. when higher logical levels (beliefs and values) are involved.. To help the academy in its task. in 1977. The Academie francaise is a case in point. as with any technical specialization. Often circumlocutions or glosses will be necessary. In Italy. What is more important is that categorization at this level is technicaL 'Snow' is categorization of the environment. or one hundred. According to psychology professor Edward Smith (1990:33-34). as it has been claimed in print. a translation will always be possible. In this case there are a number of alternatives.Le. and the 81 Translating Cultures 'United States'. or invent its own label.. to the subject: "Categorisation is not to be taken lightly. Other examples relate to institutions and bureaucratic procedures which simply do not exist in the second language.

82 David Katan use the English expressions correctly. Seguinot (1995:57) makes a similar point: "cultures view the functions of texts differently. In other words. there is something more at play during the following overheard conversation: The intended metamessage of speaker A was to impress the overhearer (English) with his command of the language. 2 The authors suggest that these loan words are not only practical. "Who cares if it doesn't make sense. for example. and how they are related to culture. One of the reasons for this number of words is as above: there is no equivalent lexeme for the sentiment in the language: "Often an English word gives a different meaning. but the source language is retained to remind the reader of the context of culture. sh. learned quickly that it is cheaper to pump your own gas than to request service and that you go to the store to buy supplies. sewing two familiar concepts to produce a new one: jointworm. It looks good". The way the American language has developed also reflects a different way of thinking. English. e. Japanese and many other languages tend to borrow. and is listed as "an old-fashioned word" in the Cobuild English Dictionary (1995). copperhead. 1995) about one ex-patriot's response to life in Florida: We greeted people with 'Hey. Peptalk sounds a lot stonger than just 'an encouraging talk' and therefore seems to give you something more" (1992:5). rattlesnake. tends to invent. bullfrog. This dictionary contains 3600 English words and phrases currently in use in Holland. The listener's reply emphasizes the fact that there is both the expression and the concept supporting it. 5. (shopping bag) SWITZERLAND: SEASIDE CITY(shopping bag) And. 3 .useful qualities in a land whose populace included increasingly large numbers of non-native speakers . The original is: Vaak brengt een Engels woord ook een ander gevoel met zich mee: peptalk klinkt veel krachtiger dan 'een opbeurerul praatje'. bluejay. canvasback. and leads us to a discussion of the patterns of language. There is an emphasis on transparency and clarity in the individual words themselves whereas the English is more obscure: The fact that the English and the Americans feel uncomfortable in each others linguistic shoes is further testimony to different ways of thinking. 197. and to include him in the conversation. to impress or because "it looks good". combinations of words are selected for their graphic value rather than their meaning". Below are some compound examples. backtrack. The English [exico-grammar system lends itself to the short and simple. though. Bryson (1991:174). do not work hard. partly to categorize aspects of their new environment unseen or rare in England.4 The Language System The reason why this and other creative uses of English help to sell products is because. But I have still never been able to bring myself to end a conversation with 'Have a nice day'. is a comment from the British Weekly Telegraph (No.which their British counterparts often lacked". bobcat. but also add variety and humour to the language. In these-cases an equivalent exists for the concept. blnegrass. [It] is related to the importance they give to the visual aesthetic.g. as interpreted by speaker B is that the Italians. for example the semi-serious Peptalk dictionary of English words in Dutch (Koenen & Smits 1992). He also makes it clear that noi do work hard whereas the English (only) talk about it. underbrush. sapsucker. timberland. en dus lijkt het wel of[e er mea aan hebt. that important and sensitive beliefs about identity were touched upon. glowworm. The first settlers to America literally invented new compound words from old. Here. The coining of new words from old is common particularly in American English. finally a fashion boutique in Bologna successfully sold a pink blouse to a highly amused Canadian with what seemed a romantic poem written in English: This same out-of-awareness response is felt by many of those who identify themselves with Britain. The first speaker's metamessage. It seems. what he calls 'local colour'. Newmark (1982:8-12) adds a further reason. either to fill a lexical gap. "These new terms had the virtue of directness and instant comprehensibility . 'Counterpane' itself has almost fallen out of currentBritish usage. Italian. The following are all Japanese products sold (understandably) on the home market: As Bryson (1994:26) points out.: Translating Cultures 83 owner of the Bologna boutique explained to me. also notes the use of English to impress. as the 2 Personal translation. how yowl doing?'. eggplant. In all the cases he cites the message is nonsensical. However. not having an expression for hard work. on the other hand.

Further evidence of the problems involved in translation is the NIH syndrome. cites the anthropologist Ekkehart Malotki who was able to demonstrate exactly the opposite. The company head-hunted a successful Japanese manager. Some well known examples of gaffes in the (non) translation of advertisements are reported below (Seeleye and Seeleye-James 1995: 15-16): Campaigns The General Motors 'Nova' car The Pord 'Pinto' car Colgate's 'Cue' toothpaste 'Koff Beer 'Bleh' blro Translations Nothing suckslike an Electrolux But in many respects. as Business Week points out. The Nike athletic shoe company wanted to translate their slogan "Just Do It". but in the underlying patterns. and arbitrary selection and use of pictorial material. worse was to follow in Japan.. As he was preparing to leave for Tokyo. The advertising executives generally feel that something is missing in a translation. His employees even followed suit: 84 Language is not merely a more or less systematic inventory of the various items of experience which seem relevant to the individual . An article from The New York Times entitled "Continental Divides on the Box" focuses on the translation of TV commercials: "Films that aren't homegrown are referred to by advertising executives as NIHs . creative symbolic organisation. Akimoto just didn't get it when it came to the Nike brand. The linguistic label. non-sensical chopping or shortening of sentences to fit in with layout. but we will find that within the Indo-European system the use of language reflects cultural priorities not only with regard to time but with regard to every other aspect of the environment. and that a translated advertisement would not be as well accepted as a homegrown one. neither the concept nor the language comes naturally to Japanese culture.Whorf hypothesis: The background linguistic system (in other words the grammar) of each language is not merely a reproducing instrument for voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas. The problem was that this three-syllable action-packed slogan has no syntactic or semantic equivalence in many of the languages that they wished to translate it into. the labelling. home culture images or ideas expressed through the home culture language provide the most congruent and effective message.. All of these pitfalls point towards the need for the translator to become a mediator. all of which had already won international awards. Instead.'not invented here' . In the next section we will see how the structure of the language itself does have an effect on the translation of certain cultural values. • Advertising A striking example of how the language system reflects different realities comes from advertising. In fact. As we have already noted.or language as a system. the consumers liked the films from their own country best". This is even more true when translating into their B language. France. However. The problem was that the slogan did not catch the dynamic feel of "Just Do It. They cite the following extract from a Sapir lecture in 1931: Seguinot (1995:58-59) gives a number of examples of other ways to produce advertising gaffes. This takes us back to Whorf' s (1956:212) (stronger) version of the Sapir. few. "We said 'No! Don't translate it!'" In Japanese. Japan's competitive advantage is due to long-term thinking.and are frowned upon". and not to just doing it. for his analysis of impression. The controversy continues. The article concludes with the following statement: "Even though the ads had been translated. "Rather than 'Just Do It'. the program and guide for the individual's mental activity. a native American-Indian (Amerindian) language. for his synthesis of his mental stock in trade. and brought him to America "for a four-month immersion in Nike culture and operations. Clearly. if any international marketing strategies have ever been successful using a translator for a major campaign or to translate the slogan. he began presenting Nike executives with possible Japanese translations for 'Just Do It'. layout and destination of the final translated text. the tense system is not organized primarily by time whereas the Indo-European system is. Pinker (1995:63). This feeling was actually tested in a European study which asked 600 consumers from Germany. the language system cannot create a "just do it' semantic equivalent. in an advertisement cannot simply be translated. 'it could have had the tag line of Toyota or Gillette or a lot of different companies"'. His main interest was in the grammar . We have already mentioned in Chapter one that translators and interpreters will always be at a disadvantage compared to mother tongue speakers with regard to culture-bound styles and meaning. or strapline. These have less to do with the translator's skill but much more to do with his or her control of the design. the Netherlands and Italy to watch 48 TV commercials from all over Europe. Knight says. because selling the same product to different countries is not selling to the same world with different labels (Bassnett 1991:28-29. According to Miihlhausler and Harre (1990:3). but isalso a self-contained. A report in the American magazine Business Week (25/4/92:32) brought to light a very real problem in communication across cultures. One alternative sounds more like 'Hesitation makes Waste. the CEO "was dismayed when he previewed an advertising campaign that didn't measure up". He was able to show that there existed two types of languages: temporal and timeless. Pitfalls include automatic hyphenation of electronic texts. So. he says.David Katan 85 Whorf's understanding of the interface between language and culture was not so much in lexis." The result was that he stopped smoking and began to run. Sapir was also moving towards a more grammatical or pattern approach to language in his later writings. Wharf built on Sapir's later work. Britain. this is not just a semantic problem. on the other hand. Seguinot 1995). In Hopi.' The Nike team were horrified. . and based his theories on the form and the function of language tense systems. which not only refers to experience largely acquired without its help but actually defines experience for us by reason of its formal completeness." However. the whole text has to be redesigned. Yukihiro Akimoto. Phil Knight. We are fortunately not particularly concerned with Hopi. and take a more active part in the process of communicating with the target culture.

culture is given its due. "The true value of Whorf's theories is not the one he worked so painstakingly to demonstrate". and that the mental map is not the territory. though languages can convey concepts from other cultures. Walking maps distort the size of the mountain huts. Rivers are a standard blue on many maps. it has a similar structure to the terri-tory. And it is to the creation of these shared patterns that we now turn. First. Their features will also be generalized to fit a standard recognizable pattern in terms of colour. The first was Hans Vaill1inger (1924: 159-60): iPlq. and a limitation on. as we have seen previously. this does not mean that the concepts cannot be thought or understood. In any communication. The originators of metaphor (according to Bandler and Grinder) were two philosophers. second source of the map/territory metaphor was Albert Korzybski (1958:58-60). Perception and the Meta-Model of this chapter is to: the filters affecting perception of reality introduce the Meta-Model as a tool for analyzing perception and meaning practical examples of how language acts as both a means of. and so the model of the world like any other model involves three necessary and basic changes: GENERALIZATION DISTORTION DELETION 4 We will returnto these points when discussing the Meta-Model in Part 3. The rest of the town. clearly.this would be an utterly impossible task . there is a univermodelling of reality which functions in the same way as a map. in fact. 'Culture' refers to the process whereby particular kinds of learning contagiously spread from person to person in a community and minds become coordinated into shared patterns. but.' And here Pinker actually does agree (1995:57): Finally. though English does not have a single dictionary entry to express simpatico or targhe alterne. if correct. He explained. that sign is not the thing itself. roads and landmarks will be made disproportionately large. linguist and founder of the Institute for General Semantics in America: "A map not the territory it represents. the 1970s. up to a certain point. how languages convey meaning is related to the culture. Human representation. according to this theory. individual and culture-bound ways of perceiving. As Peter Farb (1973:186-187) says in Word Play: What Happens When People Talk. like a cartographic representation. For example. deletion of some of the material which is deemed irrelevant for the map. in his much quoted paper 'On the Linguistic Aspects of Translation': "Languages differ in what they must convey and not in what they can convey".s. The result i. ~nd for that matter often more visible on the map than in reality. A motorist's map has no huts but identically sized service stations. On British maps motorways are a darker blue. which accounts for its usefulness". countryside or even country will be omitted to highlight what is of interest.but rather to provide us with an instrument for finding our way about more easily in the world. shape and size. . Tourist maps represent ruins all of the same shape. it cannot convey the out-ofawareness feeling. who was a scientist. They followed very much th~~ footsteps of Gregory Bateson (1972: 180). This is certainly true. hapter 6. There are two points to be made here. larger than the towns or villages that they are in. human perception itself distorts and deletes much of what objectively exists in the outside world. We buy different maps according to need. It is also clear that. even though "Hesitation Makes Waste" might technically denote the values behind "JustDo It".86 David Katan • Interplay between Language and Culture It does seems clear that there is a link between language and the context of culture. As Roman Iakobson (1959:236) states. but "the close alliance between language and the total culture of speech". A map-maker has to make choices about how much information is to be processed and what aspects need to be highlighted to make the map meaningful and useful. Richard Bandler and John Grinder (1975) proposed a model to systematically the changes that take place during the perception of reality.JliOUU It must be remembered that the object of the world of ideas as a whole is not the portrayal of reality . However. We will look first at the various perception filters. at a lexical level. Secondly. will always be a scaled-down model of reality. There will also be distortion of the relevant material. bound by their own culture. On Italian maps they are green. but not as some disembodied ghostly process or fundamental force of nature. Apart from different. people (including translators and interpreters) tend not to realize that their perception (through language) is.

constrains and distorts reality. Our ears do not hear sound above 20. So. We cannot. and add a forth: language. This construction is subject to the universal modelling of reality and is modelled to our needs. This selection process has been called 'social engineering' (Bandler and Grinder 1975:12) and is the process which begins to distinguish us from others. even after having selected only part of the natural environment to be aware of. that perceived need may have little to do with the present environment. language itself construes reality. to which our sensory receptors are perfectly dapted. our sensitivity to pressure is so acute on the forehead that displacement of air is felt before even the lightest touch. Selective listening is also called 'the cocktail-party phenomenon' (Crystal 1987: 147). We should also remember. The human world of hearing and vision is a constant limitation. but in contrast with a group of wild life conservationists (or still-life artists. • Filter 4: Language However. Most of the time we e not aware of the limitation: it is our world.000 cycles per second. be overbearing to actually proess every sound within hearing distance at a party. in fact. which is only a part of the actual visual field. can. perception has to be limited to make sense of the world. "WhenI use a word. a further filter. Our only contact with the outside world is through the way we interpret information relayed by our senses. of course. from Scollon and Scollon (1995:125). Physiological • 2. it is also through language that we hear and learn about the world. Kilpatrick on the perception of space: "We can never be aware of the world as such. The soles of our feet have developed a lack of sensitivity to allow us to walk. In short. Filter 2: Social Engineering/Culture owever. Following Confucius. chi. It would. both are seen here to affect perception. As Halliday (1992: 65) explains. as we have already noted.' • Filter 3: Individual We also. For example.language." Alicesaid. pressure and pain. and their own individual reactions to the same environment. as members of the human race we all select the same limited reality. Individual • 4. a group of timber merchants walking through a forest will tend to agree on what they are looking at and how to evaluate the forest. in fact."Humpty Dumpty saidin a ratherscornful tone. The world of touch. 'there's a niceknock-down argument for you!'" 'But 'glory' doesn't mean 'a niceknock-down argument' ." Alice objected. but not at random. Different areas of skin vary in sensitivity to touch. as Alice discovered: [Humpty Dumpty] "There'sglory for you!" "r don't know what you mean by 'glory'.People's inborn charactersare similar. but only from the 380 to 680 million microns wavelength. Language • Filter 1: Physiological The first level. our sensory receptors are not even the best on the evolutionary market. need a pressure of 250g/mm before the nerves start responding. "it means just whatI choose it to mean . They are 100 times less sensitive than the forehead. the difficult or the dangerous: thedarkest hour a darkhorse darkest Africa Our hearing is equally limited. Hofstede's Perception Filters We will now discuss these three filters. It is. however.. These are our neurological constraints (Bandler and Grinder 1975:8). Individual constraints depend on the genetic framework we were born with and our own unique personal history. so the brain unconsciously makes decisions bout what to listen to. but only of . Hall (1982:41) quotes the psychologist Franklin P. in communicating our understanding of the world.88 David Katan Hofstede (1991 :6) sees perception as involving "three levels of uniqueness in human programming": HUMANNATURE Figure 16. In the naturel nurture controversy.neither morenorless. is not only limited but is also not a constant. The particular perception we have of reality varies from individual to individual. For example." (Can'oll 1981) I Ren zhi. for example. picnickers and trials bike enthusiasts) there will be remarkable agreement. or filter. daylight vision is a atural choice. Even identical twins growing up in the same family will have their own identity. xing ben shan/ Xing xiang jin. react according to individual identity. Accessing everything that is perceivable ould lead to severe mental overload. . anslating Cultures 89 nsidering the body's other needs such as body temperature and sleep.1 The Filters • 1. by nature is good'/. and hence. our eurologically accessible world is still very large. hear and feel different aspects of it according to perceived need. a variety of loosely aggregated groups of people who tend to share the same perceptions. there may be some discussion over their conclusions. 6. we use 'dark' metaphorically for the unknown. unlike nocturnal animals. So. we may say that we are all born equal but learn to be different. this variety of filters which helps us make sense of the world and survive within it. Each 'culture' will have a different impression of the same forest because they will select to see. With regard to vision. see in the dark.but learning makes them different'). xi xiang yuan ('Man. for example. Naturally. in common with many languages. SocialEngineering I Culture • 3. "I meant. the impingement of physical forces on the sensory receptors". is universal. There are.. The thick soles of our feet. but dogs' ears. To make matters worse. Our rods and cells in the eyes are able to collect some of the information from the visual spectrum. on the other hand.

" We have already discussed the principles of categorization. they introduced the 'Principle of Analogy' . A. HaIliday. filling the spaces with internal representations. in other words. This implies that the 'heard' is made to fit a pre-existing image of what. In Discourse Analysis. Hogan and Walter in 1932. Bandler and Grinder (1975: 17) ite one example case of an experiment with a pack of playing cards using some anomalous olours: the anomalous cards were almost always identified. while the second group was given the same symbols but with the labels on the right hand side. suggesting that we interpret according to past experience of similar genres. The stimulus figures they used are reproduced below: GLASSES DUMBBELLS SHIP'S WHEBL GUN SUN [:. suggest that the interpretation process is not only instant and unconscious. such a difficult activity. as the linguistic cue made to fit an internal lexicogrammatical pattern. for example. Closure is another well-known aid to perception. Experimental evidence to demonstrate this (at least with regard to our default response) can be found in research carried out by psychologists. The above words were Halliday's opening statement at a conference on 'Scientific English'. best-known for their work on Relevance Theory. Taylor (1953) in his article 'Cloze Procedure: a New Task for Measuring Readability'. The Reproduction as Dumbells 0=0 We tend not to 'see' the repetition of the definite and indefinite articles. and that we naturally expect things to conform to previous experience. So. 'dumbbells' or 'glasses' like. ere are very many other examples of this in the literature. rather than as the representation itself. just as it did for Alice.===== CRESCENT MOON C BROOM LETTER 'C' Figure 17.90 David Katan In the previous chapter we noted that language influences rather than determines thought. 6. but so automatic that it is generally a relatively peripheral process. without apparent hesitation or puzzlement. the 'dumbbells' were drawn with a double line between the two circles: Figure 18. as normaL The black four of hearts might. In the next section we look at further examples of how the language label filters the way we think. It is this strategy. and our general strategy is to use the information gained from the sensory system as a cue for representation. sensory signals are encouraged to fit preconceptions. which again tends to limit what is perceived to what fits recognized patterns.3 These language tests delete every fifth or seventh word. The word 'cloze' itself is an adaptation of the idea of closure (CED). K. at a conference on 'Scientific English' at the University of Trieste. For example. Dan Sperber and Diedre Wilson (1986: 186). In each group one person described what he saw while the other drew what he heard. The Original Stimulus figures They divided volunteers into two groups. . Here we will focus on how much we depend on making use of our own internal categorization rather than actually listening to what we hear or reading what we see. The student then has to close the gaps relying on his or her internally generated understanding of the lexico-grammatical pattern: while the 'glasses' were drawn with double circles: Figure 19. be identified as the four of either spades or hearts. 25 October 1995. This involves automatically and unconsciously closing any gaps. for example. However the language label does determine our first response. or accessibility to. it was immediately fitted to one of the conceptual categories prepared by prior experience. to gauge the effect of language on visually perceived form. The ideas of closeness of fit and stereotypical event follow closely Gillian Brown and George Yule's (1983:64-67) framework. One of the first significant results came from the work of the American psychologists Carmichael. Consider. for example the following well-known expressions: Reality is what our language says it is. a prototype. 3 The tests were originallydevelopedin Gestalt theory. and proof reading. Cloze tests rely On this ability. an "internal organization of a stereotypical event". They suggest that perception of reality depends on closeness of fit with. They conducted an experiment with what they called stimulus figures. They are discussed by W. The resulting pictures drawn invariably reflected the linguistic label rather than the drawing instructions. overriding any actual visible evidence to the contrary. the reproductions were influenced by the linguistic label. We unconsciously take more notice of hat we believe should be the pattern. The first group was given the symbols with the labels on the left hand side. Without any awareness of trouble. which makes correction of our own spelling mises. Italy.2 Expectations and Mental Images 'Tanslal:ing Cultures 91 In all cases. for example. The Reproduction as Glasses 2 M.

. is now considered an important tool in linguistics. We should ticipate the fact. irrespective of whether it is meaningless. ~ Taylor Torsello (1987:5) states that "The shared information in a message is the semantic base to which the speaker asks the hearer to refer. The Meta-Model does not specifically use Chomsky's phrase grammar or transformational . Not only are models fashionable but they have revolutionized work in cybernetics and information theory. The problem. but it does makes us of the basic principle of 'well-formedness' to investigate meaning. than what we could theoretically perceive. these choices are basic patterns or transformations of the form that speakers use to communicate their experience. to fully identify the extent of uivalence and the need for supplementation or redistribution of semantic compots"(1976:72-73). Le. At this point. The study of language went through a revolution when Noam Chomsky presented his model.is message". "Semantic representations of naturalnguage expressions are merely tools for inferential communication". They analyze semantic rather than syntactic incomness. as we have mentioned. one of the greatest blems in crosscultural communication is the fact that speakers and writers assume that the rface language refers the reader or listener to the same shared semantic base. the map was so detailed that it could not be seen: it was indistinguishable from the territory it was mapping. in his effort to disprove the fact that language determines thought. as Margaret Berry (1989. Finally. objectively and intrinsically true 'out there'. rather than lean ham)? The function of the Meta-Model is to bring to the surface what is hidden. and today Hallidayan (systemic or functional) grammar is still attempting to model language. and secondly. Pinker (1995:72) demonstrates that meaning is determined very largely by mental images. The map-makers continuously improved their map. distortions and deletions. Sperber and Wilson (1986:188) also adopt a ilar approach to investigate meaning. and the truth of . I would prefer cooked ham inside the roll). This is from the nonsensical poem 'The Jabberwocky'. we tend to take more notice of what we expect. suggests that for every surface structure there is a more complete deep structure. 17) states in her introduction to Systemic Linguistics. expanding it as the speaker himself proposes in the unshared parts of iJ. COito?! cooked? SI/Yes. "the term model has for the last few years been an extremely fashionable word in disciplines ranging from the sciences to education and theology". (Am I rigbt in thinking that you would prefer) mixed (lean and fatty pieces as they come off the bone. or in Chomsky's terms well-formed. In his theory. He wanted a better map. and clarifies the shorthand we use to communicate. on which the Meta-Model was originally based. and is also central to Systemics. however. The example below illustrates the difference between semantic well-formedness and shared formation. distort and delete what is real. er heard ofLewis Carroll's work.162) state.? This is the basis of conversational inference (Gumperz 1977) and is essential to mmunication. It identifies those language patterns which are generalizations. Misto?! mixed? Mi scusi?! Sorry? (1 would be obliged if you could prepare me) a roll (with some slices of) ham (inside) (Would you prefer) cooked (rather than raw ham inside the roll)? Yes (thanks. the king was not satisfied.. which. eh Chomsky's model deliberately excludes. So. Nida simplified and adapted msky's model to include the context for his translation theories. we have firmly established that the real world and our understanding of it are two different things.53) also point out. interpret and communicate. "truth is relative to understanding.' Native speakers also know that "the slithy roves did gyre d gimble in the wabe" is complete. In the next sections we will examine how this universal modelling of reality applies to language. In fact.the rest of what is shared can be ined. is that these model-makers are attempting to make the model more detailed. as Scollon and Sco11on (1995. which took nlace in a delicatressen in Trieste . As she points out. As George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980..92 David Karan 93 All the examples discussed in this section on perception and language are linked to prototype theory. First. a sentence is relative to the normal way we understand the world by projecting orientation and entity structure onto it". even if they have UIlpanlno con prosciuttol a ham roll. As native speakers speak or write. Bandler and Grinder (1975) suggest this is central to the way humans perceive. Chomsky suggests that native speakers intuitively know if the surface structure is well-formed grammatically. Chomsky's formalist model. Eventually the walls of the map institute were taken down to allow space for all the detail. of course. that the Meta-Model itself in clarifying complete representations only point towards what is actually happening between speaker and hearer (or writer and ader). is based on typical cases and expectations. there are neurological constraints limiting our capacity to perceive. they have made this process of simplification explicit through another model . the father" of modern translation.. 7 Personal conversation. "Nida is it padre" (Newmark 1995). As our understanding of the world depends on a previous construction of a suitable mental image it is consequently very difficult to be objective about reality. However. in Carrell's (1981) Alice Through the Looking Glass. as does Eugene Nida.which they termed the Meta-Model. So. as with all models or maps.3 The Meta-Model Modelling. 7 6. On this point Pinker agrees. the building which housed the map was not large enough. to account for all variation and change. they make a series of choices. This is particularly evident when we find Ourselves in a new situation. For example. native speakers intuitively accept that "the slithy toves did gyre and gimble in the" is syntactically incomplete. it must generalize. our internal image. yet it still did not contain everything on it. In one of his many les on the subject he calls for "a deep structure approach . or to state what is actually. The speaker only needs to refer to what is shared . for a map or a model to be useful. The Meta-model also checks for where simplistic communication obscures meaning and includes specific questions to clarify and challenge imprecise language. An old story has it that when the map-makers tried to show the king his territory on a map. To quote Sperber and Wilson (1986: 176) again. simplistic models of meaning.

Candlin continues. As Roger Fowler (1977:21) points out in Linguistics and the Novel. and all other aspects of cross-cunurar mediation. can alert the interlocutor to potential miscommunication. (See figure 21) The main function of the Meta-Model is to reverse the sequence of the arrows and to point to which filters are most responsible for the resulting surface representation. These. an exploration of the social psychological intentions of the originator of the message matched against one's own. "'choice' and 'favour' are not necessarily conscious. The result is a surface structure which is semantically incomplete. distort and generalize reality so that it can fit our map of the world. generally unconscious. With regard to translation. Candlin (1990:viiifollowing Steiner (1975). a making intelligible of the linguistic choices expressed in the message. Representation a/the Map a/the World ~L ~--""Wor1d + the semantically complete lirlpistic representation Figure 20.manti~lIy illComplete ~~sentlltion 21. The following sections explain in more detail how the analysis of the three universal modelling processes of generalization. language which also deletes. an ability to match all of these with our appropriate response in our semiotic and linguistic system. according to the universal process of modelling.Ime . we have all the information necessary to arrive at his or her model of the world. expanding on what a translator needs to be an understanding of the cultural and experimental worlds that lie behind the original act of peaking or of writing. It shows how the three filters delete. distorts and generalizes what could be more completely represented. any instruments which aid in making assumptions more explicit can help in translation. As a consequence. Most speakers of English are not particularly aware of the frequency of vague language use (until it is pointed out to them) and this fact is in itself of interest. Creation ofthe Map a/the World In general. as Joanna Channell (1994:4) notes. It can also help in unravelling the speaker or culture-bound map of the world and hence improve the ability to understand texts in of culture-bound attitudes and beliefs. places the discipline "beyond the apposite selection of phrases" suggests that the act of translation "asks us to explore our ideologically and culturallyassumptions about all those matters on which we utter". and that we normally Cross-cultural communication is an extreme example of the fact that the world cannot be for granted. whether a speaker Or writer realizes it or not.94 95 David Katan A full semantic representation is then the first stage in analyzing the underlying beliefs and values in crosscultural communication. can be seen in the following diagram. . At this stage there is a model of reality which could be fully expressed semantically: + tile semantlcalll complete IlnauJlltic tile SUl'fa~ IInJl. Clearly. in pointing out the vagueness. Once we have the full representation. and our culture. Hence we have the fourth filter. we can more definitely point towards the psychological intentions of the originator of the message. By focusing on explicitness we can raise awareness of the ambiguity and vagueness in language and communication. or because the grammar and stylistic considerations actually encourage a change or a reduction of the representation. an understanding of the potential of the two semiotic systems in terms of their image making. A writer's construction may betray his patterns of thought without his intending that they do so". distortion and deletion can increase the understanding of the cultural and experimental worlds behind the original act of speaking or of writing. Most of the time. Social en&i~erill& Map oflhe World The processes involved. 'choices' and 'favours' will not only reflect a speaker or writer's individual thought patterns but also: • the meaning potential of the grammar system • the culture-bound model of the world • the context. It shows that vagueness in communication is part of our taken-far-granted world. The Meta-Model. and also to the limits of the system of possibilities that langullge and thought itself are created from. either because some of the representation will be assumed to be shared. much of this information (potentially available as a complete linguistic representation) is not conveyed in speech or in print.

by their very name.My Ilnly aim as Chancelloris simple. do sempre. "Cats aren't nice". The universal quantifier is often implicit in stereotypes. He is cited by many linguists today. an utterance such as "Cats are nice" will be the result of a specific learning or experience relating. and we abstract from it a whole lot of different layers of generalization. W.I want all people to feel totally secure about theirjobs. by not overtly stating the untenable. to a reaction to a particular cat at a particular time. Specific. Clearly. for example. Brown and Yule (1983:61) also give him the credit for having first put into print the idea that "effort after meaning" involves "the attempt to connect something that is given with something other than itself'. Kenneth Clarke. are all the English (men. Typical universal quantifiers are as follows: All. no-one.97 96 6. Frederic Bartlett (1931 :206). women and children) soccer hooligans all the time? By challenging the statements with the same universal quantifier we can . With regard to English hooligans. possibly.AmericanExpress: never leave home withoutit. to get a general impression of the whole". an obligation. never. No. Churchill advertising.particularly when uttered by a conservative minister whose party philosophy is based on non-intervention and the use of market forces to determine the employment rate. become implicit generalizations. Often the universal quantifiers are implied. and the implication is that the utterance is of universal validity. They do not allow for any exception. The idea that everything is immutably as stated logically reduces any possibility of an alternative.any. explicit. the full semantic representation is untenable . the use of universal quantifiers is also common: Our experience is in fact organised on many levels at once. (Halliday 1968:100-101) A generalization occurs when one example is taken as representative of a number of different possibilities (O'Connor and Seymour 1990:107). future. as Brown and Yule point out. This experience is then expanded to the level of the universe. Many famous quotations are generalizations stating a rule (emphasis added): or a general truth: " Clarification In generalization the specific context is lacking. Also. MacmiIlan Never in the field of humanconducthave so many owedso much to so few. We have already seen examples of British and Italian stereotypes in Chapter 3. this full representation of the ex-chancellor's thoughts passes unnoticed and hence unevaluated. But. So. where the implication is that either all the British or allthe Italians behave in a stereotypic manner all the time. their standardof living .4 Generalization • The need for Generalization • UniversalQuantifiers(explicitand implicit) • ClarificationQuestions Let's be frank aboutit. Johnson andJohnson liqnid Detergent has evolved fromexperience which hasalways taken care ofyou Per l'uomo ehe non deve chiederemal. I want people to feel secureabout theirjobs. The man in the shaving lotion advert never has to ask anything from anybody. A report by The Weekly Telegraph (1995. at any time. span the catalogueof traditional nationalistic prejudice: • Britonsdress badly • French womenare better lookingthan British women • Frenchschoolsare better • The Englishare soccerhooligans. 191) of a court case regarding a Briton suing his French boss in New York over 'racist' remarks reveals the importance of omitting the quantifier. "the importance of relating a particular experience to other similar experiences". Llquldo Detergenre Johnson I1Jlf1 Johnson nascedoll'esperienza ehe. For the man who never has to ask . He also noted that if we did not generalize we would have to spend an inordinate amount of time explaining and specifying. for example. Tannen (1993b: 15). discussed later. Bartlett had already noted the phenomenon of generalization.1 depends on our ability to generalize. and we would not be able to benefit from learning. from what we see. notes that he was the first to popularize the term 'schema'. linguistic signs of generalizations are universal quantifiers (as described below). The whole of prototype theory and frame analysis discussed in Chapter 3. are all encompassing. Newsafthe World(26/2/95) . as in much persuasive language such as political discourse: My aim as Chancelloris simple. in fact. and fit to an idealized modeL The less positive aspect of generalization is that it limits the model of the world. was among the first to note that an individual "has an overmastering tendency to simplify. The first point to clarify would be the context or contexts in which the above statement is true. one of the founders of modern psychology. nowhere. which would otherwise have further ridiculed the whole proceedings: The remarksallegedin the lawsuit. their of living and their future. • Universal Quantifiers Universal quantifiers. prendecum dl te. most of our peoplehave never had it so good.. none. allows for no exceptions to the rule. nothing. For example.. over 50 years ago.each. always.nobody. every. Alternatively we could challenge the limiting belief that 'to ask' is. many of the deletions and distortions. H. so reducing choice.

98

David Katan

begin to contextualize the utterance to within what is actually objectively verifiable:
• All the English?
• Always?
• (Absolutely) never ask anything?

Translating Cultures

The use of metaphor is an example of semantic incompleteness. According to the CED
(1991) a metaphor is "a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or an
action that it does not literally denote in order to imply a resemblance". In this case the
metaphor operates as follows:
• word:
• object:

6.5 Deletion

99

stomach
men

By only applying a resemblance we have an incomplete surface representation of what
Ernilia meant exactly. The rich possibilities implied by this resemblance are, of course, the
basis of poetic effect. Diane Blakemore (1992:9), one of the developers of Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory, says with regard to the same passage: "It is impossible to spell out
what she meant without distortion or loss of meaning. There is no single proposition that
Emilia meant". Poetic effect is not only achieved through metaphor but also through the use of
unspecified language, as in the second quotation from Shakespeare:

6.5.1 The Use of Deletion
Deletion takes place on two levels: syntactic and semantic. The first is lexico-grammatical. We
have already mentioned that "Slithy toves did gyre and gimble in the" is syntactically incomplete. Also, "I like" will leave the listener waiting for the object, whether it be a pronoun or a
noun phrase. As it stands it is ill-formed. On the other hand, "I like cheese" is syntactically wellformed. A native speaker would also realize that though we now have all the necessary elements,"
others could be added to give a full representation of the who, what, when, where and how
exactly concerning cheese. A further expansion of "I like cheese" could be: "I usually like a few
slices of Dutch Gouda cheese with my toast for breakfast at weekends". This full representation
may not coincide with another's understanding of "I like cheese".
With regard to deletion, the meaning of a sentence may be implied, vague or even ambiguous, as in the following well-known examples:
Investigating FBIagents canbe dangerous
Timeflies

('investigating' as an adjective or gerund)
('Time' as an imperative or a noun)

This type of ambiguous specification is often at the basis of jokes, as more than one interpretation is possible. It is also an important device in literature and is the basis of poetic effect."
Linguistic deletion, in fact, allows the hearer to create an array of possible closures (see
Chapter 7.2) and hence fully participate in the communication act. Let us take two examples
from Shakespeare. The first is from Othello, where the trustworthy and down-to-earth maid
Emilia is giving her sound opinion of men:
Tis not a year or two but show us a man,
they are all stomachs and we all but food;
They eat us hungerly, and when they are full,
They belch us. (iii, iv)
8 A fully formed syntactic sentence can contain up to five elements: subject (S), lexical verb (V),
complement (C), object (0) and adverbial (A). However, the ordering and the combination of these
sentenceelements is strictly limited and depends on basic sentence-structure rules. For a complete list
see Quirk and Greenbaum (1990:204).
9 See Dodds (1994) for an exhaustive discussion of the poetic effect.

To be or not to be: that is the question. (Hamlet, Ill, I, 55-56)
One of the most unspecified verbs in the English language is, of course, the verb 'to be' . It is
used three times in this extract. In recreating a fuller representation as below we lose all other
possible inferences, i.e, the poetic effect:
To live or to die. That is the question.
One might think that such individually unpoetic and basic words would always be literally
translated. However, Franco Zeffirelli's Hamlet includes the following translation: 10
Essere 0 non essere. Tutto qui.
To be or not to be. That's it/That's all [literally: 'all here']
The deletion of specific language ('the question') may well have been an attempt to return to
the original non-specificity of Shakespeare's English. At a semantic level, neither the Italian
questione nor domanda allow for the same array of inferences as 'question'. Domanda is a
simple question, whereas questione is serious, sombre and problematic. In fact, a number of
translators have opted for dilemma ('dilemma'). Here, any decision taken at the level of word
results in some deletion of possible meaning. However, paradoxically, some deletion of the
source text language can result in maintaining an equivalent array of inferences. By using the
clarification questions (discussed later in this Chapter) we can more clearly understand the
array of inferences intended by Shakespeare.
As we have already mentioned, it is not only in poetic language that deletion exists; deletion
is also an essential feature of all language. The following is a fairly random selection, taken
from an interview, a publisher's brochure, and a novel:
I didn't like getting my hands dirty and I loved dressing up and making model theatres out of
Shredded Wheat packets.
NedSherrin, director, novelist andwriter talking abouthis youth (The Times Magazine 1218/95)

10

See also Christopher Tay!or's discussion of other Italiantranslations of this passage(1990:4-5).

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David Katan

Low level English learners present special needs. Most have busy schedules and a limited time to
study English. Allhave oneaim: to become operative in English fast.
Longman PublishersNewsletter(September 1995)

- Signorina. • chiese,
- Dimmi.
- Perchepiange?
- PercM sonosfortunata in amore

'Signorina' heasked.
'Yes?'
'Whyarey6l\ crying?'
'Because I'm crossed in love:

-Ak!

'Ab!'

Italo Calvino, Pesc!grossi, pesci piecoli, trans. Archibold Colquhoun
All the above examples seem clear enough. There is no obvious vague language, yet much
of the full semantic representation has been deleted. In 'getting hands dirty' , for example, we
immediately understand enough of the meaning to follow the text, but we do not know exactly
what sort of getting hands dirty he is talking about: is it through doing household chores,
working on the family allotment, playing with play-dough, painting or playing outdoors with
friends for instance? The same is true for the other emphasized examples. A common request
amongst second language learners is that they wish "to become operative in English". This
means different things for different people. Being operative in English at the supermarket
check-out is not the same as being operative in English to set-up a joint venture. But in general
we feel that we have enough information, as does the boy in the third example from Italo
Calvino, who appears to understand ("Ah!") with the minimum of information.
The usefulness of deletions is clear in everyday talk once they are compared to registers of
language which attempt to render in the surface structure a faithful mirror of the total possible
representation. A perfect example is legal text, which is so explicit as to render it unreadable
for the lay person. Below, for example, is an extract of Lord Diplock's words outlining, as
clearly as possible, what constitutes a crime (Russell and Locke 1992: 176):
Conduct which constitutes a crime consists of a person's doing or less frequently omitting
to do physical acts, and the definition of the crime also contains a description of physical
acts or omissions, though it may, and in English law generally does, also require that the
physical acts or omissions which constitute the described conduct should be done with a
particular intent, either expressly cited in the definition or to be implied from the mere fact
that Parliament has made the described conduct punishable.
Though the language contains no legal terminology, its completeness makes for opaque
reading. This is an 84-word sentence - though not the longest in the English language. Pinker
(1995:86) cites a Guinness Book ofRecords report of a 1300-word sentence in William Palkner' s
novel Absalom, Absalom. The point, however, is not so much the length, but the high 'fog'
factor, or lexical density (Halliday 1987:60).
The aptly named Fog Index" is an index of the clarity of a text. As a rough and ready guide,
the higher the number of words, and the higher the proportion of three or more syllable words
per sentence, the thicker the fog. The technical formula is the average number of words per
sentence (in this case 84) added to the number of words of three syllables or more per 100
words (20 in this case, which makes 23.8 per 100) multiplied by 0.4. Reasonably clear writing
11

This particular example is taken from O'Connor and Seymour (1994:274-275).

Translating Cultures

10J

has a Fog Index of between 9 and 12. Lord Diplock's words are decidedly foggy with an index
of 43.12. We should remember that this is a technical guide and therefore takes no account of
context, which will have a strong influence on the appropriateness of making deletions to the
text.
However, that being said, deletion would help in rendering the idea more clearly to a nonlegal audience:
Conduct which is a crime consists of a person doing (or omitting to do) something with
intent, either expressly cited or implied by Parliament as punishable.
We have now reduced the number of words in the sentence to 25, the Fog index has gone
down to 16.4 - and we understand. Apart from reducing lexical density, another important use
of deletion is cohesion (see Halliday and Hasan 1976).
Deletion can, however, also interfere with communication, either because the surface representation is no longer connected to a speaker's model of the world (linguistic deletion) or
because the speaker's particular model of the world itself has deleted much of the world.
The following sections will focus on deletions in the surface structure which point to a
speaker's map of the world rather than deletion due to cohesion or shared understanding. They
will cover the following areas:

According to the University Course in English Grammar (Downing & Locke 1992:382),
modality is one of the most important ways in which interpersonal meaning can be expressed.
It is the expression of an attitude of the speaker towards a reality: "modality is said to express a
relation to reality, whereas an unmodalized declarative treats the process as reality"(emphasis
in original). Generally, modality is expressed either through an auxiliary verb (can, may,
should, etc.) or through a full lexical verb (wish, need). Other possible ways are through
adverbs and adverbial clauses (possibly, probably, certainly) and adjectives (it is necessaryl
vital that)."
Modality can be divided into two basic areas: extrinsic (or epistemic) modality and intrinsic
(or deontic) modality. Extrinsic covers the possibility, probability or certainty that a proposition is true (e.g. 'It can't be raining'). The area of modality of interest here is intrinsic. In this
case a speaker is not simply commenting ('It can't be' "" I don't think it is possible) on a fact ('It
is raining'), s/he is personally involved in the speech act. With intrinsic modality, the speaker
will be influencing or controlling self and others (e.g. 'I/you can't go out dressed like that'),
according to their (culture-bound) model of the world.

12

See also Falanski (1989:292) for a list of modalexpressions.

102

David Katan

Translating Cultures

103

We will divide intrinsic modality into necessity and possibility." Both intrinsic modal possibility and necessity set the individual and culture-bound limits of choice, either by implying
(limiting) beliefs about the world or by what is considered possible.

also known as epistemic modality; 'epistemic' comes from the Greek word 'knowledge'. As
such, extrinsic modality concerns the modality of propositions and the degree of truth or
certainty to be attached to them. Here is an example:

• Intrinsic Modal Necessity
Modal necessity expresses levels of obligation. It can range from advisability through to inescapable duty or requirement:

, We cannot all detect the same odours ... the smell of cooking pork cannot be detected by about 50% of
( adult males and 10% of adult females.
. ~. The Independent (21112/93)

must, have to, need, should, ought to, it is necessary ...

It is often expressed through rules. For example:
... society needs some regulations, and these must mean some restriction of personal freedom.
The Weekly Telegraph (1995, No. 193; emphasis added)
... quando un paeseha un debito pubblico impressionante, deve rlmettere ordine ... sono questioni Che
devonoessere affrontate.
... when a country has an astounding public debt, it must bring order about again ... these are
questions that have to be tackled.
II Corriere 'della Sera (12/4/95; emphasis added)

Both extracts lay down what appear to be universal truths. However, these truths are, in fact, no
more than intrinsic modal necessities: limiting beliefs held by the speaker in relation to reality.
• Intrinsic Modal Possibility
Intrinsic modal possibility includes ability and permission and sets the limits to options as
perceived by the speaker or writer. It is realized principally through 'can', 'could', 'may' and
'might'. When permission is denied, those responsible for the denial are often not stated, as in
the following example:
The police know who many of the crooks are, but cannot touch them.
The Independent (15/12/93)

From our exophoric knowledge we know that, in this case, parliament has decided by law what
is the right and proper approach with regard to police apprehension of suspects, and that police
behaviour is limited by these laws.
Permission to act in a particular way may be refused because of social rather than written
rules, as in this apocryphal confrontation between a Maitre d'hotel and a trouser-suited female:
I'm sorry madam, you cannot go into the dining room like that. Ladies in trousers are not properly
dressed.
The Independent (15/12/93)

In both these cases there is clear reference to accepted rules. In both cases one could contest the
rule, but the important point is that there is a written or house rule which can be cited.
There is, as we have mentioned, the extrinsic meaning of 'can/cannot'. Extrinsic modality is
13 Bandler and Grinder (1975) use the terms 'model operator of possibility' and 'modal operator of
necessity'. However, model operators only include the modal auxiliaries, and not the other means of
expressing modality described above. Here, we will follow Downing and Locke's (1992:383-84) list of
those forms which can realize modality.

The use of the intrinsic modal possibility is often hidden in the surface structure and can
often appear to demonstrate extrinsic modality. 'Can' and 'cannot' in particular are often used
by speakers to give the impression that what they are saying is extrinsic when, instead, they
actually refer to a personal (and maybe unshared) belief. For example, the comment below
demonstrates a personal understanding or model of the world, which is presented as a universal
rule. Needless to say some groups of people act is if it were:
Non si puo ottenere nulla per le vie legali
You can't get anything using the legal channels.
Enzo Biagi (1995:175)

Below is another personal belief which appears to be extrinsic. Again, the modal impulse
does not come from 'knowledge' but from the speaker's conviction and desire to control events:
We cannot repair the American community and restore the American family until we provide the values,
the discipline and the reward that work gives.
Bill Clinton, The Independent (19/12/93)

The last example concerns a person who has just won a court case. He is discussing the
damages he has been awarded as a result of police conduct during a raid on his house:
This case was never about money. It was about clearing OUl' names once and for all and about showing the
police they cannot act in this fashion.
The Independent (21/12/93)

This is a further example of a personal desire to influence events (intrinsic modality). Again,
the surface structure regarding conduct is stated as an established extrinsic rule.
In the examples above, the language of limiting rules through intrinsic modality has been
used to express a personal belief about behaviour in society. In other cases, the limits actually
define the limits of the speaker's world, which are then generalized (through deletion) to
become a universal rule for the whole of society:
You cannot take seriously how Hollywood at its worst will see you. Yon just cannot.
Sigoumey Weaver The Independent (31110/93)
You can only take things for so long. I have stood up to be counted. Changes are being made here
which go against my principle.
Disc Jockey, Dave Lee Travis formerly of Radio 1 telling his audience why he was leaving the BBC.
This stinking situation can't go on like this for ever.
The Independent on the Middle East (16112/93)
You cannot send tank regiments to patrol Mogadishu streets....
The Independent on Somalia (24/10/93)
The party needs to bed down now. You cannot go on changing your leader when their style is out
of fashion. . ..
The independent on the Conservative government (16/6/93)

and we are left with universal generalizations. Clarification of the full representation would contextualize the utterance and would help decide if the speaker is describing his or her own internal beliefs and is therefore performing" (being intrinsic) rather than describing (being extrinsic). The specific referential indices have been deleted. The use of the pronoun is generally a clear index (hence a linguistic deletion) pointing to a referent. Filter 1 Filter2 Filter 3 Filter 4 physiological cultural/social engineering individual linguistic Example I can't fly Youcan't wearthatjacket Youcan't see me now (a witness to a bomb explosion): I couldn't believe it 6. The yardstick (values) against which they are able to decide "thus far and no further" is missing. the 'royal we'. they are still incomplete representations of the speaker's reference point. sendingtank regiments. the implication is that a specific group of English and Welsh people are involved. moral laws. The referential index may be missing either due to the language filter (e. ALL the English ALL the time) are involved in asking the Welsh. . ~ is/isn't possible! necessary The SI something is deleted from the surface structure. Further clarification is necessary. then the implication is that the English in general (Le. 'Reference'. it necessaryfor the partYto bed down. speakers do make the limits of their perceived world explicit as surface structure: Nick Backon whyhe was notselected for theEngland Rugby team: I just cannot see whythis should place a question mark against my ability to perfonn at international level. The context here (both linguistic and extra-linguistic) points to the more specific referential indices of 'the Welsh' (for "we". or does the expression refer to a particular English man or woman? The grammarians Quirk and Greenbaum (1990:85) distinguish two types of reference: generic and specific. the reference may be specific. the information is deleted because it is assumed to be shared (Halliday and Hasan 1976:33. but we still have generalizations. • Assumed Sharedness In the case of sharedness. is "the relation that holds between linguistic expressions and what they stand for in the world". In this case the knowledge is culture-bound: 'We'. "That something [missing] in each case represents a set of laws. We fight when they ask us. as he explains. refers to Queen Victoria. to fight. The limits in the above cases have been restricted.5. • Clarification There are a number of key questions which can be used to contextualize the speaker's point of view and to clarify the speaker's world and its borders: (1) By challenging with universal quantifiers: never/ever/always/all: • Must these regulations always mean some restriction ofpersonal freedom? (2) By looking for exceptions. from universal application to the speaker. Until we arrive at the heart of the beliefs about who exactly is involved we will not have a full semantic representation of the world as perceived by the author of this song. let us look at this protest song which was popular before devolution (emphasis added): I can't understand why we let someone else rule our land. 82 necessary someregulations necessary. 'English person' (for "someone else") and 'English people' (for "they"). in general.g. though. However. According to Downing and Locke (1992:393). For example is 'an English person' anyone. whether natural laws. If the reference is generic. of good manners. In this case.These intrinsic rnodals of (universal) possibility and necessity have the general logical form as follows: Modals of: possibility What would happen if you did agree to the changes? nswers to these questions will show the rules by which a person lives and which filters are st responsible: 81 something necessity 81 something surface structure deleted prevents ~ 82 from being possible you takingthingsj'orso lang. as in the well-known "We are not amused". Taylor Torsello 1987:29-30). "our" and "us"). The reader. an example of a group. AndDave LeeTravis continues: Changes are being made herewhich go against myprinciples and I just cannot agree withthem. 142. At times. but only because native-speakers share that exophoric knowledge. and perhaps many more". laws of physics. We fought then we cower. On the other hand. As another example. cohesive and other stylistic reasons) or to culture/social engineering. will only be able to attach the index to a referent through his or her knowledge of the context. whereas the 'index' is the point of reference.3 Unspecified Referential Index Lyons (1986:220) begins his chapter on reference with the title 'Worlds within Worlds: the subjectivity of utterance'. and hence we have not arrived at a full representation of 'who' in this protest song. which again illustrate the existence of boundaries: • Can you imagine any circumstance in which X would not be true? (3) By making the reason explicit: • What makes it impossible to agree to the changes? • What prevents (you) from agreeing to the changes? 14 105 David Katan 104 Falainski (1989:276) uses 'performing' in the sense of a performative verb. We have clarified the deletions.

. the possibility of both modification and qualification is considerably reduced". 'Restricted' and 'elaborated' codes are terms used by Bernstein for the different ways of conveying meaning in a social context (which were briefly discussed in Chapter 4. They learn to accept what other people consider to be good manners. then is it really reasonable to expect that one will go on believing in the efficacy of why? HAP children. while the middle class tend to encourage interaction.. and hence choice in life. As a result the Welsh now have their own Assembly. • Clarification To clarify unspecified referential indices. This lack of modification is due to the fact that there is no deeper semantic representation. may well be a culturally induced backwardness transmitted by the linguistic process". and they have limited experience in making suggestions and requests to authority figures. just in order to protect ourselves from a foolish accusation of prejudice by those who cannot distinguish between 'different from' and 'better (or worse) than'. the procedural questions are: • Who specifically is ruling? • What exactly is our land? • Restricted Codes The second reason for deletion of the referential index in the surface representation is due to social engineering.. has already learned to delete a host of possibilities. Hasan' s (1991:107) conclusion is as follows (emphasis in original): The children learn something from the typical absence or irrelevance of what mothers say a propos their questions .tml'tinn of realitv . and more importantly to an organization: parliament.. to any first-hand experience. effectively limiting whatever innate language potential they might have (1989:256): but you'd be gladwhenyou go backto school. Halliday (1992:69) made the following statement during his keynote speech entitled 'New Ways of Meaning: The challenge to Applied Linguistics' at a world conference on applied linguistics: I hope by now we are beyond the point where we have to pretend that everybody's world view is alike. Brislin (1993:104) also mentions how difficult it is to comment objectively on class. various other ethnomethodological researchers studying class in a variety of cultures have noticed the same differences with regard to parent/child interaction. nouns from the surface structure. Where pronouns are used as heads. Brislin (1993:102) concludes with the following: 'cause that's where it goes? yeah. When the mother then asks questions.. I'n lnl'pm. This is precisely where pressure was exerted to effect change. he believes that it is important to accept that class difference exists.l'1". However. will learn to link references to an individual source. This is a refined extension of Bernstein' s (1972:480-481) elaborated and restricted code theory which caused so much controversy in the 1970s.1. However. like Halliday.7) also shows how deletion limits a child's possible world. or if it draws the simple response cause.pl' I'hp crarnmatir-nl I'nn. According to Brislin (1993:99-105). In 1992. Hasan's more recent work on HAPs and LAPs (see Chapter 4. and his/her government..k for "nnli"rllin<>nl. the extra-linguistic context makes it clear that we are talking about the English (rather than British) prime minister before devolution. won't you? no wby? 'cause 'causewhy? 'causeRebecca don't go to myschool any more who's Rebecca? thelittlegirl in my school didshe leave? yeah why? 'cause Children of working class learn to be comfortable with external standards in contrast to their own.. internally set goals. Bemstein's (1972:478) study of the language of middle-class and working-class children showed that "The working class children are more likely to select pronouns as heads (especially third person pronouns). for example. A generalized negative feeling about a different people has now been contextualized to a smaller specific group of individuals. h". but to vague and unchangeable 'us' and 'them'. it is not only in terms of unspecified referential indices that people (and in particular the working class) limit their map of the world.7). But if a why question typically draws no answer. The use of 'we' or 'they' is not actually connected to a specific referent. The restricted code users delete. The I'". on the other hand.106 David Katan In this particular case. The example below shows how a LAP mother tends to reply to a child's question in the LAP world (1992:32): Mother: Karen: Mother Karen: Mother: put it up on the stoveandleaveit there why? Translating Cultures 107 Hasan's research shows clearly that the "why/'cause" routine lies firmly within the LAP world and that Karen. as both Bemstein and Hasan report. thus constantly enriching their view of the world (1992:14): Hasan (1989:258) suggests that "The implication is that [HAP] mothers would be likely to provide additional and fuller information to explicate and make precise the referential application of their questions and replies". the children already have a model response. The working class throughout the world tend towards reducing interaction between children and adults. Even more controversial was his more forthrightly stated fact that "the relative backwardness of many working-class children . and to objectively comment on the advantages and disadvantages that class brings.p. for example.

seen throughthis 'disguise' and philosophersonly at best incidentally.5. have oriented the speaker's map of the world.. The imperative is also /lnrtp]icitlyclear about limits being dictated by the speaker. "Obvious" is itself a deletion of Austin's (possible) full semantic representation. in this case the culture. J.and the ship is effectively named as a result of these words. O'Connor and Seyrnour (1990:103) use the term 'judgements'. in his discussion of the 'Performative Fallacy' . Stalin" . it is "too obvious to be worth saying".108 109 David Katan 6. Leech (1985:325) rightly says "it seems unnatural to argue that every single direct statement is fundamentally an indirect statement". meaning in discourse is generalized to imply that the rules are the same for all people and cultures all the time . to be clarified by asking "according to whom?".5 Value Judgements Value judgements 16 are also lost or missing performatives. and his ideas were widely adopted through to the end of the seventies. there are also no limits. and also the reasons and beliefs underlying the expected behaviour. the (direct) statement "Chrysanthemums are not appropriate for a party" does not tell us who is responsible for this utterance.Y. This type of appeal presupposes a universal rule to which both speaker and hearer must obey. Hence the judgement of an individual Bandlerand Grinder (1975: 107)list the words in the box. underlostperformatives but call themsimply 'cue words'. information has been deleted which would reveal which little boys CXUl. we can frame the utterance and have a clearer idea of the applicability of the rule. manners. R. • Clarification To clarify a missing performative and relativize the utterance to the speaker.. Of the three examples. to clarify the deletion. However. we need to ask the following questions: • According to whom specifically little boys don't cry? • According to what regulations/rules ofconduct specifically? 6.and that rules are unchangeable.. in "little boys don't cry". understandably enough. we have a clearer idea of how the culture filter. Generally. Again. Strawson (1964:451) agrees. P. Once we have the source.(Austin 1962:4) Austin introduced the concepts of 'performative utterances' in the early sixties. explains clearly when and why the performative is made explicit: "it occurs. is taken for granted. This explication of the full semantic representation in normal speech is generally unnecessary. Leech (1983: 181). the most important deletion is the performative.. the personal appeal is the most explicit allowing for what Bemstein calls "the individualized interpersonal context". 16 . specific parts of the society's contextualized experience have been deleted. A fuller (indirect statement) representation would be prefaced with: • I believe . As we have already mentioned. printed rules: In all these cases. because.. the type of force the utterance has". Instead we are presented with an implicit generalized rule. In this case the hearer understands there is a rule. Whenever we speak about social or culture-bound rules (the do's and don'ts.5. as Leech makes clear. I believe. in what situations exactly. very likely that the speakers will be repeating the same surface structure that they heard from their home environment and had simply internalized without question. For example. 15 See also Bach and Harnish (1982) for an exaustive discussion of the performative in speech acts. until what age. the positional appeals are most difficult to unravel: "The essence of a positional appeal is that in the process of learning the rule. is "obvious to whom?". for a moment. The question. i. when a speaker needs to define his speech act as belonging to a particular category". Bernstein (1972:485) categorizes three principal types of parental appeals which become Grammarians have not. With this preface. in saying something one is also performing an act. As a result of lack of specification. present behaviour is often related to a historical response to past perceived needs. we do not connect them to a particular speaker or category because the rule is all encompassing and includes every speaker. this reminds us of the "taken-for-granted world" in Channel's Vague Language. to our discussion on imprinting and enculturalization (Chapter .e. to the effect that behind every sentence there lies a hidden performative. as ih: "I name this ship Mr. and values in particular. Quite simply.7). a speaker does not need to consider his or her utterance as belonging to a particular category because the category. among others. the being usually rewarded or punished in some way depending on his or her response. For example. However. who is responsible for performing the utterance. He believed that a performative act takes place when an utterance performs an act. saying thatthe performative can "make explicit the type of communication intention with which the speaker speaks. By disconnecting the surface structure from its original reference structure. The speaker is simply a spokesperson for the source of this rule. etiquette and so on). or to his or her culture. Ross (1970) coined 'the Performative Hypothesis' which suggests the same idea. It is. However.4 Missing Performatives Returning. as Austin {I 962: 141) says.IJ. This is a form of instrumental conditioning. • We Italians think . the child is explicitly linked to others who hold a similar universal or particu." There are few supporters of this view today.. as pointed out by Geoffrey Leech (1983:17475) in his 'Performative Fallacy'. of course. Here I will use the term 'valuejudgements' to indicate thatthejudgements are related to a (culture-bound) set of values. • According to generally accepted Italian custom . Apart from there being no exceptions. However. Austin (1962: 103) himself says that the illocutionary force of an utterance "could be made explicit by the performativeformula''. and that the rule is part of the external world. this principle has been extended by Austin himself. the form of language used "transmits those aspects of culture that are not be questioned" (Saville-Troike 1986:48). in making cross-cultural communication explicit it is useful to make explicit the frame of reference. F..

. Instead. no end of examples from the industry. yet the voiceover. as the following example heard on ZFM American Forces Radio News (711/96) illustrates. as we have seen: arrowful of horse manure would?". The fuzziness of the surface strapline allows the listeners or readers to fill in the missing details for themselves. John Morley (1993:412) notes the advertising strategy of deleting the point of comparison. we can say that Bill Clinton was well-dressed according to an American set of values of individual practicality. • Clarification To fill in the deleted comparative or superlative. of course. RIGHT lteggio's young things still adore the discos. non si cambiano. the clarification will lead to culture-bound differences. bearing in mind the discussion on dress in Chapter 4. .1. as Morley tes. So. but wholly unrealistic. for example: According to•. But I'll tell you Radion Micro is the best yet. according to which set of culture-bound values • Comparatives and Superlatives Any sentence that uses comparatives or superlatives but without stating 'in comparison to what' is deleting some information from the surface representation.up to today. the advertiser relies on the never failing. Even better and they're right.e.• wenton for too long wasbadly handled ourideaof useof time the waywe handle meetings . don't change.we havereason to believe thatRadion is thebest washing powderon the market. Habits. the questions to ask are: • Compared to what? • According to what yardstick? Very often. oppure mutano con lentezza da bradisismo. attempts to retrieve the missing comparative for Vortex: "Longer than what? Longer than any other product? Longer than it did last year? Or longer than a 11 UniversaIism is discussed as one of the culturalorientations in Part 3. and in particular of other washing powder commercials. This is because the values will be culture-bound. successful woman talking to equally intelligent and successful eople: Corriere della Sera. al Boc-caccio 0 da Giovanni. reading the text. depicts an intelligent. we would have the less effective version below: Mostproducers of washing powder tellyoutheirproduct is good enoughto washclothes(according to minimum washing standards as laid down by EU directive xyz).110 David Katati III is implicitly generalized to include an agreed judgement by all concerned. Sette Translation Giusto e sbagliato a Reggio Right and Wrong in Reggio GIUSTO I ragazzi di Reggio continuano a frequentare devotamente le discoteche. continuano a divertirsi piu 0 meno come l padri. comfort and universalism. Many Europeans would have difficulties with agreeing to this value-judgement. human ability of closure . But I'll tell you Radion Micro is the best washing powder on the market beating the minimum . New Radian Micro Better than good Better than . 17 • Clarification To connect these judgements to the speaker or writer's mental representation we need to clarify them by asking: • right/wrong/well according to whom? Most washing powders tell you they're good. the younger generation entertain themselves more or less like their parents WRONG Value judgements do not usually help in furthering cross-cultural communication. Another washing powder advert sums up how much can be done with the mparative and superlative of 'good'. SBAGLIATO Le abitudini. washingstandards by at leastx%. For dinner one goes/you go to the London Bistrot. even better It's the best yet. It is difficult. whichis y% more than the best other washing powderperformance. in fact. In short. insomma. with possibly 'best' as the ost recurrent. the Boccaccio or Giovanni's. Contextualizing the statement. or else the change is snail's pace. There are. in Reggio. We alsobelieve (or havescientific evideuce to prove) that Radion is betterthan the Persil washing powder which is advertisedon TV as "evenbetter than all the other washingpowders on the market today". The extract is from a news report of a snow-bound Sunday in Washington D. I figli. They will also telI you that their products perform even better than the minimum standards (or . from "OMO washes whiter" to "Vortex kills germs longer". Morley. hence the advertiser does not explicitly state them. .. to believe that this can anything else but a spoof on washing powder advertising.r on the L markettoday. for example. Superlatives also are very much part of the advertising genre. a Reggio. Many if not all the statements above will be untenable. If we were to retrieve the missing comparatives and superlatives (among other deletions) from our know ledge of the genre. performeven betterthan last year)and we think theseproducers are right. r. The judgements are generally in terms of good and bad. The President of the United States was reported going to church: The President was well-dressed for the event in blue-jeans and a flannel shirt.•• Thismeans thatthenewRadion Micro product is better thanany ofthe goodwashingpowder. A cena si va al London Bistrot.

as a sign that they are a comment. He was discussing the legal system in England after 16 years of public protest against the wrongful imprisonment of a number of Irishmen and others.T". it is necessary to check if the adverb can be transformed into an 'anticipatory it' in the form "It is X that". 'obviously') looks like an adverb describing an observable 'how'. 'naturally'. nominalizations may be the single most misleading language pattern". 'steadily' and 'silently'. is a particularly efficient way of limiting explicit communication. As we have noted. alas often on good gr(lUnlGS. in fact. one of the three adverbs is not stating a fact but a value judgement: The two adverbs after the second comma. This phenomenon has been put to good use by those who prefer not to name names. A comment by a speaker on the content of the clause.112 David Katan 6. • Clarification First.. 'Obviously' though is not describing a 'how' but is an evaluative comment by the writer of the article. 'shopping' and so on. It is. The other side of the coin is Translating Cultures 113 ease with which speakers can manipulate their audience. The distortion in these cases also hides a deletion: the subject of the nominalization. However. is called a disjunct (Downing and Locke 1992:62-63). as with 'obviously'.6 Disjuncts The three adverbs in the extract below appear to be describing what the writer could see. Disjuncts are usually clearly positioned before or after the clause they are commenting on. but not even fighting in itself. prepositional groups and by both non-finite and finite clauses. responsibility for utterances can be omitted.g. . he spoke to me" can be transformed into: "It is natural that he spoke to me". govern and shop. Guirdham (1990:68) notes in her volume Interpersonal Skills at Work: We are very hesitant to accept any information that does not fit with our existing ideas and beliefs. Examples of bureaucratic and political English (or for that matter any other language) which are remote from the common-sense construction of experience are not difficult to find. 'government'. We therefore select and distort our new observations. This universal tendency. As we have noted.". and wars. Kenneth Baker (Home Secretary at the time) gave a speech to a packed parliament and to about six million people watching on television. but does take note of the sound and look. Though he limits his discussion to the rise of scientific and bureaucratic English. the unconscious brain tends not to notice the position of the disjunct. in general. or we may simply wish to discuss the argument in general terms. As a result. However. that what they communicate automatically becomes mutually manifest". "Naturally. Eating steadily and silently is directly observable. For example: "To whom is it obvious that the men were locals?". Take for example the following sentence: The war in [location] is terrible. religious or political leaders assume. The full representation is now: "It was obvious to me that the men were locals". e. then further clarifiedby locating the missing performative.5. The de-adjectival nominalization would needto be clarifiedas a value judgement. According to Downing and Locke (1992:149-52).18 Clearly. Second.. People fight. and so the question is: "To whom is it X that . Nominalization Halliday (1992:68) uses the term "thinginess" to describe nominalization. Halliday (1992:77-79) is also concerned about "the trend towards thinginess". Disjuncts are most often realized (as in the boxed example above) by adverbs. In reality. his conclusions regarding the rise in the use of nominalizations are relevant to any discussion on clarity and contextualization in language: "The reality construed by this form of discourse [thinginess] became increasingly arcane and remote from the common-sense construction of experience . which Guirdham terms 'the locked-in effect'. This process is clearly a distortion of reality. Even more different is the thinginessof 'chair' compared with 'war'. whereas the fact that the men were locals was obvious to the writer. As a result. for example.. governments and shopping are all dynamic processes that have been momentarily frozen. a useful strategy .g. professors. One particular group 18 "Is terrible" is alsoincomplete. these disjuncts represent the author's personal evaluation. describe how the three men were eating. as Sperber and Wilson (1986:63) out: "Journalists. is very similar to the Principle of Analogy mentioned earlier. However. into things or rather nouns. there is good reason for using this shorthand. "obviously" can be transformed into "it is obvious that .. This useful term can used to ask about the degree of thinginess a thing (noun) has. 6. Some of these nouns are not really things but are ongoing processes which have been frozen. resulting in an identity crisis. it had already come to be felt as alienating. For example: "Naturally. it is fighting which hurts. Also. The sky changes in a way that a hill does not. he spoke to me when he saw me".. nominalizations delete the subject. we need to recover the performative. as usually we know who is fighting whom. Individuals actively fight. attributes (de-adjectivals) and circumstances. The following is an example of political discourse. disjuncts can interfere with communication. There is a lot of evidence that impressions once formed are resistant to change. is very different from that of 'sky'. and one way that this is done is to distort it to fit our preconceptions. The full representation should be: [named people] fighting [named people] is terrible. This section is devoted to the use of language which actually distorts or transforms what is real or objectively verifiable. as usual. Nominalization.6 Distortion Both generalizations and deletions distort reality in the sense that what is said is unclear.".. while "steadily" makes little sense as "it is steady that . The thinginess of 'hill'. a world made entirely of things". as Halliday (1992:77-78) himself points out.. so that the initial impression can be preserved. The surface structure (e. according to Seyrnour and O'Connor (1990: 104). "By turning processes into things.otherwise values and beliefs might radically change. norninalizations are transformations of verbs (de-verbals). We have already mentioned the human need to make sense of the world..

The reason for the problem is a difference in presupposition.. the Mediterranean question presupposes that the interlocutors have already suffered the stagnant heat in towns or at least in the plains and wish to move to the two most convenient places that offer respite. occurs in the advertising of a book by the respected journalist and commentator Enzo Biagi. Sixteen years later they were released.especially in English. the presupposition is that there was something that had gone on before. literally "an old bad habit" or "an age-old vice". However a front page headline by Francesco Merlo echoes the views of many other commentators: . according to Wolfgang DressIer (1992). Kenneth Baker's words on that occasion were as follows: It is of fundamental importance that the arrangements of criminal justice should secure the speedy conviction of the guilty and the acquittal of the innocent.2 Presupposition Presuppositions are also hidden distortions of reality. and so on: • Clarification The presuppositions can be clarified or challenged by asking what objective evidence there is to suggest that X is the case: • How do you know specifically that • What leads you to believe that (fill in with the presupposition) Italy is changing? 6. 'ignore'. His book (or at least the advertising of it) was based on an important presupposition: that Italy.David Katan 114 of four Irishmen (The Guildford Four) had been given life sentences for their involvement in an IRA attack. the theme is at the beginning of the clause and normally coincides with 'given' information. The Italians and other Mediterranean Europeans go on holiday too. more so than in other languages. was changing. given and new. the ordo naturalis is to move from given to new information . a frequent question in Mediterranean countries which many British people have problems replying to is: "Which do you prefer? The sea or the mountains?". So. but generally away from the heat to the sea or cooler mountains. Taylor Torsello's (1987) Shared and Unshared Information covers presupposition in detail and itemizes some of the syntactic. 'be aware'. In English. The 'what has gone before' will be assumed to be shared. The new information. (the summer of 1995 notwithstanding) the British go on holiday looking for the sun. We depend on this strategy in our . The listeners to these words have no idea who or what exactly has undermined public confidence or who believes that the issue is important now (rather than before). 153) follows Halliday in suggesting that thematic organization in English is extremely important. continental Europe being the favourite destination. . They are summarized below: The nominalization is then clarified by turning it into a verb. So. ? 6. The question is posed by people from hot climes. adjective or circumstance and clarifying: • Who or What is arranged/important/.) • (importaneelarrangements/justiee/... semantic and prosodic options which necessarily invoke it. Biagi's presupposition entitles us to believe that in his experience of the world Italy is changing. In short. In general. references to specific individuals responsible for imprisoning the four Irishmen were deleted. and 'that something' is shared information.. They play tricks with what is theme and rheme.3 Mind reading Mind reading occurs when someone presumes to know about another person's thoughts (ideas. For example. In these two sentences there is no actor.6. This is precisely where distortion can take place. She also goes on to suggest that "It is the assignment of 'given' and 'new' which serves primarily to relate the stretch of text to what has gone before in the text". Each clause is organized as a message into a theme and a non-theme or rheme (Taylor Torsello 1987: 150).. and that for Merlo Italy has always had an antico vizio. is that the vizio is alive and well. In fact. He states on the dust cover: Volevo raeeontare l'Italia ehe sta eambiando ('I wanted to tell the story of the Italy which is changing'). Taylor Torsello (1984:152.. as far as Merlo is concerned. very much the topic of conversation in the context of Italy's first and second republic in 1995.. • Clarification To check if a word or expression is a nominalization it should fit into the blank in the following phrases: • ongoing (importanee/arrangements/justiee/. or at least a part of it. which is culturally based.6. When that is not achieved public confidence is undermined.) is/are ongoing 115 Translating Cultures Another presupposition. beliefs or feelings) without any objective evidence. Other expressions of presupposition include verbs such as 'realize'. victims of a miscarriage of justice.

An extreme example is the Butterfly Effect. I knowwhatyou mean. if she has any sense.6. in particular.' . Theyalways wantto delaythe meeting. will pay more attention to those accompanying signs than to the words. As Bateson (1972:412) among others points out. inaccessible to our conversational others without verbal mediation. did shecomein?' 'Gonel'bed.. tend to behave as if the opposite were true: i. but in cross-cultural communication it is a recipe for misunderstanding at all levels.. is the perception. B' s mental representation is not clashing with C's words. As Nancy Bishop. scope and conditions for something or somebody to directly affect another. in principle.116 David Katan day-to-day communication. Hasan suggests that HAPs have beliefs which allow them to communicate more effectively. coerce and manipulate. In linguistics. in her essay in honour of Longacre. but it deliberately ignores two fundamental aspects of reality: gravity and friction. yeahthat's right C: likea barbecue witha youknowa B: Translating Cultures See 'Principle of Analogy' in Chapter 6. deleted or distorted by the language filter. Unless relatively specific and explicit verbal exchanges occur. but in the human too. ourselves. This makes communication much quicker. Hasan's study of mother and child talk demonstrates that LAP mothers tend to resort to implicit mind reading more frequently than HAPs. and the girl. . He's deliberately dragging his feet. and the communication is successful. We have already noted in the section on Cultural Congruence (Chapter 3.2 and the 'Locked In Effect' in Chapter 6. One further point needs to be made in favour of mind reading before discussing the dangers in communication. Clearly. This was named after a talk by the American meteorologist Edward Lorenz entitled 'Does the Flap of a Butterfly's Wings in Brazil Set off a Tornado in Texas?'20 He pointed out that a tiny change in the right place can have huge consequences. unless there is feedback. A speaker selecting an assumptive question "believes she knows the other so well as to assume knowledge of the likely. In any communication this can be dangerous.3) the importance of nonverbal communication and Bateson's warning. This example is a useful metaphor to describe the cause-effect process. as in the following example where "whatsisname" is named by the listener: 'Whel"e's Sandra? . emphasis in original) calls 'the principle of individuation' . Nikola Hale (1996: 108) • Clarification The clarification question for mind reading is as follows: mind reading statement • What specifically • How do you know do they not listen to? they don't listen? The answer to 'how do you know' will clarify the evidence that the speaker has. as we have mentioned earlier as a general principle. yet will be following his/her own picture of what B is talking about." B will tend to fit C's words to hislher own frame. In physics. the non-verbal channel is a stronger channel of communication. Hasan (1991: 101) noted. Downing and Locke (1992: 115) point out that "The notion of agency is a complex one. in which case a label of 'intuition' or 'sixth sense' may well be added. 'I love you. The belief is based on what Hasan (1991:100.. but on the other hand there is no guarantee that the two mental representations are similar. and/or desirable behaviour on the other's part". Examples of mind reading are as follows: I knowwhatyou're thinking. LAPs and culturally incompetent speakers. normal. What is considered coercion or manipulation is also culturally defined". an agent causing a change. though. on the other hand. "What can cause what is defined by a culture's worldview . Camein a while ago. opinions of each 19 117 one of us are private to each. This sixth sense is not actually mind reading but more often the result of heightened sensitivity to non-verbal cues. the other's subjectivity cannot be accessed: one cannot assume reflexive relation. which includes such 20 Reported in O'Connor and Seymour (1990:193). which states that: Each of us as an individual is a unique being. So far in the conversation. alternatively. acting on the presumption that the other is just like us. Nice Work In both the above examples the speaker is explicitly asking the interlocutor to mind read ("you know?" and "whatsisname?"). 6.e.6.' he is using words to convey that which is more convincingly conveyed by his tone of voice and his movements. they can read someone else's mind.Andwhatsisname?' 'Cliff wenthome. What is not universal. beliefs.. there is a difference between listening and watching for non-verbal signals and believing that one can 'know' another's mind. It will either be an unsupported belief. is part of the natural world. the distortion may be part of an objective evaluation that has been generalized. People too can cause. points out (1992:300-302).' DavidLodge(1988). Mind reading may not be explicit yet may still be a conscious activity. the LAP preference for 'assumptive' questions. the universal rule is that every action has a reaction.4 Cause and Effect The existence of cause and effect. or. Not only in the physical and animal world is there cause and effect. which we repeat below: When boy says to girl. Whydo they[theAmericans] thinkthey've solveda problem whenthey've written it down? Whydo they [theFrench] not listento American suggestions? Questionnaire replies froma French-American groupof engineers. and therefore be subject to the culture filter. as Channell (1994: 161) illustrates in the following extract of a conversation: C: 01" havesomething completely different B: yeah C: whatsit theme B: B is literally reading C's mind at every turn. And. and the intentions. they are.

intention. neither of the above environmental conditions can actually cause. not the agent. this particular distortion of reality is especially dangerous for communication when we have a negative response. so full of surprises. The proverb has it that: By the same token that change could not cause London to be exciting (a highly relative value judgement anyway). is based on the Gregorian Calendar. • Clarification We can clarify the supposed cause and effect by asking this question: • Does the act/event technically cause the response or is the response due to other factors such as social engineering? In general cause and effect can be challenged by asking: However. motivation. . to cause a particular effect. . depending on whether you believe in the cause and effect framework or believe that the surface structure is a distortion of reality: Jl9 disorganization of [culture B] makes me frustrated. change and movement have made the people more innovative. imtovatlve and open to new ideas. provide a context which would allow agents. We make other people responsible for our feelings (whether positive or negative). features as animacy. However. We will immediately note that the article itself is a distortion of Tuscany in that it highlights only a part of it for the reader. the bishop of Winchester was to be canonized as Sr. a cold. is positive. And this is what happens during culture shock. As we have already noted. The response in this case.7 Example Text We will now look at an example text to investigate how distortions. that nothing is surprising". According to Downing and Locke. The behaviour of an individual cannot directly cause a response in the way that if you boil water it will turn to steam. With regard to both positive and negative effects of other people's behaviour. and causes a great deal of distress"(l990: 110. according to Bromhead. some of the responsibility for the response lies with those responding.Jl8 David Katan. St Swithin's Day. The above examples concern environmental cause and effect. intention. emphasis in original). The complexity of the notion is very rarely conscious. Their haI1U. However it rained that day. The specific examples outlined below can begin to give us an insight into the author's view of the world. affecting the proceedings . and we can note from the deletions what is assumed to be shared knowledge. When we say "lightning damaged the house" or "prices are affecting trade". Statements such as "the behaviour of the French caused the meeting to break up" are semantically ill-formed. Alternatively. the 'impermanence' is the stimulus. sent to a French-American group of engineers. for example. For example. according to legend. However. revolt! disgust! upset me. the present July 15th. Believers in this particular proverb conveniently forget that Pope Gregory put the clock forward 10 days. They may. whereas the July 15th of the rains was Julian. deletions and generalizations are unconsciously adopted in texts. or that other people can force you into different moods is very limiting. the place more lively. motivation and responsibility to 'lightning' and 'prices'. at times we have more of a problem separating the metaphor from the reality. Some semantically ill-formed ethnocentric examples are given below: • How specifically does X cause Y? • What would have to happen for X not to be caused by Y • Does X always (in all contexts) cause Y? 6. lt 1l'Iakes me so angry that they can never say what they mean. Niko Hale (1996: 108). Swithin on July 15th. these roles are easily accepted as metaphorical transfers from normally inanimate and unwitting agents to animate agents. a specific context can be generalized to provide a fictitious or superstitious cause and effect. The author also presupposes a certain kind of reader. but it es me crazy because this reduces their ability to be flexible. we can refer back to Chapter 2 and Bromhead's cause and effect remark about London: "So much impermanence. as it is they who decide how to respond. such as bacteria. And below is an all purpose generative cause-effect culture shock sentence: Their total disregard for [fill in thenoun of yourchoice] really [fill in withsuitable emotive verbof choice] me. at the surface level we are attributing varying degrees of animacy. It is part of our out-of-awareness culture. indirectly. The response will always be due to how the behaviour is interpreted. So. . Other cause/effect distortions are to do with human behaviour and psychological states. responsibility and the use of one's own energy to bring about an event or initiate a process".and rained for a further forty days. Below are two examples from Italy of good advice or old wives' tales. However.~ I like their [American] habit of staying focused on the topics of the agenda at meetings. O'Connor and Seymour state that "Thinking that you can force people to experience different states of mind. In 862. it is highly unlikely that one person or culture can actually technically cause a certain response. and where its limits lie.

coniglio in potacchietto. on tap. (b) price is an important and positive value shared by the readers. when serendipity let them into the hidden Italian world of Agroturismo . the farmer's wife. but lonely is a distortion. Corbara is nothing great. Cause and effect deletion: the rainstorm affected their car. Missing Performative: Eric Newby and his wife were in Umbria according to whom? Newby himself? The editor of the article? Cause + Effect: 'serendipity' cannot cause them to find hidden Italy. the quality remains the same as in bottles. cooked pears. which is always the best way to eat in rural Italy. we had it to earth at last. We wanted to buy it sfuso. Deletion: hidden to who? hidden how? Norninalization: 'take a tour'. and according to what yardstick? 2. It made (cause and effect) who feel lonely? Value judgement: lonely according to who? or what (culture" bound?) parameters? This sentence is a fairly complete semantic representation but 'trying to find' is an unspecified verb. Trying how. We were given a warm welcome by the signora. as we were discovering. How was the welcoming exactly? And. following verbal instructions? 'Trying' also suggests difficulty. Shifting Frames: Translation and Mediation in Theory and Practice . This is something we have been doing since we made our own vineyard in Tuscany more than 18 years ago. followed by pere al forno. We were in this part of Urnbria because we were trying to find a farmer prepared to sell us some Corbara. Deletion: Value judgement. They toured. smelling-out a rabbit. outside a solitary farmhouse. in comparison to what? Deletion: 'delicious' for whom. exactly? Figurative language tells one about how the representation is visualized. in what way? With/without a map. Here they take a rustic tour through the Tuscan landscape. It is particularly difficult just before the vendemmia. A little-known wine. Secrets: nominalization. Italian or which standards? Distortion: it was obvious to whom? What evidence is there? Distortion + Deletion: Who is responsible for the recommending? Sufficient for whom. The wine was Corbara sfuso. A couple of autumns ago. Universal quantifier: always the best. Presupposition: vendemmia (also a nominalization) is understood through use of the definite article and no translation. according to whom was the welcoming warm? The signora. Convert to simile: it was like in a chase. but never a farmhouse. A sign is normally in" animate. austere for whom? For the Italian farmer or for the English writer? What objective evidence is there? Presupposition: understanding of "trattoria". built with their own hands? Incomplete comparison: half the price as what? Presuppositions: (a) Only the price changes. where we would bottle it. That they were doing so was sufficient reeommendation and soon we found ourselves being served with a delicious Umbrian meal: home-made salami of several sorts. it is at its best when between three and four years old. which is a red wine made from Sangiovese grapes cultivated near the shores of the lake. on a lonely road near the Lago di Corbara eastwards of Orvieto. there are no ex" ceptions? Superlative: best according to whom. her culture or only Eric Newby? "Warm" by English. Ill-formed: Tuscany itself cannot have secrets. were eating their lunch steadily and silently. There was no menu and no choice.farmhouse food and rooms. obviously locals. because we could then take it back to England in 25-litre containers. plainly furnished room in which three men. Nominalization: a warm welcome. while driving through Umbria. How was it difficult trying? Value judgement: great for whom? Great in comparison with what? Presupposition: that one wants to find or drink a wine that is sfusoot rather 'nothing great' . run Sensuous:Figurative/metaphorical languageis imprecise. announced that it was the Azienda Pomonte and that meals were served . when stocks of the previous year's wine are low. we were brought to a standstill by a tremendous rainstorm. Unspecified verb: Made how exactly? Constructed from bare earth. and is part of a shared model of the world.120 David Katan Sensuoussecrets of Tuscany. which was stonebuilt and austere. were in Umbria thirsting for a supply of wine on tap. A sign outside the farmhouse. The difficulty is to find it sfuso. that is literally loose. Solitary is objectively verifiable. Eric Newby and his wife Wanda. their vision or their psyche? + rainstorm and standstill are nominallzations. Distortion: a 'sign' announced.a rarity in Italy where a trattoria may sometimes be part of a village shop. and how? Deletion: Served by whom exactly? Served how. In such containers the wine takes up far less space than in bottles besides being about half the price. and taken to a small. casserole of rabbit cooked with garlic and olive oil.

analyzing it. on the fuller representative. We have also discussed what a Cultural Mediator should be. Chapter 7. so a cultural mediator must be able to mindshift between possible frames. Chapter 7 illustrates how the universal process of modelling and the Meta-Model function in translation and underlines the fact that the translator is an active participant in the interpretation process. interpret and communicate.encoding TLtext Figure 22. The technique is used to change the focus of interpretation. deep level: decoding . whether from word to meaning. As cultures operate within different interpretative frames. The emphasis can either be on the surface level or.1 The Translation Process • Decoding/ Encoding or Cognitive Creation A number of models describing the translation process have been suggested over the past thirty years. Translation I Mediation The aim of this chapter is to: • discuss two models of translation: decoding-encoding and frame • illustrate how frame theory is relevant to the translation process • underline the fact that translation is a form of Cross-Cultural communication • point out that translation is subject to universal modelling and can benefit from a conscious use of both the Meta-Model and 'manipulation' 7. and then reformulating the same message in other words. The diagram below gives a general idea of the concept.analysing . as Nida proposes. This model (and the many other models that followed) depend on the idea of decoding the source text language. and that the context of culture is an important frame from within which we perceive. from text to context (and vice versa) or from cultural frame to cultural frame. and how he or she should view culture. Chapter 8 offers a detailed explanation of Chunking. The Decoding-Encoding Translation Model . which breaks a text down into smaller meaning units before building them up again.Translating Cultures 123 So far we have established that meaning is dependent on the frame. Part 2 focuses on the cultural mediator's ability to change frame. The model proposed by Eugene Nida (Nida and Taber 1969:484) has been particularly influential.

and the map or virtual text (creation) model. 8). in her Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Unfortunately. which is "a composite of the possible relations between a source text and a range of potential target texts".124 David Katan More recently. "The essential point". See Neubert& Shreve (l992:Ch. Bell (1991:21). The diagram below shows the difference between the decoding-encoding (copy) model. Wilss underlines the fact that there are two very different strategies for translating. as we have noted. also argues for a heuristic approach. as a single gestalt. is that frames are a combination of prior knowledge. which have been introduced in Chapter 3. generalizations and expectations regarding the text. This approach suggests that some takes holistic control and coordinates the frames. that the second strategy involving "heuristic procedures" and "frames" must be employed to solve translation problems. This 'grouped' knowledge at the level of text has been variously named by translation theorists as 'text type' and 'genre'. use the term 'frame' to signify "the linguistic form on the page". the main area of interest is the frame. while for identification at a lower level. fully coincide with those of other translation theorists. who states that "Current thinking among translation theorists .g. Hatim&Mason (l990:Ch. they are structured domains of long-term memory". we have a map of the original text in our minds and at the same time a map of the kind of text we want to produce in the target language. 2). The ideas expressed. I 2 Translating Cultures 125 the original): "This organization of experience may be referred to as framing and the knowledge structures themselves as frames". dissents here). insists that a translated text is a new creation which derives from careful reading. there is a looser connection between SL and TL text. In fact. define frames in terms of organization of experience and knowledge repertoires (emphasis in See. he says with regard to translation. At the higher level (e. Vennerem and Snell-Homby (1986). following Fillmore' s categorization. the translator creates a "semantic representation" of the text. then Y in Target Text". . Many translation theorists are now convinced of the importance of frames and a gestalt approach to translation. and feelings. Wolfram Wilss (1989: 140-42) also draws attention to the "Multi-Facet Concept of Translation Behaviour". for example. Hans Honig (1991:79-80). plans and scripts. The first strategy uses algorithmic knowledge: "If X in Source Text. is "more to the point". Wilss points out. Her research showed that at the lower level. the translator then sketches a pattern of words in the target language. a reconstruction rather than a copy". Neubert and Shreve (1992:60). however. The mediator will be able to understand the frames of interpretation in the source culture and will be able to produce a text which would create a similar set of interpretation frames to be accessed in the target reader's mind. and the levels of grouping have been subdivided into frames. Figure 23. that the frames activated by the text "are very closely linked to the socio-cultural background of the language user in question". Mary Snell-Hornby (1988:29). The difference between the coding-encoding approach and the more recent frame-driven approach is summed up by Bell (1991:161). according to Snell-Hornby (quoting Lakoff 1982:20 and adding her own emphasis).. simplifies Fillmore's 'scene-and-frame' distinctions. the idea of a map is not a concept that Wilss agrees with. Her integrated approach is actually based on Lakoff's (1982) ideas and Eleanor Rosch's research on prototypes and categorizations. suggesting that "Scheme and frame stand for different parts of the reader's expectation structures. a good translator reads the text. while they reserve the term 'scene' for what we have been calling 'frame': "the reader/translator's personal experience". is that "At that [higher] level things are perceived holistically. As this process unfolds. The Cognitive Creation Translation Model This way of explaining the translating process is important for the cultural mediator. thoughts. He takes a culture-oriented approach to translation and focuses extensively on the importance of context. specific details have to be picked out". suggesting that in the translator's mind there is a "virtual translation". The idea of a virtual translation will be used here to describe that out-ofawareness understanding a mediator has of the text and the feel s/he has of the text yet to be created in the target language.. Though he notes Charles Fillmore's (1977:61) suggestion that "one mentally creates a kind of world" he only fully agrees with Fillmore on the subject of frames. and in so doing accesses grouped linguistic and textual knowledge.3. in fact. other theorists have suggested a different process. His "mapping theory" adopts a similar map metaphor to Bateson and others before him:' I have suggested that actually the translation process is a multi-level process.3. suggests that between the SL and the TL text. As the text is read so it is checked against expectations and degree of fit with other similar known or possible texts. intentions. as in 'a chair' is for sitting on. needs and expectations".schemata. This. even if he does not agree with the map or the virtual translation theory. 'furniture') the category is less functionally detailed but carries greater culture significance. From the meaningful but wordless text. in particular. Both texts feed into and out of the virtual text. The virtual translation "accounts for [author and translator] knowledge. As can be seen. Bell (1991:Part 3). an essential difference between a traditional translator and a mediator is the mediator's ability to understand and create frames. categorization is based on the function. According to Neubert and Shreve. James Holmes (1988:96) proposed a similar theory regarding the translation process. While we are translating sentences. so a meaningful but virtual text is formed in the mind of the translator (though Wilss.' However. It includes their aims. Neubert and Shreve (1992: 14) are more explicit. His understanding. However. Rosch identified two levels of category. Chapter 6. More importantly. Mia Vannerem and Snell-Hornby (1986: 190).2 and 6.1 and 6. also following Tannen' s definition.

been criticized for a number of reasons. "involve certain important limitations" for translation. generative semanticist). Walter Benjamin (1968:77) in his 1923 treaty on translation said (emphasis in the original): "The task of the translator consists in finding that intended effect [intention] upon the language into which he is translating which produces in it the echo of the original". but does not imply that there is any point by point correspondence between particular languages. deletion and distortion. V: 6) says. Second.. both of which are particularly relevant today for those working cross-culturally. distortions and generalizations in the source text.. focus. What we are interested in is a speaker or writer and their message as meant within their particular construction of reality. Gentzler (1993:47) does accept that: Whether one accepts Chomsky's beliefs on how the human mind is structured or not. extended standard. interpreter and others. She is also involved in the redefinition of culture studies at Warwick University. Second. They have in mind a language helper (a native source-language speaker). has been justly criticized. there is necessary correspondence between languages: The existence of deep-seated formal universals . in her chapter "Translation as a Cross-Cultural Event" states that the translation process can no longer be envisaged as being between two languages but between two cultures involving "ctoss-cultural transfer". The criticism is of Nida's suggestion that at the full representation level the syntactic structures of various languages are much more alike (Gentzler 1993:86). and has been active in attempting to translate the thoughts of God as clearly and as closely as possible to the original.2 The Meta-Model and Translation The idea that one needs to understand the underlying intention of a writer to translate effectively has been a cornerstone of translation theory. 4 See. and that translation theorists are beginning to see the translator as a mediator between cultures. Also.126 David Katan • The Translation Process and Culture We noted earlier that a text can be understood at three levels of culture. At the same time the process of translation is now being understood as an exercise. deletion and distortion in translation. Our aim here does not. context and translation into the three principle aspects of Universal Modelling: generalization. Nida (1976:75) makes it clear that Chomsky's theory. and not for the connotations. However.3. Snell-Homby (1988:39-64). It does not. intention. This point is of great importance for the cultural mediator. for example. which means both the words and the implied frames. his deep structures. They suggest a series of 'elicitation procedures' . Nida (1976:72) goes into more detail making two points in favour of investigating deeper structures with regard to the underlying message. can be extracted from the text. postulated to contain all the necessary syntactic as well as semantic information for a correct transformation into surface structure and interpretation. Beekman and Callow (1974:169) also mention the importance of a deep structure approach to bring out the fullness of the text. but in understanding cultural frames. . Once we have understood the full extent of the message within its own reality we have the beginnings of a virtual translation. Nida also realizes that the theory depends on an ideal speaker and hearer. To do this. in fact. including the fact that many writers are not entirely conscious of their intentions.lend themselves well to the translation practitioner trying to represent an 'underlying' message in a second language. We will now look briefly at generalization. Translating Cultures 127 structure approach to certain problems of exegesis". This means that a translator will be in a position to determine more accurately the extent of equivalence and the need for supplementation or redistribution of semantic components. and as a result." It asks us to explore our ideologically and culturally-based assumptions about all those matters on which we utter. for example. A successful mediator must be consciously aware of the importance of both text and context."" has always warned that though there is a universal deep structure grammar. Candlin (1990:ix) points out in his introduction to Hatim and Mason: [The translation process] allows us to put language into perspective by asserting the need to extend beyond the apposite selection of phrases to an investigative exploration of the signs of culture . emphasis. on linguistic facts rather than actual contexts. though. Chomsky . The next sections divide the discussion on text. First.">'. Mediators should also be conscious of their own modelling strategy in the production of the target text.a rudimentary form of the Meta-Model. and most of the time can not even be asked. or rather theories (standard. He makes two points here. which is where the Meta-Model can become a useful instrument. Bassnett (1991: 13) also believes that translation must take place within a framework of culture. has also been particularly interested in the structure of thought. It is suggested here that the translator. Nida (1976:71). in particular.2. imply that there must be some reasonable procedure for translating between languages.' However. One of his main reasons for adopting this approach. which we briefly touched upon in Chapter 5. not only in understanding text. one can more readily identify the semantic structures when investigatingsubsurface levels. In fact. Dodds (1994:16-19) and his discussion of the question of author intention and the Intentional Fallacy. For this reason he adopted what he calls "an essentially deep 3 Warwick University's courses on culture are mentioned in Chapter 2. As Dilts (1983.' This holistic or global approach to translation does not mean that a cultural mediator can disregard 'the text' itself. in speech or in writing. very importantly. First. though. whether conscious or not. to be used in translation. the theories only account for propositional meaning. and the whole subject is discussed in Bassnett (1997). as discussed in Chapter 6.'-':. one can more easily determine the symbolic relations and their hermeneutic implications. Nida continues. as a Bible translator. clash with this criticism because we are not looking for any linguistic correspondence between languages. a translator must be able to create a full linguistic representation of the text. He finishes his criticism of Chomsky with the following point: "Language cannot be discussed as though verbal communication occurs in a cultural vacuum". on the deeper levels of structure. or foregrounding. implies that all languages are cut to the same pattern. "The Meta-Model can provide substantial insight into the structure of thought and speech when applied to any personal. should use the Meta-Model themselves to consciously locate the deletions. philosophical or political enquiry". or in signs. This aim has. and begins her publication Translation Studies with the following title "Central issues: Language and Culture". 7. integrating the scenes-and-frame concept of Fillmore.

so. as we have noted. as we have already mentioned. guidttti dtt unavventuriero. This was. But the Berlusconi victory takes us further than any televisiva . neofascisti.3 Generalization Languages. Many of the categories overlap perfectly. aUora vi ricorderete anche uno dei a criticalmoment in the rise of Silvio Berlusconi.Absent: Tony made theQueen's list Tony Blaircompiled theQueen ofEngland's annual honours list Tony Blair. languages since the hierarchicalstructure of semanticfields is not language specific. to rescue its political system and make its new start. discussed in the following chapter. These unconscious generalized categories of everyday life are. The triumph of image over substance is not a new Il trionfo deU'immugine sula sostanza non ecosa nuova neU'era deUa politica lessonin the ageof televisionpolitics. However. Mildred Larson (1984:42) uses a different taxonomy. of course. as the same modelling process is universal to all languages. A step-by-step explanation of how to use this strategy is. Foreign news reporters are one category of 'translator' who constantly have both the implicit information and the context of culture in mind. Baker (1992:26) discusses the conscious use of this factor to improve translations when faced with non-equivalence. 7. queste dovevano essere le elezioni Instead. others less so.Halfof the honours were suggested bythepublic.David Katan 128 r 7. andone of theyoungestever. as they attempt to give their readers a full representation of events occurring abroad. The fact that languages categorize in different ways brings us to the first main area of Universal Modelling: differences in generalization. if not all. The three areas translators should look at in their search for evidence of deleted material (according to Beekman and Callow) can be summarized as follows: • the immediate context • the remote context • the cultural context of theoriginal andtranslated texts: thesame paragraph or an adjacentone. the election in which Italy was manllo dei sogni. in particular teachers. Though they limit their discussion to the Bible and to Indo-European languages. We will use the term 'implicit' here to mean what can be made explicit from the text. Guardian La Voce Italy brainwashed by soft soap and hard seD Lavaggio delcervello degli Italiani a base di soap-opera e marketing aggressivo If you remember whenJ.. negli ultimi anni. the same can be said for any translation into any language. further generalization can be performed by the mediator to reduce distortion (discussed in detail in Chapter 8). and many honours went to ordinary people. mamenti pUt critici di Berlusconi. We will now look at a number of examples showing how newspaper articles have made explicit what was either implicit or in the context of the source culture. belying a different approach to translation. For her.R. elsewhere in thedocument. diedthen you remember Se vi ricorderete quella puntata di Dallas in cui morc J. In all cases this strategy makes the frames available to the source culture (SC) reader equally accessible to the target culture (TC) reader. Dopo tutto. culture bound. both that which is implicit and absent is part of the message. it has elected separatists. as in the following adaptation: 5 The term 'irnplicature' wascoinedby Grice(1975) to meanthe exophoric linking thata hearerneeds to formto make an utterance relevant. the immediate and remote context is 'implicit'. and destinate a segnare una nuova partenza perltalia. thecircumstances of theSLwriter andSLreaders. TheNew Year honours list was a "people's" or a "sirsforsirs"honours list. etc. there are a number of implicit points that have been made explicit.4 Deletion • Implicit (from the text) • Hidden or absent (in thecontext of culture) • Addition I Deletion Beekman and Callow (1974:49) emphasize that surface structure deletions (implicit information) are also an important area to focus on: One of the problems that faces a translator whose mother tongue is an Indo-European languageis that of recognisingthe presence of implicit informationin the original. R.aggiunge il giomale conservatoreelsewhere in recent yeartoward sub-rational politics mu la vittoria dl Berlusconi cl avvicina piudi ogni and toward the democracy that is anti-democratic altra cosa. categorize reality. andin other related texts. 129 Translating Cultures I I Text: Implicit: . whereas the cultural context is 'absent'. theirrelationship. However. and must be accounted for. but can be retrieved through implicature' or associative tie (Neubert and Shreve 1992:59). Britain's first Labour prime minister in 19years. By and large the translation is extremely faithful to form. For a cultural mediator. avventurieri di destra adventurer. promised wide-ranging reforms and a government of thepeople by the people. and the term 'context of culture' for that which is absent from the text. under the title "Translation by a more general word (superordinate): This is one of the commonest strategies for dealing with many types of non-equivalence particularly in the area of propositional meaning. . neo-fascists. in the general situation which gaveriseto thedocument. when in reality there is no categorization. aUa politica because it is making its decisions in a world of subliminale e alta democrazia che e antidemocratica percM prende le sue decisioni in un dreams. the implicit information which liesoutside thedocument. In fact. after all. "Implicit ~ Explicit (Addition) The extract below is a translation of a British Guardian article which appeared in the Italian newspaper La Voce. right-wing chancers under the leadership of an Ed invece l'Italia ha eletto un gruppo di separatisti. It works well in most.

ndr) una cura per il mal di testa. acc:orc[in~~ to whom? a foreign (conservative/liberal) newspaper. The second set of examples to be discussed illustrates the opposite situation.. the deleted referential index. ['un pour Noumea. whereby what is explicit in. Further clarification ("which episode exactly?") would reveal the date of transmission or the episode number. .R. .. Kevorkian. Kevorkian I dottor Morte). died quella puntata di Dallas in cui mort f.. (29/5/95) The reference to it dottor Morte I'Doctor Death' is not culture specific. R. and in particular with regard to the connotations or feelings: the ou~-of­ awareness level. the reader is able to process the informati~n. . which is that this particular article is a translation of a foreign newspaper's viewpoint. This still leaves the identity of "J. wonders Friedman.. "Italy". For the same type of reason. but gives readers enough encyclopaedic knowledge about Dr.R.R.] Question: Clarification: Whoor whatis it exactly? Italy.. The first set of examples below show how various 'translations' have mediated the culture gaps by adding information. image and sense. but about the reader's own country: Italy. In these cases.. exactly? Thatepisode of Dallas. for example a footnote" or as an explicit note in the text. unfortunately for this particular translation. l'autr« land . With this link. is not a Conservative paper.. we have: Object: TheItalian economy Image: Dr. with a comment outside the main body of the text. [And instead Italy has elected a group of separatists. The Guardian. Sydney. ed) to treat a headache. To use Newmark's (1981:85) terminology: object. ont The twomen who carriedouttheattackleft AuckAuckland . Ed invece l'ftalia ha eletto un gruppo di separatisti.David Katan 130 The abbreviation "J.nalist has added dottor Morte: and so we now have the link: death. British audience.g. it has elected separatists. They cite a Guardian translation of a Le Monde article. Kevorkian to allow them to appreciate the simile. as below (emphasis added): CorriBre della Sera Translation «L'ltalia? • si chiede Friedman-. Mediation through addition.tors'. Hence. while deleting the explicit reference to Australia. .R [that episode of Dallas where J. The translator. as this frame would already be more than implicit 131 Translating Cultures for the Guardian reader: Le Monde The Guardian deux auteurs directs de l' attentat . The clarification question is: What does when referto. as mediator." implicit. and gain what Sperber and Wilson (1986: 108·117) call 'a contex~ual effect'." is well-known in Britain. mediation is through omission or deletion. showing in what particular aspects the object and the image are simi~ar. We should remember that the context of culture can be perceived at a number of different levels. The following extracts show how a mediator has. or should have. on economics is like or Kevorkian ("Doctor Death". The effects may be strong or weak depending on the relevance of the text and the frames brought to mind. been aware of the reader's frames of reference... so a certain number of inappropriate implicatures will be accessed. the source text may crea~e unexpected and possibly undesired associations when translated mto the target context of culture. as Hatim & Mason show (1990:94) it is already fairly standard practice to add or delete according to the accessibility of the frame. but enables the TC readers to access the same frame (Dallas) with the same facility as the SC readers. . one for Noumea. The next explication is aggiunge it giornale conservatorel"adds the Conservative newspaper". What is missing for the Italian readership is the sense. the point of similarity. the translation makes the performative deletion clear: It is not a new lessonin the age o!televisionpolitics. a foreign country. in his article 'An Introduction to Implication 1'0: Transla. and the other for I' fJl[lUf"y"~n"y (Australie). te 10 aggrava». is made explicit in the translation to remind the reader that we are not talking about an "it". but less so in Italy. institutions) to beliefs and values (cultural orientations) and identity. The contextual effect is basically the effect on the listener or reader after havmg made a deduction through linking a new piece of information (in this case Friedman's comments) with an old piece of information (Dr. or explication. died] The word "when" deletes much referential information which is easily accessible to a . il prossimo Messico. Nevertheless. when J. "Italy?". Instead. has supplied the missing. the Italian translator has made the Dallas TV serial frame much more explicit. He'll make it worse for you. "it's tire next Mexic .. 6 Thompson (1982:30)... argues that informationessentialto the success of conversational implicaturcs should be mcluded m the text and not in the footnotes. in the French Pacific territory of New Caledonia. Chiederle un pare re economico e come chiedere a1 dottor Kevorkian (it "dotlQr Morte". may be made as above through unobtrusive manipulation of the text. or less accessible frame regarding Noumea. At the lowest level (environment). This explication now reminds the reader of the frame of interpretation. which is not the focus of the text and is therefore unnecessary. Hence the jou. partly due to the spelling and pronunciation differences. We mentioned earlier that a translator as cultural mediator also needs to account for information which is implicit in the context of culture.. • The Context of Culture The previous examples dealt with information that is implicit from the structure of the text. from environment (e.

It was. TIle easygoing Mark Roberts yesterday morning put in a ribald unscheduled appearance on ITV. see Dodds (1994:169-77) and Scarpa (1989). this institution has completely taken the place of the original programme title "This Morning". Below is another example of an Italian institution. and provides the framework for the more conscious interpretation of the Italian government's "annus horribilis". Kerrey e Harkin. the source culture can be more fully understood: La Repubblica Translation I primi due candidatl democratici eUminati. In this case. 1988: 104-113). As in the previous extracts. erano entrambi senatori. The reader. Another change of focus is the Italian tendency to Comment on the news: a tinte boccaccesche. dunque associatl alla odiosa Washington.boccaceesche sulla rete ame into «Itv» e apparso in costume bot. In fact. The inverted commas warn the reader. public criticism. Thus. finally resigned after cautionary warrant from judges in the Milanscandal. in fact. it has turned out to be an 'Annus Horribilis' . through a particular target culture text (emphasis added): Even before the close of February. as with any metaphor. through an equivalent institution or. and began with the following words: ''Meteo'' on TV with a Nude ---- (3f5f95) Translation Translating Cultures Liverpool. he decided to make use of the expression "annus horribilis".. (11/3/92) Here. They explain how linguistic cues access relevant frames and create heightened contextual effects for the hearer. As it tends to operate out-of-awareness. can generate an improved contextual effect. "the first unforgettable speech of her reign" (MacArthur 1993:488).. Specifically for Italian-English. the Italian reader can be expected to assume that "Bush" and his addio alle armil "farewell to arms". an otherwise impoverished frame." relates to the ex-president of the United States. the instantly recognizable weather forecast programme on television. In this way. though. A further approach is to create a totally imaginary 'as if' scene with target culture institutions or personalities. these words were uttered by Queen Elizabeth 11. they were both therefore associated with the detestable Washington. as below. This type of change in reporting for two different cultures will be investigated further in Part 3. through target culture analogy. was predicting a telespettatori durante le warm sunny day. was predicting a 7 For more informationon metaphorssee Sperber & Wilson (1986:231-37). Mark Roberts it a television weather forecast buontempone ehe ie ri when he boarded the huge floating map used by the This mattina ha lnscenato un luorl programma a tlnte as corn. producing in itself strong contextual effects. which is "Liverpool": The Daily Telegraph Exposed front moves in from the West Corriere della Sera «Meteo» in TV con Nudo A STREAKER interrupted Liverpool. the relevant sense-link may be made either as above. Meteo.. He appeared in his birthday suit in front of millions of viewers during the weather forecast (3/5/95) Other information. Literally this is "Boccaccio style" or "licentious" This should be compared to the more indirect but factual description in English of Mark Roberts' entrance: "while Fred Talbot . so the journalist felt it necessary to make this information explicit in the TL text tmilioni di telespettatori/"millions of viewers"). upheaval. Kerrey and Harkin.. In the words of one of my more sympathetic correspondents. the adamitico a milioni di forecaster. as part of her speech to celebrate her 40th anniversary on the throne. The most relevant frames regarding Britain would include the Royal Family's unpleasurable year of scandal. the Italian government is already well into its own "annus Mt Amato's political mentor and Socialist Pllrty leaderBettinoCraxi. la «Roma» americana. Nineteen ninety two is not a year I shall look back on with undiluted pleasure.. Below. texts will make use of target culture frames to further help the reader associate with the depth of feeling engendered in the original. it influences the whole of the reader's thinking. turmoil. 133 warm sunny day". were both senators. the American "Rome". the writer has been able to convey a great deal of what was happening in Italy: Object: Italian politics Image: annus horribilis Sense: scandal. So. clear in the source context of culture is that "This Morning" is a popular ITV programme with a large audience. this functions as a metaphor: Object: Italian politics Image: annus horribilis First the reader accesses the frames relating to and around "annus horribilis" to create an image. . The first two democratic candidates to be eliminaJ:ed. then associates the frames of interpretation brought to mind through "annus horribilis" with the theme of the article: the current situation in Italy. see Newmark (1981:84-96. immediate out-of-awareness feelings are generated with the metaphorical cue? Roma in the context of politics. and the public questioning of the traditional system of royal privilege. with only two words. With regard to translation. and that therefore his 8 This is the title in both Italian and English of Ernest Hemingway's (1929) book. With only a few lines available. In the Italian report. As the effect of streaking on television depends on how many people are watching. The feelings generated from the image created are then transferred. This mental image created by the reader through this use of word metaphor is extremely effective. to the subject matter of the article in question. previsioni del tempo. The Guardian (24l2f93) The Guardian writer here is attempting to convey to the British readership what was happening in Italian politics during its historic year of change.132 David Katan Often. as in the cases above. Returning to the use of target-culture frames to orient the reader. that the word is to be interpreted according to another frame.

Intervistato dalla B. The journalist. thus immediately gratifying the reader and producing strong contextual effects: A Prime Time Premier "Goodevening.. BRITISH MASS MEDTA WILL CHANGE AFrER THE NEW ANTI-TRUST RULES ARE PASSED: HERE'S THE BRITISH ''MAMMF' [LAW] . is a growling blustering. for example. accessible for the target text readers. Once again. Afterthi$ morning's FraudSquad raidon NewsInternational. the two entrepreneurs are having to face the same problems. the journalist felt that it was necessary to further underline the newsworthiness of Bush's profound change of belief with another. Though this method does little to increase knowledge of the source . is extremely newsworthy. hispowerandinfluence in Italiansociety far exceeds that whichMurdoch or anyoneelse has managed to establish in Britain. Armando Cossutta. the journalist has used target culture personalities who can create the same level of contextual effects.the Italian SocialMovement (MSI). this sounds like "Emilio Fede Promotes Sales of L'Unita on the Streets" or "Armando Cossutta New Director of T04 News". analogy.. Umberto Bossi of the Northern league . coverstory(3/12/94) It is not only The Guardian which has used the Rupert MurdochlSilvio Berlusconi analogy to help the reader in accessing similar interpretative frames. global village" is one of the potential losers. l'uorno ch« vuole costruire il piu grande impero muttimediale del mondo ha risposto . sono impossibili viste le differenze di dimensione e di strategia.a classe dirigente del proprio Paese. . Second. whose members account for about nine-tenths of the National Alliance's parliamentary representation. At times...e politiche eli stampo cons(!rvatore con una grande sfiducia n. With these two target culture examples the Italian reader is more able to sense the importance of Bush's actions. JohnTyndall andtheReverend lanPaisley". «Non riuscirete a distruggermi».L'ex presidente George Bush lasda la National Rifle Association. regional populist just like lan Paisley. the second biggestgroupin government. DAL NOSTRO INVIATO NEW YORK .David Katan 134 Corriere della Sera Translation Bush addio alle armi con rabbia Fuoco sui pistoleros d'America: «si ete una piaga per la nostra nazione».assu n t o.el. L'Unita. 9 135 Translating Cultures It is noteasyto conveywhat it is liketo live in Berlusconi's Italy. as we have said. would seem to have nothing in common with the BritishNational Party's John Tyndall. the PrimeMinister. RupertMurdoch. SilvioBerlusconi is notRupertMurdoch.a ll. the reverse should also take place. prohibits publishers from owning rnore than two channels from the ITV stable. Interviewed by the BBC on the eve of the anti-trust law.B.ffrontare gli sees si problemi. Silvio Murdoch Parola di Rupert Murdoch. will be lost on most readers as they will not have the contextual knowledge accessible to the American readers. vieta agli editori di avere piu di due canali delta sauderia Itv. Emilio Fede. (12/05195) Bush Farewell to Arms with Anger Fire on America's gunsIingers: "You're a scourge on our nation" FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT. owned.l. Rupert Murdoch has summed up the . The courteous. is tonight meeting withhis coalition partners. Ma i due imprenditori devono a. The Guardian Weekend. ex-president Carter. Rupert Murdoch ha ri. a Democrat. they have found a way to make their conservative political ideas fit wltll their distrust of their own country's [conservative (in 1995)] ruling forces. and Berlusconi describes himself as "centre". Here.. Exceptthat he too leads a neo-fascist party. in this case. to trigger a similar level of feeling. inf'att]. La «Mamml inglese». the fact that it is a Republican ex-president (and Bush in particular) to have uttered these words rather than. alla vigllia della legge anti-trust. 11 «Citizen Kane del villqggio globale» e uno dei potenzicdi sconfitti. by Berlusconi. To begin with. who is also the owner of the TV station. Butheis crudeto a degreethatwouldhorrifytheUlstercleric: theNorthern League. ovvi.eventhe mostoutrageous parallels fall shortof the mark. the all-powerful American lobby of gun and rifle owners. siete una piaga per la nostra nazionel"you are a scourge on our nation". rerrns of the battle which is breaking out. In dttll suona come «Emilio Fede diffonde L'Unita in piazza» 0 «Armando Cossutta nuovo ditettore del Tg4». with the target culture personalities reenacting the source culture events. The Italian press labels Berlusconi's party "centre-right". he isfondof saying. See also Derek Bootham's (1983) article 'Problems of Translating Political Italian'. The Corriere della Sera actually conflates the two names (emphasis added): Translation Corriere della Sera COME CAMBIERA' LA MAPPA DEI MASS MEDIA INGLESI DOPO IL VARO DELLA NUO VA NORMATI VA ANTITRUST: ECCO L'ANGLO MAMMI' HOW THE MAP OF THE. differences in size and strategy.. I paragoni tra Berlusconi e Murdoch. historic leader of Italy's Refounded Communist Party. (29/5/95) The sworn word of Rupert Murdoch. bespectacled andquietlydressedGianfranco Fini of the National Alliance.. in fact. on the streets. i termini delta battaglia che si sta scatenando. A partire dal dover far convivere id". In this way. criticism carries some weight. This carries very strong contextual effects for the American reader.C. has first added a commentary to explain the meaning of the National Rifles Association in this context: l'onnipotente lobby dei proprietari di fucili e pistole in America / "the all-powerful lobby of gun and rifle owners". A Corriere della Sera report (16/1/95)complained about the American press's description of II Polo per le Liberta as a right-wing party. the most accessible frames are introduced first. NEW YORK. . However. Ex-President George Bush leaves the'Wational Rifle Association. However.. The "Citizen Kane of th<:. 'has got a hard on'. Emilio Fede would certainly be front page news if he were seen selling the excommunist daily. The next article actually starts with 'home' news. Comparisons between Berlusconi and Murdoch are obviously impossible given th<:. l'onni· potente lobby dei proprietari dt fucili e pistole in America. The personality chosen was the director and newscaster of one of Italy's main commercial TV stations. as we have hinted. The "British Mamrni". similar. He is well-known for his extreme anti-left opinions and for his public declaration of support for the right-wing' leader Berlusconi.e accuse di monopolisl'no C01ne se appena prima si fosse consultato con Arcore.amente. However. The man who wants to construct the greatest multimedia empire in the world has replied 10 the accusations of monopoly as if he had jUl<t consulted with Arcore [Berlusconi's neighbourhood].. or in the context of culture. would also be the last person to take Emilio Pede's place on the commercial Tg4 1 "the 4th Channel news". tuono Silvio MurdQch "You won't be able to destroy den. J::lID'" thun- • Implicit ~ Deletion All the above examples have added words to the texts to make what was implicit. the full weight of Bush's words. .

one of the fiercest post-war protest movements ever mounted was the violent and predominately middle-class protest. as the "universe of Anglo-Saxon culture often seems characterized by bezdusie. The example also highlights the cultural problems involved in attempting to retain the form of the message. As a purely stylistic feature it would seem reasonable to reduce the oddness of the TC text by varying the lexis.. La pelle. in 1995. IQ Secondly slhe will have to consider whether the recurrence opens important value frames (individual or cultural) or whether the recurrence is due to a culture's orientation to such rhetorical features such as repetition. but at the same time triumphant over violence. emphasis added) to illustrate her point. leather.44-45) discussesin depth the importanceof repetitionas part of his discussion on the analysisof non-casual language. It is "a language that encourages hyperbole and elaborate verbal rhetoric spoken with great flourish" (Chesanow. (9/10/1983. has a very different style orientation compared to English. However. In fact. Wierzbicka (1992:31-35) suggests this strategy for the translation of the Russian core value dusa ('soul').A strong soul.. fairy tales. lexical items relating to values should be allowed to remain prominent compared with those relating to style.glaucoma. Vitya!. though. which.3). though. She gives the example below (1992:31. for example.. or Your"Blackwell" shoeshave beencarefully made from thefinestquality materials. A more culturally appropriate translation. following Baker's discussion on taboo subjects. The implication for cultural mediators is that the language arguments in favour of political correctness should apply just as strongly to animals. what I see now is the reflection of the soul. This use of deletion is to safeguard the publisher from any adverse publicity or possible legal action. though. 11 Sensitivity to the plight of animals is just as strongly felt. translation spelling as in the original): I'm used to looking into people's eyes for symptoms of diseases . important Arab values were lost. A good soul. Her advice is to use other partial synonyms or eliminate some of the references to dusa altogether. Piotr Kuhiwczak (1995:236) cites the following as an example of how a quasi-taboo subject has been mishandled.6). in agreement with "an informal survey of mother-tongue readers". As Kuhiwczak notes. 1995:128).. deletion can be a publisher's weapon to actually help sell a text. good-natured soul. Translators have also discovered exactly the same fate when translating. The first task. a faithful translation leads to an oddness for the target text reader. I suggest.but at the same time triumphantover violence. The reason is that. carefully selected in the speciali7A'd slaughter-houses. VityaL. on a dine of deletions. lack of dusa. Avirovic & Dodds 1993). Original Italian Apart from the lexico-grammatical problems.3. in translation. with the participation of Urnberto Eco (eds. Ah! Vityenka's good! Sad. is the AngloAmerican sensitivity to the treatment of animals. and in particular we have already noted the (American) publishers' sensitivity to politically incorrect texts. what! see now is the reflection of the soul. Vityenkal A sad. for example.136 David Katan culture's way of being or doing. is to be aware of their existence.3. At times. Theselected leather has beentreated to make it softandsupple. would be as follows: Tharik youfor having chosen ''BlackweU'' shoes. aftera variety of treatment.. It is an extract from a bilingual promotional label that came with a pair of shoes (emphasis added. She points out (1992:63). deletion is at times a useful solution. This will be discussed further in the section on "Chunking and Cultural Values" (Chapter 8. The problem for the mediator is to decide what is purely style and what relates to important deeper (cultural) values. has become softerand more supple. We have already discussed the Angle-American orientation towards increased sensitivity in language to vulnerable groups of people. A mediator's decision with respect to recurrence of lexical items will depend on many factors. against the live export of animals to the continent. Fl. dopa una 'seri e. di processi di la v ora z. Two papers in particular focus on deletions: Chamosa & Santoyo (1993) and Katan (1993a). Compliments! You the Blackshoes realized with materials of quality. that. A strong soul.that the people are a kind doctor who is healing my soul. cataract. The decision to delete is very often made by publishers. Theleather hasbeencarefully selected fromspecialized slaughter-houses. The point to be stressed here. Now I can no longer look at people's eyes like that. Sari Gilbert.i o n e viene resa piu morbida e fiessibile. good-natured. after different proceeding of manufacture. 'A Medieval Rose takes Root' in The Washington Post. there are a number of cultural inappropriacies. One area where deletion can be particularly useful is highlighted by Baker (1992:234): "A translator may decide to omit or replace whole stretches of text which violate the reader's 137 Translating Cultures . Hatim & Mason themselves. Chapter5. First. as the other way round . defeated by violence. we should correct the grammar: . !! 12 10 Dodds (1994: 16-19. Arabic. and it is only from the virtual text that a feel for the right set of TC words and eo-occurrences will be generated. in Britain. For example. In fact. the British and the Americans do not wish to be reminded that their shoes began life in a slaughter house. Hatim & Mason (1997:31-4) also note that Arabic has a higher threshold of tolerance for recurrence compared to English. were not satisfied with the translations into English which deleted some the Arabic lexical recurrence. for the American market. Umberto Eco' s Il name della rosa was consciously abridged for the American market: 12 See 'Political Correctness'. the mediator will always need to check that the surface features are indeed only surface in meaning and do not open important frames. Complimentsl Youchose"Blackpool" shoesmade withhigh quality materials. See also the proceedings of the conferenceon the translationof II name delta rosa. which he believes to be a key technique in translation. The mediator will need to juggle with a number of shifting frames at once. It is from Robert Chandler's translation of Vasily Grossman's (1980) novel Zizn'i sud'ba/"Life and Fate": expectations of how a taboo subject should be handled". That being said. defeated by violence. Theyhavebeencarefully made from the finest quality materials. in Brake et al. Simple behavioural rules regarding when and where it is appropriate to delete cannot be given. accurararnenre setezionata net macelli specializzati. One possible solution might be as follows: Original 'official' translation Complimenti! Lei ha scetro le calearu re Blackwell realizzate con matertale di qualita superiore. Sometimes I think it's not so much me visiting the sick. becomes softier and supplier.

using the term 'prominence'."hasbeen fighting crime since 1939.murdered. the name "Batman" is rarely translated. The bank went under. The translation into Italian. It is a way of directing the addressee to what the spe~ker or writer considers is important. recent. 139 Translating Cultures Batman. the word "Batman" throughout the world brings to mind the caped crime-fighter with or without his side kick. (20/5/93) NEW YORK. The translation into Frati Neri is etymologically incorrect as Frati Neri are occult friars. E' tempoehe si rlpost". anche Batman sta per uscire di sc/ma. bringing into the foreground frames that were in the SC background. however. Three important areas of difference Larson emphasizes are as follows: • The grammatical and lexicalsignalsindicating the main themeof a discourse.000 hardcover copies sold so far in the US indicate that this was probably a wise move. However. Robin. focuses on the two separate elements: uomo + pipistrellol" bat + man". trovato morto sotto il ponte dei Frati Nert ilI8 giugno 1982. The 200. in the sense that it acts as a cue to open up a variety of frames. offers a translation (emphasis added): CQrrlere della Sera 11 vecchio Batman va in pensione NEWYORK· Tempt duri per i supereroi: dopa la morte di Superman. Tra pochi mesi andra in pensione. he only became known to the British at large due to the fact that he died mysteriously in London after his bank went bankrupt. in fact. These two words combine two separate frames for the general reader. Batman too is about to leave the scene.David Katan 138 . as well as the Batman comics and films. among others. Ferrara's next film Bsimo film di Ferrara. • Manipulation The example below regards the reporting of the death of Roberto Calvi. "Batman". languages differ in how their lexicogrammars show what is thematic. However. Corriere della Sera Translation Ed eeca riemerge ['ombra del eadavere del banehiere dagli ocehi di ghiaccio. not Frati Domenicani. metaphorswhere one is hardly conscious of the image". what is in focus. devote useful chapters to this surface level distortion.. the reader is encouraged to focus on the fact that he. • The gramItll. After the death of Superman. For example. and the Bible translator Kathleen Callow (1974:4969). The Dornenicans were known as Black Friars because of their black mantle. distorts the name of the bridge by highlighting the two original names: black + friarsffrate + neri. 14 Apart from this distortion. ehe pubblica le gesta dell'uoma pipistrello. but functions like a zoom lens allowing the reader to focus on certain aspects. The article below taken from an Italian newspaper. translation and by making explicit what was originally implicit. Once again it re-emerges. (02/04/93) Sul"giallo" dei Frati Neri il pro. hesaid. Howfocusandemphasis are signalled. access Italian frames regarding fifty years of protected criminality under the very catholic umbrella of the Italian state. It's time herested". leaving other aspects in the background. and the Vatican church was one of its clients. the publishing director of DCComics which publishes tIle fealll of the bat man. associated with the mysterious death of a Vatican banker and member of the Masonic Lodge. Distortion can occur through a faithful. gainsand losses Translation shifts: changes Translator/Mediator as criticalreader Distortion in itself is neither good nor bad. noted the symbolic significance of the name of the bridge: Blackfriars. resulting in new contextual effects: a negative/occult connotation (black) and a Roman Catholic connotation (friars). But. 07/11/93 In present day English. The word "Batman" is repeated three times. Larson (1984:420). In a few months hewillretire. looks like and can move like a bat. 'Blackfriars Bridge' has little meaning. La haannunciato Dennis O'Neil. on the other hand. . the words themselves are the object of focus. Hard times ror the superhero.ha detto • lotta contro if criminale dal 1939. He was. and Calvi was found hanging .5 Distortion • • • • • Lexico-grammatical distortion Foregrounding Manipulation. cliche and dead: "Dead metaphors. Thus.On the "Mystery" of the Black Friars. This combination is actually a distortion of the etymology. First. It is a dead metaphor. the article does not name the bridge. direttore editoriale delta Dc-Comics. There are a number of ways that a message can be distorted in communication. The Italian press. This foregrounding can be consciously used to heighten the contextual effects in the target culture. literal. These two words.'! and brings to mind no obvious extra frames. This can happen by focusing more attention on the word itself in the TC. and Gotham City. adapted. 13 Newmark (1988:106) divides metaphor into original. Distortion does not give us an objective picture of reality. as we shall see in 'Manipulation'. Thearmouncement wasmade byDennls 0' NeiI. As The Economist reports (emphasis added): 7. The sha-dow of the body of the banker with icy eyes found dead under the bddge of the Black Friars on 18 June 1982. however. The Economist (20/2/93) The Economist notes in passing the fact that the mysterious death was probably a murder. 14 Blackfriars Bridge lies in the borough of Blackfriars.viz. and what is emphasized. In this case. the metaphor (Frati NeTi) changes from dead to very much alive. stock (common). "Batman .ltical andlexicalsignals indicating background or supportive material. The translation.. except as one of the bridges along the River Thames. even more importantly. accessing the frames already mentioned. getting out the American edition required a bit of additional work mainly reducing the Latin content by about 10 per cent so as not to scare off the less-erudite reader. He was the director of the Arnbrosiano bank. however. where the monastery of the former Domenican order of monks was sited. known as "God's banker". most people think beneath a bridge in London.

Gentzler (1993: lOO). The relevance has been lost. is: "I do not understand this riposte". The result was a well-documented diplomatic fiasco. however faithful to the source text will produce their own and different renderings of almost any text. stating that equivalence is a "chimera". "sameness cannot exist between two languages". the editor of the Arden Shakespeare. 132-138) The footnote to "a cloud in autumn". as Holmes (1973:68) notes. We now know that Cressida is not particularly enthralled by Troilus' smile.- an autumn Gentzler (1993). We shall now look briefly at how two literary translators have facilitated communication. and adding entire passages to make the text relevant to the contemporary reader". e in autunno ci sono le nuvole. or influence (something or someone) cleverly.". Yes. 2. dismal. 1940 cloud Oh s1! e pare una nuvola d'autunno. was employed to reduce the cognitive effort of reading every passage in Latin boosting North American (and no doubt all English-speaking) sales. As she says (1988:23. 1977 . The interpretation of the Japanese prime minister's words into English. He continues: Pand: I think his smiling becomes him better than any man in all Phrygia.. In both cases they have manipulated the text to make the author's (probable) intention and the text function clear. it was due to a literal translation that President Nixon was convinced that the Japanese were devious in their negotiations. Rewriting and the Manipulation ofLiterary Frame. However. Oh yes! and it seems like an autumn cloud Demetrio Vittorini.~". in Italian we now have an explicit ironic simile which can render an array of potential contextual effects: Object: Troilus'smile Image: clouds in autumn Sense: wet. This form of distortion is an example of manipulation. Pand: Why go to then. control. as a text becomes more accessible. to negotiate. and.: not intended equivalence but admitted manipulation". Yes.. there is little or no contextual effect. on the other hand. The following translators. The example below (Katan 1993b) is a particular case in point. we have already noted how conscious deletion of Il Nome della rosa.. The importance of the theories of equivalent effect and the problems associated with them are well documented in. This principle has already been accepted in some quarters. ~ They have interpreted the text for the reader by adding a conjunction or link verb to the riposte. and expresses the need to change the form to cohere with target cultural values. and in autumn there are clouds Luigi Squarzina. Nida (1964). to handle or use. As a result. therefore: "To call this equivalence is perverse". In fact. in particular. Any back-translations will further add to the differences. 1965 Sicuro. Bassnett. for example. and most of definition two. acting as critical readers have 'understood' this riposte. A This is further discussed in Chapter 11. when the translator acts as a critical reader. like an autumn Mario Praz. Ulrych (1992) and 141 Translating Cultures cultural mediator. As she says (1991 :30. n.whether 'devious' or not. 1988). "their starting point is the exact opposite of that represented by the linguistically orientated school . on the facilitation of communication between original author and end receiver. The result is that for Palmer. Faithful translations can often be as devious as any conscious manipulation of the text. Come una nuvola d'autunno. 1990 Si. though technically correct. written by Palmer (1982: 111). and that once the goal of equivalent effect" is relinquished "it becomes possible to approach the question of loss and gain in the translation process"." Hence manipulation needs to be consciously understood and used as it is simply part and parcel of the translation process . though. However. . increased accessibility can also mean increased contextual effect. though. Cressida's feeling of 'So what?' is even clearer: IS 16 Translator SI. especially withsome skill.1. If we denominalize this word we have 'to manipulate' (CED): I. or deviously. such as The Manipulation of Literature (Theo Hermans 1985) and Andre Lefevere's (1992) Translation. Conscious manipulation of the text in recent times was first proposed by Anton Popovic (1970:78) who adopted the term 'shifts' in translation to show that losses. emphasis added). "Gains" in translation. the very act of translating involves skilful manipulation as in definition one. It is an extract from Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida.. The word itself is appearing in translation book titles. emphasis in the original). is included under the Manipulation School umbrella. so the contextual effects are usually reduced. gains and changes are a necessary part of the translation process. whether translator or interpreter. and presumably for many lay readers. Shoshana Blum-Kulka (1986) devotes her chapter to "shifts of cohesion and coherence in translation". might one suggest. different translators. come una nuvola . Rather than any search for equivalence we should return to Benjamin's main point. (Act 1. Pand: Does he not? Cress: a! yes and 'twere a cloud in autumn. Bassnett (1991). cloud Cesare Lodovico. Clearly. skilfully. In the first case.1. This is also discussed by Snell-Hornby (1988:2226).140 David Katan The Italian translators/journalists took advantage of this translation possibility to convey their interpretation of the event with undoubted benefit for their reader.. He also is not happy with the idea of "adding remarks if the translator feels motivated. Deviousness can occur in any translation. Newmark (1981. Cress: Oh! he smiles valiantly. who also describes the rise of the 'Manipulation School'. He goes on to say that "Something is always lost (or. Bell (1991:6) agrees with Bassnett. In Squarzina's translation. is concerned that the changes Bassnett suggests may add concepts that were not in the original text. should concentrate on author intention or text function within a context of culture ~ and concentrate. unexciting. as Bassnett mentions (1991:30) "can at times enrich or clarify the SL text as a direct result of the translation process". Pandarus is telJing Cressida that he thinks the beautiful Helen loves Troilus better than she does Paris. ~ Back trauslation Italian translation d'antunno Certainly. too. However. led to an out-of-awareness misperception and mis-evaluation of the meaning. Many theorists are clearly concerned about the possibility of deviousness in a translation. 'gained'?) in the process".

lanciata da Newsweek e pesan. that "The best safeguard against deceit is to make sure the utterance is so much at variance with context that no one could reasonably believeit to be 'the wholetruth and nothing but the truth'". it is clear that he has distorted the original text.Aidid? Noi ehe 10 facciamo fuggire prima del bombardamento americano su Mogadiscio? Sono accuse ridicole. Fabio Fabbri. Puntano it dito contro it contingente italiano. by overtranslating the verb trattare ('to have to do with'. "The Warlord managed to get to safety only because the Italians had warned him. proprio quando i soldatl statunitensl 10 avevano in pugno. L~accusa Most of the Newsweek article. crazy." "I will devote myself only to yours. talmente inconsistenti e gracili che si commentano da sole. It's not even worth getting indignant about". 'to look after'. One example will suffice: Translating Cultures Corriere delta Sera . ridieole e maldestre': ridiculous and ham-fisted". It recounts the behind-thescenes dealings and tells of its scoop on the bloody events in Mogadiscioat the beginning of last week. In fact. letting the reader fully enjoy Ubertino's reply. 17 Yet. 143 Translation l". [Ubertino:} Mortify your inte1· ligence. "Noi traditori. said a senior US official. and extreme. throwaway your books".The accusation hurled by Newsweek is ttssima. As Leech (1983:150) suggests. Le parole delta corrispondenza sono dure come pietre. butta via i tuoi libri". "sorr/se Guglielmo. Legge l'articolo del prestigioso 'Newsweek' e trasecola. He reads the article in the prestigious Newsweek and is dumbfounded. for a discussion and quotesfromcritics. here. guilty of having allowed the Somali leader to get away just when the US soldiers had him in their hands. and the title itself is in terms of "a team effort". Altrimenti. a quest'ora sarebbe nostro prigioniero". "Foolish Englishman". 'to deal with'.142 David Katan Returning to Il nome delta rosa. See Katan(l993a:152-53). Non vale nemmeno la pena di indignarsi ". Weaver's treatment of Guglielmo/William has certainly heightened the contextual effects for the target reader. ROMA.. E irifamante: «Gli italiani janno scathing. MAKING A MESS OF THINGS IS A TEAM EFFORT. The finger is pointed against the Italian contingent. us friends of Aidid? Us who let him escape before the American bombardment on Mogadiscio? These are ridiculous accusations. The extracts relevant to Italy and its action are reported below: THE PITFALLS OF PEACEKEEPING IN WAR-TORN SOMALIA. solo perche gli italiani 10 hanno avvertito. "Sciocco di un inglese". Durissimo attacco al nostro contingente A very harsh attack on our contingent by the dal settimanale "Newsweek" che parla di weekly Newsweek which talks of spying naggio a javore del generale e contro for the General and against the UN. It is slanderous: "The ltaliaus are spionaggio a javore del generale Aidid e spying for General Aidid against the United Nations"." smiled William. (Eco 1980:71) [Ubertino:] Chastize your intelligence' learn to weep over the wounds of the Lord. "The Pitfalls of Peacekeeping". example of translating cross-culturally is illustrated in the following article. three western Sources told NEWSWEEK. "I will only use yours. contro le Nazione Unite». Did the Italians warn Aidid? "Draw your own conclusions". ROME. "Trattero soltanto it tuo..perentorio. paradossali. learn to weep over the wounds of the Lord. emphasis added) than in the original. William Weaver's translation has been praised by some of the most important literary critics.. nefandezze. (Eco 1984:63) Weaver. Leech (1983:145-46) suggests. This ironic exaggeration. "Il signore delta guerra e riuscito a mettersi in salvo. Apart from what has already been mentioned. 17 rs . 'to use') (Sansoni 1975) with "devote myself to". otherwise he would be om prisoner by now". and so weak and unfounded that they speak for themselves. Fabio Fabbri. the headline ran: Carriere della Sera Italia sotto accusa: «Informava Aidid» In un arricolo di due pagine che apre la sezione internationale sotto it titolo «Le trappole del "Peacekeeping"». he said: "They are just slanders.tervista al ministro Fabbri: 'Sono solo In the interview with government minister Fabbri. reo di aver fatto scappare it leader $omalo. with regard to hyperbole and irony. if settimanale amerieano spara a zero contra if comportamento del/'ftalia in Somalia. racconta retroscena e rivela uno «scoop» sui combattimenti sanguinosi avvemlti a Mogadiscio al/'inizio della scorsa settimana. throwaway your books. the American weekly fired a broadside against the behaviour of Italy in Somalia. A US-run surveillance network has more than once caught members of Italy's UN contingent warning Aidid about operations against his forces. has "improved" on William's original witticism. Italy Accused: "They tipped off Aidid" In a two-page article opening the international section with the title "The Pitfalls of Peacekeepinit. The words in the report are as hard as stone. noi amici dt . however. . One final. so that he becomes even more "Our learned and ironic monk-detective" (The New York Times 5/6/1985. [Aidid} may have been tipped off. "Foolish Englishman"." fits in well with English style. "English speaking culture (particularly British?) gives prominence to the Maxim of Tact and the Irony Principle"." William smiled. There was a very strong worded comment made in The Corriere delta Sera (20/07/93) regarding a Newsweek report about the Italian military presence in Somalia in 1993. William Weaver IUbertino: J "Cast/ga la tua intelligenza.. does not focus on Italy. in many small ways he has distorted the Englishness of Guglielmo/William. "Us traitors. impara a piangere sulle piaghe del Signore. Minister of Defence is blunt and to the point. ministro delta Dijesa e .

till he had dust in his throat and eyes. the only area where machine translation is used successfully is for the translation of explicit or restricted language texts. The opening sentence ~n the original text tells us that the Mole in question is a male: The Mole had been working very hard all the morning. according to absolute semantic equivalence and. behaviour and orientation 8. and all are simply called by their animal names. The terms 'local' and 'global' come from Robert Sternberg's (1984:283) work on processing behaviour and intelligence. A male mole is also la talpa.to establish text function . The Italian report is an extreme example of a translation shift. at least until there is any evidence to the contrary. and splashes of whitewash all over his black fur. but that optimum relevance depends on the hearer being able to obtain "maximal cognitive effect for minimal processing effort". universal. However "draw your own conclusions" leaves the reader with only one relevant implicature to be working on. (1983:59). the Italian journalist! translator has more than likely interpreted the illocutionary force of the article. At a local levelthis is the correct translation. but the results will be completely different. like machines. It "instructs the hearer not to construct a context any larger than he needs to arrive at an interpretation". . spring-cleaning his little home. In fact. translate at the level of technical culture. then with dusters. They suggest that a partner's contribution will always aim at relevance. Their Principle of Local Interpretation. So. spend more time. like first-year translation trainees on "local (lower order) planning".' the Italian term for the burrowing animal. Both local and global processing strategies will follow these universal principles. He noted that "more-intelligent persons" tend to spend more time in "global (higher order) planning". Their "less-intelligent" colleagues. The Wind in the Willows. such as 'Mole'. puntare if ditof'point the finger" or sparare a zero (literally 'shoot point blank'. then on ladders and steps and chairs. First with brooms.1 Local Translating Honig (1991:87) notes that trainees: "love to learn and apply systemic language rules. however. I lam gratefulto Christopher Taylorfor this example.144 David Katan Distortion of the words is particularly noticeable here. This Principle is very close to Wilson and Sperber's (1988:140) Relevance Theory. through manipulation.for culture-bound lexis. It is quite possible that local translating actually involves more cognitive effort than global translating. Trainees (in particular first year) tend to translate like machines. and 'global' to describe cognitive recreation based on frame analysis. The idea of local interpretation has also been put forward by Brown and Yule. on the other hand. But by applying these 'absolute' micro-strategic rules. they leave the mental reality of translating". and the target translation bears little or no formal equivalence to the original article. The next chapter discusses translation shift under the umbrella term of 'chunking'. the Italian reader has the opportunity to respond as Newsweek and the senior US official intended. is. The American text does not directly. Wilss uses the term 'local' to describe this type of decoding and encoding translation. All the characters in this story are animals. A good example oflocal translating comes from one particular student translation of Kenneth Grahame's children's classic. Chunking The aim of this chapter is to: • introduce the concept of chunking • show how chunking can access frames • give examples of chunking up. meaning here to criticize ruthlessly). and an aching back and weary arms. sideways and down • give practical examples of chunking in translation: . 'Ratty' and 'Toad'. The Italian feminine gender la does not necessarily mean that the Mole in question is female. ChapterS. with a brush and a pail of whitewash. However. a higher order processing which takes the wider context into account. The contextual effects within an AngloAmerican frame are that Italy is being blamed for the incident. An Italian student's draft translation of "Mole" was "La Talpa". such as legal contracts and weather bulletins.

NLP researchers are particularly interested in the 'how'. 2 • Chunking up Here we begin with the specific and move to the general. at least) pictures a lady mole.' It is this difference in the level of thinking which distinguishes a good translator or mediator from one who applies systemic language rules. cleaning the home (feminine gender). However. neither says how a trainee translator might be aided in acquiring this strategy. Finally. as a series of small chunks of information. he said to himself".'!' 146 David Katan Many languages (including Italian) require that all adjectives. for example. Newmark (1988:21) and Bell (1991:161). vague and metaphorical concepts. The process of moving from one level to another involves making associations. in turn. and not the person they refer to as in English. As an example. Mediators will need to exploit their hi-cultural competence to develop a feel for which associations or frames are the most appropriate in each particular context. A unit can be made bigger (chunking up) which means that as more comes into view so we move from the specific to the general. but was influenced by her mother-tongue lexico-grammar rules. As we briefly mentioned in Chapter 4. This form of translation is a typical case of local processing. See Katan (1989') for results of research into foreign language student use and understanding of messages and meta-messages.2 Chunking The term 'chunking' has been taken from computing. and naturally (in Italy. there are few specific guidelines on how to read to access frames. which he calls cultural componential analysis (1988:83). The following 'Moles' could then be with the feminine article. We can link. Translating Cultures 147 8. The reader relates this new information to the most relevant frames relating to 'spring-cleaning'and 'home'. articles and pronouns follow the gender of the noun they precede. There are two simple ways to avoid this particular problem: the addition of an explicit cue or the deletion of the distorting element. above the individual and different cultures. Taylor (1990: 193) states in capitals that "RE-READING of the text [is necessary] until the concepts are clear". produce the overall picture. the reader is left momentarily confused and has to make mental sartorial adjustments for the mole. A number of translation theorists have suggested a chunking strategy. Other translation theorists also point out that attentive reading is a prerequisite to translation. although the necessary behaviour is clearly spelled out. He also explains in detail what a translator should be looking for and doing during the various reading phases. in general. without taking the wider context or the meta-message into account. Trainees learning these questions can then help themselves move out of the local word-for-word translation and begin to mediate between contexts of cultures.) Mole continues spring-cleaning for the rest of the page. it is not until the second page that the lexico-grammar allows Mole to be male: "'This is fine'. they have adapted Bateson's Logical Typing to make a model of human communication. meaning not only depends on context or frame. As Neubert and Shreve (1992:61) mention: "Matching cultural frames is an extremely important and difficult translation task". In this case we move from the Logical Level of Behaviour to an expression of identity. Indeed. This image is further confirmed as (Ms. many trainees have learned to treat translation just like any other academic exercise. translators also need to be able to chunk up. by simply deleting the article. Moving in the other direction. Alternatively. individual words.) Mole/signor Talpa as Kenneth Grahame would have intended. The Meta-Model is an example exercise in chunking down. and the animal remains neuter until we have the explication on the second page. They tend to process information according to the surface text. to culture-inclusive frames. First. talking about "reading for translation". as for example the journalists in Chapter 7. the sensory-based "To live or to die" to the more vague "To be or not to be" by chunking up to higher levels. for example. emphasis in the original). mediators must be able to chunk sideways to find equivalent frames in the target culture. Second. One procedure which can aid trainees in both accessing these frames and in understanding the metamessage is called 'chunking'. In NLP. translators need to be able to chunk up and down to establish the wider and narrower frames of reference of the source text. These questions access interrelated frames in a way similar to hypertext. be those which are most relevant. we have talpa/'mole'. this c1ine reveals how the language of the sensory-based real world is linked to general. This procedure is also essential as a first step in mindshifting from one cultural reality to another. The question NLP researchers tackled was: "How can we learn to chunk?" The answer lies in a series of formulaic procedural questions. Similar strategies are adopted by intermediate second language students. which will. By correctly following the lexico-grammatical rules of Italian. For example. this is an essential prerequisite for a cultural mediator. in which 'the Mole' and all other lexis will actually be visualized. One of the basic distinctions in learning that is emphasized is between the observable behaviour (knowledge 'what') from the invisible and therefore not directly observable strategies (knowledge 'how'). In the first case. Unfortunately. Once the translator has visualized the scene slbe can begin to find the appropriate words to help the TCreader to see (Mr.':1. Chunking down is necessary for componential analysis to better understand the semantic field of. This means that the frames which are the first to come to mind will. The student's translation leaves no doubt that the student had made no mental image of the story while translating. however much translation practice books stress the need for global pre-reading. we chunk down from the general to the specific or from the whole to the parts. As we mentioned in Chapter 3. but there is also a continuous c1ine of frames: from sub-atomic to universal. by consciously applying the chunking procedure trainees should be able to move away from the direct one-to-one absolute semantic equivalence of Mole/la talpa towards a virtual text. In terms of language and translation. rather than interpreting at the global level. the Italian reader is left with a mental picture of a mole (feminine gender). At this point. for example.2) that Baker suggests looking for a more general word (chunking up) to overcome the problem of non-equivalence. We mentioned earlier (in Chapter 7. More specifically. However. Newmark discusses the importance of chunking down. and basically means to change the size of a unit. The 'feel' for appropriacy or matching is accounted for by the Principle of Local Interpretation and Relevance theory. 3 See. or from the part to the whole. chunking has been developed to show two points (O'Connor and Seymour 1990:150). says that "Reading the text means reading it at least three times". With a view to cultural mediation. Dodds (1994:49. let us think of 'an .8.' while Neubert and Shreve (1992:49) go further. the addition of signor/'Mr' as the opening words would immediately open up the appropriate frame for the reader.

With regard to reading for translation. Both.g. we arrive at stool. if one were to say "I had breakfast. 'is~' (has as an example) is a case of chunking down. What is (an armchair)part of (in this context)? Whatis (an armchair)a type of (in this context)? A logical answer could be 'chair'. but in each case there will be a relevant link (in Sperber and Wilson's use of the term 'relevant'). We will now look more specifically how the chunking process may be applied to translation. Bell distinguishes between two types of "isa' (sic) meaning: either "is a" or "has". We can also chunk down to the micro level by looking at the constituents: NLP class ANIMA In this particular case we arrive at 'furniture'. interpreters and other medlat~rs. As Bell points out. Bell has. the more general the class. Once students become consciously competent. table. the same question is asked: " ? Asking this question about 'armchair'." then what is included in the superordinate (English) breakfast will clearly be very different from that on the Continent. the mediator is looking for alternatives which can more readily access the same frame as in the se. down or laterally. In the first case. The question to ask here is: What is anotherexampleof !hisclass of things(in this context)? has as example member of Chunking Down 11'1~EBJ • is at the same level as t·····"" ?" What are the constituentelements of the armchair in the living room? Whatis the armchair in the living room made up of? Chunking UP isa class off • Chunking down This is the reverse operation: from the general to the specific. Though he does not specify how the model could be practically applied. Trainees should practise chunking as a mental exercise in itself. and provides the type of mental gymnastics or mindshifting required to change cultural frame.and below the level of the word in question one can chunk up. sofa. the strategy can become internalized to bec~me the unconscious strategy performed by professional translators. ~n th~ seco. while quality ('applies to') is a variable association and will depend on the context. are also different examples of chunking below the word. level. r~levan~ concepts are being added providing a series of interlocking frames. because an armchair functions as a seat. one would ask the question: 149 Translating Cultures or u What is at the same level as Whatis (an armchair) an exampleof (in this context)? Or alternatively. 'isa' is a case of chunking up. in terms of function. and so on. "cooked" or simply "good" breakfast. as in "the tiger is (a member of) animal". This procedure is particularly useful for cultural mediation. Bell's Procedural Model and NLP Chunking As can be se~n from the NLP chunking arrows on the right.ndcase. Chunking sideways from 'chair'. e. more general. We can descend further to a particular type of armchair. to chair and armchair. and contextualize the armchair geographically. what is an 'armchair' an example of? The first chunk-up would be 'a seat'. 8. What is important is that each time links are m~de. and hence translatability at that level. 'Has-as-parts' and applies-to. in fact. What ~ a specificexampleof I Chunking UP applies to LEGS FIERCE quality property +' Chunking Down Figure 24. we could get: dining-room chair.David Katan 148 armchair' . To go up to th~ next. To chunk up again we ask: "What is a seat an example oft" Here. and at a certain point the generalization becomes so general that it becomes meaningless. to a more general level. with "English". The hyponyms included also give the translator valuable information about what is not included. a~ove . separated two levels of chunking. Le. a property ('has-as-parts') is a defining characteristic. etc. • Chunking Sideways This is stepping sideways or laterally in much the same way as Edward De Bono's Lateral Thinking (1970). we are more interested in functional relationships in the context: Le. To step up to the next level. The links can be made in a number of ways. It is this skill which actlvel~ goes on inside a professional translator's head and is an essential part of ~he global translation process. Bell (1991:240-54) provides a procedural model of the process. The more we chunk up. the design and so on. For example. The question to ask is: This may lead us from furniture. The translator's virtual text will provide information on what gaps need to be filled when translating into any other language. his listing of encyclopaedic entry relationships is very similar to the above: Bell's classification What is (a chair) an exampleor part of or a type of? I We would then talk of the material.3 Global Translation and Mediation • Text Function • The dine from Communicativeto Semantic translation • Culture-Bound Lexis . This is not the only answer. finally down to a particular armchair in the living room. In chunking sideways. we could say 'support'.

the fictional name here is not casual. be the most logical strategy with regard to personal names. In fact Newmark (1988:46. As Snell-Hornby (1988:31) states: "Blend-forms" rather than a rigid typology of texts "are part of the conceptual system and not the exception". and nor are the connotations.1 Culture-Bound Lexis In Sue Townsend' s (1985) popular work of fiction. that of Robert Maxwell. to move away from the image of the source text. He made front page news with his suicide. emphasis added) mentions that the translator wishing to produce a semantic translation: "may translate less important words by culturally neutral third or functional terms but not by cultural equivalents". yet the collocation with House accesses a totally different frame. 4 .the owner of the Mirror Group of Newspapers and embezzlerof the Pension Funds. On the other hand. using (in Figure 25. remains faithful to them and ignores the real world of the target culture.the intentionof Townsend could not possiblyhave includedthis accessingof frames. Lateral chunking would encourage trainees to consider other texts which would come under the same text type heading. and a virtual translation be made. pragmatic and functionally oriented. The generally unconscious (out-of-awareness) operation is illustrated in the following (technical) diagram: • Text Function When a reader reads. asking the following question: SOURCE CULTURE TARGET CULTURE Morageneral class This would clearly give an idea of the text type. The translator. Then the translator will chunk down to move towards the sensory world of the target culture. Hatim and Mason 1990: 141). and the subsequent criminal investigations into his family's dealings. When traine~~ are faced with a text. First it will be necessary to chunk laterally. as a text will. and quite legitimately simply borrow the name: "Maxwell House". while Carl James (1988) asserts that recognition of genre and its rules is the translator's most important task. a translator. CCMMUNlCATIVETRANSLAT04 components This will help in focusing on register and the other features that make the particular text under study an example of a particular text-type. So. Bell (1991: 171) points out that by accessing the genre or text type. the semantic translation focuses on the original words of the author. the principle remains the same. The more this is done. sense can be made of the new text. and this would include sentences used exclusively for grammar translation. 4 Maxwell is a normal first name.or SC-oriented translation. all embracing term. the translator wishes to produce a more 'I'Csoriented translation. faced with choices. If. be polyfunctional (Vermeer 1978. instead. However. This term will tend to be less culture specific the more we chunk up. they should chunk up. will test the alternatives against the feelings s/he has related to the virtual text. • TheCline from Communicative to Semantic Translation As mentioned at the beginning of the chapter. will not be bound by prescriptive norms which determine either a communicative or semantic translation.3. the translator can decide whether to produce a more TC. whatever the blend-form of text. Chunking makes this procedure conscious. As a further exercise students can chunk down and ask: T E X T Speciic TC example SEMANTKi . wishing More recently. A text. that of instant or freeze dried coffee. well after the book was published. The communicative translation. The Secret Diary ofAdrian Mole Aged 13 3/4.. the word 'Maxwell' accesses another frame. and access similar known texts. in general. however short. 8. Christopher Taylor (1990: 106-107) notes that the contraposition of Maxwell (first name) and House (surname) create a comic effect. Through chunking. Neubert and Shreve (1992:48) note that one of the telling findings of cognitive psychology is that "text comprehension only occurs when the comprehender actively conjectures or projects the semantic content contained in the text". as expounded by Newmark (1981:39) is reader-centred. s/he brings an array of texts to mind. However. The translator can chunk laterally. a virtual translation is a useful metaphor for the vision a translator has of what the target text and its associated frames will be like. This would. Adrian has a friend by the name of Maxwell House. However. therefore. In this case the translator will chunk up from the specific SC to a more general. the more students begin to get a feel for where the borders between one text type and another are. At the two ends of the c1ine we have the communicative and the semantic translation. The closer the text being processed is to a known text type the more fully it can be processed. in general.150 David Katan Translating Cultures 151 Newmark's words) a cultural equivalent. then the translator will continue chunking. Chunking to Generate Choice The last three sections of this chapter focus on how chunking can be used with regard to: • culture-bound Iexis • culture-bound behaviour • cultural orientations The extracts are from a daily newspaper and from popular fiction. It also helps trainees to realize that a text-type label is often misleading.

. brunettein a blackcocktail dress declaredover the blare of disco music. was packed. the linking (using Italian as an example) could be as follows: .. At the Spicy Chicken takeaway. A noticeon the door of the PosternGate Tavern. Half a mileaway. having a friend called Illy Caffe would give him a continental flavour. The journalist gives a little background to the scene after the bomb attack (emphasis added): Bomb Blasts Hole in Town'sSense ofContentment... O'Leary Street. chunking sideways: "What is at the same level as Maxwell House and Illy Caffe?". ''It's a form of defiance. target culture oriented) translation. He was an ex-professional soldier. but whatkind of sense of flU). If we concentrate for a moment on "munched a tandoori". 50 yards nearer the explosion. This particular 'ordinary life' though is an example of culture bound behaviour. The advertizing of the product in Italy is also deliberately comic: an American speaking Italian with a strong mid-Atlantic accent. The diagram below shows the principal stages in chunking: TARGET CULTURE V ~nklnu0L Upper class name + brand of coffeein UK - ~ name + drink brandname t. Gaffer's Bier Keller. Yet . or rather re Liptonis synonymous with Anglo-Saxon culture.. un pauino!a roll . we note that the predicate is not central to the text.teams of men in white overalls carefnlly sweep up fragments of flesh. l7-year-old Dominic Reynoldsthought whoeverdid it should be strappedto a chair that had a bombtied to it.just aroundthe corner from the first Bridge Street bomb. the dish is almost unheard of. This method would result in a communicative (Le. its soap factory. and that the whole context of culture is British.. do they get out of this?It's an effing atrocity".. + Maxwell House TeoLipton 153 8. HGV driver Mark James mmtehed a tandoori in a doorway. announced "In respect for the dead and the injured we shall not be opening this evening". which is Italy's most upmarket brand of coffee. which gives an account of a terrorist attack in Belfast in 1993. i. of all things. though.. "Got any ID?" The squat shadow guarding the gates of Warrington's Territorial army ban'acks warily studiedthe plastic card in the magnesium glare of a road called. We find. I R T ~·Chunk~ U name + drink brand A L T E X T Maxwell House _~. A bit further down Bridge Street. that "Maxwell House" is 'a member of': • a personal name • a brand of coffee. and then begin to chunk down in the target language till we find the expression which fits best the virtual text and the original array of feelings and reactions to the SC text. "1 don't think the troops should be in .2 Culture-bound Behaviour The following is an extract from The Guardian (22/03/93). A three-year-old child.' For an Italian. watching .. The first task.. and its Rugby Leagueteam. would tell us that Maxwell House is British. un spuntino indiano . I had a big cry with my mates. The natural step is then to ask.. qualities: / ' comic effect incongruence Figure 26. timed to go off in an hour. and that the Maxwell House: • has a comic effect • is a household name The translator with these semantic constructs can then begin to work on the target culture. "To be honest.~land. "Bastards.David Katan 152 to retain the comic effect will need to isolate the contributing factors by chunking up. and take-away eating is still uncommon. LATERAL CHUNK In ita Iy '~)' e lb e d a eap o r rar e in this particular text . the chunking down question to ask is: "what is an example in the Italian culture of a brand name of coffee. In continental Europe.. So. In this case. . u n h n m bn rg er . which could be read as an aristocratic name + surname.. there is no one-to-one equivalent.e. Translating with the Chunking Procedure 5 See L. is to chunk up to more general levels." said 34-year-old Mark. Italian frames by asking an appropriate procedural question. resentful and wondering why they were chosen to suffera secondIRA atrocity. isn't it?" a . A tandoori can be bought from any high-street Indian restaurant or take-away in Britain. "Now and then. S/he will have a feel for what is needed from the variety of frames making up the virtual text and will then open up. The virtual text. una pizza - Italy Figure 27. we notice that Maxwell is composed of: • class (Maxwell has upper-class connotations) SOJRCETEXT Translating Cultures E k i nu do:0 Upperclass name + brand of coffeein Erland Clouston finds Warrington's citizens confused. for example. just before Mother's Day. . routine. Chunking Questions from the Source Text lily Oiffe Having established a variety of superordinates. V T I E ~~~-:"" U 110 sp u "lino/a snack R X T T U A L cibo do csportarelfood to takeaway In Britain I. by chunking up.. If we chunk down.3. In which case. It may be that the translator will wish to chunk down further to a more target language sensory-based concept. Absolutelysick". but at the same time would remain source text oriented? An inspired answer was "Tea Lipton". but creates the setting of ordinary. Was he nervous? The caretaker shrugged. therefore. Clearly." snorted a female colleague..." he admitted. we translate those that seem most promising.. He knewa bit aboutbombsand violence. day-to-day life from which the after-effects of a tragedy are witnessed. Lipton Tea. and create a comic effect?" An answer might well be llly Caffi.. what would create a comic effect for the target reader. Carbolante (1987). shaken rigid at the hole punched in the easy-going contentment of a community previollslyfamousonly for its breweries.. to let the target reader fully sense this contraposition of daily life and tragedy.uptowncivilianWarrington was in an emotional daze.. "That's too quick. to have a variety of more general superordinates.

you couldn't even make the words come out of your mouth. of power. Not unusually there are many references to the price of things (emphasis in the original): CHUNKING PROCESS 1. 4.154 David Katan Translating Cultures 155 and Blackfriars/Frati Neri discussed in Chapter 7. on a technical level can be translated into any other currency with no problem whatsoever. paninole filled roll. 3. the tandoori has end focus position. then a generalization will be necessary.3. and in the third example. if it has been decided to translate this piece (whether for trainee practice or for eventual publication) then. one of the aims of the translator as cultural mediator is to help the reader gain an insight into another culture. However. 8. If so. there was no way to explain this to a living soul. Tandoori Snack Spuntino Spuntino indiano UP SIDEWAYS DOWN SIDEWAYS Snack Spuntino/snack Spuntino indiana/Indian snack • panino/filled roll • pizza • hamburger [Sherman McCoy]: "Once you had lived in a $2. This is part of the out-of-awareness culture Hall cited in his Triad of. One insight is already implicitly given. the frame is an eye-witness report of what was seen .it was impossible to live in a $1 million apartment! Naturally. Nevertheless . The target culture snacks will. It is natural (for an Amencan) to talk about the price of things. But in what frame are we going to understand 650 dollar shoes? An American withi~ his or her own cultural frame is likely to find the question strange. such as "a tandoori.. in general. and his chronicling of life in New York.3 Chunking and Cultural Values For an example of cultural values. which was originally written WIth an even more apt title Evidences Invisibles: "Money". For a French person.cul~ure. tandoori is a marked theme: The dollars. with no foregrounding or information focus whatsoever. Chunking Questions to the Target Text The initial choice will be between uno spuntino. This leaves us with spuntino or spuntina indiana. that eating in the streets is a normal activity. The second insight is that Indian food is extremely common in Britain. For this reason a fuller explanation. A French reader's reaction to this use of money is well described by Raymonde C~oll In hIS book Cultural Misunderstandings (1988:128-29). that which is able to give the target reader more insight is the preferable. which means that the translator will need to always have the overall virtual text in mind. Tom Wolfe. Translating without Mediating Values Milan/ Paris .A SIgnof 'incurable materialism'. In the second case it is the object of focus in a cleft sentence. an impossibility!" Figure 28. unrefined pleasure". he writes. as always. of arrogance.. uno spuntino indiano and un paninol hamburger/pizza. needs to be particularly careful to keep the information focus as in the original to retain the construction of reality as the writer saw it. In these cases generalization is better than distortion. Unless you were a complete fool. Italy I France CULTURE FRAMES success Values . we return to the American writer. be disregarded for two reasons. The 'munched a tandoori' is simply part of everyday life.it was so! It was . In the first case. Identity U. Between the two possibilities. First. as mediator. nor a pizza was seen.S.6 million apartment on Park Avenue . Compare this background information with the following sentences where the focus on the tandoori is more marked. need to be taken in conjunction with the rest of the text. the face of an American could easily be replaced by a dollar SIgn. which is an Indian method of cooking meat" would be innrmronriate 'This W01l1C1 lead us to the same area of distortion as Batmanluama oioistrello Figure 29. of 'vulgar'.and neither a hamburger. For other cultures this is not so. "Someone should talk a?out m~ney. GJ sacrifice effort (tnste' i Behaviour (talking about) Environment New York TRANSLATION It i soldi / argent I1wney The translator. the mediator/translator will need to decide if the TC reader would focus on this background information to the detriment of the text as a whole. The final decision will. 2. Second.

. CULTURE FRAMES Values success sacrifice effort . LATERAL CHUN KING success sacrifice effort (t.. to chunk up to those core values underlying the symbol (money) in America. Essentially the translator will need to be aware of the SC frame from within which s/he can interpret 'money'. sacrifice. As we can see. As we can see.S.. He defines the concept. That being done. We now (back translated): ermanMcCoyJ: "Onceyou had livedin a lu:xury apartment on ParkAvenue . The chunking procedure is explained in the following diagram. effort and taste) through either adding or substituting "luxury". the hero in the book. and highlights one of the problems of 'foreignizing' a text. as approximate as it may be. that price will surely be mentioned. Robinson and Baker give three examples of seemingly non-ethnocentric translations: 157 Translating Cultures CULTURAL MEDIA TION Identity Italy I France U.. The translator as mediator needs to be in a position to direct the reader to the right frame.it wasimpossible in a merely desirable apartment! Naturally....youcoutdn't even makethewordscomeout of yourmouth. Chunking sideways takes us to the TC frame. This is an example of the danger of a faithful translation. means taking the reader over to the foreign culture..) I CH U N K IN G UP CHUNKING DOWN. or criterial equivalent.. there was no way to explain this to a living soul.". "desirable" or "designer". in this case by leaving the foreign money as in the original.connnencing into the lowerdepths.. a direct translation leads the reader to a different set of values.e. shoes aoartrnent designer luxury Paris I Milan INew York Figure 30. an impossibility!" McCoy] sat with his New and Lingwood designer shoes pulled up against the cold toilet and the newspaper rustlingin his trembling hands. making him or her see the (cultural and linguistic) differences .. dollars indicate the amount of effort.156 David Katan In fact. in Schaffner (1995:4). However. envisioning Campbell.. a foreignized translation can lead the reader to an ethnocentric set of values. The chunking-up tells us the general values that the shoes and the apartment are a member of. the translator will look for a sign. can be read as being extremely ethnocentric" (Douglas Robinson). Then we chunk down. to specific examples (criterial equivalents) which satisfy these values: . apartment etc. For an American though. in Italian or French in this case. money is simply a useful symbol signifying the type of shoe. Neverthewas . the more able he or she will be to meaning behind behaviour in a context. and ultimately success that Sherman. Chunking to Mediate Values A cultural mediator can now help the TC reader to access the same values (success.. The idea of 'foreignizing' a translation to prevent ethnocentrism comes from Lawrence Venuti. A foreignizing strategy seeks to evoke a sense of the foreign". her tears.. and hence distorts the writer's intention. i.ste) j Behaviour $$$ $$$ Environment (. in the TC which fits the overall virtual text and which relates to this particular value frame. This is hardly surprising if we take the Attribution theory and Logical Levels theory into account (discussed at the end of chapter 4). /U"WC"'i>. The words 'luxury' and 'designer' in Italian or in French would both act as a cue to accessing the same value frames as the American 'money'. As some pointed out during the debate with Venuti on the subject (Schaffner & KellyHolmes 1995:32): "what is intended to be a non-ethnocentric . has had in life.on thetenthfloorfor thelasttime. youwerea complete fool.. Part 3 will investigate in detail the array of possible value clusters that make up value The more sets of values the mediator is aware of.. if it is at all possible to attach a price to something. the translation will only strengthen the ethnocentric view that all American eyes are made up of Donald Duck dollars. translation . The underlying value depends on the context..leavingthemarbled entryhall. and "literalism is not always a good way of being non-ethnocentric" (Baker). as follows: "Foreignizing . Here.

The Array of Frames: Communication Orientations .3.

.the myths cultures have about others introduce a taxonomy of orientations Rollo May. a long.. myth and rationalistic language. and helps the members of the society find a sense of identity. the basic organizing filters affecting i~()rnmULllil~ation and action. transmits societal values.f 9 discusses orientations in general. norms and cultural Chapters 10 and 11 focus on two principal orientations. Myth.Sapir's (1994: 119) lecture notes focused on the needs for the future. and discusses the various options available to cultures.sages are interpreted. long time from now when culture is more completely explored. iC:hapb~r 9. Cultural Orientations aim of this chapter is to: discuss cultural myths: ~ the myths cultures have about themselves . Myths give significance to our existence and unify our societies". and patterns that differentiate their lives . are the sets.. he says.. and investigates some of the sets.the master of culture. The term used principally in this Part will be 'orientations'. and also how cultures vary in what aspects of reality are specifically rtumitp. "orients people to reality. comparing them with values. Nothing in behaviour. He was very to know what it was that motivated certain cultural configurations. as explained also by Schneider (1976:203): . for each type of woman in different types of jobs or relationships.. A brief (1e:scriptilon of a number of other organizing behavioural orientations is also given. uu .? 3 looks at some of the leading motivations. work. there will be an equivalent of musical scores that can be learned. and play . space. or rather patterns avionr: must therefore discover the leading motivations for these configurations . What is of particular is how these orientations act as frames in which the transmission and reception of ri~l. ~. isolates. can be understood except as seen as reference to these configurations. cultural or otherwise. These leading motivations constitute the culture in an anthropological They are the fundamental dynamic concepts involved in the notion of cultural PattelTIs. for time. isolates patterns.~ Hall (1990:184) had the same questions in mind: Sbmetinle in the future. This type of myth is culture itself. in his book The Cry for Myth (1991:6) suggests that there are two modes of communication.

at least. Cold lager. differentiating between values and culture-bound norms. many. The influence of the press and other di hoi I . • oricket on the village green A minority sport. How the Italians would despise and tbem.. with :ver o:o:~: ~IZ readers. WI not necessarily selling quality paper. Here the norm differs from the value. and human beings. on tmes ~an she says is "constructed.. . I' .n~tlOn or p~b!Ic as well as by certain public discourse in the press and other media.who may eat Chinese or Indian. ~at Hofstede talks about itself: my s -:.. The last song of the last night is "Rule Britannia". Indian. As a result.~onca collective m e~ory. draped over his shoulderlike a sack.. She looks sea-sick. is described below in an article by Theodore Dalyrymple only two weeks after The Telegraph survey: whenyou see the Englishenjoyingthemselves that you realizethe futility of life . . ' . Pierce (forthcoming). .~:eG~~tSs~~rd~ot be understated. listening to church bells. The answer is a tiny minority of the population still living in what remains of upper-middle class rural England (except for the fish and chips)..:\th~ ~.to d~ WIth a distorted memory of an r nomma izanon (Ill this case a de-adjectival noun) as Translating Cultures 163 is 'life'. recited. . the myth: • The Boat Race • The ChelseaFlower Show • Remembran<:c Day • Troopingthe Colour • The Boat Race • Carols from Kings College. .'. and get drunk on a Saturday night . drink canned Budweiser or wine. Heard more than in town. rurnan eings are Kramsch (1993'235 207)' h a "social construc~ion~f cUliu~~~t~~~~~"a~~os~peoPlejido not realize that m~aning is based on (Chapter 2) are often part of a culture's ' the en:s. many of the LAPs. zen cu ura Icons which characterized Englishness Clearl _ H~P~ather POlitic~i:~~~. There is VOl1l1't l'nthe guttersalready (the wholecity smellsof· fri·ed· takeaway food) and a pool of as uncongealed blood next to a brokenbottle of Budweiser . soon she will want to vomit then she willknow that she has had a reallygood nightout. Susan betwle~n late~diti. Inmost of the cases the images evoked have much m . . '. How~ver. whereas myth-related values are ideals which we allow to be overridden by more pragmatic norms: For instance._ore.t:~1t~1 the a~: how to play the scene.especially thosewith shaven heads. The Sunday Times (22/1O/95:3.. A British. Trompenaars (1993:23) gives a very practical example of this paradox. For examp~e. .~e.. idealized reality. wme. that for the vast majority of the one England. who shiver in the cold as they trip along.still cherish the thought of rural England. and even more of the HAPs . IS supenn:posed. ione ave very little to do with their actual life in Cultural Icons Social Reality • fish and chips Non-English take-aways are luuch more popular such as Chinese. live in a town. and' coincide with those of Dail Mir . these icons?". or among. ere norms tell the actor how to behave in the resen . 1I110n read~rs. What is important for identity is not reality but the collective memory. rather than English instituti01'l. nonangerwhichmighterupt if you wereto lookat thema fraction too longin theeye . culture tells the actors what ghosts gods andl cebo~ghosts.. culture tells the actor how the scene is set ean~. the values behind the behaviour of playing cricket. thoughthe 'loca!' and/or warm beer) IS unl~kely to ha~e low ceilings. outsell warm • church bells British beer. However.:~~g~~~:. However. if not most... an. is a city withoutminors? The girlsin theircheapandflimsyfinery (I meancheapin theaesthetic. _. gods. and what they are all about. Many of the boys. and so a clearer question would be "for whom are the above icons real?" or "Who actually lives with.w at a society tells Itself and believes about On the reality off~cts ~nd ~vents that constitute a nation's history and culture' . d le English national collective memory Rcarread out a sukrvde y to investigate what lay within the . .Cambridge .' eremony. but norms are the practical rules guiding actual behaviour.3a) This is a picture of a different England.. 'Reality' is also another . open is at an all time low. a sociologist f. . whatever their class. I. • pubs (usually with low ceilings :OOse. Not only are there myths regarding icons and values. There is troubleon the dance floor and the doormenmove in withsurprising agility'" ody-building type is emphatically escorted off the premises out into the relatively fresh air. or e~ample. . be related to actual past practice and then romanticized. The majority of the people (including Telegraph readers). are still popular.look angry withan un-focused. of course.n o~l~e::~~~~:~ ~:t~. cost. ~hICh l a n d s c a p e " . yet the behavioural norm sanctioned by the group may be: 'Do not work harder than the other members of the group because then we would all be expected to do more and would end up worse off'.162 David Katan ::~:~... of the Daily Telegraph's readers will never have had any direct involvement with any of these English people or events for pragmatic normative reasons (status. etc. and affecting many more people. One real urban event ritual played out every Saturday night. and transmitted througeha~ya. and IS therefore representative of a HAP million readers the top ~~~ei~~~:e::~: tho~g:. . epitomizing nostalgia for a once powerful Britain. time. a cultural imagmanon that is no less real. fmancial sense). hamburgers and the ubiquitous kebab. Ice beer.~~e~:v:f~~girl o~n~Ulllture (definit~ly than LAP. . . played on an ever dwindling number of village green. ers were as e to name a do It I . I him outsidewherea drunkgirl withfat legs in creamsatin culottesis beingcarriedover the road boyfriend. the Telegraph is Britain's best culture. there are also significant myths regarding identity. Many of these myths will. etc. What is . This cultu l ' conSCIOUsness has been formed by centuries of literary texts andr~th~magl. live in towns. Both are part of our imprinting. in one culture people might agree with the value: 'Hard work is essential to a prosperous society'. r artistic productions. other interests). ISthe fact. Most readers in The Daily Telegraph poll mentioned at least three from the following list as being a part of the English identity. and much closer to the Low Autonomy Professional culture discussed in Chapters 4 and 7. an d visuals m our The Daily Telegraph (04110/95) . remain in the collective imagination if not in the collective practice.fference a (pclitically motivated) early and resu t In a remterpretation of a national event and henc ..

in turn. nobility. The examples below (all taken from quality ~apers or ~eeklies) actually use English words to heighten what they perceive is not part of their ~_~_lt_u~re~. CULTURE 2 (27/03/92) ROME . Venuti (1995:47) points out that "all translation is fundamentally domestication and is really initiated in the domestic culture.~::~~e~~~~~~~:~:~. except through our own ethnocentric map of the world. The worldwide concern over the death of Princess Diana was a perfect example.ROMA . Kramsch suggests that after having distorted perceptions of our own culture. which can only perceive other cultures in terms of British dominant values is a case in point. as most day-to-day news about the country abroad is in terms of the Royal Family. there is still the myth of the Englishman with his bowler and umbrella. Translation The pubs are deserted due to the Gulf war on TV But at times "humour" prevails: a shop sells gas masks for dogs. we then compound the distortion by perceiving a second culture through the distorted perception of ourselves. Intercultural dialogue doubles the myrh-creating potential.I1 164 David Katan Kramsch (1993:208) notes that what a culture believes about itself will override any evidence to the contrary.:~~:~o~~~~:~i~ri."""~-.:.sui registro dei visitatori ha scrittosernplicemente «Charles». although they do all wear the same thing". more relaxed than the French. However. without any of the titles he had the right to use. It would be difficult to imagine a Theodore Dalrymple type article attracting any space at all in a foreign newspaper. The Milanese are smart but never outrageous. and so on. In this way. there is. It is extremely difficult.. Translations are commissioned according to whether they fit in to the target culture's (distorted. (24/1/91) 1 Note the American spelling of humour._ tr ~d through the media The first point to note is that the Italian press pn~~~~::r:~~~~/ln~iS~ behaviour in terms of u. . She gives a salient example about her compatriots (1993:207): "The French individualists? Any trip to Paris will show the visitor how conformist the French can be in dress and fashion.nderstate~ent.o:~o~h~ci~a~:nt~~~~ Ity . A Bond Street le ladies ehe si incontrano a fare 10 Shopping si vestono come la regina con molto colore blu .~~~~~7S7~7SGG77"'Tl Corriere della Sera Translation -----.-~--"_. un negozio vende maschere antigas per cani. as seen for example in Wim Wender's vision of America.\et while shopping are dressed like the queen with a lot of blue . . as we have already mentioned. and prestige events. mediating these two rings of distortion will need. senza nessuno dei titoli che pure gli spetterebbero. That myth is tenacious".- A sniper shoots at Rose The Englishman is unruffled "That's not how you kill a general". the German image of America is partly an anti-image of itself: desolation and alienation. This is not surprising.and in particular when it comes to fashion.~~~~~l~~~~~h.. a Sunday Times fashion report (29/12/91 :3. Interpreters.-""~-. to perceive another culture. in particular. . tea at four. with Ital as an example. the ethnocentric perception of the other culture is strengthened. ' h . generalized and deleted) perception of the source culture. What fascinates is what is believed to Anche it «sir» in lista di attesa (3/3/92) Also "sir" on the waiting list Nobility in England also has to wait its turn. This is a particularly important point for translation. as Kramsch shows. England is a place of nobility and tradition..~~ Un cecckino spara contro Rose L'inglese non si scompone «(Non si uccide cosl un generate» (20/05/94) ---~' -~----. In Bond Street the ladies who Jrlf. could equally apply to the Italians..~_ _~~ ~~~_-. Figure 30. and further domesticized. Each ring around "real culture" in the following diagram takes us further from what is real. that's what they call it in English.. for example through the media and the collective memory.. -I"k 0 umor. Cornere della Sera Pub de~e"rti pe-r la i~erra in TV "."l-------~=-:-1 CULTURE ! . countries have of themselves: a repu IC.:'--~': . to 'right' some of the distortion to allow the communication to develop as intended: 165 Translating Cultures ?e q(.~~nl~::. Understatement. They also believe in their creativity and individual taste . therefore.in the visitor's book he simply wrote "Charles". everyone believes that 'il n'y a pas plus individualiste que le Francais'. _bli ' I" g' monarchy and so on. This example of self-created and self-perpetuating myths. a fundamental ethnocentric impulse in all translation".'.. Kramscli's Perception Rings Translation Panorama Hence. And yet.~~~. hich news about .1 Ma a volte preva I e. Understatement.3) suggests that (seen through British eyes) the Italians are even more collectivist and conservative than their French cousins: "The Italian look is the most classic and easy to wear. Bromhead's view of Britain... If we move to continental Europe and the United States. Ovvero quella straordinaria eapacita di smorzare t toniehe distingue if verogentleman da un qualunque nuovo nceo. Translation . we can investigate t e way In w If we ~ontmu~l .. c~m~~s~:s:~~d~~g~~. a eye In . It is that extraordinary capacity to reduce the tone which distinguishes a real gentleman from any ordinary nouveau riche. la ehiamano in inglese.~v~o~. and more into the realms of myth. ~xample is the following Italian newsp~per he~dh~e fOCUSIng on ajor rcose : ~omposure during a sniper attack when In Saraje.

suggesting a frozen state. SerglO Berlinguer.. ThIS particular brand ~ .sIOn of a population of public school boys drilled in co sobnety is actually drunk . [is not allowed to put] his fbot in the drawing room. Prima e dopo if tete-it-tete con Cossiga la regina sadJ occupatis» sima: per seguire alla televisione la champion stakes. and a host of other British holiday haunts special~~Izmg Ill..ridente [Cossiga} Insieme t. The patterns may be the same across contexts. People. distorted and deleted.~. as O'Connor and Seymour mention above. the tree. very possibly. golosi dei biscotti di cioccolata che saranno serviti alla ~egina e al pre.:"hobelieve in "meat and two veg".lU'''''' engage in. on television. Notice. for example. carsa a siepi all'ipPodromo di Cheltenham e per esaminare con it CanceZliere dello Scacchiere it budget .Singlepicture The word 'orientation' is another case of a nominalization (in this case. optimists or pessimists.167 David Katan 166 Panorama Translation . In this case. We will now turn to what lies behind the beliefs cultures hold. . stuffing. A bottle that has been opened and drunk from can either be perceived as being half empty or as half full. the Christmas Pudding.. who go abroad to find (and relish ~e~tau..'. metaprograms.~ le popu anon. greedy for chocolate biscuits which will be served to the queen and to the president [CossigaJ together with Earl Grey tea. Orientations tend to be consistent. carol singing. mince pies). and what motivates people within their cultures to behave in their various patterned ways.imag~ ~s also denoted by the lack of variety of food metaphors to describe ~~~. th~ Italian President's secretary. s. Anything else. It is our orientations which govern how perception is generalized.). In conclusion. are relatively fixed by that stage. Corfu. of . Midnight mass. . . so metaprograms are likely to change with a change of context. even fewer of whom would be sure of the pronunciation without reading the a e. naturally. There are of course numerous other rituals which a large minority. as a recent advert for plump Christmas turkeys states. Orientations Metaprograms • ChunkSize • Separate shapes . Likewise. e ea IS Twining hi h zi he i . the rituals are very different to what they believe to be part of culture. but this is not always the case (emphasis in the original): Metaprograms are systematic and habitual.. cuculllber sandwiches.U.~. Ritchie (1981:223) points out the importance of myths and cultural orientations: "But what a people believe themselves to be is not invalidated by lack of performance in keeping with the belief'.g of Br~t~sh products in Italy is. but they also retain elaborate rituals concerning. whereas the corgi dogs can freely enter. Perception is distorted to fit in to the way we orient ourselves to the world in generaL Our perception of the contents ultimately has to do with who we are. our orienting can change across contexts. also known as learning styles. ai pasticcini alla panna..~- A tu per tu con la regina Face to Face with the Queen .. diti the~ther sid~ of the Channel. in fact. The verb 'to orient' means "to adjust or align oneself according to surroundings or circumstances" (CED 1991). if not the majority.. it segretario del Quirinale Sergio Berlinguer. and examining the budget with the Chancellor of the Exchequer .. selective. (3/3/92) . In NLP these orientations are called 'metaprograms': "perceptual filters that we habitually act on" (O'Connor & Seymour 1993: 149). tend to orient their way of doing things consistently over a wide range of circumstances. as noted by Irving Allen in his publication The Language ofConflict Yet it is als~ the B. A well-known example of how an orientation distorts reality is as follows. The cars are exclusive: Range Rover and Jagu ~ compe~~on The popular . But. al salmone aifumicato. In Chapter 4. and hence personality. we noted that much of our imprinting is fully developed by the end of schoolage. Majorca.2 Cultural Orientations In this section we distinguish between general orientations. !he advertisin. for example. it is the British who believe that it is the Italians who are tra itionalists. f nformity.. The whiskey is for Th t ~ ar. and culturally formed orientations. and in particular the Christmas lunch (turkey.ritish . In many cases. how the stereot e has beenhused effectively by The Daily Telegraph. 9. w ~c gives t ~.. linked to the establishment through his wife Liza.~~~)~f Italian origin.. Our perception of it has little to do with that actual bottle and the quantity of liquid inside (reality). to attract readers to take part in a to watc the 1990 World Cup competition in Italy: ~efme? ?eople WIth exquisite taste. Crete.~ .. L I T~lljJl$tJi#:elVli!lW witlWsit AllDayBacon and Eggbreakfasts Translating Cultures Not only are the British (in general) conservative in their taste.. according to their character or personality.' . legato all'establishment attraverso la moglie Liza.tl te Earl Grey. The queen will be extremely busy both before and after the tcte-1Hete with Cossiga: following the Champion Stakes. a de-verbal noun). ai sandwich al cetriolo. [non pub mettere} piede nel salottino dove invece possono entrare liberamente i cani corgi. but few people are consistently habitual.r~nts m Spain. b y a sma11 minority ~ b.~ ~. The Queen's speech at 3 p. "just isn't Christmas". the hurdles at the Cheltenham race track.m. the Christmas event (the stocking. th lati ~ and tradition. and we do not usually question them if they serve us reasonably well. p~tIcularly when it comes to food. Impres. smoked salmon and cream cakes.7._-. . What holds our attention in a work environment may be different from what we pay attention to at home.

generalized and deleted to suit the cultural orientation: Value Separate Shapes • field independence • sortingfor different • mismatching • deductive • specific • local/part • analytic • atomist Single Picture field dependence sortingfor same matching inductive general global synthetic holistic Response number one shows a definite orientation towards the left hand column (separate shapes) while number two begins to notice the differences first.ion is based on a number of ~omplex and interrelated (and sometimes conflicting) values. rShe also mentions a sixth common human problem. The polaropposites of chunk size are the generalities (the context) or the details (the individual words themselves). and that. . as. "Gestalt" actually means an organized configuration or pattern of meaning.ce~am orientation towards or away from a particular way of percervmg. then we can begin to build a useful grammar primer of what actually happens in the context of culture.ay f rceiving. 2 . no more than a tendency towards one way of perceiving the world. focusing on "a single picture" and then moves to the left. depending on this local/global orientation. and therefore reality within a specific culture WIll be distorted. The terms below come from Gestalt psychology. A cluster or set of these spe~lf~c v~ues wI~1 result m a . m~erpretmg. the other terms now tend to be used across all disciplines: cultural orientation is a shared metaprogram: . The diagram below illustrates the relation between values and ~~entatlOns. the . one upside down. there is a picture with two identical triangles and one upside down 4. The orientation or metaprogram influences how reality IS modelled. we have levels of delicacy and Many authors (and disciplines) have come up with a taxonomy of cultural orientations. there is a (single) picture of triangles All four answers are correct. illustrated by the arrows. response four focuses exclusively on the whole: the gestalt. as the word suggests. and that any orientation is. are also in dynamic relation with a number of other factors. These generate ~ ?umber of ~ore spe~IfIc value. begins at the right. This sorting of information comes under a variety of names. Value Orlentations ur Dimensions Ten Orientatious The Cultural I c e b e r g . They are follows: See also Laura Gran's (Gran & Dodds 1989:94)study on brain hemispherefunction for a further list of names. instead.:ts are to be generalized. To see how we normally and unconsciously chunk.168 David Katan One of the orientation metaprograms suggested in NLP regards chunk size.0rIentatIOn WIll ~lso to be social. if we remember that none of the orientations operates in isolation. generalizing and distorting the far more complicated reality).s. there are three separate shapes 2. there are Some triangles. and then focuses on the picture. This chunking orientation has an important place in Gestalt therapy. the human conception of space.e. Apart from 'sorting' and 'mismatching' which is only to be seen in NLP literature. The diagram can be perceived in at least four different ways. in a picture 3. but admits that the brlentations "have not been worked out sufficiently well to be included" (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 1961:10). cognitive psychology and linguistics. Chunk size has already been introduced during the discussion on local and global translation styles. The Construction of Cultural Orientations It should always be remembered that the idea of polarization is a convenient model (deleting. just like the bottle being half-full Orhalf-empty. Testing Orientation: Local or Global? Example descriptions of this diagram are as follows: I. which :s. and is now understood to be a major factor in learning. who coined the term 'value lentation' suggests that there are five' basic problems common to all human groups. distorted and deleted. we can look at the following example.and ~ehaVI?g m a number of contexts.a culture's tendenc~ to:vards a partI~ular w. Finally. Because imprinting in the environment is soc~al. w~Ich. Creating a taxonomy of these orientations is necessarily limiting. Figure 32.1. 169 exceptions.ce Kluckhohn (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961:10-20). we have seen.depending on the field and the application. However. There are relatively few core values. as in grammar. Value Core Values Value Core Values Value 32. At the h~art lie the fixed and total~y-ou~-o~­ awareness core values. Answer three. An orientat. Fl01ren.

in theory. resulting from the transactional interplay of three analytically distinguishable elements of the evaluative process . Hofstede and Hal1. and the possible options ac~ordmg t~. and .. ~n the ~ollowing chapter we will our attention on two cultural orientations which ~utomat1callymf~ue~ce the way we use la]ngl1a~~e to communicate: the orientations towards action and commumcat1~n. A cultural mediator. and conversely will have difficulty in comprehending the other orientations.4.. Value orientations are complex but definitely patterned (rank-ordered) principles. . adapted from the sociologist Alex Inkeles and the psychologist Daniel Levinson (1969:447). 1983. Her definition of value orientation is as follows (ibid:341): At this point we should look at the cultural iceberg (see Chapter 2.. What is the temporal focus of human life? Time Orientation 4. onen .hence commurucation ill a wrc er . : (1995) is give~ below.4 Their taxonomy is the most comprehensive in the literature (to date). Humanity Nature Time Social relationshipfi Activity Belief in or Focus on. 1990) time. 4 Brake et al. e .the cognitive... t·ations . What is the character of innate human behaviour? Human Nature Orientation 2.m our dl~cusslOn. Brake's Iceberg of Cultural Orientations of the items below the waterline is a cultural orientation. and forms the framework for the following sections. space and contexting. It should be pointed out that every culture and every individual will. id ' The other orientations directly in fl uence b e h aVlOur. Where there is a significant difference ill labelling. and the directive elements . What is the modality of human activity? Activity Orientation 5. -. . Hofstede (1991) has four orientations. Hall's (1982. who suggested four issues which qualified as common basic problems world-wide. What is the modality of man's relationship to other men? Relational Orientation it'nmslatil1g Cultures 171 Inkeles and Levinson reliltionsbjp to authority Power distance particular: . Kluckholm's orientations are as follows: Orientation with regard to. on the other hand. 34. What is the relation of man to nature (and supernature)? Man-Nature Orientation 3.170 David Katan I. but will tend to favour the use of one orientation over the others.and commumcanon . both to give the reader an idea of the array o~ posslb~e co~ matIo~. the action authors responsible have been shown. the affective. which he terms 'dimensions'. . . should have almost equal access to all orientations. and also because a number of these orientations will be :et~~ed to . . but those of most interest here are the five orientations introduced by Kluckbohn (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 1961). Brake et A short explanation of these orientations. an amalgamation of Kluckhohn. .) once again..which give order and direction to the ever-flowing stream of human acts and thoughts as these relate to the solution of 'common human' problems. have integrated other authors too. have access to every orientation.on . evil good conqueror victim past present individualist lineal being doing neither partner future collateral being-in-becoming Trompenaars (1993) follows Kluckhohn's dimensions adding a further two taken from Talcott Parsons' (1982) 'five pattern variables'.onship between theindividual and For each of these questions there are three possible responses that constitute a culture's (dominant or variant) value orientations. and Hofstede's (1991) four dimensions. This may of course result in dis-orientation through too much choice.. . Brake et al (1995:39) have ten orientations.. Talcott Parsons.

A minute is sixty seconds: "Time is money". "On time" means technically 'on time'. "Neapolitan time". Japanese have an orientation towards public space and distance. butrelationship. Italy also has future orientation in terms of relationships.romc or ~ulti-~ocus cUlture~. In fluid-time cultures. Brake. This is certainly true of Italy with many of its road names ding an event or personality in history. or ern uro~ean~ and Amencans also tend towards this orientation. Selected entryto individual's privatelife space. on the other hand. Hofstede (1990' Trompenaar (1~~. and multi-tasking. . authority. '. Japanese business plans take unt of the past and can plan for the next hundred years in "the eternal cycle" (Adler 1:30-1. ~hed~les ~e • Fluid/Fixed Time Fixed time cultures perceive time technically... ~t the opposite end of the cline. with people more willing to acc~pt the'imporce 0 orce majeur and acts of God.. .e ~ore task oriented th~n women. CO:d~~' U~lted St~tes IS a pr!me example of a control orientation. Television interviews (both in Britain and in Italy) to concentrate on the background of the subject in question. Arab. Tasks WIll be completed according to relationship needs rather . et aI1995:52). Mediterranean. -.173 David Katan 172 9." Long-term planning tends to be in terms offive to years at maximum (Hall 1990:141)... Present-oriented cultures. A meeting can start fifteen ty minutes late depending on the culture without undue tension being created. and higher Is of proximity are tolerated (private/proximity). tio~ ~~~r~rCtePtion of t~e environment is the dominant Native-American and Eastern orienta. in . "Milan time". IS 0 operate In harmony with real or perceived environmental forces.. and so sI/Present/Future oriented cultures emphasize tradition. e word "interrupt" is itself a monochronic word . Monochronic time . ~~Iron~ent. . but very little physical contact (public/distance). In a bank. According to Tannen (1992) men in general(in torth th:e~~:d~~ ~st{.3 A Taxonomy of Orlentations" • Environment Brake et al. ith dues and favours to be repaid over a long period.g. "German time". be spent. emphasize the here and now. South American and -Asian cu tures tend towards this onentation. a!lH stadtlStICS regarding a culture's orientation see.ered rude. used and wasted. etc.4.ing only one person. We have already mentioned (in Chapter I) Hall's appropriate distances for white North Americans when discussing culture at the vel of environment. be c. much to the irritation of the rican guest who wants to talk about 'now' . It is the standard reply given by those in the service industry when being for service.. serv. and are in charge of their own destiny d . It is always useful to check which time is being talked ut: e. and For more details on indicators of orreraanon d . the environment (including supernatural forces' ' es my. segregated according to context. small communal living quarters. "History is bunk. They may feel that they can control the as In "Just D~ It" discussed in Chapter 5. With regard to national cultures. Ford. position.but access. crosses contexts. position andauthority etc. Any change tends to take place over a long period in relation to the past. rican. "Italian academic time". an American or European house or office will tend towards the private. "take care of y and tomorrow will take care of itself. Time gement. The historical context is paramount to understanding the present. I . In comon.as a m~asure of control over them (Che sara sara. place greater emphasis on the relath /P. Individual privacy v morepublic use of space Preference for distance/low physical contact v proximity 1high physical contact Openaccessto personal lifespace.s most of his book to ~e eult~ral understanding of time. Those with d-time orientation have difficulty in comprehending the Italian informal but instituized quarto d'ora academico/ "the university fifteen minute sliding start" much loved by academics and students alike.tures perce~ve time as the frame. Typical appropriate distances for Southern Europe will be closer. Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars: 1993:138. and not answering the phone or another ImlPortant person WOUld. and apologies are ed between 1 and 5 minutes after. The focus IS on the task rather than the relationshi . Southern Europe on the ~an er affin IS clos~r to a constraint orientation. _ amp en-Turner and Trompenaars (1993). and ry itself is highly valued. and 5 uch too close for the British. s . such as America. rather thi .onsld. Those with m:~t~nentatIOn wThould cons~der It rude to interrupt a meeting. The informal meaning is "I'll be with you when I have finished what I'm ".rnat~vez). Inshalla).)s. German and Swiss cultures are particularly conscious of technical time.their perception of the environment. particular." 4Henry T. Trompenaars NLP • control • harmony • constraint inner-directed proactive outer-directed reactive . \lid time defines punctuality with more flexibility. an irne needs. u? . tiO=~~~ch. The future also is not so important: "time waits for no man". Once formed they are expected to be long term. depending how close to fixed time the culture is. client or phone call to attend to er pers~n. delays are expected and tolerated. from its insistence on airth ~on~n~ to t e conquenng of space and "the buck stops here". uture-oriented societies can plan ahead to the next generation. 'Just in Time' and 'Time and Motion' studies work well in these cultures. and Important and adhered to. "Subito" in Italian technically means iately". CUI~ures vary in . with open-plan offices. «Time Hall NLP monochronic polycbronic through time in time • PastlPresentlFuture (Kluckhobn) Awayfrom/Towards • Monochronic/Polychronie ~~ll (1983) d~vote.

. . Italy and the Angle-American ntries are all competitive cultures. The degree to which a culture feels threatened or uncomfortable with biguity. . uniqueness and exceptions. hIera:chy and visible status can be emphasized. age most of the citizens have.atlvel y. has a relativel uarda relationship has been formed wheth y ~. ..t speci ic to a particular acnvity or sector. and tend to avoid biguity or change in all things. ed approach to entry. an.'.ea ( sue as Turkey and Greece) C tr I id S .s tend t? the specific.i~to their life (psychological space) tends to change with cultur A ' can. f ' ry or.. New acquaintances become intimate friends over a relativel menpen~fd. There is a tende t I' ncy 0 genera ize laws and procedures and t I h' . .· ? app y t em universally. choice and options are lued. IndividuaIism Collectivism Trompenaars. un ries occur most on the Universalist codes are universally applicable. Italy and Germany have a strong orientation towards order.. The degree to which ea.networks for most commumcatlOn.174 David Katan 175 ~:~~dca~ a~so b~per~eived ~s psychologicaj (Trompenaars 1993:73-76). Singapore. e th de -. I ' . and (to a lesser extent) Southern Europe tend to res ect his . a?d Italy also tends towards this system. perative cultures. F d' " . wer istance country. These cultures emphasize difference. However Southern Europ. and the degree of HAP or LAP t elan u __en a g. . has the highest toleration.elS as it's black" symboliz. is an indication of its orientation towards order or flexibility. ' ~. do not reduce situations to simplistic . ~~SSlllg a person.~~U~~i~t::·~t ~e Feminine ~~enly.he. though conviction and the impression of structure is highly valued.~:l~~~~~:t:db~te~~~ii:~e~~ll vary according t~ cultural -Power Brake et al. t ISsystem. relyin .3. mcludmg entitlements and obligations is expected to all ( fer ~usmess or personal).fstede High Power distance Low Power distance ~:g~~eS~~~~. American mass-production. mer~ca.~~ e~~mpde~. and his discussion on The Mafia. The Angle-American countries have a relatively high toleration for uncertainty and change. from food and restauto the application of parking fines and queuing. .Diffuse/Specific . Japan. oriented culture. ccording to Hofstede (l991:II3). 0 your own mg cultures on all individualism indexes while Northern are also heavily individualisr Differ '.en fa an outh ~me:Ican countries are even more collective. b Europe (such as Italy and France) . . There are winners and losers. Germany. "work to live" place a higher value on the quality of life.. . The meaning of the acqual?tanc~s. Spain and a number of South American countries. Central and South HoJstede Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Weak Uncertainty Avoidance NLP Procedures Option future is an unknown quantity for all cultures. However.~. n . Great Britain is the most unperturbed of that group. and day-to-day life can also present people the unknown.. We have already mentioned the universalist ican difficulty in understanding the particularist Mexican approach to speeding offences pter 2. le "live to work". on ti ht social· th'} g . Hierarchy Equality HoJstede Masculine Ho. . on the other hand.p igh power distance." . collective. ou. or for the individual group or family as in Italy. McDonald's sneak.pe. and s forty-eighth out of the fifty-three countries surveyed in terms of "the extent to which bers of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations". (as we h ave' seen m Chapter 4 I) and Hen .:I~~. s A ~iffuse life space orientation. s You can have any colour you like as long e esire or umversahsm Particularist cultures. of time.. . Asia. universaiistic/particularist orientations. once orientati~:~ Th:~or~ i~:~l~c:~~:~~:. ASia. ences etween these co tri . Germany is a pri word . I f h'. High-cooperative cultures include the Scandinavian ntries. ~owever: t?is relationship (including both entitlements ~nd Obligati~n:h)_o.' . These cultures have less need for detailed rules which tempt to define all situations. workaholics are respected. address rituals. uncertainty or change.Individualism Brake etal. . This orientation nurtures the patronage system. areas 0 pnvate space. on the other hand. Flexibility (except for time itself). Universalism Particularism NLP (tend to) Internal + Independent/Proximity (tend to) External!+ Co-operative Japahn is t. . are indications of a culture's power distance Orientatio~~ etitive cultures privilege the more masculine character. See also Mead (1994:111-137). i ua s et 0 ers . America leads the HI" "d . and Southern Europe plus France and Italy. rge Orwell noted how it is possible to be particularist in a politically collectivist society political satire Animal Farm: "All animals are equal. while Northern Euro ticular tend to e h . reduci~g can distributed with an attempt at the relatively high po d' .. and material success is a high motivator. most well-known "we". In Italy. Italy is a B'·. The Importance of 'respect' wh ddress . Greece. which can work for the good of collective society as in Japan. but some animals are more equal others". its _ icularist orientation ensures that the orientation towards order is never fully achieved. such as those on the Russian subcontinent. at number -three. work together as interdependent teams. ntam and the States m p. Hence change tends to comes about through destabilization d revolution.armp asrze Iow power distance S th A···' .

In t~rms of communication. The United States and Britai particularly inductive. is ntexting'. Situations are classified according to ~d. Both Halliday and Hall.. They suggest that it is "the set of premises used in interpreting an ranee" and that it is "a psychological construct. but rather in connections. it eludes the beliefs and values that determine the behaviour to be interpreted. The basic concept is that individuals. and. will dissect problems into logical and precise sequences. It is these assumptions.' . is explicitly both the context of situation and the context of culture. Halliday suggests that the context of situation is "the total environment in which a text ~rifolds" (Halliday and Hasan 1989:5. of course. focus on theories . The words 'text' and 'context' have particular meanings here. This term was coined by Hall in 1976 (1989:85~128) and further discussed in 3 (59-77). . Contexting e aim of this chapter is to: introduce Edward T. on the other hand is holistic. ~l day and every day.ati. Inductive cultures are more pragmatic and specific. Ies. . according to Hall (1983:61) it is "the amount of information the other p~rson can be expected to possess on a given subject". It~ly tends towards the systemic." we are making lnferences from the situation to the text. and cultures (and at different ) have differing priorities with regard to how much information (text) needs to be made plicit for communication to take place. Context is "stored information". to a lesser extent Italy.tiveli~ductive has already been given at the beginning of the chapter. . tioi . . point to the fact that communication entails ppth text and context Gregory Bateson's comment (as cited by Ting-Toomey 1985:83) is clear '~nd to the point: "All communication necessitates context and . Le. and from the text to the situation".onships with other parts of even bigger pictures. all's context though.eones.y existing th. sees context of situation as a tangible construct (visible and audible): . feelings and similes. groups." without context there is no meaning". precrsion and mmute cause and. Systemic. starting from empirical o~servat~on. . in any communication. that affect ~ interpretation of an utterance". Sperber and Wilson (1986: 15) also understand 'context' in terms of ception rather than reality. Hall's Theory of Contexting in communication discuss the links between contexting and left/right brain distinctions illustrate a number of the language behaviour differences as a result of contexting 'differences show the relevance of contexting for a cultural mediator involved in translation and interpreting. m are Sh3lptE~r 10. Halliday (Halliday and Hasan 1989: 12-14). f Deductive . It seems that here :f:J. ' . also. and tends to look at the full ~lcture" the background and rel. Ion 0 f th e s~rvICe counter routme. as ~lliday suggests (Halliday and Hasan 1989:5). while Japan isa dear example of the most systemically onented culture.the McDonald' S 1itemlza .. thmkmg onentanons I·Ogl'C and pnnclp .alliday is concentrating on the immediate context of the text within a single frame of culture. as such is very close to Halliday's (Halliday and Hasan 1989:47) "non-verbal environment a text" which is made up of "the context of situation and the wider context of culture". Facts and statistics are highly valued. The more these perceptions are shared then the more possible it will be.lling ~or . Clearly. IS IS very ~~: o. Explanations WIll be less ill terms of stat~stlcs ~nd logic. Ge~m~ny and ~rance.'This is . a subset of the hearer's assumptions about world. effect such as. when we are interacting with others through language . rather than the actual state of the world.176 David Katan • Thinking • Deductive/Inductive Altemative labe. look for detail. on the other hand. among many others..deduc. • Linear/Systemic Lin~ar-orie~t~d cultures. 36) but then goes on to say: "In the normal course of life. - e of the guiding orientations. the speaker and listener will have their own perception ti1e context. while the text is "transmitted information". to use them as a framework for hypothesizing at is going to be said. which perhaps could be termed a rneta-orientation.

. In New York. . We begin to see parallels here with the uncertainty avoidance orientation: either towards structure or flexibility. t0 remam •.. also Katan (1994a). which they relate to two principle types of culture: 'loosely woven' and 'tightly knit'.m ~h~ te~t. Whether or not this is trou e .' George ~imons. Sl ows e Importance of shanng mu tua I assumptions m successful communicarion with this well -known co nversa .I'm a lit~e tied up at the moment . However. a~apted from _ Iall (1983. We tend to believe we know how much needs to be Said andexplamed t? have o~r message understood the way we meant. no er o er. more solid fabric . ~s Wecannot mind read: ISusually difficult to objectively judge. There are two aspects to communication (text and context). ex~eme. In cross-cultural commumcatron. In Cairo there are no signs telling you which yramid is which . which has yet to take on a final form and can be stretched without damage. between two other people who do not know each .Whereis it? (phone stopsringing) A: Never mind.. Contexting the Message _. and the conversation might be as follows-' (phone rings) A: Oeorge? . A: Interlocutors in each communication event will usually .do you thinkyou couldanswerit and ask th to phonebackm 10 minutes? em B: Sure. not just about AIDS lfud smoking. The metaphors relate to the adaptability of a loosely woven fabric. see Halliday and Hasan (1989) and Taylor Torsello (1992) sfeealso Scollon & Scollon (1995:66-69) and their discussion on metacom~unication and unclear -. . either towards communication through the text or the context.th l b . Heard on ZFM. interwoven. rnree ea mgs: e le what IS happening the tenor who are taking part the mode what part the language is playing. 'Figure 36.tiIon exc h ange: _ I I A:doorbeIl!! B: I'm in the bath.' there are a variety of public service adverts. through translation or otherwise.age. On American Forces radio.ves and oth~rs along the context scale. we will refer to a High Context Communication orientation as 'HCC' lj.tical. must be added. sumptions about the world differ. . The diagram. This is compared with a dense. As a result t~e ~etamessage IS successfully communicated through what is already shared.. arise from the fact that the as_.if .nd a preference for text as a Low Context Communication orientation or 'LCC' . He explains that "as context is lost. Widdowson (1979'138) h the i . no text is necessar as all the ~formatw~ IS implicit.. In a th' situation.and more resistant to change. or ~xp icit. ess can e assumed to be un derstood.' M E Pro~lems in understanding. each represented by a triangle: Figure 35. ~Ian~l~. They also suggest that all cultural orientations depend on this meta-orientation..61): below shows how both triangles operate together in a cline to form the _ . meaning : For further details. but giving advice that would strike higher context communication cultures as "Obvious'. et al (1993) have also made extensive use of this HCCILCC polarity in their volume on cross-cultural business management. " . In her paper is a clear indication of how the theory can prove fruitful in understanding Anglo/Italian cross-cultural miscommunication.ou -0 -awareness. as we have already noted in the introduction.but there is no shortage of guides. Le.This will be their guiding principle with regard to all decisions to be made. . the scope for error ISeven larger.. and how much will need to be obtained from a local informer is a possible indication of how high or low context a culture is. all t~e Hall suggests that contexting is a fundamental aspect of culture. IS . m In e a I not mean what was textually said. Le. Whll~ at the Other extreme. and that members of a pUlturewill have a shared bias. Below. S M E S S A G E A G E S CultureA Culture Z Hightext Low Text Low context HighContext A: Ok. ._-. . t f I . 179 Translating Cultures ~~ ?n~ theore. How much written information is available for the foreign visitor. following other authors. Hall's contexting theory is "begging to be connected" (Vincent-Marreili 1989:473) to a ilanguage based theory of communication. th b th" did . the sort of advice that would be passed on informally (out-of-awareness) and ugh observation: information that is to be conveyed is made visible. . orientations can change according to situation. Both parties 'knew' that "I' _. there are helpful signs indicating the best time and angle from which a photograph should be taken at every tourist site. It IScontained in the 'context' triangle. arrange themse. me~ s. th fi Id . information . _ . Hall's Triangles . .178 David Katan The description is in terms of_ a simple conceptual framework of th h di . American Forces Radio (1995-96). B: Yes? Look. re erence.

it's natural that young people.. Afro. is a prime example of a 'loosely knit' society. t it ti in very different point of view when talking about the chronic unemp oymen SI ua IOn uthern Italy: CQrriere della Sera Translation . The successful newcomers. piuttosto che spostarsi prejeriscano atte~der~ qualche opportunita nella zona In CUt hanno le loro radici. . T' .. with a shallow root system can be uprooted without creating great disturbance. fleXibility (in mearnng) (~oclaJIpersonal) appearance I -text • facts _directness • eonsistenc • substance Y • rules _monochronic circums~ees polychrome dB it '. and students are expected 'to know' through the informal network of personal contact where and when lessons are. .announced: 'LagrangianMechanics ~ Saturday 11 a. all dealing with some important component of college life. (and to a large extent by the general popu5 "Fresher" is British English.106) uses the term 'achievement' and 'ascription' orientations to explain cultures' options in according status. in That being said there are some useful generahzahons that can be made (alway~ ~ouch~~.morecryptically.. Many authors have also likened the LCC and HCC differences in terms of rooting systems. During this time. and in particular when and where changes have been made. g y y m.' Perhaps 50 such notices were pinned to the board. In Italy and other Mediterranean countries.d~pend on man~ vana es.Another. Not only is this idea firmly accepted by the Conservative party.paper qualifications less so. for example. stable and interwoven network where change is unusual. If we think ab?~t the way the BntIsh an t ~ d f hi food and furniture it is clear that the British are lower context. W h Id I 0 remember that . a more Ioose Iy.' said one. and into recent • h d . Identity.whether or not this is actually the case. . all have a great ability to change identity. The British and the American have "Freshers' Week'" and "Orientation" respectively. the exConservative party chairman (now Lord) Norman Tebitt suggested that the unemployed should. would prefer to wait for an opportunity in their own area where they have roots.. bl . are more 'tightly woven'. the oerating mode favoured will.Typical features of High and Low context operan. Italy wou 1. sub-culture. . and therefore less explicit in their dissemination of information. that I couldn't truly understand a single one. . . Longman (1992). the Italian Employment minister in Berlusconi's centre-nght government a T1z1ano reu. while others. as I stood there idly looking them over._ With regard to appearance. . academic and student organizations.. . \ d as ~~u I "b -a "Face Facts" and discusses the case of a woman who had been descn e as .ngModes. ethnic Black. Some British universities. I · _. Pleasewait in the passageoutside. Japan would be a case in point. e s ou as. ing more value to functionality.ow : _ Id desni d 19h at them" Another article. attach Italians regar as IOn. we have already mentioned the CIty WIt ?ut in their cheap and flimsy finery (I mean cheap in the aesthetic. gender. .of course individual personality. 1 . More loosely knit More tighdy woven hanow rooted deep rooted ~m . They quickly become. "The girls lffors . aus . in tightly-woven cultures is closely related to social position. age. .xt. cu Iture ISmor .er.181 180 David Katan Universities vary their welcome to new students according to how text-based they are. . . on the other hand. the explaining and the entertaining is very much more informal and unplanned. People take their place within a pre-formed. as I If we take two different cultures. In each case the ministers' reaction to unemployment is totally 'natural'. (3/5/95). as we have already mentlOn~d.h . Two Americans.. according to Hall that there will The fact th at a. however. An LCC culture will tend to accord status to the person who merits the position through proven capability in the field and through election. . I passed the time by through (the bulletin board announcements). . aries 6 t1~n. 6 For example. accepting newcomers into its social fabric. Id tend to list it is clear that they can be associated more WIth o~e list than. Long-term contacts and networking become increasingly important . In an HCC culture you already need to be known for who you are. In an HCC. it naturale ehe i ragazzi. differ t iproduced lists of typical (and ~implified rather ~an actual~ features of these two 1 eren orientations.. and clubs battle for the time to formally and technically explain and entertain. . the Italians wou espise an. e HCC or LCC will also mean.relatIonshIp/feelings indirectness . .ancral sense) . such as Ita y ~n -. With some adaptatlOns.. In this melting pot there is space (both physical and mental) for change. -. The article (The Sunday Times 18112/9. A third stated: 'RFC 1st and 2nd XV practiceThurs. the. . Bill Bryson and Stuart Franklin noted the inaccessibility of the culture for an outsider at one of the Oxford colleges: Waiting for a professor one day. Trompenaars (1993:93. H. whereas Italy places a higher va ue on esign. and look for work wherever it may be. HCC cultures are not immediately oriented to the newcomer (though the guest will be very well looked after). ti htly woven high context bias while the British would tend to operate on ' U· d St t it would seem operate on a more 1 9 . and it occurred to me. . rather than move. and compare them on the above n ~m.or Chinese.. . to reflect prioritized cultural values).'. pubhshed a year earh. m. not the f1n.. So.. being older.. situation ~nd. 'Master's Handshaking will take place in Room of the Master's Lodgings. tightly-woven culture. The United States. . in higher context communication cultures do not even use bulletin boards. they are outlIned below. particularly those with college or university qualifications. 4 6·5) h LCC title echoes the same thoughts. cult~e. Remarks made (reported below) by two ministers (one British and one Italian) on the problem of unemployment reflect this presence or lack of a deep root system. class. It is a feeling you soon grow used to in Oxford. National Geographic (November 1995:120) Other universities.. 2 p. instead of "whingeing" and "scrounging on the Welfare State" do as his father did during the war and "get on your bike". In Britain. the participants are expected to share more of the larger context . . specie se diplomati 0 laureati. The politically less correct term "Freshman" is American. Victor (1992) and Simons et a... ? aesthetics.hasis placed on" EmphasiS placed on.American. Some cultures have more solid and interwoven roots. Students are informed through the grapevine. administrative. that the US is even further down the dine towards low conte. context .anothet. ' 1 desi t te and .m. I (1993) have ~lso be other related text/context orientations. knit low context basis Comparing Britain and the mtea es. Particularly important is a written CV. ositive. ce) but the expression "get on your bike" has now come into the language..

theory. And so every culture positions itself on a cline. I remember feeling obliged to look neat and tidy for th I b I telephone man / cleaner. This. the Americans. Fines for litter dropping in Singapore are taken seriously. There always. which fits our stereotype of their >inscrutable culture. e oca ruit seller and probably newsagent too I've rve m MIlan. what has to happen for the neat and tidiness value to be met.ture~bound rules to adapt my n Figure 38. e p mu er Using the Meta-Model we can im di t I . ~as now becomean unconscious ~out-of-~wareness) habit. which I have behaviour t~th."ith Italian HCC informal culture. i. for m. .'Y foll?w the cultural prlortsauon of dressing for individual practrcn ity.:~r s sue . and each culture is happy with its own understanding of the concept. n 0 00 at ntam as a whole (emphasis in " ongma an. and in the nominalization of in ordine / neat and tidy .of-awareness) habit. be cultures that exaggerate. An extreme example of a low context character comes from Charles Dickens' Hard Times The schoolmaster. British and Italian. Their gloves.· t~ averag.~ to look neat and tidy Full Representation I gen~~I. Full Representation ofItalian "normal" What is hidden in the English remark is as follows: 183 i1'n7n5'lating Cultures The two cultures.182 David Katan fno~~:man . wear starched white gloves.petto I "respect" or normale /"normal". and culthat do not come up to our standard.3).alizat~onof 'ugly' ?outs PC norms (discussed in Chapter 5. as we have said. as a dirty place.e ItalIan banker is kitted opt in immaculate tweed and h~s p. !he verb. e article then moves 0 t I k s B' . The full representation (hidden to most speakers) would be as follows: Surface representation: It i7~ be neat and tidy Full Representation I follow the cultural priorltisatlon of dressing neatly and tidily in stnctacc'!rdance '. tha. ~s r:. not only disagree on the importance or cultural being "neat and tidy". At the other end of the cline is Swiss-German where the stereotype of exacting precision and detailed information fits LCe position. . Hofstede (1991: 118) tes a related culture-bound concept. or as he calls it "matter out-of-place".ur not only as a limit leamedt'::d / a s~ as an Obligation to conform.~atilon of High Context Cultures $wiss-German Surfaeerepresentation: I remember feeJjn. like much anthropological theory more in the very HHprag~mlltic field of business management than in any other field. cOlllvinc~~d that its position is the correct one. The following contexting cline comes from a business article adapted by Victor (1992: 143).' ..me la e y note e use of the modal necessity: 'to feel ind/'d '1 f e d ue. counts as neat and tidy in Singapore is also very different generally from accepted 'civilized' attitudes. particularly compared to Our BC neighbours.. normal.t erefore. for m~. where silence is more valued than the word. The article. I d ·. I ' .ream of working in anything other than starched white coat and . d. What is 'tidy' for one lture will not necessarily meet the criterial equivalence of another.~: d~es. in harmony with the rest of their immaculate uniforms. r.s. for example. are expected to ain clean all day. according to whatever viewpoint we have. Figure 37. th obli ed' Th va. taxi and bus drivers.e. but the Japanese train. Thomas Gradgrind is presented to the reader with these words: . advistd..e . 0 ers. is a irelative concept.Le. Full Representation ofEnglish "obliged" Japanese Arabic Latin American Italian English French Low Context North American cultures Scandinavian (except Finland) German informatIon lmpllclfly received Information explicitly conveyed 39. ~o~:ilgc~Xt~~~. both the Japanese and the Singaporeans tend to perceive the West in much the way as the West sees a developing country. added): ~:. "respect" for th It Id h . Dirt. It should also be pointed out unlike the other orientations mentioned in the previous chapter. in fact.erfectly mamcure mgemai l s . has been developed. this particular cline is not any published statistics: ioriti. The Italian fruit seller and newsagent may have "perfectly manicured nails". has now become an unconscIOUS (out. s. The average b ti w~~er would not d.bound rul~s about SOCial dresslll& that I h~ve learned over the years from m family.t lIe ?ehmd that statement are steeped in a culture which values VI ua ree om (an onentatlon towards If) A It li 1 . T:e CUl~ure-~oundaspects ofthe normality are hidden in the deletion of the performatives of ". wou . and requiring houses to be repainted are also a sign of the culture's expectations with regard to As a result.ow mi le. However I have also :~t~~alJse~ ~y/elsponse to other group bebavi~. This. peers and reinforced III the national media. However. Le. be normal' to dress neatly and tidily in public groups ( an orientation towards others).as does th I I f ' li di . He ints out that what is dirty or clean is a relative concept: "The Italian mammas and nannies see rt and danger in the piazza where the American grandparents see none". that of 'dirt'. Context Ranking of Cultures The highest context communication culture is the Japanese.e. British and Italians are in complete agreement that the Japanese ve an exaggerated sense of dirt.e. n a ian wou d tend to value visible SIgnsof . but there is also disagreement over the criterial equivace.Y dIsTchussm~ the public outcry which resulted from the police officer's ill- e escnpnon.bdegm~ b. normal. look a mess..

A manof factandcalculations. which many have noted . reallyeverytlltng IU common W1 The CantervilleGhost and America are twocountries separated by tilesalIle language. .185 David Katan 184 Thomas Gradgrind.. bli ti on on America an ~ 1 Bryson (1994:35).. e is more LCC than the BntIsh IS partly The fact that the American varietyof the a Ig gd the geography of the country. tangibles' expresslO . In her study. accord~ng The British. ht d it's three blocks a ong. American language.. .. • American and British English We now turn to differences in standard usage of the same lexico-grammatical system: English. . explamed by the history 0 hi hly developed and inflexible cu ture or 102 Pilgrim Fathers left a relatively homo~eneous.nthtten s g ssfu-l case brought against the De Long. In fact. They point out that in Japanese. We will look first at the English language. 10. In 1620.. We can claim without hesitation that the dominant semantic style in Urdu is the implicit one . and nothing over. time and m. Th ritten instructIOns did not me u e an . ~ lar i the UK than 111 t e ' . of course.we Only in Amencan culture could the phrase y . a :. Whatever word one selects expresses a particular relationship". except. There IS a . al t~ ndards under dlSCUSS lOn are Britis an o nation s a tually seerolike a different langua~e: . . m his pu C~l. ish d American. Returning now to an earlier discussion on language and culture. and then at British and American differences in the use of English.the Language of Strangers The English language itself. as a lexico-grammatical system. The Foundmg Fathers. Concluding her research on the high level of assumptions made by Urdu speakers. • Iv relate to the more tightly woven/more loose y following comment which we can Imme~Iated~r~)~ "Gradually out of this inchoate mass a knit categorization of cultures (emphasis a e . idealists. ' ~ . t ed As can be seen from the list they new names for the new plants an~ ~l1lmals th~y encoun er . Hasan (1984: 131. unwntten. Halliday (1992:75) notes exactly the same point. Economist(20/10/90) . slaves and conVIC s. ~ . b id system automatically entails greater . ~ . ace WI . Urdu. he has problems enough in England. and. A man wllo proceeds upon tile principle that two plus two are four. mizin g of the service encounter. then take a ng an.. the language itself obliges speakers to pronounce themselves on one of the four levels of relationship with others. she notes that an English person: could not speak as implicitly as the Urdu speaker. . ' trol of situations which cannot be tangipretence of extreme objectivity.. t 1) envI'ronment were obliged to invent . . Canadian-English. and explains the LCC nature of the English language itself (as used by the middle-class): "the ways of meaning of the listener are precisely not taken for granted.. .)' In America. even if he tried .oos . The language is well-adapted to explication. ~. . ding a microwave oven. speakers of this language will tend to select the implicit option. d and others began to arrive in the ~ d Some of these adventurous plOneers survrve . According to both Halliday and Hasan. 1942) speakstile world's mostpopular language ~ so do theAmericans. e " cks. ro '" country began to emerge . d the. we can now look at the relationship between the use of the lexico-grammar and the contexting theory. mix of refugees. is decidedly LCC in comparison with many other languages. with this orientation should not be sent to a teaching post in Japan. ' I d business. Bernard Shaw.9:12). . context culture .esign 0 ~ .is lecture notes (1994:33): .ment' is not part of the American way. gent~eman s ~gree i ned agreement is the preferred way of d01l1~ to Victor (1992: 150. ~ a new l a n . 151) notes that cultures select from 'implicit' and 'explicit' options (without ever mentioning Hall or the contexting theory). . and the expectation that the addressee (whether total stranger or not) will implicitly know. . find such willingness to measure III . d f m abroad populated by an unlikely _ ~ 1 ely structured. 1 .d ith a new (contmen a . not only for lexicogrammatical reasons but also. spoken by eighty-five million people in Pakistan. A manof realities. ~ f . sir. and the speakers know the details". 1 desi f the Amencan ur an gnu sysw. governe. for only here do .' " cal mathematlca. . objects and processes have well-defined positions with reference to each other.hI d t story IS e successnu veev. ' . on the other hand "does not facilitate the expression of social relations between speakers and audience at all".~ . John . as Muhlhausler and Harre (1990:32-33) note. . and who is not to be talked into allowing anytbing else. notes how the e towards textual explicatlOn. and most significant differ~nc~ IS the g. language. and we sho~ld This reminds us of the McDonald s rechnical ite t b ObJ'ectives (MBO). . and recorded III The American technical rather than rough ea cu atron w . an 1 lati as noted by Sapir.the system of his language will not permit him to do so .. contrasting Urdu and English. as we can see from the dine will be appreciated by cultures lower down the ranking scale. . ew . . A popular an r u e . f the Amencan peop e an -. road for about half a mile. Ig. Thomas Gradgrind. . turn fIght. because the context of situation will not have changed in time and there are strong relations between events. North and central India and Bangladesh is an example of a language spoken by a tightly woven group. t but a country nonetheless . up to a point." 1 f . . English.~ dIRe-Engineering are a product 0 a ow tudies The One Minute Manager and Proce u~a h ~ us S~.o tion f 1 t such as Managemen Y ~ also remember that concep s -. of objective con ' bly measured. 'fift -fifty' have evolved. .Reader's Digest (Nov. makes the . d following years to this new found lan .a~~so~~~. . This kind of discourse can be spoken to a stranger". company m Amenca: regar. n must be quantitative._ . ring Cuitures " . ~ explicit warning against usmg the ~l1lcrowa 1-n u. Membershipping the relationship itself is an essential part of Japanese discourse: "To speak at all some choice must be made among the four. d then its the third turning on the left .2 English .an~ less fOpu ar m . Hasan (1984:153) makes a strong case for the tightly-woven/loosely structured hypothesis: "the Urdu speaker's world must be a fairly-well regulated place in which persons. are an comoounds taken from eXlstIllg words. 'th America nowadays.. American would) something like up two 'ty (emphasis added): "instead of saying (aIS an" h (the Englishman) said keep following . . _. ' tation in the United States to LCC. ve for dr ing pet animals. and less suitable for the signalling of pre-established social relationships. . o.

SCIentifIC culture. These constitute the frame within which the transmission of text takes place. In this book. homunculi. lit~e musIcIansdancmgm.. but some of the known..187 David Katan 186 jointworm. The right hemisphere is also involved in language production.. logic. suggests t ia m 1 H' t skills depending on their hemisphere develop~ent. sapsucker. . .:~pheneucs locatingdetailsand facts spatialrelationships shapes/patterns visualization . Within The Declaration of Independence is an explicit meta-message.S ~uc r~p~e also suggests that Chomsky's surface 'or philosophical theories to the left-rig t sp 1.d T (who also co-wn es wu . as we have already seen in Chapter 5.ertai. rror to conceive of the two hemispheres as containing By the same token It wo~l~ be an e_~ . demonstrates an orientation to Universalism and Equality.. glowworm. feelings/emotlons that "the hemispheres are much less ·3'33 35) porting others.uirin .'. bullfrog. Flearly. brother 0 one hat '. syntax and . as Bryson says "in a language that anyone can understand". but its influence is not on the text itself but on the frame of interpretation (B.e n~. on the other hand. and National Director of Michael Grinder (1989:~O). h J. 1988'133)--According to one textbook on the brain by res for the level of contr~ it ~hat l~ft brain hemispheres inspired our Wester~. bluegrass. it becomes necessaryfor one people to dissolve the politicalbands whichhave connectedthem withanother.which their British counterparts often lacked". The Declaration itself is written. Le.. _. h isht mathematicians wranglingin the left.among the powers of the earth. oblems and hemisphere differentiais d ted to communication pr . ests that eventual dominance WIll depend WatzlawlCk (199" m differentiated in childhood th. cture ISleft hemisphere..triangle halv~~~h:: \s continu~us competition between the two hemialso. paul Watzlawick (1993: 14) of the Menta es~arc. copperhead. rattlesnake. to 'The Mind-Splitters'. like Hall s . A on parent reinforcem~nt.S. Thomas Jefferson. Theo Yh'l izht brain hemispheres produced the artistic. mystic gly verbal. President. IS axono those presented for low and high context modes. In a letter he wrote to fellow American Henry Lee he spelled out the underlying importance of explicit rather than implicit communication. ~hIS IS ve~y pOSSI Y . . HIS book. as hypothesIzed by F~~t'.. timberland. ~s ev~ h fact that the full representation of "expenences of hilev i hi words "grammar. slating Cultures . a '.an. . has Diagram Group (~~83). later life :b~e :::~asis of how cultures have developed.outcome is more important will take . it lth Trompenaars) produced Maps of the. and "precise sequencing in space and in time" (Stein 1988:132).. . wo hemis heres working together create meanin~. bobcat. both of which remain at the heart of American core orientations. . . inner world" lies in the right hem~sphere w: 1 e. h . not only was the natural environment named by joining known monosyllabic words together. However. he give..m s of the East". in terms so plain and firm as to command their assent". He cites research which points to t. . facts. canvasback. The right hemisphere.e . dividuals develop different communicamy of skills is very similar in Education in the Umted States. and links 25 arles Hamp en.umer (1981:86-89).3. Ross 1988:188-189): "evidence has been gathered in the last decade to show that the right hemisphere (has) a major role in modulating attitudes and emotion". a -'. either a right or left hemisphere type problem will be perceived m t~e envIrofnme~~ a~ re. What is particularly relevant for our discussion here is Bryson's (1994:26) comment on the reasons why this approach was so common: "These new terms had the virtue of directness and instant comprehensibility . the nonverbal. manmade environment was also renamed. His priorities are clear as he explains why the Declaration of Independence was written: "to place before mankind the common sense of the subject. the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them.t . . Laieralization and Translation ~trategies I t th esentation of translation theory has We can now see how the teachmg. notes . eggplant. m IS ti s" are organized in the left hemisphere. was the chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence. w 1 e ngr . e . catfish. ' hik th deep-structure IS right hemisp ere. there is some evidence to support this hypothesis. -.. Though most brain specialists and psychologists feel that this division is far too simple. underbrush. The left cerebral hemisphere is to a large extent regarded as being responsible for 'text': language production. diff informatIOn I reren f of the NLP founders. Language of Change. a declaration of why the declaration is being made (emphasis added): When in the course of human events. . Right Hemisphere non-verbal intuitive random holistiC fantasy-oriented non-temporal 10. backtrack. is largely responsible for relationships. r~ . . the holistic and patterns." of solution.useful qualities in a land whose populace included increasingly large numbers of non-native speakers .. . The third U. or at eas e pr . Hence: "The hemisphere or w 1~ a the initiative and determine the problem-solvmg behavrour".3 Contexting and the Brain • Hall's Contexting Theoryand HemispheriCal Preference leric:al C'oopleration Hall (1983:60) postulates that these two basic distinctions (HCC and LCC) relate very closely to the brain and its division into left and right hemispheres. ' t all the time. .and to assume. tly and in varyinglevels of mtensrve mtensIty. They merely process R ther both hemispheres show some activity mos. . an c t the sarne time Hampden-Turner (1981:88) adds a warning: However. . w Le e IR -ch Institute in Palo Alto agrees. The birth of America as an independent country is also marked by a high degree of text. . a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them the separation. . . The need to explain in text so that everyone can understand. . bluejay.

?~ to the right hemisphere. and as we go into more detail we will find that cultures can at times vary their text/context priorities. the right hemisphere is just as active.bee~ able to demon~trate exp~nmentally that the trainees begin their university career lef~ bram oriented. and the source language words. other countries. According to Hampden~Turner and Trompenaars. but when customers are m a predicament. for example. Below is a list of expressions to ltsten for.had been substituted. these different ways of giving information and interpreting agreeme~ts ~av~ to be . ow we give a number of practical examples highlighting contexting differences which d require cultural mediation. being more HCC. The Gre~ks. hterpreters need to be particularly aware of the culture-bound differences in the finality of written or the spoken word. ' Th~ differenc~s in approac~ is a reflection of analytical and holistic thinking styles. meeting agendas. It is my CO~:I~tlOn that there IS a lot to be learned about how to develop these two different abil ities" . The Japan Ec. that trainee translators and interpreters tend to process locally rather than globally.l1sphere. the LCC Australians considered the Japanese to be "seemingly indifferent to the small print" and saw no reason to renegotiate. has. on the other hand will tend to prefer written explicit information (letters. 10. 9 Quoted in Hamoden-Turner and Trompenaars (1993:123-124). company negotiators feel they have the right to change the written eement if the interlocutors change. and so . After the agreement was duly signed. for example. The ~apanese people.Newspaper Wfote.tnediated by the interpreter. the t~xt. even in '. who has worked on trainee interpreters. This is end of the negotiation for the Americans. Franco Fab?ro (1989:79-80). with a high priority placed on the text.We can now link this to lateralization. ntracts ther one prefers to use the phone or to send a fax indicates the preferred approach towards unication. the Japanese government immediately asked for a renegottatlOn of the terms on the grounds that mutual benefit to all parties required it. which indicate a .that this is not particularly surprising. use the telephone for much phatic communtcatlOn actional communication) and to replace the fact that they cannot make the same number sonal visits that their HCC culture would necessitate. Cultural mediators will be both left and right brain onented to enable them to both analyze and create frames.~ Typical Expressions ~learly.Australia". One example is the meaning of "signing an agreement". not With the person.9 "It is true that a contract is a contract.. focused on the surface or deeper structures of the text whereas now the emphasis is very much on heuristic processes and frames.4 Medium spoken written visual HCCILCCExamples • Contracts: agreements • Typical expressions • House buying Advertising ? Both Sifianou (1989) and Hall (1982:40) note that the British tend to use the phone ly for "actual business or emergencies" and transactional communicat~08n. field dependent. the context.:nelude the West in general) has. talking specifically about interpreting makes the same point: "Obviously. Fortunately. and analyzing small chunks of speech. Fabbro also discovered that by the time the trainees have reached their final year. The more recent approach is HCC in orientation. Hampden-Tumer and Trompenaars (1993:123-124) describe how a written Austro-Japanese ar agreement teetered during 1976-77. were having to pay well over the wor~d ~rice for their sugar. or rather the contract's validity is tied to the makers of t contract _ as can happen in Italy. ~rocessmg text. Laura Gran (Gran and Dodds 1989:~5). Priscilla Rogers' study on the impact of context on managerial writing in Victor (1992:143). The education system in No~ Am~nca (and I ~o~ld.0nomic . all cultures will be on a cline with a tendency towards giving priority either to the left hen. «Summary To sum ~p. an LCC culture will feel less bound by a verbal promise of intent than a higher context communication culture. contract for an LCC culture is with an impersonal organIzatiOn. As 1I result.1. .· . The decoding-encoding model. Equally. and how much through the text or through the context is also an agreed principle within a culture. for example. Higher context communication cultures will tend to prefer more personal communication (f~ce to face. World oil prices quadrupled and the world price of sugar dramatically fell. he says.re what is already shared and what need not be mentioned. consequently. in Chapter 8. 'Phatic communication' was first coined by Malinowski (1923) and means language used to establisb atmosphereor maintain social contact. a "propensity to the left hemispheric way of thinking . the interpreta~lO~ process also p~esupposes the activation of both logical and intuitive skills.particularly LCC operating mode: t See. while it is only a "way station" (Brake et al. How the message is then tr~ns. the context hanged. 3:41) for the Arabs. Gnnder (19~9:2) pomts out . . a spoken contract or rather a gentleman's agreement will be more or less adhered to jiepending on the culture-bound understanding of its importance. A. LCC cultures. Id not consider it automatically necessary to make a new contract simply because the ple who were involved in drawing up or signing the original contract. The next sections focus on contexting with regard to culture-bound use of language and how this can affect translation. The dec~dmg. and therefo. When communicating.• We also mentioned. . . At the other end of the scale. we Believe that assistance is routinely extended to customers from a long-term viewpoint. memos. telephone) and will be more drawn to the visual. As we have already noted with regard to British and American English.189 188 David Katan chang~d over th: past thirty years in terms of learning style and hemisphere preference. How binding the communication is depends also on a culture's preference ing medium. faxes. most people m all cultures intuitively and unconsciously calculate what constitutes a message. Germans.on ther hand. The emphasis now has shifted to the context and the relationships between the words in the text and other frames.Ill1tted. This is particularly important during the drawing up and the signing of ents and contracts.gain w~ I~USt stress that this is a general organizing principle. ~alyzmg and recodmg approach is very LCC oriented.

. For example. rights and excl u-. depending on one's contexting priorities: HCC: LeC: Zip Giullolet it be knownthathe didn't like Roberto'll: face. as more precise information is. They have even coined their own acronym: LCN (La Cosa Nostra)". These are further examples.K. ' . mv~ ving a ar . HCC cultures. perception and interpretation of following utterance will be culture-bound: The implications for negotiation-interpreters are enormous. - The two sentences appears to be equivalent. the Italian term criminalita organizzata / "organized crime" would suggest text based resources in the LCC oriented United States.. As a general rule. for example. LuckyLuciano orderedQuickFingerJoe to wasteLarrythe Lad. We could. in the same way as the map-makers have to make symbols to represent reality...Italy. particularist way in which political relationships and communication channels can form. f I . The fact that the FBI has coined an acronym is. . " .. I'd like it in writing. . . buvina i . ical extract from an English Estate Agent information sheet descrIbmg the house or sa e. in fact. follows a set proce~ure. it tends to be given orally. I' 1 ge bu ing and selling of a house in the V.the ~uyer and seller is al ays written and specifically states responSibilItIes. as good facilities andoffers VariOUS shopping facilities including Waitrose. but we. have a higher regard for a verbal obligation than their more LCC counterparts. Hence.should. d tail both the focus of information and the detail is different. imagine two different ways of conveying the same 'contract'. use Buying .. When President Clinton was elected. with clearly drawn communication lines. A highly text oriented culture will rarely be happy with a hidden agenda. of a typical LCC pattern: making informal routines of life (to use Hall's expression) IOTGIF: 'Thank God it's Friday': Nimby: 'Not in my backyard'. such as Italian. the term FOB (Friend of Bill) became a commonly used term to show disapproval. the HCC. costly. The presupposition behind the surface structure in Italian is a verbal rendering: However. paradoxically. understand perfectly the implications and the connotations (the context of culture) of organized crime in Italy.. a perfect example of an LCC explicit technical mentality. The contract bet~~e~.immediately notice the unspeciverb "give" / dare. He explained/told me what the house was like ... in fact. or at least make explicit. so the LCC cultures tend to specialize in acronyms. Tesco . Using the Meta-Model we ask the stion:: i --------------------------- It should immediately become clear that the presupposition behind 'how' is different. Naturally. Below is a . the organization is perceived as more HCC. - . In Italy. for example.. The codified becomes more cotd e d d u e to the uagecan be HCC to those who are not party to the context.. . along with TGIF and Nimby'". The t can (and usually does) extend to 3 or 4 sides. The surveyor's report is a lengthy. which to an extent will be true. -. however. and even more the Americans or Germans are going to feel frustrated at not being given all the information. as "the octopus" / la plovra whose tentacles reach into the fabric of society. Francesco Straniero Sergio (1997) points out that labelling Americans as explicit or LCC is simplistic: "[Katan] does not consider the fact that the FBI and the DEA. so the lang~~ge universal modellmg needs of deletion. The British (politicians and press) began to copy the idea later with MOB (mate of Blair). . the estate agen t is w . To attract the buyer there is always an Infcrmation sheet. On the other hand. en information is given. whereas a high context culture is more likely to understand that information is implicit in the context. referring to those who protest about road and other developments taking place in their neighbourhood. .. They will feel that the other side is working to some 'hidden agenda'. In both cases there is deletion. I'11 expectthe draftpropoll:aIs by next week.. e Mi ha spiegato corn' la casa.added to the mod~l.of text information. . If there are written e aI S. Translating from LCC English mode to a higher context communication mode may result in the inclusion of 'irrelevant' facts which simply impede the progress of the negotiation. We need a complete report/detailed plan..191 David Katan 190 I wasn't giventhl'l full facts. Can we havea written agenda? ~~~~er.. m. In glish the full representational form would be: He handed me the written sale particulars of the house for me to read. the English. but necessary business m house uymg m ~:~ of the above activities is part of the traditional approach t~ house ?uyin g in .

The MI at Hemel Hemspstead and M25 at Kings Langley provide access to London and theNorth. Seguinot (1995:64) cites Kaynak's handbook and guide to advertising. and when? If we think of Anglo-American~vertising. The Gaelic word for battle-cry.192 andBoots. are few and far between.not. one highly successful advertising campaign featured nothing but a huge "Z" on a plain black background. No. LeIsure IS catered for by a newsports centreandlocalgolfcourses and equestrian establishment. as already stated for personal communication. Advertising slogans that have entered Italian folklore. TV polOt. maturity. The Italian preference is. notes that Scotch and Martini advertising in Britain and Italy pr~se?t the same values but III reverse to achieve the same effect. and emphasizes maturity in taste and intellect of the buy~r. for example. Martini is the traditional drink. double radiator.. taken in their isolated. c~t electric metercupboard. dictionary meaning but because the ads typically drew on daily uses of language I had not yet encountered.-~' - - ---~'~--- Translation Gloss Drink beer. di piu Everytl1ing. and gave them more useful information at that moment than four pages of detailed print. Accommodation comprises . One particular strategy is to relate one advertising slogan to another. telephone point. Square archleading to . quite possible that the estate agent had correctly sized up the needs of his cll. Nike's "Just Do It" has engena number of copies. 26 turally into: two m:eas with front roomhaving attractive gas fire withbrasssurround. product?". the text will need to be manipulated until it is congruent at each Logical Level: Identity: Beliefs/Values Strategies Behaviour: Environment: 193 David Katan Can the TC identifywiththe product through the text? Doesthe text address the right core values to sell the product? Arethe graphics appropriate. but perhaps we could mention: -- Slogan . Not only is the text important. anzl grandissima I "Well. it's really bl~ . • Advertising Many translation theorists have already noted that translating for the advertising industry across cultures means distorting the surface message to successfully retain the hidden. thus heightening the for those who already know the previous campaign. and be an expert m.ents. which illustrates the tendency for France and Japan to prefer style and visuals to text and argumentation. COVl1lg to ceillOg. a client expecting 'text' is not going to be easily satisfied with the above comment. the reader would need to have read in the press of a campaign entitled "Zero tolerance".h. 11 piu regalato dei whisky / "Chivas Whiskey. Stepup to halfglazedfrontdoor WIth brassaccessories leading intothe . . Bassnett (1991:28-29). Examples are: Product Tonicwater Chocolate Mints CreditCard Creditcard Sneakers The seriousness with which these slogans are taken by the advertising industry in Britain can shown by the fact that it was Salmon Rushdie. the Coffee more it picks you up Turistafai da te? Ahi ahi ahi! Di tutto. Finally. The whiskey most given as a gift".text as a directed reading of the visuals. This emphasis on the text and intertextuality in advertising is not necessarily pan-cultural. As higher context communication cultures. The marketing of whiskey in Britain focuses on age. double radiator. the perfect gift at glamorous thirty-something partle~: Chivas Regal. g Myers (1994:5). ~osltIOnIllg and pr~cing strategies: "To isolate the marketing strategy for translation it helps to VIew the. and wherewill it be read.. for example. the Italian e~t~~e a~ent replied: Ma. and you know what Beer you are drinking Piu 10 mandi gUt. highskirtings.. To understand this particular message. including a Thomas Cook travel organization reply: "Don't just Do Thomas Cook it" and a (less inspired) anti-smoking campaign "Just don't Smoke". is the text organized appropriately and do they fit appropriately for the TC? ' Are there any inappropriate text connotations? Doesthe overallimageflaunt any cultural norms? Are there any traditions. The newA41 bypassis nowopen. spindled stail'case to firstfloor. of course. 'slogan'.. notes in publication Words in Ads: When I moved from Texas to Britain I found it impossible to understand most bill-boards . an American professor of Linguistics at Lancaster University. In Italy. me have already made their way into dictionaries of modern quotations (which themselves fil the needs ofLCC cultures). Seg~i..by who. Will the target population identify with the representanon of the. has no equivalent in the Romance languages. Where the_vIsuals remain the same. doorston:ception areas. user of the. marble insert . Martini advertising emphasizes the fashionable status of the product and the beautiful people who drink it. This is not because the words in American and British English are so different. who was commissioned to write the ocolate slogan. the main~ine railway sta~on se:vesthecommuter and thereis schooling for all age groups in both th~ state an~ pnvatesectors. perhaps the most striking feature is the words. Whiskey is the fashionable product.. Nevertheless. the visuals may have to change totally as above. aimed at raising awareness of sexual harassment. quality and the discerning taste of the buyer. but knowledge of the intertextuality is vital for understanding. no less. this is exactly what we would expect. (1995:63) emphasizes the importance for a translator to consider. it's big. On one occasion on being asked the size of the house. egr~nde. Clearly. telephone point(su~ect to BTregulations). arid more TV licence cam- paign .. It IS. The description extends for another two pages. brickbuiltcovered entrance porchwithtiledfloorandoutsidelight. piu ti tira su The more you take it down. . highskirting. solId ~~e surroun~ s~sh bay window to front aspect. taboosto take into account? Is there any legislation whichmightaffectthe marketing of the product in theTC? Wherephysically will the text be printed. actually.

came to be viewed as 'explanation' of the text per se.ough a smooth.5.to cult~re. One publicity campaign did draw the public's attention. the ons were to be found in the difference in orientation to information rate causmg mformaoverload and communication problems. and says it in a way that is clear to him. in their study of the Italian language. in NLP terms. thr. However. focusing on high or low information load at the discourse er than lexico-grammatical level goal of a cultural mediator will be to vary the information load according . 11 The C-B-S style was coined by Lanham (1983). he has Apart from cultural preferences for passing on information through informal networks (the c?ntext) or. the basic point is that. He (1976:14) began his prologue with the following: 10. and the aesthetics or feelings created by the advert. .194 195 David Katan Anna and Giulio Lepschy (1988:16). One example of this difference IS information load. and do not even focus on the product. With regard to contexting and translation for-advertising. In this particular case. 'self' and towards 'other'. the \ naranl of Paraguay. but was not appreciated by the target audience. He was a distinguished civil servant and had been asked by the British Treasury to write a guide to writing. as Robert Dooley (1989:52) notes: The 'idiomatic approach' translation was effectively rejected and much implicit information that had been made explicit in the text [in the revised translation] was relegated to a footnote. Some languages introduce information slowly. AmericanEnglish guides stress the 'KISS principle': keep it short and simple. 10. towards.. when he knows what he means. the writer's job is to make his reader apprehend his meaning readily and precisely . is between two metaprograms. brevity and sincerity.5 Author/Addressee Orientation Language expressive high information load AdresseelListener towards oIher factnal low information load Posmble Cultural Priority speakerexpression. with regard to the transmission and reception of a ~essage. for example. be simple. have long noted the ortance of cultural differences in information load. all language cultures. be human". Such implicit information.1 Information load Writing is the instrument for conveying ideas from one mind to another. . for most prod~cts. as we shall This section covers differences in how information is viewed and transmitted. explains the problems involved in translating the uth American Casiguran Dumagat New Testament. and to the amount of new information which the language normally incorporates in particular not been getting on with the job. and that was Oliviero Toscani's pictures for Benetton.. Alternatively. t~rough e~plicit text. Ac~ording to H~ad~and. An HCe culture will focus more on the o:erall picture.5. ve adapted the concept here. note that although "son:e ads strive to be memorable by their unusual expressions"." The British English equivalents are to be found m the language of the writer J onathan Swift: "Proper words in proper places make the true definition of style". when it was made explicit in the text. see. is it always clear to his reader? If not. The sub-orientations which follow will illustrate more clearly the difference in practice between these two culture-bound orientations. 'more explicit rather than allusive) was needed to clarify the message. but they are not remembered for the slogan. 10. rhetorical skills/rich style completness the author authority production 'reader friendly' simplicity c1ality the addressee comprehension constructions. an advert will try to impress itself "more surreptitiously. c~ltures differ in how they use the text. the glossary or eliminated altogether. information load differences not only concern 'primitive tribes' but. Others use complicated noun phrases which allow for information to be introduced more rapidly. As Larson explains (1984:438): The information load is related to the speed at which new information is introduced. an LCC cUltu~e is goingto expect more attention paid to the text both in terms of eye catching wordplay and III terms of factual information. Thomas Headland (1981). a picture. The translators of the bible. they "mostly popularize rather than innovate". fig into account the information level in the original. being icularly concerned with the effective transmission of the message. The Bible translators had decided that a more 'idiomatic approach' (Le. colourless message presenting itself as artless rather than drawing attention to Its structure". as a contribution to what the civil service was doing to improve official English. or 'th~ C-B-S style': clarity. A more accurate revised translation had en prepared. The Bible translators in this particular case had aken account of the particularly low information load preferences of the Casiguran Dumagat eaders. We will return to advertising differences a little later when we focus on the transmission of facts.2 Clarity One of the main aspects of low information load is the priority on simplicity. In particular three areas will be discussed: • Information load • Clarity • Facts The basic distinction in all three cases. A similar problem occurred in translating the Bible for another South American people.. priority can either be given to the production and full expression (self) or to the reception and understanding (other). or Sir Ernest Gowers: "Be short. However.

Recently. I. is measured against "restraint and clarity". .ce 19.. In government depar.. 1 e a culture-bound map of the world: h."·f•. is that these rules ar " . but whether or not a particular orientation (e. 197 David Katan 196 . as the OU "App I"ication of the . higher. The Repubblica newspaper (14/12/95) reports that a group of individuals has for the first time begun the arduous task of changing the language of the civil service. or any purpose . It is a value judgement. . emphasis added) beauty of form. slIDply ' ng eorge SIX element<ll'y rules("Poli" as possible. Italian. in an era of increasing intercu1tural communication. not only to provide 'facts' and make them readily available for the public but also to actually highlight the opacity of the language. does not value 'clarity' so highly either.. this particular judgement. HnHrHnhra~e of Newmark's answer during a personal conversation in Trieste 1997..g. the universal value. universal. / "The Italian civil service has never asked itself how clear it is to its addressees. fact. SS? itical Correctness in detail (a ~ImphcIty and clarity.alwayscut it outI do. Keep 1) NeveruseaMETAPHOR si il tICS and the EngltshLanguage" 1946)' 2) N ' m e or otherfigureof speech hi h . always? . good taste.. y first fonows clarityof !houoht So thik h e readily understandable. on y oes It dISCU Politi ' c. for" any. e cioe a noi . but now in a moment of supreme chaos something is beginning to change".. . abstruse and often threatening towards the public".4) on generalizations should heighten awareness of the linguistic violations. Clarity of writi all inmindG ' 0rwell. .tments and "h . . already noted in Chapter 5 3 Not I'd' 4) . any untverstty. "The obscurity of much Italian media has come in for a great deal of criticism by distinguished Italian linguists. spesso minacciosa nei riguardi del cittadinof' obscure.also published a style guide which we 1 .P The orientation towards the ' e an s~ utary influence on official and The Economist Pocket Style' G' 'd (0 .n · ·"'. now return to the Ang10-American value on 'clarity' and look at how this affects translation strategy. Meta-Model e for(Cheveryone" .~pter • Absolutely .. and indeed do.from memos to publicity . More importantly. or performing. It is principally iesig y dO~ lo. a scientific word ' JARG everydayEnglishequivalent.' d Y ised sIn. this is the Western business and administration standard. It adds the folIowin ' gpomts to The Economist's style guide (emphasis in original): The importance of this orientation should not be un . According to many. taken from the back cover of Gower (1976). that is.. so unfortu1y we do not know who is taking responsibility. tr0 ducti . concerted efforts have been made in Italy..dIcation of an orientation to e ualit . HampdenTurner and Trompenaars (1993). themselves state. e clarification question to ask is as follows: • Good writing according to whom and according to which set of cultural-bound values. author or addressee) is more appropriate for a particular group of interlocutors in a particular context (time andWe place). As culture is a dynamic process (Chapter 2. . . One example. ' g It IS"un~~ers~1 to those whose world . First. The emphasized 'Wordsillustrate that "good".. any purpose.. It is. oracti UI e lrimond . privileges the principles of Greek classical Iit . use long wordwherea SHORT woRn will ' w re you are used to seeingin print. sed convinced that though there may be different styles of academic writing (e. change their behaviour. I ' h muc other English't.IS still required reading . " iderstated. ' More recently. first encounters are going to be more successful if conducted (or interpreted) in an LCC style. la voce della pubblica Amministrazione non si e mai interrogata su quanto potesse nsultare chiara ai suoi destinatari.IS not. value. or speaker-oriented culture.ear ~n. This particular 'good' writing frame values (according to the pED. Q' n w atyou. Japanese culture places a very n on the communication of subtle aspects of feeling and relationship and a much high value lower value on the communication of information". and in broadcasting . or a ON word if you can thinkof an Breakany of thesemles soonerthansay anythingoutrightbarbarous. 1 erature or the Utilitarian Discourse System" as scus in ScoIlon & ScoIlon (1995: 100-104).. The answer" clearly illustrates the limits of the speaker's world: 'Good' writing according Greek classical literature. however. in un momento di eccellente disordinequalcosa accenna a cambiare. illustrating the difference in approach between Italian and English. e addressee IS paramount. ' as exercise a larg d . en or audiovisual t ial ' materials _ on behalf of any University f ' _.. which . have. ev~r ~ ~~ ~ it IS possIble to cut out a word. III .. There are two main reasons for the emphasis on 'clarity'. as a general principle. ' In ~~tIon) provides a typical example of the the practical reader-oriented advice th a IS given m the British style guides: nt of Th e Economist is that it should b . Anglo-Saxon us the Germanic style) there is a "far more universal question of good writing versus this ded kind of writing that you often get in academic articles". is in net contrast with more HCC Asian discourse (ScolIo & ScoIlon 1995:138. us . in this case. see potentia1s for the Japanese model as the way forward in the 21st century. everyone .has.wanttosay ' the~ say1t ' as . t i " 1986.." (Denton 1988:243). which is also a more author.. which is oscura. . I.. The Impression. Ora.. astruso. There is a missing performative. Newmark (in Seguinot 1995:80).This .w power distance) but it also emphasizes intended "for everyone producing writte ne 'd~r I:S own academic course writers but is also 'I . emphasis added): "For example. orientatic~n . 6. picked almost at random.48.3) cultures can. the important point is not whether one orientation is "good" or not. requirenre usuThe _. The Open University (1993'2 .'. such as Tullio De Mauro and others both in the press . it seemed that this orientation was the only orientation which would ensure advantage in the capitalist world. The article continues as follows: . .FOREIGN PHRASE. . according to some. restraint and clarity. Until recently. U' niversity" . se. and "for' any purpo .s . This value. The Complete Plain Words has been consistentl rev" . It is never possible then to ever judge "clarity" against any other. . is the following extract from a best-selling CD-ROM pack 13 Thio io 12 Quote .. . 5) Never use the passivewhenyou can use the ACTIVE ever use a.. This statement is another -Model violation." ma en s . for example.g. on the other hand. However.. . Thou h i .

_~_-+-------These instructions'cannot include ev. The Corriere Below we look at a"n "example of Italta~. ". It is not so necessary the other way round ." . The research foc~se. the main trans " • Newspaper Reporting . ' " (D mng . °d b\~equalifier. d I"" entary mformatiOn . highlight it.. . the proof reader has again showed his or her preference for a more reader-oriented style...---.though the reader might appreciate it: thefigures havea disciplined geometry..5.ery instrUctions possible mm tbinkable use of the machine 10.199 David Katan 198 on Giotto. or ad" suppieme The reason for choosing the presence or ac 0:v . . and the 'corrections' were made by mother-tongue English readers. The translation was from an Italian instruction and guarantee booklet for an espresso machine. th event on the same ay. and in particular at the teenage market: Translating Cultures Correction Original Tramlation topquality espresso coffee machine LE FIGUREE LO SPAZIO lefigure sonosempre rigorosamente volumetriche. The words in bold are those which (on the left) have been deleted or (on the right) changed. d . "Follow in aDcases the manufacturer's FI<JtIRIlS ANDSPACE Original Translation thankyou fm' your preference components J--. aimed at the general public. closerto sculpture than to the sweeping curvesof Middle Byzantine. the following correction involves a lengthy addition. However. _ Never immerse the machine into water and do not introduce it ina dish washer "L--. tion. Most of the corrections (see next page) involve shifting from an orientation towards completeness to that of simplicity. Professional translators may find that translations made will be 'improved' (according to cultural orientation) by external mother-tongue proof readers. 14 groums.' '11 . intended to induce a feeling rather than information. and reduce the context to a minimum so that the textual information can shine through.. resulting (as we have noted during the discussion of the Meta-model) in a clearer message. " an" . One particular example" is given in the following page. I "I k of extrinsic features is that they are a c ear something outside it.. ' 1993 delta Sera was compare Wit e ." mine a number 0 f text types. A literal translation into English would be: . Original Translation In case an extensioncordIs used..forthcoming). In this section we wi ex~ .. we have to look for the information. ... piu vicine al rigorespaziale deltascultura che alle estenuate cadenze melodiche medio-btuintine. personal communication. h th Washzngton "ost an 1. Correction thankyou for choosing Saeco Finally."-'"---'''"-"-~-=--:''--''I Remove the filter holder and empty it of Correction In case an extensioncord is used. be certain that it meets or exceeds all safety standards Claudia Calistri (1996) professional translator.__--" __. In each case." lation issue is cultural orientation. To translate this text into English (once it has been established that this is not a piece of poetry). going against the KISS principle.3 Facts "all of which focus on giving informa. d . thus improving clarity.-:~~-""~l We recottmltnd you to clean the water tank dail y and to fill it . • Informative TextS • Price andTechnicalInformation • Newspaper Reporting . Avoid direct skin contact with hot FIGURES ANDSPACll figures are always rigorously volumetric. The very first correction has denominalized the original literal translation. Am p d tne Independent for factual references . the attempted RUSSian coup m . The facts are not clear. in articles relatmg to e same " d th nalysis of the extrmstc features n (Katan. We should always remember that this is the strategy for translating from high to low context language cultures.-----.. closerto the spatialrigours of sculpture than to the extenuating melodic rhythms of the MiddleByzantine The language is poetic. (which) identify an entity by d Locke 1992:459): "those factors Ieahz~ y . check tbat it is adequate..' erican and British news reporting.. S/he has (unconsciously) applied the LCC Meta-model clarification tool and has made explicit "adequate for what/according to whom?". has been devised for domes~ic use and is not indicated for continuous professional use .

. and hence the maximum number of nights a conference speaker can stay from knowledge of conference administration procedure Good style in English would be as follows: I'assalto .The Russian Tas s Tass Tass Tass news agency news agency As can be seen. Rutskoi and Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov I'assalto .. £6 million) had been collected by the railway . II fastidio per la precisione nord europea. eve~t~aht~es: Any translation attentive to form will make the Angle-American onentanon to simplicity difficult to follow. Coniere deUa Sera Translation Dons Eltsin The Independent President Boris President Boris Yeltsin Yeit~in La Casa Bianca The White House the White House nformative texts e second example focuses on the implicitness of information in HCe cultures. as we would expect from relatively LCC cultures. on the the offices of It ar. With regard to the dissemination of information. So. apart from the delay in preparing the leaflet. ~hey frequently ask questions so that they can speak. such as a coU:~lete set of rules ~nd regulations. Vice kot. inspectors in fines. ana the assault .. and their related extrinsic features as first mentioned in articles on the attempted coup in Moscow. cbe incita alia who is inci ting the President Alexander revolt . kno w n here as the White House Italian is implicitly clear (to an Italian audience). as the following official translation shows: T~e unease felt with American replies (Italians don't always ask questions to know somethl1l~.. Below is an extract from a circular sent by the organizmg The Washington Post lQnlmitt(~e to speakers at an international conference: Gli speaker possono restare 7 glomi presso l'albergo The speakers can stay for 7 days in the hotel The parliament. .3. 17/12/95 . to reduce any ambiguity in the ~ext an~ to c?ver all. both the British and American reader is given more factual information in the text than their Italian counterpart.Alexander Rutskoi. October 3rd. Single room accommodation for speakers will be paid by the conference organizers for a maximum of 6 nights between 7th and 16th July. ThIS orientation places a priority on the listing of all possibilities.. led to an explanatory leaflet published in four languages. It has also been noted" that the informative leaflets and television campaign began to be seen only after a handsome 18 billion lire (approx.Ruts.and Khasbularov era parliament. may be expected to have a wider encyclopaedic knowledge gained from other sources. . ana the assault . the information IS not partlcular~y clear (from an LCe point of view).. There are a number of possible reasons.. the dates ofthe conference.200 David Katan 201 indicatio~ o~ the contexting bias of a text and hence of the target reader. the self proclaimed 'president' leading the anti-Yeltsln forces state television c omplexlthe television station in Northeast Moscow.Rut s k 0 i ) fighters 10 he made explicit for Lee readers} and to reduce Alexander. the Italian journalist and writer Beppe Severgnini who has spent part of his career III England. 1993: As we shall see more clearly in Chapter 11. However. due to the Italian orientation towards struc~ure. Equivalent clarity in English requires disambiguation: sostenitori di supportersof Rutskoi supporters qftheSoviethard -lirie rebels Rutskoi e Khas. and the implications.. 15 Corriere della Sera. there is a much higher qualification in both The Independent and the Washington Post compared to the Corriere della Sera.. and the ~~ed explicit information in English. the bulatov (p ro . there is another more Hee cultural priority in eration. The annoying Northern European precision. Their leaders. In fact. Alternatively. recent changes in the issuing and punching of rail tickets in Italy has. on the the Otskankino teletelevisione television vision centre miscommunication Alexander Rutskoi. the Italian readers. at a meta-level the explicit dissemination of factual information is not what is expected or neede~. The following is a list of the pnncipal actors and places. which focuses on the wider situation. unusually. rlvolta ••. .. notes: Il disagio davanti alia precisione delle risposte americane (gli italiani non sempre domandano per sapere. spesso domandano per parlare). First. ". as members of a higher context communication culture. (Corriere della Sera 15/11/95).

two months from the date ofissue. . byasking the train staff of their own initiative without having to pay any extra charge. Original Italian Literal Translation Official translation Ecco a Voi un tif.the train using the placed-fur-thatzando le apposite macchine purpose punch machines or by obliteratricl 0 rivolgendosi addressing oneself.licio ififormazioni Here you are. 2 months. conspiCUously placed near the No excess payable. tivelychecked and used to comparewith other products: CANDY AV80Q Washing Machine • 800 rpm spin speed • 3 phasetimer • 18 programmes • Ew systemsaveswater. looks like a leaflet. to the staff of the train. except for when different tariff regulations [apply].' f he difference in information focus and load. a ticket office that sui bigliettiferroviari. which appears to be a leaflet Italian ran tickets What you need to know If I don't punch? . _ .000 to the train staff before departure. Different periuds and cOnditiOllS may be based on other tariff regulations. di propria iniziativa. two m:mths from the date of Issue inclusive. Inthe event ofthe machine being out oforder orunavailable. questo compreso. salvodiverse disposizioni tariffarie.203 David Katan 202 towards the reader. or Riskpaying excess + L. These are yellow. and are or Informtheticket inspector onthe trlUn. al the train staff without having to personale del treno sensa dover pay the right oflevy. 16 "Did you ask how much you'd get for the job?" "No. unless otherwise specified andpay L..000 and a Lire 10. . alpersonale del treno. oftheir own initiative. ~he The following adverts give an idea 0 t. corrispondere it diritto di esazione. . of one's own prima delta partenza. it usability of the machines the viaggiarore PUQ ottenere la traveller can obtain a validation of con valid a del big lie t t 0 the ticket addressing him / herself ri v0 I gend 0 sip rima dell a before departure at the PS ticket partenza alia biglietteria PS office or. with an orientation Price and Technical Information .Validate ticket at the ticketoffice. would look something like this. Andif there's no ticket-punch? Punch ticket in the platform ticket. subject tothe payment of the right previo pagamento del diritto di oflevy (Lire 10.high context answer). and what to do.000 fine. Inform the ticket inspector onthe tram SINGlE TICKETS Validity: Unpunched. energyand detergent. hereas it tends to be mentioned in . ofhis/her own accord. ed i th text III HCC countries. TIckets are only valid if they are stamped prior to train departure by means of the appropriate ticketstamping machines orifpassengers.The Angle-American audiencewill be looking for the facts. wnith an Italian university lecturer conversatIOn a - . platforms What to do: I biglietti possono essere The tickets can be used for up to These tickets can beused for up to utilizzati entro due l1'lesi dal giorno di emissione. passengers can validate their tickets at the FS ticket office or else.000). to oppure. 10. formation all of which can be obJecEnglish adverts focus on the price and the tee mea III .000). w d d Price is rarely mention i l l . 16 Personal ONLY£10. I'm a lady]. 0 the cost of a meal(writtenmenusare onl~ stan . A more English style fact-sheet.~r Examplesaboundfrom advertlSlng t . pay a charge of Lire 10. A typical mis-contexted questionis as follows (lowcontextquestion.000. sono una signora" [No. dipropria initiative. ehe sembra office about railway tickets.' LCC countries). I biglietti per essere validi The tickets to be valid must be devono essere convalidati prima validated before the departure of della partenza del treno utiliz. hnic I . e .OOO excess. esazione (Lire 10. iniziativa. 30.. punch. un dipliant. La mancata 0 errnta convalida The missing or incorrect detennina I'applicazione della vaUdation will result in the penalita di Lire 30.lO. .000 e del applicmion ofa penalty ofLire diritto di esadone diL. this [date] included.. Apart from the translation errors (ticket-stamping machine rather than ticket-punch) the official translationlacks clarity in these first 3 paragraphs. an information Just for you.S7 PERMONTH . 30. In caso di mancanza 0 in· In the event of the lack or unagibilita delle obliteratrici.000 right of levy.

"our products cannot be compared with other products". join together f"Or comfort all yeat round. is 'Tecnidry'. Individual duvets. English to favour informal language compared to other European languages. which illustrates the Italian tendency to high power distance and particularism. yet application of the Meta-Model will illustrate that much objective information has been deleted. Double andKing size TOGRATINGS: 4. If we speak about an author/addressee orientation." rather than give information the customer can use to compare with other products. for example. that Italian tends to costruzumi baroeehe / "baroque constructions" and that these constructions do not travel. this may indicate a culture's orientation towards Structure. The previous Italian railways brochure is a good example of the cultural orientation towards formal style. can often attract potential buyers by doing exactly the opposite and.Dry protegge dal freddo e dall'umiditii esterna. and how. As far as the LCC Britain a~d the Americans are concerned. "Works of cnticism III Italian. a meno eke non si tratti di un 'opera estremamente divulgativa). Who or what exactly. the preference for formal or informal can be broken down into the follow- LA QUAL/TA SI RIVELA SOLOA CHI QUAliTY ONLYSHOWS ITSELF TO mCCk mOSE WHO EXPERlBNCE IT: Tanto di piu. where technical information is given. (Musaccluo 1995:100) [In Italy a more formal style is normally used here (compared to English). with reader-friendly technical information and cost to potential buyers clear. Sympatex membrane. . ich would be the case in Germany. on the other hand. membrana Sympatex. for instance tend to be rather more elaborateboth syntactically and lexicallythan theirEnglishcounterparts. ag~i~ . [mbottitura a cellula aperta.0 tog for spring/autumn use anda lighter 4. while an orientation towards the author can Informal shortsentences full stops informal register listeneror readeroriented verbal style personal 1st/2nd person singular inclusive 'we' Many authors agree that there is a tendency for British. sug~ests t~at the translator be alert for the question of register" (Taylor 1990:125). Advertisements in HCC cultures. and the need to formalize in language the distance between interlocutors. spendendo poco di piu his section investigates formality in the language from the point of view of cultural orie.5 togonefor summer. cl~arly. 18 French and German.5 TOGMAXIMUM These examples illustrate the clarity of an LCC approach. (Ulrych'1992: 135). such as comparable tog" ratings: Teeni-Dry asciutto anche nelle condizioni piu avventurose.In Italia si usa normalmente uno stile piilformale [in confronto ~ll 'inglese]. Oil-tanned and waterproofed edging. If we compare equivalent contexts and note a relatIvely high level y formality at the level of culture. by stating the fact that the buyer might have to pay (an unspecified amount) more . SIZES: Single.6 Formal/Informal Communication 33%Off! 'Fogarty' Duck Feather and DownDuvets. in questo ambito. (Italian) often appears to be more formal than English and this. 10. what is more. 9. e A lot more. Also.nta'on. IN VENDITA PRESSO 1 MlGL/ORI NEGOZl DIARTICOLI SPORT/vI Tecni-Dry dry even in the most e:ttreme conditions Teem-Dry protects from the cold and from outside humidity. and even more American. then an orientation towards the addressee \:vould generally require more informal language. b~ guided the context of situation. It may also be the result of a culture's focus on Power [stance.0 =13.as the following advert for a washing machine illustrates: Translation 0lWnal Italian advertisement Scegliere la migliore lavatrice non piu Itn mistero da ini:dati. Scamosciati e bordura impermeabilizzati. Teeni. unless it is a work designed for an extremely wide audience]. Larson (1984:438) points out that "long sentences and complicated grammatical constructions make it harder for the reader to follow what is being said". Severgnini (1992:251) notes. The emphasis is usually on saving money. 17 "Tog: An official measurement that shows how warm a blanket or quilt is. even where clarity of information is the stated aim. result in a more formal language. spending [only] a little more As Seguinot (1995:64) notes. Within cultures. and to what level exactly do they protect against the cold and the humidity? The result in both cases is an impression of particular expertise. it tends (according to an LCC view) to "blind with science. fodera Microdry. 'Sympatex' and 'Microdry'.1 FormalitylInformality in the Text the level of text. in his book L'inglese: Lezioni semiserie / "English: SemiSerious Lessons".5 AND9. the choice between formal or informal language will. He points out that in both Britain and in North America serious problems will arise if translated rather than adapted.6. in many cultures (such as the East) it is considered very rude to mention price.205 David Katan 204 . used in British English" (Cobuild 1995). IS "Indeed. Open cell ruling. Microdry Iinillg ONSALEATTHEBESTSPORTS SHOPS The information appears technical. such as Italian. Le.

.2 Distancing Devices These are linguistic devices which increase the distance between author and addressee. These distancing devices are also common in Italian and German: Distancing device in Italian/German Is it possibleto use the telephone? It is essentialthat this is read This is how it is done Appropriate English May/Could/Can I use the phone? You must/should/ought to read this This is how we do it/you should do it to the consumerthat is its intention. In English there will be a greater preference towards the personal. in English (both American and British). It is importantto prove this contention. Wierzbicka (1986a:352) gives a taxonomy of Australian abbreviations and suggests that each class of abbreviations "reflects a characteristic Australian attitude" such as the desire for informality. In this article I/we wouldlike to illustratethe two differenttheories.207 David Katan 206 10.. the type of journal and its audience.. mathematicians and chemists. 'Please! This call cannot be Pete.. The specificmigration limit. We also notice that informative texts in English (and even more in American) prefer to address the reader personally: Original Italian Translation Original English n ferro da stiro Braun e The Braun iron is equipped Your Braun steam iron is dotato di un sistema with a self-cleaning system equipped with a selfauto-pulente... and two examplesare discussed in detail in the two appendices. . familiarity! and cuteness. a similar article discussing "Law. The individual use of titles will not only depend on the relative cultural orientations of the two interlocutors. such as for academic journals. and is essentially directed at students and teachers of mathematics in schools.•.. New York (emphasis m the original): I\ Pel:er :FalloV\lskept his head down and lifted one band.. and more scientific in order that it would appeal to the Angle/American medical/scientific community and thus win acceptancefor a set of ideas which. As tan Mason (1994:24) points out. till now at least. and even abbreviating all peoples' names. as if to say. marital status. and less subjective" Latinized English. translation into English does not always mean a shift from formal to informal.Petel The verysound set Fallow's teeth on edge. and not very cheerilyeither. pie's roles.~ in the list set out in AnnexIT are expressedin mglkg . David Snelling (1992:39) specifically mentions the Portuguese eessential que / "it is essential that" and points out that impersonal structures of this kind are much less frequently used in English. Evidenceis easy to find. assumptions about basic science.. educational qUal~fications a~d sta~us.it is ludicrous. Peter Fallows (British English) is at his desk at work. the impersonal will be the preferred form in Italian.but that is not so. and reacts to appropriate American levels of lang~a~e informality with regard to the use oftitles. Britain. lapp1alli.6. 10. more scientific. Mason continues: [The translator] strove to render the target text more abstract. which is relatively HCC in relation to America has a greater 'respect' for titles and full names. Many readers may supposethat we have miscopiedthe last sentence. cleaning system Clearly. The first has a magazine style. as the following extract from Tom Wolfe's novel clearly shows. as in this publication. the relationship and whether any other listeners are present. dispensing With most titles. and the need to resocialize several times m a lifetime. :rank . in the original. namelythat the scientificbaseof migrationresearchhas been too narrow. though. anti-intellectualism and verbal affection.6.. T~e Americans and Australians (see Wierzbicka 1986a) are the most informal. appropriately. stemmedfrom a different humanisttradition.ng . whichincludes: . Food and Geometry" written by the same two British authors in two British journals Mathematical Spectrum and Philosophical Transcripts of The Royal Society London resulted in two very different styles. However LCC cultures (such as Germany) may also appreciate titles because they clearly categorize and define peo~ .but erroneous. A major reason is that the package size and shape are totally ditionally the directivemakessomeimplicit. This . colleges and universities. In general. The second is directed at professionals. such as perceived social (or power) distance. However.. For example. because it ascribes status.3 Formality in Titles ~~~~ For more formal writing.withtheir Arniesand Buddiesand Hanks Trompenaars (1993:65) suggests that the American propensity to us~ ~iminutives ~s du~ to the shifting and temporary nature of relationships.. The scene is.. said. Specificmigration is also dealt with in Article4. In American English. . but also on the context of situation. B pointsout some of the seriouserrors .The Yanksl. the first person singular is a logical consequence of the culture's orientation to personal transparency: Italian: In questo articolo saranno illustrate le due diversi teorie. In the next two sectionswe give some simplecalculationsto exposesomeof the seriousfaultsin these regulations. more learned. there will generally be an option regarding formality depending on the subject. More than anything else. the higher the context orientation the more important the title. the overriding cultural orientation differences are between the (relatively informal) humanities and the (more formal) medical/scientific community. here. Appendix A demonstrates that an existing Directive does not pfO'vide the protec- Titles distinguish people by sex. there is still a tendency to use 'we' instead of T. Sigmund Freud's essays were translated from a standard and "subjective" German -into a "more clinical. Hence the same person. othersmay be laughing!As we show below. said Goldman. . English: [In this article will be illustratedthe two differentthreories].

we hear one person taking a higher position over the other". If necessary. Donaggio".nelerirlg ~--- The most important point is that formal oriented cultures will value titles. literally "Mrs. . 'Juan. Professore professor Dottore/ssa doctor university graduate To reduce cross-cultural problems a number of people carry two business cards. whichfurther illustrates the importance of context of situation. Dr. Drescher has a university degree (Dr. and will require their use more than informal oriented cultures do. Chemist". this is not a result of Power Distance. This is particularly true in the South of Germany and in Austria. Mead (1990:153) suggests: Try to have your cards translated and printed before you leave your own country. the president of a Chamber of Commerce in Italy would be greeted by his staff in the morning with a "Buongiorno signor Presidente". President". well described in the NLP literature.3.' whatever your intentions might be. a sign that for some.. his wife is also Frau Doktor Muller in the market. Formality in German dictates the use of both academic and professional titles." or by first and last name. "Herr Doktor Muller is Herr Doktor Muller at his university. such as the German. at the butcher's and at the garage. and professors do not state whether or not they are school or university professors nor whether or not they have a degree. Clearly.the context of situation had significantly changedagain. . As Trompenaars (1993:75) points out. as already mentioned. it will not always be appropriate for an American to introduce himself as follows: "Hi! My names Charles Edwards. Hence. . It should be the role of the cultural mediator to inform people of the possible misinterpretation of such 'friendly' overtures.David Katan 208 may well have been called with the following titles during the course of a long day: 19 YourRoyal Highness thePrincess ofWales Princess Diana LadyDi Diana Di Squidgy 209 Translating Cultures Tenn of Address Status Translation Gloss ~-+--~~. Drescher. People should already know. For example. The answer to this type of problem lies in the conscious use of rapport skills.) and is a university professor. seek the advice of the other country's embassy or c~amber of co~­ merce on where to find an efficient translator and printer.~~~~~---1 Cavaliere cavalier knight(equivalent to a British OBE) Presidente president president/chair of an organization Avvocato lawyer qualified lawyer Ingegnere engineer graduate in eng. . his British counterpart would. With her death there werecalls for a reinstatement of the title. : ou may be expected to present cards as soon as you meet your opposite number when landing at the airport.. though wives do not carry the husband's title. I'm CEO. Scollon & Scollon (1995:47-8) write "When someone addresses you as Mr Schneider and you answer back. 19 Princess Diana lost her "Highness" title as a result of her divorce. but of the need for defined Structure: clarity in the procedure.-Prof. mediators will need to delete many of the normal terms of address.. at the local school and wherever she goes".. even when both are culturally sensitive. necessary when addressing a person of that status in a formal setting. Have your title translated ill terms of an appropriate equivalent rank in the other culture. However. When translating between formal and informal cultures. Horst W. but just call me Chuck and we'll all get along fine". will be translated by the all encompassing "Mr/Mrs/Ms. . They also point out (1995: 124) how difficult it is to arrive at a mutually satisfactory naming ritual. We have already mentioned Germany's diffuse orientation in Chapter 9. Italians also have a high respect for titles. Hence the status is well defined in the title: Univ.. where it is also possible to hear the chemists' wife being called Frau Apotheke. on arrival to more formal countries. shown in the following table. be addressed as "Mr. On his arrival to England. The Angle-American use of titles will be based on the formality of the immediate context (as in the Diana example). most of the Italian status titles. This should be compared with a culture which prefers to ascribe status irrespective of context. In fact. he would be greeted by name: "Good morning Mr. one for a formal and one for an informal culture: With regard to the use of business cards and translation.

The two basic orientations and their cultural prioritie~ can be summanzed as follows: OrientatiQn Language (verbal and non) indirect (conditionals. These cultures would fully understand comments such as: It's not what he said hut how Silence is golden Sngarthepill There are three kinds of lies: lies. Nixon may well have got upset. Mr. however. the very fact that the communication event is interpersonal warrants an affective response. tact and diplomacy. and Nixon would not have felt betrayed.e '. The interpreter duly translated the request. damned lies and statistics (Benjamin Disraeli) Just because we are at war it doesn't cost to be polite (Winston Churchill) At the other end of the scale an LCC culture will generally favour clear. are the comm~nIcatlve eqUl~al~nts of ~all 's. which states that the contribution . and did not wish to offend him. among others. quality. to re.per~onal~oes not mean affective. In English. Clarity. We will now analyze the incident from the point of view of different cultural orientations.111 mvestigate how cultures orient themselves with regard to more interpersonal commemcaucn. A fellow Japanese would have understood the indirect nature of this communication in much the same way as an Angle-American would understand the following example supplied by Grice (1975:52).1 Direct and Indirect Communication ~o far. the verbalization of emotion) dISCUSS British indirectness • investigate how culture affects newspaper reporting conclude with a tentative model of the context'of culture.211 Chapter 11.quests and invitations.2. In this chapter . we should bear in mind that this ISonly a part of mterpersonal communication. He therefore asked that Japan might provide some concessions regarding import quotas to the United States. and in the words of Masaomi Kondo (1990:59). particularly the more LCC mter. his tutor wrote: "Dear Sir. These cultures would agree with: This is perhaps one of the clearest examples of cultural orientations affecting language and communication. The American President was convinced that Sato had flouted the maxim of quality. avoidance of (visihle) power distance acceptance of conflict. Sate's intention was. entirely honourable. Affective Communication The aim of this chapter is to: • investigate Contexting in terms of Affective communication (~e v Do. a more understandable flouting of Grice's maxims would also have been in terms of Quantity. For many cultures.1 Indirectness and Miscommunication In general. for example: "We would not wish to spoil your stay here". 11.In t~e first section we investigate the use of direct and indirect orientation with regard primarily. Hatim & Mason (1997: 140). These two facets of communication. Direct v Indirect communication. P.1. "Nixon felt betrayed and thought all Japanese politicians liars and utterly untrustworthy". Nixon's response was then to inflict as much political and economic damage as he could on Japan. unambiguous and explicit communication. softeners). technical and informal (out-of-awareness) cultur~. silence. This would be in line with our earlier discussion on manipulation in translation in Chapter 7. which was literally interpreted as "I will deal with the matter in a forwardlooking manner". Returning to Sate's reply. but at least the intention would have been faithfully carried. The more HCC cultures will be more sensitive to com~ mUll/cation WhlC~ aff~cts 'fac~'. President Nixon was in Japan to discuss trade and the Okinawan islands with Prime Minister Sato. . an LCC approach is to treat the text as containing appropriate quantity. Grice's cooperative maxims are as follows: The The The • The maxim maxim maxim maxim of Quantity of Quality of Relevance of Manner Though these maxims allow for flouting of the rules. it is possible to flout the maxim of 'quality'. imperatives). indirect eye-contact direct (present tense. an HCC culture will have an indirect orientation. Sato' s reply was: "zensho shimasu". acceptance of power distance. Grice (1975:46-47). He wanted to say that Nixon was an honoured guest. and his attendance at tutorials has been regular".. Although we sha~l be linking the discussion to verbal language. X's command of English is excellent. An LCC way of thinking follows the logic that if something is said. direct eye-contact Possible cnItural prwrity conflict avoidance. For other cultures. face-saving. then the person making the utterance must follow the maxims of cooperation. On being asked by a student to give him a reference for a university post in Philosophy. as articulated by W. relevance and manner . We have already mentioned the American misreading of Japanese meaning during our discussion of manipulation of the text. harmony. In the middle of negotiations (also bound by cultural frames) Nixon had conceded the islands to Japan. raised voices accepted. we ?ave looked prin:ar~ly at the transmission of information (transactional communica- ~on). point out that that Grice' s Maxims do not operate in the same way across cultures. Nixon later discovered that Sato had done absolutely nothing to stem the flow of imports into America. immediacy 11. transactional and affective.when the context is that of cooperation.

" reply. It is inconvenient. this flouting of the maxim of quality can change meaning in translation due to what Hatim and Mason (1997:140) call "socio-cultural factors such as the attitude to truth". They point out that if one wishes to translate irony into Arabic it should be done through flouting the maxim of quantity rather than quality. The example they give is as follows: Flouting the Maxim of Quality in Flouting the Maxim of Quantity in English to produce irony Arabic to produce irony (translation) Since these facts are facts. The flouting of the maxim of 'manner' (say things clearly and briefly) is particularly culture-bound maxim. . Agreeing to praise is not positively valued. . Will you be staying longer than you The tanigelrtti(~l answer. evil face . meaning here is more negative than in English. points out that "the Japanese in everyday conversation frequently use the term hai ('yes') to convey not agreement necessarily.:it~ their interpretative frames (see also Mead 1994: 171).. It probably means: "it might not be approved".it was very clear. will have to be mediated (Le..". and to be seen to 'cooperate.._"-. signifies "evil" or "cruelty". the Yes your approval looks likely. Englehorn (1991: 115-116) illustrates a dine of possible 'no's' from anAsian ~ulture . but it was the most cruel. a "lopsided" counter-argument where "the counter proposition is anticipated by using an explicit concessive": "No doubt I am biased. evil face I have ever set eyes on. exactly as far as they wish to. In response to a Westerner s question: "Has my business proposal been accepted?". the proposals will be approved. . Chinese scholar Robert Kapp (1983:20-21) points out that "The indirectio? that permeates Chinese speech even in translation. that mediators must be able to context their interlocutors so that they are able to put the right interpretative frame to the statement.----. I The question :~ "~ . but. rebutting this and substantiating the point of the rebuttal" (Hatim and Mason 1997: 127). Flouting is common when part of a counter-argument: "Citing an opponent's thesis. As with the counter-argument. both of which. This difference in meaning also exists between Italian and English." is a Meta-Model violation. constantly referring to the dishonourable Brutus as an "honourable" man.ubmitteda copy o-f-yo-ur~-pr-o--+-­ posal to the Ministry of Electronics? Your question is difficult to answer. but rather they understand what is being said". It is impossible ~------. The English interlocutors are likely to interpret the response as totally self-centred and conceited.---~~-. As Grice's cooperative maxims do not function in the same way across cultures.~----~ The "yes but . First.------~~ Maybe I will come with you fmcoming. Acceptable responses for an English interlocutor would need some self-effacing comment to downtone the effect of the praise. incidentally. This clearly goes against the needs of a high author orientation culture and hence is not only rarely used but also has a very different interpretation. . However. are nominalizations. However. the speaker is also saying something which others may believe but he clearly does not: "No doubt I am biased".~---..--_.. Hatim and Mason (1997: 139-41) point out that this use of counter-argument in Arabic (a high Power Distance culture) can be understood by the addressee as a speaker's loss of Power in that space is conceded to the addressee's point of view. incumbent on himself to proceed and invite us to sample the next part of his argument. The answer will be delayed. The example below IS between an English person and an Italian speaking in English: A: (English) B: (Italian) Thank you for your presentation . • The Meaning of 'Yes' The standard translation of the Japanese hai is "yes".ortly." (COBUILD 1995) Both aspects of the maxim are flouted here. Have you . Kapp gives some ideas on HCC Chinese and mediated translation for Americans: 213 Translating Cultures ~u~ut ~oo~~~ (faithful translation from Bee (for an Lee A~rlcan) ~-~--+--~"'-. 85-105). Perhaps it's too far for you to walk.~- ~ We cannot answer this question at this The question is refused. Second. in his Cultural Dimension of International Business. can be particularly disconcerting to Americans".~. at the very least.'--~--------. manipulated) to allow the interlocutors to cooperate.~----- _.. and there is no evidence to demonstrate the implicit generalization that a particular face.. There is no objective evidence for the value judgement. the translation. an Asian businessman might give these responses: Interpretative frame for an Lee PosSlDle Asian responses culture If everything proceeds as planned. this direct sounding "yes" does not necessarily signify direct affirmation.ii.. the maxim of 'quality' can also be violated to relay irony. A well-known example comes from Shakespeare's Julius Caeser (iii. Yes. origin-ally planned.------- You will know slj.---~-----------. ----- -~--'. whether it be oral or written. ever or always. the assertion that "it was the most cruel. Mark Anthony speaks to the Romans after the death of Caeser at the hands of Brutus. Balfour finds it argument. There's no way fll let you walk. This means. In English. regarding evidence.212 David Katan should not include what you know to be false nor what you have no evidence for. time. Balfour Since these are flawless and totally unmust then go on to the next part of his blemished facts."---_. Ferraro (1994:52).ts -- 0 . The following sentence is a particularly interesting example.

by which time (having worked through stages I to 5) each will already have explored all possibilities without having bidden. the full meaning can only be gleaned from the context. Accepted practice for LCC cultures is.2 British Indirectness Wierzbicka (1986b) notes the preponderance of (direct) imperatives in Italian compared to English.that's very kind of you .4 He is clearly outraged at the Italian 3 The English use of the imperative is restricted to. Thankyou very much. ~ flat no IS to be heard In all negotiations. 11. respect for privacy.4 American Brazilian 9 84. for example. unreliable. and suggests that the English indirectness is related to core English values of freedom.g. The example she gives is "I like your accent . principles of negative politeness and not wishing to impose. and much of what is to be negotiated will have already been discussed. clearly has a particularly strong effect on meaning here. not a person to do business with.really? Well. The expression is not intended to affect the outcome of the negotiation greatly. with the most direct towards the end: Oh.: 1~ an extract from the table showing the relative frequency of "no's" per half-hour in negouanons: Japanese 8. Each phase being marked by particular language. the other party may be interpreted as being untrustworthy. This alternative aspect of politeness is called 'involvement'.7 [---------_----. thank you". We have already noted that a Japanese priority is harmony. on the other hand. 4 Barry Unsworth. 21/11/93 . the conditional is used. The AngloAmerican model ideally follows a logical seven point scheme: Relationship BuildingPeriod Agreeing a Procedure Clarifying Generating and Evaluating Opinions Biddingand Bargaining Settlingand Concluding Intonation. who expect "yes" to mean agreement . The Italian approach is also much more direct. e. the words themselves have less meaning than the context. having a more direct form of communication will more freely say "no" as a spontaneous expression of feeling.as can be clearly understood from the following example. Belo." Well. "to say what you mean". The "no's" at this stage will then relate very closely to the real final limits in the negotiation: 'the walkaway'. according to the Anglo-American model. The Italian values. but the frequency is noticeably different. rapport based meaning than for men. In all cases. Translating Cultures 215 words.• . Do you reallythink 50 . For an Lce culture negotiator. Kramsch (1993:8) notes that complimenting in American obliges a ~eply. negotiators will not need to say a direct "no" until stage 6. The In each case IS culture bound.' The female use of "yes" is a more phatic. and in the end. and that therefore "no" is an extremely strong statement. In this model the "no's" are negotiable. with a set number of phases to be followed in order.. Brazil. is to begin with a direct indication of where heavy negotiating is expected C'no") and then concede the minimum possible. "How would you feel if we increased the offer by about 2%". However. The answer would be in terms of "That wouldn't really help matters much" or "That might help a little". Negotiations are carried out according to a set of (usually) unwritten rules. In a relatively HCC culture.1. the Ital~a~ meaning of "yes" here was "I hear you and am ready to listen".214 David Katan Below is a cline of possibilities.. I'm not 5llfe". Observer Magazine. but is outside the scope of this book. Otherwise the imperative is a sign of extreme urgency or lack of politeness.of no I See also ~altx an? Borker's (1992: 171) article on interpretation of minimum response. on the other hand.J As.707.~ ?as compiled ~ table of ":e~bal behaviour tactics" comparing various cultures. for ex~mple. In theory. accordmg to Gncean theory. instructions and directions for the benefit of the addressee. I appreciate yourcomment but . And so by stage 6 the limits and possibilities are already clear.' Scollon & Scollon (1995:36-37) call this form of politeness 'independence'.Oh. on the other hand. and the Japanese-American is huge. She points out that there IS no pressure in French to say merci: "On the contrary a merci in French-would be perceived in this instance as inappropriate and even conceited".See. if the "no's" become negotiable. and is discussed later. T~ey point out ~hat 'mm' IS a phatic 'I'm listening' signal for women and an 'I agree' signal for men. Tannen (1992) notes that this IS also one of the uses of "yes" among North American women. at stage 5 (generating and evaluating opinions). Taylor Torsello (1992:67-143) for a detailed account of intonation and communicanon and Hatim and Mason (1997) for their discussion on intonation and interpreting. The Mediterranean and South American system. Some HCC cultures (Japanese. signalling the proximity of breakdown in the negotiation. . for instance) use few ~eanlllg. but with variable meaning. Others (such as Brazilian) use many.s • The Meaning of 'Thank You' Not only is the direct or indirect response to a compliment culture-bound but the decision to rep~y at all is culturally determined. • The Meaning of 'No' Adler (1991 :. Many of the typically British values are captured in the following article by a British expatriate in Italy writing in The Observer Magazine. and often in fact. which emphasizes individuality and the right not to be completely dominated by other group or social values (the context). will be towards satisfying self-expression (author orientation) and towards satisfying more contextual rather than textual value orientations. can b~ s~~~' the gap b~tween the Brazilian.

The problem now. In Italy.... that we would prefer them to go somewhere else to do it....disse in tono amichevole. '.. PercM piange? Perchi sono sfortunata in amore Ah! This explains the typically British negative reaction to the perceived overuse of the direct Italian Dimmi!"Tell me". . Lily. that he had not looked for the wider context when negotiating. below.~~~. He now realizes... but as Tannen says (1985:205). This indirect use of language is learned. They are made clear in the following extract: "No use trying the voice of reason. We have already mentioned that nursery schools in Italy teach polite forms not used in Britain. It can be appropriate in both English and Italian to use the imperative as an opening request for information. The background concerns the conflicts of interest between hunters and anti-hunters.(:. Hence communication breakdown and the end of a beautiful friendship can occur at the age of two and a half: A: (English) Could I have a go on mybicycle. she answered. one of the short stories in the Dubliners by James Joyce. with even more bitterness.pesci piccoli.. tending to prefer direct forms where their English counterparts would use more indirect forms and a higher frequency of 'thank you'.~~~ . if do it they must.. Archibold Colquhoun: 'Signorina' he asked. as Hatim & Mason (1997:81) point out.P: giiipiu di un anno che ho laseiato la scuola. and indeed taught at a very early age. do you still go to school? -0 no. The diagram below shows the LCC situation (on the left). as Dressler (1992: 14) notes. .. "Crucially. and developedby David Trickeyof The CambridgeOffice. Dimmi. The request for onions. The British would tend to negative (non imposing) politeness. it should be added that the seriousness of an FTA (face threatening act) is a cultural variable. believing as he did in the value of the written text for the complete picture: "(the hunters' rights were) something naturally not known to us when we were negotiating to buy the house". Gabriel.Dimmi. apart from his culture-bound beliefs which he believes are universal truths. In fact. where the context frame contains little information as to how to interpret the text. Also.. The speech act ("Send this fax") will 5 'Cushioning' was coined by Tim Johns at BirminghamUniversity. No.:":Poiite'uc.rispose. -.:?::::~ :. What is particularly interesting about this article. "lies in discovering what remedy is available to us". "indirectness does not always increase politeness". for example.. is the degree of indirect language he uses to express his feelings: we really would rather not have people tramping about on our land shooting at anything that moves... However. this form of politeness is not a priority. please? B: (bilingual but not bi-cultural Anglo-Italian). Much ethnic conflict in Britain is fostered through the misinterpretation of direct language..: an LCC orientation ':::'::':. which we used as an example of culture-bound misinterpretation in Chapter 5. Pescigrossi. '.. these values simply limit his world. What it does do is make explicit in the text what is already implicit in the context for higher context communication cultures. that his newly bought house and land forms part of a regular hunters' route. the Dutch stall-holder reacted as his British counterpart would have: Dutch Back translation lk moet een kilo uien Zoiets vragen we hier beleefd 1musthave one kiloof onions Sucha thingwe ask herepolitely. Vincent Marrelli (1989) notes that Italian children are noticeably 'less polite' than their English counterparts. He devotes the first five paragraphs of his article to giving the background to his particular problem. as the author mentions. on the other hand children are taught indirect request and denial forms.. but are standard worldvalues. A: (exitcrying) Clearly this does not mean that the English cannot say or cope with a bare-faced "no".. Let us return to the example "Tell me". which does not have privacy nor LCC 'WYSIWG' as a cultural priority..ollteld . 'Yes?' {not Tell me. such as Buon appetito.. "There are cultural differences with respect to how and what type of indirectness is expected in particular settings". and are expected to use them at an early age. See also Leech (1983:107-109) on Tact Maxim and illocutionary force of more and less polite requests.. On the right. a face threatening act. He realizes. .217 David Katan 216 context-based culture. I'm donewithschooling this year and more. trans. signore.. . In Britain. and Brown and Levinson's (1987) positive and negativepoliteness.. by the Indian communities.he said in a friendly tone. Request -.: (:::~ ~.] 'Why are youcrying?' 'Because I'm crossed in love. the HCC context frame supplies much of the information necessary as to how the text should be interpreted: ~\~\~\~\~\~\~\\~ . Lily.s' . However. The British hear the imperative as a coercive. as in the following extract from 'The Dead'... It is not only the British who interpret directness in interpersonal language as negative.. " ""nt""t ::'. He believes that his values are shared not only by his audience.chiese. it cannot be assumed that that the same act would carry the same weight in different socio-cultural settings". ' :It::·::. to translate dimmi with "tell me" would not be appropriate to indicate "I'm Calvino. and intonation adopted. sir.vai ancora a scuola? Oh no. a middle-aged friend of the family is about to start a conversation with the teenage Lily (translation by Anne and Adriano Lami 1933): . with bitterness."~h" '. Request and politeness in the text ·":·:. made by a Moroccan man in Amsterdam would have been appropriate in Italian.":': an HCC orientation Figure 40.. ...t.' 'Ah!' Signorina. Contexting Politeness • Cushioning This term' is a useful metaphor for the mental process. One point worth mentioning about indirect speech acts is that. No good pointing out that we have a right to privacy"..: ":':jn th~c.Tell me..' :':'. Below is a classic example of misattribution.ts.

. It is an adaptation from Malcolm Goodale's (1987) The Language ofMeetings. Direct and Indirect cultural orientation not only relates to requests and invitations but to the whole subject of tact and diplomacy in communication. "please" with an imperative is almost indispensable. s (speaker) should bias the illocution towards a positive outcome by restricting h's opportunityof saying 'No'.and . The formality in Italian is encoded in the grammar through the use of the third person singular. as always.. English does not have an equivalent grammar encoding nor is 'formality' such an important orientation as in Italy. Also. maximisethe benefit to h. Also. due to the British English orientation towards indirectness in interpersonal communication. to context their interlocutors and be aware of the degree of indirectness required.111 Degree of indirectnds required . On the other hand. the Tact Maxim is of extreme importance for the "English-speaking society": Minimisecost to h (hearer). The number of cushions will depend on a culture's orientation (or sensitivity) towards the text and towards indirect communication: 111111 • send this fax . It means. there are more language options. An outline of strategies for converting culturally appropriate direct statements into culturally appropriate tactful and diplomatic statements is given on page 220. and so verbal tact is not necessarily such a priority. Figure 41. for example.218 219 David Katan need to be softened by a series of verbal 'cushions' according to culture as the diagram below demonstrates. unlike many 'direct' interpersonal communication cultures. 'Equivalence Chart' . in English.. Cushioning a Request The appropriate degree of indirectness within each culture will depend on six non-cultural factors: Cultural mediators will need. In the next page is an idealized 'equivalence' chart between (British) English and Italian for interlocutors in a formal relationship (such as head of department and personal assistant). for a higher context communication culture the tact and diplomacy is more firmly encoded in the context.that in proposing some action beneficial to h. According to Leech (1983:109).

Objectivity. However.g.David Katan 220 Tact and diplomacy strategies I. as we shall see. Cultures vary in their orientation towards expressive or instrumental communication. precision... e. The chair will control the meeting.-_i In other words. I'm not very happy about this. whereas instrumental cultures believe more in self-control. r---------~--------. Expressive cultures are happy wearing their heart on their sleeve (not a common English expression). Possible cultural priorities 'How' something if! said..g. tend to put a priority on explaining the facts..e. If you use words whichqualifyor restrict what you !ilty you make your position more flexible. / "The fact remains that the English don't always want to say what they do say. you focus on the fact that it is possiblebut.e. as ably put by Servignini (1992:221). Their proverbs speak.____---------' Translation it tuo ingle:se it spave:ntoso (How are you?): fm a bit tired sono a pezzi! (How are you?): Not too bad She's not very tall -----+----~--- She's oot vel'y nice -----1-------. Displays of emotion are considered embarrassing. How To Be an Alien." staring right into the waiter's eyes.''~.body languageimportant... 2.-. as it were. could or should you make what you say more tentative. The best approach is to say "I am afraid this table is not entirely convenient". and losing control is perceived negatively. interpersonal element. very much in line with their HCC or LCC orientation. Translating Cultures 221 vogliono dire quello ehe dicono.. in your opinion improbable owing10 the consequences. 'What' is said. However what is considered 'private' and 'public' is..g. more convenient) you softenyour message. eA Meeting Let us just take an example of the type of expressive/instrumental difference in orientation a cultural mediator might have to deal with. e. personal translation) notes this particularly British orientation with some semi-serious examples of his own.. He continues with other semi-serious appropriate translations.g. and to a lesser extent in Latin America. Resta ilfatto ehe gli inglesi non sempre 6 Severgnini takes these last two examples from George Mikes. Wou. If you use a grammatical negative(adding n't} you make a suggestion moreopen negotiable.g. with extensive use of expressive language for rhetorical effect rather than for the expression of feelings.----.. the issues rather than focusing on the human.-. What is said is placed above how. in itself. allows for much more expression in certain situations than the British would consider appropriate.. instrumental cultures. It's not very convenient. Severgnini (1992:220-221.. Control:of feelings.g. also.. The word "meeting" is translated into Italian by riunione. Appreciation of emotion. a culture-bound orientation. which will be discussed by all. you will convince everyone present that you are a public danger to society.. (in matters of love). By adding I'm afraid you show you recognizethe unhelpfuIness of your comment. Subjectivity. e. a bit difficult. for themselves: Only a deadfish has an open mouth The mouthis the sourceof all calamity Cultures also compartmentalize their acceptance of expression according to public and private space. Using not with a positivewordinstead of the obvious negativeword softens the impact of disagreement. a slight problem... The orientation is towards feelings or facts.e. If you use a comparative (better. Yet the two things tend to be very different.. and hardly ever say what they actually want to say". 4.. 5. If[ were to come to Cannes this week it would create some problems. Clearly in a private context.. American. I hope you don't mind my! me being peifectly frank here . Britain and the USA.--. Usingan introductory phrasepreparesyour listenerfor your message. body language. e quasi mai dieono quello ehe vogliono dire.. If you use would. 6.. More expressive cultures (Japan included) will tend to highlight feelings and relationships rather than facts. The Anglo/American approach is very much based on a written agenda outlining the issues. The object will be to decide on a number of issues. By using the continuousform ([ was wondering) instead of the simple form (I wondered) it makes the request moreflexible. If you present your viewsas a questionrather than a statementthey becomeless do 3.. and do so. through heightened non-verbal communication. for example.. On the other hand. We should also remember that use of verbal expression may be raised to an art form. This is very much the case in the Arab world as we saw in Chapter 7. check "it does not . Wouldn't 3 o'clock be more convenient? 9. If you say "I want to change my table. In a restaurant in Bristol. much more expression is appropriate.. Wide voice and intonation range.--"--+------------I---''''-. 8. 7. such as Germany.ldn't it be better ifwe . At the other extreme is a culture such as Japanese which values silence in much the same way as expression may be valued by other cultures. for example. voice. the person or the issue. I don't object to you I-------. 2nd conditional allows you to show the potentialnegativeconsequencesof a proposal without rejecting it totally. it's totally unacceptable to literally translate the type of conversation that you might have in a restaurant in Bologna. immediateexpressionof personal feelings.

many companies have formally adopted the Anglo/American (instrumental) model for meetings.3 Under/Overstatement 11. The British or Dutch. The subsections below will help isolate some of the key differences between cultures which share either an instrumental or an expressive orientation.. they areapplicants very unltke y to l~a iseeyes ders 11 the selves. h orientation Its full effect can only be attained Understatement is also a typically Britis . . Verbalization m Britis sign of communi~ationbreakdown. 1 . who IS also . though there is also a noticeable HAPILAP temperature.222 David Katan get out of hand". the ve~bal. It is also true that in business. . t .. . . Trompenaars . origin notes that: h0 curses us in a traffic accident is truly enraged. e pro he exnressi .emotion does not sigrn . . close We may think that aheFrenc~anlw to violence. a~ar t~y~o behave assertively. .izat. Bite the bullet. presume that the l~ss sat. There is no shortage of British English expressions which highlight the importance of non-verbalization: Children shouldbe seenbut not heard.for exampre. r like learning t e oca an .2 The Verbalization of Emotion Western society is a predominantly verbal culture. presume that everything that needs. During the interview .'d should be said. 11' le of 'emotional tone' to describe the same Newmark (1988: 14) suggests the fo owing t~a. sufficient overlap between an instrumental and an expressive interpretation of a meeting for international meetings to take place with only limited mutual frustration. values that will determine the actual conduct in a meeting. encourage people "to get to the point" and "be objective".. Real decisions of the day may have already been made. (Don't be a) Whinge-bag All these expression refer to the internalization of feelings.. an IS a motorists' uncon 0 ofe emotion . .degree. rather than the formal and corporate. in particular the difference between Italy. The question was would they express their feelings openly? The results show the percentage of respondents who would keep their feelings to themselves. tyon ly takes. the US and the UK. .ion of In cultures which tolerate or approve 0_ tpt I Y t d verbalization is an indication of . may simp y be g~ tting his view of the facts in first and may expect a similar stream of vituperation from us m return. . f ex ressivit in communication. mentioning.. Th Ae 'ican interviewers were expecting candicultural orientation towards understatement.ness. tends to I . as Hall explains. on t e through contextua Imp uca ure. 0 d d membership to demonstrate their tives. . Their CV s are worded in superl~American applicants. the British do express their feelings. Dutch recounts how he failed a job interview ~ue to hi. th same feelings could be verbalized piece of music. to be emore that could be said. .. lture such as the United States. tr 11 danger against fellow motons s. mtervlewers. . . A more expressive cu ur . spotlighton speaker. this would also be glossing over the fact that the further North one goes. . 'f any form of breakdown.. versell themselves.. Understatement perceived as: signof weak. II xpected to continue with appropna e y present state of mind'.s Hofstede (1991:79). The meeting needs. d. Self-control. listenerto construct full meanmg. . h . . to Dutch eyes. This gives us an example 0 ow e . fortunately. other hand. li t . They are careful not to be seen as braggarts .. the less this orientatioh is apparent. 11. There is a clear . There is also.. because its purpose is more of a creative get-together to generate ideas and express feelings.th know how to interpret the degree of expression in Within their own cultures.rng Cultures . . Keepa stiff upperlip.d.2. le has entered the British vocabulary to describe The expression 'road rage.. is very much a chance to meet and express opinions. . every. the way they do so suggests that expression is not part of 'normal' daily activity. However. it is the informal or out-of-awareness and cultural. . (The results are the percent who said they would not express their feelings): Language Possible cultural Priorities hyperbole Visibility of speaker and feelings. This is a classic (albeit idealized) example of a meeting in an instrumental oriented culture. ltural communication. Overstatement perceived as: sign of conceit. and it fulfils important rapport Though Italy is a relatively expressive culture. Note. .. d ease t e expressiviity in the same way as we wou enh 't t the lower Centigrade to talk about the same case here of the need to increase convert from the higher number Fa ren ei 0 0\ Of course. place after breaking-point. ... Trompenaars (1993:63) compiled a questionnaire asking participants how they would behave if they felt upset about something at work. e m I' . t leading spectacularly to murder in . 223 Tnanslat. 1995. Nevertheless. Communication IS genera y e verbalization from the interlocutor.. full expresSion of meaning. d: dates to express themselves in a way he found exaggerate . A meeting in an expressive culture will not put a high priority on a written (and limiting) agenda or the role of the chair.e.. Speakermodesty.. _ short CVs . yet there is a great deal of difference regarding what is to be verbalized.2. In fact. The blem only starts m crosscu Id the communication. They write modest and usually Dutch in American unerse m .. ns ea . . grad. Big boysdon't cry. . . h SOCle . promising things outstanding qualities. ey h i l l guage . . (1993'65) who is of Dutch (instrumental) The same is true for the French.

~he tives. 0 f th e ill . This may. e "most generous" tends to reflect the quality 0 gen r emotion. . but rarely reduplication: UaBan Tieni pulito iI tuo paese The same direct and Particularly emotive Italian style is to be found on cigarette packets.ghts. While the British as always was low key. F the English an expreSSion suc . pr:~~~ore reduplicate. then render a text more informal. . beloved wife of lhe late Henry. soft... ( "most generous.. Therefore.both of which are appropriate for their culturebound Where there could be space for the expression of emotion in a text.e us' ..On September 30lh Denise Crowther. with reduplication) .more gen th p petition of adjectives of similar or even guages. I" b ed by an expressive CUll • h these words Will not a ways .e a lly the we have a case of inflation. an t e repe " . i era .exu.. ' She also gives.." "flationary' or rather instrumental value one market. ~----~-~----~~ SMYTHE . first lexical item is often an approximation for an The point that Wierzbicka makes is that the. gd Y English (she does not differentiate would be. . British J..~n ests that most reduplications sugg B nitiis h and American) between __ .. diiViidual unit of expressive currency is ..as or.~. by the intensifier very . ' . much loved mother of Angela Jones . However.use 0Lit . posittve or negative. "so that heand getsExpressive. '1' ) nd "most beautiful". H . actually. parlll! . . e zeneral henomenon throughout the Romance lanSnelling (1992:45. Italian not only allows for more emotivity in informative texts but also in vocative. reduced." such as in newspaper headlines. It ire to show accuracy or smcenty as . _" ' . sweetes as .='-..o.statement: example language absolutely wonderfully inspired gentle. . the . f e osity rather than the intensity 0 th . . Italian also uses many more expressive modifiers than English or German. . aiming to affect the reader on a more personal level. To bring the exp~esslOn up to its .or over. the message.. and th fth ab olute superlative. The difference between the British and the Italian medical warnings is another good example of the audiences: expressive and instrumental styles . The Italian campaign slogan was also expressive. . d .u. und 'I' e that what has been said is really d h tition is necessary to un er ill expressive culture.." examples of trans Iations w hich have opted for alternative expressions. as 111 ill a~lOn. or emotive language intended to affect the reader." 7 Parla. . fl"erance. . . She also mentions smeamng . f erosissimoldolctssimolbellissimo is 0 gen . . true.. ~ not J' ust natura . a lot of expression on the language I ber e There is as it wele. itv of . r~n . . and adverbial expressions . gain for an instrumental cUlt.. 46) notes a . for expressive purposes". that of "cumula. "In Italian. . '. adverbs. nons rou hl s eaking.. the value. as the example from Ulrych (1993:74-75) illustrates: 'franslation English ~. HCC cultures will tend to use more expressive language. c expressivity profuse use of intensifiers very beautiful very hard very quiet(ly) veryslowly .224 David Katan Translating Cultures 225 according to one's orientation to under. According to Wierzbicka (l986b:288). Vocative "Vocative" is persuasive.tive rhetoncal S~YI~ "ff ~t'~e He gives one extreme example from identical meaning to reinforce a rhetonca e e . aged 79 years.but emotion: " '. ere a . according to Stefano Ondelli (1995) Italian regularly has more dramatic newspaper headlines than the equivalent British. it is very common to reduplicate adjecNewmark's 0981:13) adaptation of Buhler's statement of the functions of language is: Informative. " " t" ( in the epitaph Cite ear rer a . In fact.ere .heart-warming melodies a significant pieceof music not an undignified piece cool cold bella tiuo adagio The United States and Britain embarked on noticeably different clean-up campaigns _ the American Was expressive. Portuguese: . .ure has to add a number of lexical n.

in Santa Cruz.. Nor. An American religious commentator (a certain WaIt Baby Love) on the respectable American Forces Radio station.4 Self expression Language associated "I want you to know that I . and how we change. And that is a real1y wonderful tbiug and you all do yourselves proud. an edited transcript of her highly personalized talk she gave to an NLP group in Paddington. and NLP eo-founder.The patternsof NLP were not impartedto us.. Whereas expressive language may be acceptable in an oral presentation. in search of technical explanations for the universe. Her verbal style is distinctly self-expressive American. Judith DeLozier (1995:5). . We will look briefly at two example comparisons. it makes me want to cry becausethis is what I want to see happening. about how we leam. He suggests that "English will generally prefer one single intensive adjective or at most two".. rica. with an interdisciplinary group'of people . it is not considered appropriate in a professional journal. This is an extract from an article. expressiva. English professor of linguistics. The difference between British and American is particularly evident in written discourse. can appropriately say on a talk-show: "I loved talking to you. S/he then must membership the interlocutor's cultural orientation. ancient. What this group iJl doing here really does remindme of how NLP started in the first place. and French!Anglo-Saxon. I was asked to write something for a brochureand I want to read it to you: "The disciplineknown as NLP began. I want you to be aware of just how special what yOD are doing Is. Becauseit really is about unfulding knowledge in a grclupoflpeople comingfrom differentmodelsof the world. This orientation helps distinguish one of the main differences between the British and the American style of English.. bravo to you.. Self-expression is the natural behaviour for those who value clarity and public space over indirectness and private space in interpersonal communication.226 David Katan Temos uma so ltngua antiga. would one presume. Originally it was an oral presentation to a group of fellow NLPers (albeit English). in Taunton or Teddington. and the target audience expectations.a very long way from California (emphasis added): Thank: you for taking time out of your busy lives to be here tonight. As he says "six adjectives are simply too much for English ears". and say: "It's been nice talking to you. has lived and worked in the heart of the 'caring and sharing' California. which encourages students to get in touch with their feelings: "If people learn by caring and sharing and linking hands in Southern California. an American psychotherapist.. The first question is: "is the language standard American. So. or is it being used by this particular author in a particular way to achieve a particular effect on the intended audience?". ecologicalway.There are not manyplaces I've been in the world where the communityspirit of NLP is creating what you are creating here.2. A British equivalent would feel the need to depersonalize the level of emotion. His suggested translation is as follows: The ancient language we share has evolved mainjaining its expressivity and versatility Below are further Portuguese to English examples: Preferred English ." Possible cultural priorities personallnformation and personal opinionsprefen'ed objective information depersonalizedopinions preferred This (sub) orientation relates to the degree of personal involvement a culture prefers to hear expressed. and should be further edited." disassociated "It seems to be the case that . following Widdowson's orientation. The second point is. highly text oriented.So. evolved. versdtil.. We were motivatedby a shared curiosityabout how we know. two points need to be borne in mind: the casual or non-casual use of language. We have a unique language. A cultural mediator needs first to check that the cumulative rhetorical style or reduplication IS not performing chiefly a poetic function. He then had a mystical experience . and I love your thought-processes". whose professional culture (psychology) would include an orientation to expression. beforeit had a name. both of which focus on written discourse: British!American. That you can get togetheron a regular basis and unfold knowledge in this group. Translating Cultures 227 . but unfolded in our leaming". points out the culture-boundness of self-expression in his enigmatic comment on American inspired "whole person" teaching. and from there decide whether the reduplication or absolute adjective signifies sincerity.British and American English There is a great difference here between American and British English. and I appreciate your reasoning". The speech was then published to be read in an international journal. England.. it does not follow they will learn by similar therapeutic techniques in Thailand and Tanzania". The more standard the language the more we edit for another culture. and distinctly inappropriate for a British instrumental oriented audience. »Frencb Blaise Pascal started his professional life as a mathematician and physicist. ZFM (l4/0l/96). rich. or emotive comment. Before a mediator is to translate this text for a more instrumental audience. "who was and is the target audience?". Henry Widdowson (1990:13). And how we can influencethe processof change in a well-formed. expressive [and] versatile. how we communicate. London . depending on the context 'pianissimo' (in terms of speed) could be translated as: moreinstrumental t t moreexpressive extremely really terribly/awfully beautifully slowly 11. accuracy. I will carry this around e world and let them know what you are doing here . evoluida.

. when they talk?". However. Britain. discusses the following question: "Daddy. and the lines indicate talk-length.notes. the fact that one can apply reason to the heart shows that Pascal. Ne vausattaquezpas aux Don't attack the bosoms mamelles de la France of France 1992 Oriental A- 11. • Turn-taking Listener or speaker orientation will dictate the length and overlap ?r pauses between spe. He is known to the scientific world for his calculation of coefficients of a binomial expansion and for his work in fluid mechanics. Deana Levine and Mara Adelman (1993:66) categonze those from a high involvement culture as people who: • • • • • talk more interrupt more expect to be interrupted talk more loudly at times talk more quickly They quote Tannen as categorizing the following cultures as high involvement: Russian Italian Greek Spanish SouthAmerican Arab African I have noticed that Anglo-Saxon anthropologists sometimes misunderstand the writings of Claude Levi Strauss for precisely this reason [Le.. in one of a series of imaginary conversations with his daughter.-. Example Translation Anglo-Saxon La France est veuve A-- " Latin A-- " Frenchfarmerprotest slogan. as Bateson "no doubt thought of the reasons of the heart as a body of logic or compuration as precise and complex as the reasons of consciousness". Where British English is too 'cold' for American academic or professional discourse.. why do Frenchmen wave their arms about . so are the French for the British and the Americans. They say he emphasises too much the intellect and ignores the 'feelings'. "Western society has a predommantly v~rbal culture . Translating Cultures 229 (1995:36) use the terms 'involvement' and 'ind~pendence'.they show emotion in their speech and most often in their non verbal communication". Two examples he gives are as follows: BackgrolUld Within each country there are clear divides. ~nd therefore leaves little space for silence or pauses.id~rate Californians. On the other ~and. In the rest of the world he is known for his Pensees sur la religion. Latin and Onental: In each case there are two interlocutors (A and B).~ .. and many other countries. the French are (as we have already noted in regard to traffic) traditionally thought of as being more expressive than the English or the Dutch. an Englishman. a high-context poetical essay on human nature. What is of interest for a cultural mediator is that in academic writing. T?ese are ~poken language orientations respectively towards the speaker or the listener. Bateson. and this is a paradox . The truth is that he assumes that the heart has precise algorithms. The (Ideal) AngloSaxon verbal interaction is without conversation overlaps (as exemplified by the Latin style) or silent periods (Oriental):" .~kers.228 David Katan and became a theologian.2.5 Involvement Tannen (1992: 196) suggests another orientation closely related to expressive/instrumental and that is a 'high involvement' or 'high considerateness' conversation pattern. 277 However. From that essay came the well-known aphorism: La coeur a ses raison que la rdison ne connait point [The heart has its reasons which reason knows nothing of] Pensees. She interprets this nonver?al behav~our as meaning "silly" and "excited". Trompenaars has produced an idealized diag~am of t~ee different styles according to three different cultures he terms: Anglo-Saxon. there are a variety ?f turn-taking style possibilities. Trompenaars' Idealized Turn-Taking Styles 8 Sf'!' ~1<() Arller (1991 :211) for a similar sraoh..and ~f course author / addressee orientation. Levine and Adelman (1993:67) mention the high involvement New Yorkers and the relatively high cons. iv.. the French (following Pascal) are even more instrumental than.. Germany. The same type of divide exists between Southern and Northern Italy. There IS a clear link between these two orientations and the previous discussion on indirectness and politeness .. Scollon & Scollon Figure 42.. Bateson (1972:1O-11). what would be considered appropriate for the Anglo-Saxons. preferring to personalize their mother country m a way that the rest of Europe would not. giving the heart logical reasons]. continues: (1~72:138-9). In giving advice to his fellow Americans about cultural differences he notes that "The French can be coldly intellectual and cerebral in their approach to literature.. art and science. . This apparent paradox (cold rationality and excitement) IS noted by Hall (1990: 109). As Trompenaars (1993:68) says.. ~nelling (1992:28~29) also notes that the French are an exception.

This means that the interpreter must be in a position to modulate voice according to culture and even more to individual interlocutor. is likely to feel that the speaker is not in control or not being serious.fItIS 'open demonstration' is often a sign that there is a breakdown III commumcanon.6 Americans 3. produced by Trompenaars (1993:68). In general a wider variety of tones will be deemed appropriate in a highly expressive culture. a term he used to describe monkeys who engaged m an interactive seuence of which the unit actions or signals (are) similar to ?ut .. Indeed. a discusstone can actually be a fight:~~~~~~~~~~~~I~--=-~~===::. The equivalent loudness m English sugg~s. Loudness for example.of periods greaterthan 10seconds/30 mins. • Voice Voice quality. co~ld b~ perceived as an argument in English. but also how to interpret the voice they hear.ways. .. For the Italians loudness is necessary to gain and keep the conversation floor. for a shorter space of time. on the other hand. the Brazilians are more verbal than either the Japanese orthe Americans. Frequently.. but not when speaking to a superior (Mead 1990: 162). as comb~t.erms of B. as the following expression Illustrates.. and there is the very real danger of the interlocutors mismterpretmg their respective metamessages.5 10. Wha~ counts as routine ~iscussion in an expressive culture with raised voices.. ..ThIS help~ ~o..d. . overlapPI?g t~rn-taklllg. if the British speak appropriately for their culture.. . In Italian.. Americans and Italians also regard loudness as generally positive. But in most Latin societies this 'exaggerated' way of communicating shows that you have your heart in the matter. one Southern European cultures are freer to express lee mgs ..5 12. tend to interrupt more cooperatively.:~~1 Trompenaars (1993 :68) relates these graphs to the cultures as follows: For some (instrumental) societies. the higher the position a person holds. as WIth rea . Americans increase the volume as a function of distance (Hall 1990: 142). B .. .6 As with the "no's". it shows respect. In Arabic.ateso~ s ( research on 'play'.) Japanese 5. BraziUans o 28... means different things to different cultures.exp~alll the problem in translating the Italian discussione into English. which gives a general idea of typical tone patterns for three language types he distinguishes as: Anglo-Saxon..Irec ' tl_~. the overall impression that a listener obtains of a speaker's voice (including loudness and intonation patterns) is closely related to expressive and instrumental orientation.of the • . The differences clearly become more important during negotiations where it is vital that the right degree of conviction is received as intended. The dictionary definition gives the following possibilities: ~ombat'" So. h E r hand ~g l~ a~ responses.ts a muc~ deep~r level of emotion.. tend to regard loudness as invasion of private space and as a sign of anger. though for different reasons.For t~e . Oriental societies tend to have a much more monotonous style: self controlled... and hence is in danger of stereotyping the speaker on the basis of voice.n~t th~ same as those of Expressive cultures know that the frame of interpretation . and more often.of achieving this is through loudness. '.. Again.) Conversational overlaps (Number per 10mins. The British.". to demonstrate their agreement and involvement. American and Brazilian negotiators.230 David Katan Statistics provided by John Graham. Latin and Oriental: ls~lay discussion heateddiscussion argument to have words with a fight The perception will be governed by cultural orien~ation. but . ups and downs in speech suggest that the speaker is not serious. So. . on the other hand. loudness is generally associated with sincerity and forcefulness. BehaviourlTactic Silentperlods (No.Trompenaars· Ideazed Cultural Tone Patterns This is closely related to how much emotion a culture accepts is appropriate to express. an. whereas for. and quoted by Adler (1991:210) illustrate the differences between Japanese. An instrumental culture. 1972 '179) " . The listener reacts in terms of his or her own cultural preferences. their softer style of speaking may be interpreted as a lack of confidence or conviction by a more expressive culture. H owever.3 231 Translating Cultures the lower and flatter the voice. Figure 41 is an idealized graph. Tannen (1992) also notes a significant difference between men and women with regard to conversation overlaps or interruptions. on the other hand. Women. She suggests that men interrupt to gain power and respect. .. it means an open demonstration of feelings . interpreters need to be aware not only of their own voice and its potential effects. the point made by Mead (1990: 162): A voice feature that is stereotyped positive in one culture may strike the outsider very differently. The l' I ' d.. and their interruptions tend to be on the lines of "Yes. Oriental Figure 43. Loudness in an expressive culture can also be understood m :... .more instrumental cultures the loudness can be interpreted. l'n "A" 'discussion/e' itself is open to different culture-bound interpretations .

'being'. interpretation and tolerance of open conflict in business and across cultures.. i.1 Be and Do Orientatlons The action orientation can either tend towards action. motivation by accomplishment. and outside the scope of this book. Also. Existentialprocesses Non-verbal language is a very large subject.mterlocutors have. like any other aspect of communication. . The Americans can be very personal in public because they have a large public space. the nonverbal signs do not always have the same meaning. as we have mentioned. quality of life. the warai. for example. close-upon the action. to use Trompenaars' term.non moving . the LCC norm has been bre~ched. Hatim and Mason (1990:71). ~hereas the doing orientation clearly separates the level of behaviour from the level of identity: you are and you do. In these cultures. In this particular case. The Japan Travel Bureau. "Many 'high involvement' speakers enjoy arguments and might even think that others are not interested if they are not ready to engage in a heated discussion". is still developing. context. but. Following this argument it seems reasonable to suggest that this HCC non-action and LCC action would also permeate the language. it is taken personally. The Egyptian president Nasser cried and "strengthened his political hand". An interpreter. Instead.upper lip. the non-verbal signals have different meanings. "thrown a tantrum" as a result of having . An HCC culture. Hall's The Hidden Dimension (1982) is still a classicguide to cross-culturalproxernics. a discussion/ argument is part of the cooperative communication event. and it was the final sign of defeat and the end of an era. is harder to settle and has longer term consequences for the British compared to the Italian or other expressive cultures. For a more expressive culture. *** describes the event. For some cultures. It Will be difficult to have objective text-based feedback. an open demonstration of feelings. gives a clear guide to some of the more salient aspects of Japanese non-verbal behaviour. This type of discussion/argument. Segregation of peopleand activities. Highly 'doing' oriented cultures. The Japanese 'inscrutable smile'. Statusthroughachievement.many. note that the non-verbal expression of emotion. Trornpenaars (1993:7~-77) relat~s a story of an LCC (Dutch) and two HCC (Italian) interlocutors at a meeting. Their ideas are not separated from themselves". less marked differentiation betweenpublic and privatelife space. more markeddifferentiationbetween public and privatelife space. in particular. 'be' + 'do' together. as mentioned earlier. Pease 1984:9).e. On the other hand Senator Edward Muskie cried and "it effectively ended his political hopes". Materialprocesses 11. involvement. The 'being' orientation operates at the level of identity: you are what yo~ do. Some of the meaning of any message is non-verbal. will perceive the event in terms of 'emotional neutrality'.. All that IS involved IS behaviour. can make or break presidential careers. The HCC ." As Levine and Adelman (1993:66) note. this is not the belief. 11. Some writers on communication glibly report that non-verbal language accounts for anything between sixtyfive and ninety-three percent of the message (Mead 1994: 190.static. More detailed information should be sought from a guide'? specializing in one particular culture.EdwardT. here.been told that "the idea is crazy" (emphasis in original): "The Italian reaction is of course quite understandable . that nominalization is more common in Italian (HCC) than in English (LeC). as we mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. Anger. "cold fish". So. such as the United S:~t~s and Ger. An LCC culture. interpersonal communication is necessarily affective. or untrustworthy because they hide their feelings behind a mask. O'Connor and Seymour 1990:35. for example. in which he discusses the meaning. depending on the culture.232 David Katan rage' for example. Status through ascription. The subject as we have said is large. for example is in reality one of many non-verbal facial gestures that carry meaning (Japan Travel Bureau 1991: 177). in particular. have little problem separating facts and persona] feelings. 10 Allan Pease (1984) has a practical and informative guide which focuses principally on the Anglo cultures. . or towards a state. Oriental visual to cushioned Western verbal. . and are more or less appropriate in different cultures. Expressive oriented cultures tend to encourage spontaneous non-verbal reactions and value them positively. 9 Mead actually devotes a chapter to 'Dispute' (1994:225-250).3 Action Possible Cldtural Priorities Relationship. 11. needs to be aware that. the Italians Will be regarded as having lost their cool whereas the Italians will regard their more LCC counterparts as emotionally dead. We have already mentioned. some cultures will be very much more attentive to the non-verbal signs. and still not fully catalogued. More recently ex-prime minister Margaret Thatcher cried.2. Jane Kellett's (1995) findings on nonverbal performance of interpreters. At the 'being' end of the cline any criticism of a behaviour is automatically und~rsto.6 Non-Verbal Language Language describe1l a scene. Peopleand activitiestogether. 233 Translating Cultures Task. An LCC interlocutor. Mediators need to be able to pick up these communicative acts and change the channel of communication from..~ an LCC instrumental culture.. The reason for this is that there is a strong private/public space divide. according to their LCC counterpart. . An HCC orientation is by definition already tightly woven as most of the information IS mainly in the context.3. on the other hand. affiliation. and his other books all contain references to cross-cultural non-verbal (mis)communication. detached. such as crying. such as Japan will be more attuned to the smallest of non-verbal signals. Its members grow up modelling the pre-set patterns. for example. 'doing'. while instrumental cultures value the stiff . They can cnncize the a~tl?n wltho~t necessarily any implication that the person's identity is under attack. most of which are out of a Westerner's awareness.od as a criticism at the level of identity.y knit. delight and intensity are all regarded as :'unpr~fessional" in the con~ext ~f a mee:mg fo. 'be' + 'do' separate. To call 'the idea' crazy is to call them crazy . See. . on the other hand. These being and doing orientations correspond to cultures which are tightly wo:en or lo?sel.

a parallelism between verbal and non-verbal behaviour. Cultures with a strong private space attempt to avoid direct confrontation. As can be seen from the box below. "The English language is deliciously hypocritical. tend to avoid direct negative feedback by not stating it. through language. the English language has an elaborate system for verbalizing politeness. INTERPERSONALFRAME Polite to the person Criticize the behaviour + ve to the d'iffuaeorientation -ve to the doing orientation With (the greatestof) respect Frankly To be frank To be honest I'm afraid whatyou're saying is totaII y incomprehensible For a more fully 'being' oriented culture the person and the issue are one. but it does coincide with the general HCC/LCC division. who value privacy above openness need to protect themselves from interpersonal behaviour or language because it affects their larger private domain. The Dutch and the Germans. and so have little need to avoid verbalizing criticism. of course. a linguistic marker cushions the criticism. this organizing principle is to be found in the theory of Logical Levels (Chapter 3. First the marker explicitly addresses the person before discussing the behaviour. this stereotype of the English is simply the result of distorted processing of perceived behaviour through a different cultural orientation. The particular event under study was the (1993) attempted Communist coup d'etat in Moscow. but as feedback for improvement at the level of behaviour. on the other hand. It serves two functions. As can be seen. and feelings are involved. and through the strict relation between dom~nant hemisphe~e ~nd value clusters which dictate emphasis on text or context. Below is a comparison of the most important headlines from the WP and the CdS between October 4th and 7th 1993: October 4 Washington Post Corriere della Sera TnUlSJation TROOPS CLOSE IN ON BA1TAGLlA A MOSCA. as not saying what they mean and. Hasan (1984: 106) takes the argument one step further purporting that there is a culture-specific semiotic style [which] is to say that there is a congruence.up of readers. This satisfies the strong privatel public space aspect of British culture. Bxrn. This could well be an isolated case. and.E IN MOSCO\¥. influences the choice in process transitivity. at best it does not make sense to be positive about the person and then negative in the same breath: one should be either positive or negative. We have already mentioned that language is a surface representation of the model or mental map. From an HCC. it serves as a warning for the addressee to be prepared for the criticism. The British. tend to treat criticism not as confrontation at the level of identity. lack of emotion. A similar system of cushioning is available to deal with direct criticism. being oriented. Highly LCC cultures. MASSACRE IN MOSCRUSHES MOSCOW VINCE ELTSIN CO\¥. (direct.ELTSIN AI RIBELLI YEITSINTOREBELS "YOU'LL BE PUNSORSHIP. IL GIORNO GRIP. It also follows precisely the differences found by Tannen (1993b:14-56). Then issue can be taken with the behaviour. rarely take criticism at the level of identity. She noted significant differences between North American (LCC) and Greek (HCC) . She also suggests that there should "exist some organizing principle" which will ensure that congruence. Southern Europeans and the Asian cultures. to criticize the action and not the person. for example. faced with the possibility of losing face. values and attitudes. 235 Translating Cultures linking language and cultural orientation.3. It aims specifically to show how the same reality is reconstructed by different mental maps and how the HCCILCC orientation can be linked to language.2 Grammatical Be and Do This section concludes this book and will present a tentative model of the context of culture. where possible they would like to be seen complimenting rather than criticizing. view of the above (Italian for example) would be that the English politeness system is hypocritical (Servergnini 1992:220): L'inglese una lingua deliziosamenie ipocrita. expressive) viewpoint. With this system it is possible. through non-disclosure. e 11. On the contrary. We would now like to look at this III a little more detail and suggest that the orientation at the level of values. or keeping to. we can see a very different re-creation of the same event (Katan 1998). The difference between private and public is much more relative (or 'diffused' rather than 'specific'). As we have suggested. it is possible to satisfy both the 'being' (you are what you do) and the 'doing' (you are and you do) at the same time. For LCC cultures. in particular. A more evaluative HCC.. the British culture tends to an indirect orientation particularly for any interactional communication which might lead to a negative reaction. We return to the American Washington Post (WP). reassuring him or her that politeness to the person is being respected. YEI1'SIN FOES AS BAT· MORT! PER LESTRADE DEAD [BODIES] ON lHESTREETS TIE RAGES AT PARUA- MENT ARMY SHELLFIRE MASSACRO A MOSCA. and that "grammar construes reality" (Halliday 1992:65). not by chance. DOZENS KILLED IN ASSAULT ON PARLIAMENT YELTSIN TIGHTENS RUSSIA. and the Italian Corriere della Sera (CdS). but they do so in different ways. As we have already noted. Therefore. both of which are informed by the same set of beliefs. Although the journalists from these papers write for a similar socio-economic gro. the facts are equally interpreted negatively: as unreliable. as Trompenaars points out. on the other hand. long-winded politeness strategies. YEI1'sINWINS REVOLT. FIRES RIVAL DEL CASTIGO OFFICIALS YELTSIN LIFTS CEN. Second. e non costringe chi la parla alla imbaraszante franchezza all'italiano. In this way.2). and pedantry with regard to detail are clearly negative attributes. VOWS TO «SARETE PUNlTl» ISHED" HOLD DECEMBER ELECTIONS In terms of orientation towards 'being' or 'doing' we could say that the WP shows us a film with close-ups while the CdS gives us a wider picture of the situation. working to a hidden agenda.David Katan 234 hence it is rare that their relatively small private space is affected. It doesn't force those who speak it to any of the embarrassing Italian frankness". emotional outbursts and difficulties in giving.

236

David Katan

subjects' oral accounts of the same film. The Americans, on being asked about the film
described the actual events of the film while the Greeks produced elaborate stories with additional
events and detailed accounts of the motives and feelings of the characters.
Stella Ting-Toomey (1985:78) discusses the relationship between conflict events (e.g. a
negotiation impasse or, in this case, an attempted coup) and how different cultures interpret
those events. In her discussion she suggests, using Hall's theory of contexting, that:
Proposition 1:
Individuals in LCCs are more likely to perceive the causes of conflict as instrumental
rather than expressive in nature.
Proposition 2:
Individuals in HCCs are more likely to perceive the causes (or more importantly, they tend
to focus on the process) of conflict as expressive rather than instrumental in nature.

Even more importantly from the point of view of 'being' and 'doing': "HCC individuals would
have a much more difficult time in objectively separating the conflict event from the affective
domain".
We should also point out that Ting-Toomey's understanding of 'objectively' is as culturebound and subjective as any other explicitly subjective statement. The author of any text,
working within an LCC frame, will operate from a Utilitarian discourse system, which we
briefly mentioned earlier. This system is well described in Scollon & Scollon (1995:94-121).
They point out (1995: 108, emphasis added) that Westerners unconsciously resort to Utilitarian
discourse in professional contexts, and that "Utilitarian discourse forms should appear to give
nothing but information, that they should appear to be making no attempt to influence the
listener or the reader except through his or her exercise of rational judgement".
Seen through Asian eyes, the Utilitarian discourse form, as practised by the quality AngloAmerican press, may well be seen as devious and underhand. The writers here are simply
hiding their message or intention behind a facade of carefully selected 'facts'." Hatim &
Mason (1997: 127.136) note that Arab speakers prefer the consciously subjective 'lopsided'
argument. With the 'lopsided' approach the writer makes his/her beliefs explicit. They suggest
(1997: 135, emphasis added) that any translation from English to Arabic (which does not make
the writer's own bias clear) "needs to make sure that the thesis to be opposed ... is rendered in
a way that reflects the attitude of the source text producer towards what could be implied by
the facts ...",
Very often the translation-shift strategy for a cultural mediator to follow, from a 'doing' to a
'being' culture will be distort the surface text so that the attitudinal elements hidden, or implicit
in the source text, can be foregrounded. Otherwise, author intention will be lost in the translation. As we already mentioned at the end of Chapter 7, when discussing Manipulation in
translation, this is exactly what the Corriere della Sera did in 'translating' the comments made
in the Newsweek article:

11 In Katan (l996b) there is an analysis of an English journalist's hidden persuasive discourse style
presented as an objective factual description of reality, The analysis focuses on the pitfalls a non-native
readeror translatormightencounter. See also Fairclough (1989)andTooley(1992)for an amplediscussion
of how language is manipulated, particularly in newspaper reporting, to furtheran author's ideological ends.

237

Translating Cultures

Newsweek

Corriere delta Sera

The Pitfalls of Peacekeeping
In war~torn Somalia, making a mess of
things is a team effort.
[Aidid] may have been tipped off. A
US-run surveillance network has more
than once caught members of Italy's UN
contingent warning Aidid about operations against his forces, three western
Sources told NEWSWEEK .... Did the
Italians warn Aidid? "Draw your own
conclusions", said a senior US official.

"The Warlord managed to get to
safety only because the Italians had
warned him. The accusation hurled
by Newsweek is scathing and slanderous: "The Italians are spying for
General AMid against the United
Nations".

• Linguistic analysis
Returning to the newspaper headlines, we notice that the CdS has a clear affective orientation,
while the WP is more instrumental in its headline account. However, if we wish to study how
language can reflect the 'being'l' doing' polar orientation, we should start at the level of
clause. As Jay. L. Lemke says (1989:37), "Every clause constructs some representation of the
material and social world". Downing and Locke (1992: 110) are even more unequivocal: "The
clause is the most significant grammatical unit, since it permits us to encode, both semantically
and syntactically, our mental picture of the physical world or reality and the worlds of our
imagination".
In this mental picture, clauses represent "patterns of experience" (Halliday 1994: 107), and
the central part of this pattern is termed 'the process', Le. the verb (Downing and Locke
1992: 110). According to Halliday (1994: 108) there are three principle aspects which make up
Hacoherent theory of experience".
First we have the outer world. In terms of the Logical Levels model, this is the environment
and observable behaviour. The second aspect is internal reaction (reflection, awareness, and
generalization), which relates to strategies and beliefs. Thirdly, fragments of experience are
related to others. This third aspect Halliday terms 'classification' and 'identification', which
clearly relates to the level of identity.
Although Halliday does not put these processes in any particular order or importance,
following the Logical Levels model, there are clear logical differences of level between external observable behaviour, internal reaction (beliefs) and attribution (identity).
The 3 main process categories as identified by Halliday, with their associated Logical
Levels, are as follows:

Process

Exponent

Material (the doing)
Mental(the sensing)

JackkissedJill
Jack lovedJiil
Jill wasn't convinced
Jill wasn't Jack's

Relational (the being)

David Katan

238

Halliday also categorizes 3 sub-categories."
Behavioural (related to material andmental)
Verbal (related to material andmental)
Existential (related to relational)

Jack breathed heavily
Jackasked her to marry him
Therewasno wedding

239

Translating Cultures

This finding is not restricted to the headlines but to the articles themselves. The survey,
which also included a British newspaper, The Independent, showed that the Italian regularly
opted for relational processes over and above the British and American newspapers, with the
American selecting the most material processes:

Of the three main categories, we can immediately see that experience can be categorized in
terms of what the situation is, and how it relates to other aspects of reality (the context): "Jill
wasn't convinced", "Jill wasn't Jack's" and "There was no wedding". Alternatively, we can
categorize according to what happened (the text): "Jack kissed Jill", "Jack breathed heavily",
and "Jack asked her to marry him".
Returning to the newspaper headlines we can now focus on the process strategies to study
the patterns that underlie the construction of reality." We can immediately note that The WP
focuses on the material:

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%

Front page news of

events. Moscow.

Mat

The CdS reporter witnessed the same event, but saw una battaglia/"a battle" and morti/"dead
bodies". The action here is implicit. And the implicit processes in these minor clauses are in
both cases the verb essere/"be", a relational process. On day two, there is one material process.
On the last day of the front page news the CdS chose a material process and an ellipted verbal:
Eltsin (dice) ai ribelli «sarete puniti»/"Yeltsin [says] to the rebels 'You will be punished'", The
complete list is as follows:

(dice)

u

(E) giorno,
(C'e) unabattaglia

(Cl sono)mort!
(C'1i stato) un maSSacro

(says)

Men

October 4th 1993

closein on, crush, kill, tighten, fire, rage

=Material; ReI =Relational; Ver = Verbal; Men =Mental

Figure 44. News Reporting and Transitivity Choices

According to Lemke (1991:26), and to use his terminology, there shouldbe a difference in
transitivity between an article with a dynamic perspective - "what-could-be-being-meant", an.d
one with a synoptic perspective - "what-evidentiy-must-have-been-meant". What he means IS
that there should be more material verbs in the news as-it-is-happening report and more relational verbs in the leader or editorials as they would focus on the relationship between events
rather than on events themselves.
However, as we can see from the following chart, the CdS variation in the use of relational
processes is slight. The real difference is between the Anglo-American and the Italian:

(It's) theday,
(There's)a battle
(There are)deadbodies
(There hasbeen)a massacre

Whatever the surface reason (space, style, etc.) both papers chose from a similar system of
resources, Le. the WP could have deleted the processes or chosen relational processes, and the
CdS could have opted for material processes in the most eye-catching headlines. In both cases
they did not: a definite choice was made.
The effect in either case is in some ways very similar. In both cases drama is created, but in
one case there is close-up video action, concentrating on 'doing'. On the other hand, we have a
wider picture, the situation, the 'being', and the drama is created through the lexis rather than
through the process. So, we could perhaps use the analogy of the reconstruction of reality for
the Anglo-American audience as being a dynamic action-packed film with close-ups. The
Italian reconstruction on the other hand, is a richer but more static series of still photographs or
even paintings.
12 For a full discussion on transitivity and analysissee Halliday (l976b; 1994), andTaylorTorsello(1992:
260-304), particularly for the difficulties involved in analysis.
13 For a bibliography of authors using process strategies to analyse newspaper reporting see Katan
(1998).

oomm

Rei:

oomm

news = news report; Comm. = commentary
Figure 45. News Reporting and Editorials: Transitivity Choices

It does seem, then, that the selection of process will depend first on a particular culture's
cluster of values (its cultural orientations), and then only second, on the function of the lan" ..
.
guage - in this case an editorial or a news report.
Hence, language choice is first made at the level of cultural orientation, which, accordmg to
the Logical Level theory then informs the next level down the semantic level. As a result,

David Katan

Translating Cultures

semantic style, as exemplified by transitivity and process types will select predominantly
relational processes if there is an HCC orientation, and material if there is an LCC orientation.
As Lernke (1991:28) states, "It is not only the context of situation, but also context of culture
that is dynamically implicated in a semantic view of text production".
Translators, in particular, should be aware of process types as they translate. When they
have the choice they should favour the relational when translating into an HCC language, and
material when translating for the LCC, so that they can fit their translation into the expected
behavioural style. This is particularly important within the environment of newspaper reporting
of reality.

11. 4 Conclusion

240

• Towards a Context of Culture
We are now in a position to sketch in a number of "the leading motivations" (Sapir 1994:119)
and the "sets, isolates, and patterns that differentiate .,. lives" (Hall 1990: 184). In short, we
have the beginnings of a context of culture which combines Hall's contexting, Halliday's
processes and NLP Logical Levels. We will work through a concrete example to show how the
elements fit to make up a context of culture.
The Logical Levels diagram (figure 46) illustrates the different choices to be made at each
logical level according to culture in the context of newspaper reporting. The United States and
the Great Britain are on the left, while Italy is to the right. The basic level for the context of
culture is the Environment - in this case the attempted coup in Moscow.
Each culture operates on, and reacts to, its own environment through behaviour. In some
respects the behaviour is similar. All three cultures reported the event on the front pages of their
papers, gave information and commented. However, the Italian gave more of the background,
the context and the feelings, while the American and British concentrated on reporting the
facts. This external behaviour is guided by strategies which are part of internal mental maps.
The reporters in all cases chose language patterns from a large system of possibilities, and in all
cases could have reported in another way. The language system itself did not determine the
way reality was perceived and communicated.
Instead, the language options selected were guided by cultural orientations: the sets of
values which sort and orient experience and define our general approach to a particular issue.
The Italian culture has a relatively high context communication orientation, and this guides
language choice (relational processes rather than material). The British and American, being
more low context oriented cultures, select more material processes to realize their particular
culture-bound distortion of reality:

culturalidentity

us

GB

LCC

HCC

orientation
material
processes

orientaticr

doing

relational

processes
being

News reportingof events in Moscow
October4-7 1993

Figure 46. Towards a Context ofCulture

241

We began this book by asking "What is the culture factor?" We end by suggesting that culture
is not a factor, but is the framework (the context) within which all communication takes place.
However, the emphasis on the frame itself will depend on the level of culture. Hall's Triad
points to the fact that the context of culture becomes more important as we move from technical to out-of-awareness uses of language.
The cultural mediator, translator or interpreter, will need to understand how culture in
general operates and will be able to frame a particular communication within its context of
culture. Then, as mediator he or she will need to disassociate from that frame and mind-shift or
chunk to a virtual text which will guide choice when creating a new text for the addressee.
The cultural orientations are filters which help individuals orient themselves in society.
They provide individuals with a way of interpreting the environment and guide visible behaviour that is congruent with other members of the same culture. Misperception, misinterpretation
and mistranslation can easily result when these out-of-awareness orientations are not taken into
consideration.
The map individuals, as representatives of a culture, make of the world is a local map, and is
not a good guide to understanding texts produced by other cultures. Hence, the heart of the
mediator's task is not to translate texts but to translate cultures, and help strangers give new
texts welcome.

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79.190. 110-111. 182.84-85.57.communication 205-209 .180.culture-bound language 27-28 . 154-157 55.formaIlinformal 27.turn-taking 229 ~power «Language .heroes «Language .contexting 188.cumulative rhetorical style 226 213-214 .189.172 154-157 .203·204 Affective communication 210.and the French.221. 188 21-22 fast-food principles .time 172-173 . 152. perceptions 164 .dress -education 180.86.uncertainty avoidance 183 . 57.97.direct/indirect 186.Orientations . 110 .expressi ve/instrumental 221 -power 174 .233.understatement/overstatement 223.offices 211 -Nixon .guns and politics 134 185-186 .universalismlparticularism 174-175 American-Indian (see Native-American) Anglo-American (see Anglo-Saxon) Anglo-Saxon ~ advertising legislation 79 .SubjectIndex Academic francaise 81 Achievement/ascription orientation 180 Acquisition of culture 17 Action chains 38 Action orientation 50.diffuse/specific 174 .214 .competitive 175 179.American compared with British 46-49.turn-taking 229 .83.235-236 . 110.perception of 'United States' 75.207.contracts/agreements 189 10 .192-194.and interpreters . 227 205-207 .185-186.234 .239-240 . perceptions 117-118. 179 ~ speeding fines 24 • Orientations .110.American English 83.85.207 . 221.181.212-213 ~ environment 172 .time 172 .formal/informal 205-207 184 -lexico-grammar -loan/ed words 81-83 ~ political correctness 77-79.184-186.48.thinking 176 .greetings .173.237 America and Americans (North) .address forms 28 . 184-186.public service ads. 193.action 233.billable time -climate 47-48.direct/indirect 215 . 193 -proverbs 59 .expressive/instrumental 221. 189 ~ conversation rituals 28 .200.office behaviour 57 perception of Italy 166 .80 ~ proverbs 58·59 .negotiation model 215 .openness 57 174.history 57 .distancing devices 206 .228 58 . 224 . 232-240 Advertising 56.hygiene/dirt 183 .facts 199-202 .211.78-79.230 -voice America and Americans (South) .137.186 -space 46.clarity 195-199 .Life 46 -addresses 13 .dollars 49-50.186.226-227.190 (see also McDonald's) -values 58.230.and Germany.turn-taking 230 . 155. . 174·175.contracts/agreements 185.223 -individualism 174-175 .direct/indirect .universalismlparticularism 24.

44 -environment Cohesion 101.of mediator 66 Casiguran-Dumagat 195 Casual/non-casual language 136 Categorization 46. 27 .105 .212. Orientationsi addresses 46 .147 .86.expressive/instrumenta1 -power -space -s time . 90-92 .and translation 197-204.56 -logical level 37.222 55.221.201-204 Climate ~ description 47·48 -snow 80 91.lexico-grammar 83 . 13.universalismJparticularism 175 Arab cultures -contracts/ agreement 189 . 177 (see also Contexting) -and translation 124.97.and reality 75.expressive/instrumental 221.54-57. 68.and perception 79-80.190. 184 -HalIiday .60.contexting .competitive/cooperative 175 .65.83 .57.and linguistics 72-73 and text 168. 138.direct/ indirect orientation 212-213 Chomsky's Formalist model 92.215-220.Oxford university 180 Translating Cultures .236 50 51 229 • Orientations .climate 47-8 . 146-157.17. .73.culture studies 19.72-74.102.and cultural switch 27.Queen Elizabeth -road rage . 116-117 .contexting and hemisphere division 186188.and environment .66.228 .'yes/no' 56 218 69.up 147-148 Clarification (see Map of the World.57. 177178.56 52.256 David Katan - titles transitivity voice writing style 'yes'l'no' 207-209 235-240 55.230. Criteria.action 234 180-186. 130-135.telephoning .creation (in translation) 123-125 10.and logical levels 38-39.comparison with other terms 40 . translation) .'Life in Modern Britain' 18.and dress 50 .72.accent and dialect . 31.Sixties. 184 .and Utilitarian discourse .128-138. 115 Communicative interference 28 Componential analysis 147 Competitive/cooperative (see under Orientations) Comparatives 110-111.author/addressee . clarification) Clarity -explanation/discussion 83.63.205.thinking 176 . 58-60.230-232 197 215 • Orientations .and culture 52-54.house buying 191-192 . 185.221 222-224 .and word meaning 57.expressive/neutral 49.164-166 114.beliefs/values 61.dress style .comparison with other terms 40 ''':' rules 53 Behaviourist approach 18. 63-64.comparison with other terms 40 -limiting 102.contexting 189 . 126-127.57.enculturation 63-65 Chinese .20-21 .128 .the core of culture 26.imperative -loudness politeness -proverbs .183 221 212 49 172 230 197.123. 189.113. III Closure 91 Cloze Cognitive .67. 105.216 • Orientatians . Attitudes. 189 213. the . 182-183 .comparison with other terms 40 Assumptive questions 116 Attitudes 38 explanation 39 Attribution Theory (see Ethnocentrism) Austria .226 .Bell's Procedural model 149 -down 148 -examples 151-157 .and language 75.222 (see also Negotiation) Butterfly effect 117 Canada -legislation on sexism 79 Capabilities (see also Cultural mediator.formal/informal .98.action 234 .heroes.68 .consumers 85 -dress 50-51. 177.215-216 ~ communication 205-209 .215 .turn-taking 212 179.41 .101.do's and don'ts 53-54.120 Cause and effect Central code 19 Children (see also HAP/LAP) 106-107 .and language switch 81 Bowdlerize 76 Brain (see also Global/local.behavioural routines 31-32. 169. 195 Bilinguals .structure 175 . role) .38.83.210-211.politics .241 .162. of situation 207.200204.contexting 178-209 .38-39. 74 .65.240-241 72-73.and language acquisition . 120 Connotation (see Denotation) Context .comparison with other terms 40 Beliefs (see also Assumptions. 15.216-219 55.stereotypes about .'yes/no' 214.24-25.177.31 .universalism/particularism 174 Associative tie 129 Assumptions .social class '.rhetorical style 136.direct/indirect 215.direct/indirect 213 -power 174 -space 49 -time 172 .definitions 177 -of culture 71.contexting 197 . 127 Chunking 123.67.94.68 .comparison with other terms 40 .153 • Language .taste and smell .231 51. 128-129. 126 .turn-taking 230 Britain & British (see also English.80-81. 180-181 133 223.diffuse/specific orientation 208 Australia -language and sex 78 .234 118.sideways 148-149 .logicallevel 38. 240 .54 46-47.240 -Bateson 177 .38. 62. 94.66-71 .understatement/overstatement 223-226 .food 153 .titles 207 Author/addressee (see Orlentatianss Balkan States .voice Asian cultures .211.69.balkanization 47 Behaviour (see also under Culture-bound) .approach to culture 19-21 .177-178. Values) .and social system 46 and translation 124-125 117-119. 189-190.128-129. 173. 141.political v cultural 22 Bible translation 59.236 • Orientations .56. 128.advertising 192-194 .direct/indirect 215 .75.Bloomfield 73 -Boas 73 37.privacy/space 234 -power 174 -structure 175 .terrorism 257 114.182-183 .112 .66.235 -laterization and translation strategies 187188 Brazilian .195204.contexting British (see Britain) Buildings (see under Environment) Business 8.

130.50. 126.and interpreters 55-56 .and money 155 .123.63. 231 .Attribution Theory 68-70. 175 215 .in modelling 87.155.varieties of 40-41. 128.67-71.and translation 197-204.and class 50 .Meta-Model 98-112.behavioural distribution curve 41-42 .ranking of cultures 183 .188 Deep structure/level (see also Chomsky's formalist model) .2540.20. 164 ~ consumers 85 .84. 183 20. 126 .107.and chunking 147 .59.224 9-10.and the Welsh 105-106 .capabilities and role 38 39 39 58·59.186.241 .147. 139.120.comparison with other terms 40 . 162.cross dressing 50 . 164 Formal 49-50 .125.culture . 184.price 204 Ecological Fallacy 44 Elaborated code (see Restricted code) Enculturation 31-32. 182 .in translation Dress style . Map ofthe world. 139. 152.comparison with other terms 40 199-200 Extrinsic features Face 210. 155 (see also Manipulation) Domestication (see Foreignizing) .123. 172. 108. 195. 138-139. 86.16-18. 57.stereotypic comments 48.125. 120 Culture shock 118-119 Culture studies 19. 133. 62 .89.226. 117-118 .Mete-Modal .156 47. 156-57.189 . 120. 130.cultural icons 162-163 Environment .dimension (see Hofstede) .126.Bateson's 34-36.67. 234 Decoding/encoding model 123.comparison with other terms 40 ~ cueing 75. 38.in newspapers 199-201.explanation/discussion 178-184.241 .173 European Orientations • Northern 174 .218.24-25.188.and synoptic perspective 239 .49.and logical levels 2.explanation . 149.and surface structure/level 92-94.contexting -environment 172 . 101.170.126.built 49 ~ logical level 37.66.240 172 .advertising 193 -and Americans 117-118. 118.258 David Katan .yes/no 215 England/English (see also under Britain/British) .51.95. 155-7.shallow/deeply rooted 180·181 .understatement/overstatement 223-226 ~ self-expression 226-228 Expressive/instrumental communication External/Internal culture 17 .31 Frames .problems 84 -values 66 Cultural studies 19 Culture (see also Myth) .49.136-137.criteria 49 .definitions 1.65-66.individualism/collectivism 174.44.235 Deletion .236 . 85.as a filter 40.thinking 19-20. 108.241 124-125 -explanation -Goffman's 34 -HAPILAP 64 -Tannen's 35 France and French .and culture 45-52.127.and informal communication 205-209. 197 ~ comparison with other terms 40 .130.127.67.188 . 64.146.19. 173 .and schema/script 34.161.79. 218.241 .68.154.verbalization ofemotion 221-223 .individualism/collectivism 174 -power -time 172 • Southern .141. 191.etymology 17 . density) Foreignizing/domestication 155-156.and logical levels .behaviour 53.87. 146. 146 .59-60.208.123-126.appropriateness .94 .20.political Epistemic modality (see Intrinsic modality) Eskimo 77 -and PC 80 -and snow 31 Esperanto Estuary English 56 18-19.comparison with other terms 40 -level 59 Formulaic language (see also Rituals) 28.236 .39.20.129. Ethnocentrism/prejudice 119 ~ and translation 155-156.approaches to 18-33 as amodellIevels 17. 12·15.89.228 . 94. 138-139. 80 -physical 47 .63. 93. 134.Malinowski O'Connor & Seymour .94. 146.explanation Criterial equi valent .55.and brain 186 .156-157.233 .43.and context see Context .'no'/'yes' 174 -power .56-57.185.teaching of 16-21 .and brain (see Brain) .188. 164.188. 141.161-162 . 234 112-119. 142 Contracts 189-190 Counter-argument 212 Covert/Overt culture 29 Criteria .action 234 180 .23.deflnition 19 ~ frame 35.beliefs 50.environment 172 .space 49.behaviour/rules 41. 54. 126 Cushioning 217·221.217 Felicity conditions 43 Filters (see Perception) Fog factor/index (see Lexis. 196 . 136.63.182. 164 .54.Sperber & Wilson ~ 72 73 177 Contexting . 44. 236-237 .67-68.68 .and generalization 96 .Sapir's unconscious selection 52 DenmarklDanish concept equivalence and translation 81 Denotation/connotation 31. territory) .229 ~ 'X' factor 1 Culture-Bound (see also Ethnocentrism.31-32 .facts/feelings 221-222.227.204 . 109 (see also Imprinting) English (see also Anglo-Saxon) • British English . 144.235-240 .and translation 124-125.233-240 -loosely woven/tightly knit 179-180.discussion/examples Cultural gap -bridging Cultural mediator .and English loan words 81 . 131 I.time 172 Explicit/implicit (see Implicit/explicit) 221222. 72-73. 35 .approach to culture 21-22.in informative texts 201-205 Contextual effect 131. 103.86.triangles 178-179 .in translation 128-138.(mis)communication 69-70. 105. 210-221 Disjunct 112 Distancing devices 206-207 Distortion 87. 188·226. 236.68. 146 -cultural 108. 59-60 Department of Trade and Industry 15 Direct/indirect communication 83.requests 218-220 .95.and level of culture 241 .216 .and proverbs 59 .and culture 49-50.meaning(s) 48.182 .expressive/instrumental 221 . 129-134.66.orientation 45-47.92.233.118. 92.model of culture 67-71 Translating Cultures 259 Eastern culture .212.for interpreters 50 Dutch (see Netherlands) Dynamic .

92. 110-111. 104-105.181-183. perceptions 52.necessity 102-105 . 168.131. 182 .and lateralization 188 role 10-14. 163 .141-144.161 Isolates Italy and Italian .190 56-57 -driving 49-50.in translation Informal . 57. 105.beliefs/values 57.170-1 Hopi time 84 Iceberg Theory 29-30.behavioural routines 28. 213.222 .78.house buying 215-216 -hunting 183 .137· 139.concept equivalence and 81-83 translation 206 .PC examples 77-79 .thinking 176 .61. 112.contracts/ agreement 189 . 66-71. 124 Germans and Germany ~and America. 194-195 (see also Contesting. 203-204.g1obal1ocalization 21-25 -tenns 168 ~ translation 124-126.personalities/politicians 134-135.non-verbal language 232 .153-154.competitiveness 175 -contexting 180.expressive/instrumental 221.competition/cooperation 175 David Katan . 110.165· 166.205.235-240 . 224 .and collectivism 174-175 universalism/particularism (see Universalism) India/Indian 184 .28.university . 10.sayings 120 -Tuscany 180 . 163.'yes/no' 214 Generalization 87.and 'meaning' 72-73 Information load 194-195. 128-144.criminality/corruption 57. 193. 149. 144 Irnplicature 62-65.45. 186.explicitness 108.214 Guarani 195 Hallidayian grammar (see also Transitivity) 92 Hall's Triad of Culture 30-33. 163.219-220. .216-217 .Structure 175 Grice's Cooperative Maxims 211-212.144 79 -PC 47. 113 128-129.32-33. 109.turn-taking 230 .and informal culture 32.66.explanation 77 .formal/informal 205 . 189 ~ philosophy 196-197 . ~ and perception 89.139.Orientation .and contexting 180 .indexical offence Individualism .ambiguous language 98 Translating Cultures -bowdlerizing 76 _ culture 26.29. 196 . 197. 167.and telephoning 55.233 .40.Orientation ~action 233 . perception 164 .63 . 32.Orientations .164 -driving 223 ~ food and smell 51 -myths 164 -proverbs 164 -walues 59 «Language . 181. Clarity) options (Hasan) 184 . 201 .64.offices 57 .Language .218 Implicit/explicit .and McDonalds 24 .194 . 202-203.instrumental/expressive 222.66-67. 133.260 .action (be/do) 233.205 Intention 126 Interpreter (see also under Cultural Mediator.118 . 227-228 .190.news reporting 132-133.comparison with other terms 40 Gender . 185. 144 . 181 .60-61.schizophrenia 43 III formed (see Well-formed) Illocutionary force . 45. 164.208 .and logical level 39.211 . 108.237 .94.approach to culture 19-21 .dress code 50 .207 -power 208 . 182 .215. 139.of 'thank you' 214 ~ translation 9.62.thinking 176 -time 173 structure 175. 174.and hidden agenda 190 ~ and translation 72.vague language 94-95.business practice 189.black box interpreter 11.222 . 190 .rules of behaviour 47.dress/fashion 181 .100.203-204 _ and Britain.possibility 228-229 Involvement 212 Irony 30.restaurants 184 -Urdu Inference 93 -Gumperz 99 .129-135. 169 Imprinting Index 105 . 198.distancing device 205-209. 230 Intrinsic modal 102. 148.227-228 .106-107. Translation approaches) .rituals 134-135.31. 184. 164.and translation 145-146 . 165-167 .41 261 59. 126. 215 .224 ~ formal/informal 205.time orientation 172 .imperative 69. 124.diffuse/specific 174.145. 69-70.universalism/collectivism 175 Friulian 46 Functional grammar (see Systemic grammar) Functionalist .215-219 -lexical1abelling 80 . 126.216 . 175.190. 11.10. 145-146.115.and politeness 217. 100.and translation 128 Genre 32. 155-157 -level 59. 174.204. 145.and performatives 108 .transitivity 235-240 .regional divides 28 .hygiene/dirt .contracts/ agreement 47 -climate 85 -consumers .formality/informality 218.legislation on sexism 153.210.direct/indirect orientation 79 . 168 Global/Local .example of culture 40-41 .234 _ author/addressee 197.207 Gestalt theory 91. 108. 106. 116.110.222 . 163 . 171 Identity .action (be/do) 235-236 . 115. 155 HAPILAP 63-64.182 .politics 53-54.57 .translation 207 .222-223 HCC (see Contexting) High culture 16 Hofstede -onion 27 . 191.comparison with other terms 40 .dress/fashion 49-50. 188 Glocalization 24 Greece/Greek .accent and dialect 56 .116-117.206.concept equivalence and translation 81 .200.162. 103.'yes/no' 213-214.189.225 . 117.greetings 28 -heroes 191-192 .politeness 216 -requests 218-220 .contexting 183 .201.titles 207-209 . 12.dress style 50 .direct/indirect 214 . 189-190 .contexting 217 .Meta-Model 96-98. 154.voice 55-56. 98.translation examples 9. 147.employment 153-154 -food 41 .223.distancing devices 206 -dress 50.individualism/particularism 174 . 197.culture 9.contexting 183.dimensions 58. 112.and interpreters 56 -consumers 85 .advertising 192-194.

competitive 175 .explanation -level 65.233 Non-verbal communication 43. 147 .explanation 54 . Translating Cultures 124 Mapping theory 62 Maslowe's Hierarchy of Needs Maxims of cooperation (see Grice's Cooperative Maxims) McDonald's 21-25 .148.94. 176. 108 74.direct/indirect .explanation/discussion 176. 76 Locked-in effect 112 Locution 32 Logical Levels 37 75.perception of 'Estados Unidos' 175 .31 .78-79.198.understatement • Orientations 233 . 188-92 .culture-bound differences 54-56.156. 198.212.and interpreters 55 .64. 114. 198.compared to orientations 172. 182 Model of World (see Map of World) Modelling 19.90.90-91 .McDonaldization theory 21.universalism/particularism 175.and translation 126-127 .comparison with other terms 40 Olfaction and food 51-52 54.meaning of "zensho shimasu' 211 .and translation 192 .and Nike culture 49.and language 80. Southern) Medium (see also under Language.240-241 . 87 540.212.192.direct/indirect 197.223.5.80.131. 183.turn-taking 230 ~ verbalization of emotion 222 .173 .and culture 72-86.95 . 196.universalism/collectivism 174-175 KILC (see also Clarity) 100 Kiriwinian 72 KISS (see also Clarity) 195.59 .and reality 87-95.expressive/instrumental 221 .128.and language .213.78.and Utilitarian discourse 197 .76-77.rapport skills Newspaper reporting style 132-133.211.201 -thinking 176 -time 173 -space 174 . 162Nominalization 163. 214-215.211. 59 .65.147.186 .85 ..and frames/context 34-36. 101.window people 49 • Orientations .241 .66-67.144.contexting 180.139-140.108-111. 196 Open University . 173 .185 22.structure 175 -vtime 59. selective 89.expressive/instrumental 222. Meta-model. 120.204 .repetition 136 Listening. 227.uncertainty avoidance 183 .204 .individualism/collectivism 174-175 . 141 .117.contacts/agreements 189 -language 184 -yes/no' 213. 237 . 167.phatic 189 .as a filter 89-90.104-106.extrinsic .130.90-92. 197.Sapir/Whorf definition 84.77 Negotiation 189.123. 188 .197. 191.40. 116.formality/informality 205.universalism/particularism Mind reading 69. distortion/manipulation ofpeople 117) Map of the world Ll l .direct/indirect 70.146.213 .92.200 Metacommunication (see also Metamessagey 34 Metamessage 43.178. 132 .210 Lateralization (see under Brain) Lee (see Contexting) Learning styles 167 Lexis -density 100-101 -lexical level 86 -labels 75-78.and miscommunication 115-117 .199-201.221-222 Mental Map (see map ofthe world) Meta 34 .241 Mind-shift 43 Misfiring 65.215 . 228 NeuroiinguisticProgramming (NLP) (see also Chunking. 182.149.223. 17. Writing) . 90 Loan words 81-82 Local (see Global) Localization 10.food and taste 51 Manipulation 1.example text 119-120 Metaprogram 167-169. 102 .intrinsic 101-105.71 .116.legislation on sexism 223 .transactional/interactional 55.Structure 175.262 .Meta-Model 263 66.and thought 72-86. 194 .204 .expressive/instrumental 222.119.environment orientation 172 -PC 76. 235.conversation rituals 28 .189.explanation 35.clarification (see under Map ofthe World) -description 19. 167-169. 139. 147.215 .212 .126 .89.NLP principles 36-37.definitions 72-73 .214-215.182.94. 78 .105 .voice 230 Japan/Japanese . 189 Meetings 218-219.use of English to impress 82 .driving 79 .explanation 131-133.action (Be/do) 217 . 211.80 .Direct/indirect orientation Moscow (see Russia) Muhlhausler and Harre's Moral Order 71 Myth 161-167 Native-American . 176 .explanation 34 .236 (see also Translation. .115.and strategies 38 57-58.concept equivalence and translation 85 -consumers 223 . Metaprogram and meaning) 73 .26. NLP) Moroccan 217 .formulaic moves Meaning . lIS.and sincerity condition 43 . 235-240 85 Nike 113-114.178 . 232 .92-95.involvement 215 ~power 174. 57 Meta-Model (see also Deletion.146.232 . 189.54-57.84.and values 26-27.230 Netherlands and Dutch 82 .investigation of 93 20 Mediation (see also Cultural mediator) Mediterranean cultures (see Europe.non-verbal language 232 -proverbs 221 . Generalization) .74-75.71. 174-176 Metaphor 99.poetic 132 Metaphorical cue MexicanlMexico 24 .73.and lexicon 75.telephoning 55.and frames 44.advertising 193 .and choice 96.175.235. 198 Language .162-163 .232 -language Norms .and speeding fines 75. 196.Bateson's example 210. 224-225.chunk size 168..197. 36. 150.66-70 Mission Modality 101 .108.237.85. . 168 (see also under Culture.in translation 99-100 . Distortion. 147 Malaysia . 106-108 David Katan ~ and social class (see also RAP/LAP) 106-107 .61-71.and level change 67.148.Development Model and Maslowe's 62-65 Hierarchy Logical Typing 2.174.237-240 .85 .and Bateson 34-37 . 182.and values -clarification 97-98. 164.business rituals 56 .congruence 42-44.240 64 ~ language and change 85 modelling 208 .and reality 73.235.hygiene/dirt 183 ~ individualism/collectivism 174 -space 49.218 .thinking 85.

cumulative rhetorical style .174 31-32. 164 .234 Political Correctness (PC) 75-79.contexting (see also under Contexting) 179-214 174.individualism 215.hygiene/dirt 30. Maxims) 147.97.fluid/fixed 222 .83. 70.time (see also Time) 59.Hofstede's 114-115.109 Perception (see also Ethnocentrism) ~ as a filter 86. 124.173-174.137. 172-173 .Inkeles and Levinson's 170-171 . 197 Perlocutionary effect .40.112. 191 Presupposition Principle 91. 237-240 Scandinavia Taboo subjects 183 _ contexting 136-137 .49. 150.diffuse/specific 83. 198 Shift .Hatim & Mason 75 . 74-75.239.as an idealized example 38. 105-106. 108 108 108-109.214 Poetic function 98.79.86.188 -linear/systemic 183 .167.voice 55. assumed 93.84 ~ Wharf's hypothesis 83-84. 114115.130 Translating Cultures Relevance theory (see also Grice's Cooperative 91.56.188 Text _ type/ function 124.207 -thinking 176.deductive/inductive 51 .205.164-169.190-191.186.167-171. 182. 180.and informal culture 33 Phatic communication 189.unspecified referential index 108.205.explanation .translation ~ legislation on sexism 79 217.241 -dominant/variartt 58.161.148 218-220 Requests 28.233-234 180 .103.120.structure 175.David Katan 264 Orientations • General 29-30. 110.uncertainty avoidance (see also Structure) 183 .52 Time (see also under Orientation) • Orientations 172-173 .146.monochronic/polychronic Social engineering (see Culture. 230-232 Out-of-awareness (see also Informal culture) 32.75.59. 142.241 .translator as critical reader 90 .189.translation 9 Power (see also under Orientationsi ~ and politeness 70 Practices 27-29 . 136 Strategies (see under Capabilities) _ concept equivalencies and translation 81 Structure -orderlflexibility 175.154-157 .competition/cooperation 76 -localization problem 32-33. as a fitter.technical Enculturation) 27. 86 Systemic grammar (see also Transitivity) 92.of individuation 145. 188 .113.85. 130. 174-175.241 Parental appeals 64.172 meaning of words _ senses 88-89 7-10.expressive/instrumental 84 -Hopi 175 ~ structure 170 -Kluckhohn 66 Skopos 172 .99. 78-79 Symbolic approach to culture (see Dynamic) _ Sapir's hypothesis 79-80.180.215-220. 120.84.131.130 .140.author/addressee ~ communication 205-209 .48.145 Restricted language 106"107 Restricted code Rituals.78.120-121. 145 . 179 _ Pepsi-Cola and McDonald's 23 Surface structure (see Deep structure) _ translation 136 _ universalismlparticularism 174 Swiss 183 _ contexting Sapir-Whorf (see also Language.direct/indirect 172 ~ environment .status . 131.227-78 Sensory system 91 30"31.237-240 _ Kluckhohn 169 Transitivity private/public 48-49.236 174-175 . 132.99113. 217 Speech act Status _ achievement/ascription 180.of analogy 116-117 .involvement -openness 57 -power 174.119.72. Semantics 72 210.explanation 105 105 .79. 170.cultural 169-176.212 ~space 46.of Local Interpretation ~ locked-in-effect 112.96 Proverbs 58"59 ~ definition 59 7 Quiche Reader orientation (see Author/addressee) Reading 14.210 Transactional/interactional Space 235.177 ~ as a historical response 46 . 147 .87"90.110. .competitive/cooperative 175 .228-229 .145.141. 154 Prominence Prototype 36.207.178.57.selective 124. 124 .215 .155.Kluckhohn's Value 29.154-155.116 .and context (see Context.translations Sharedness.186. 196 Popular culture ~American 10 Portuguese -labelling 9 distancing devices 206 225-226 .•.218 Tact maxim _ competitive/cooperative orientation 175 16-21 Teaching culture Schema/schemata/script (see also Frame) 34-35 21 ~ student sojourns Seaspeak 31 Technical Second language acquisition (see also Bilinguals) -culture/level 7-11. 52.172-173.59.57. 137.91-92.85.179.222.151.207-209 Titles Socialization (see Enculturation) 55.action 233-236 194-204. 199 140.Hofstede 88 -Reddick 75 ~ stimulus figures Performative -act .226.understatement/overstatement 165.208 . 144. 150 ~ strategy for translators Reference/Referential .and beliefs 38 80. 173 diffuse/specific (psychological) 174.190 Routines of Life 265 Spain and Spanish 81 _ concept equivalence and translation 175 .generic /specific 31.204 .referential meaning 105-107.31.' Reality) -time 173 _ hypothesis 73. 141 .fallacy -missing 90-91 104.105.30-31.138. 71.172-173 . 164-167 Russia/n _ beliefs/values 61.112. 182.154 43.and values 58 ~Brake's 29-30 .205. culture-bound 28-29.190. 197.204.210-221 .olfaction and food 176. 230.179 _ coup 199-201 ~ uncertainty avoidance 175. 169-170 • Specific achievement/ascription 180 .233 Stereotypes (see also Ethnocentrism) 51.universalism/particularisrn 24. 182.116 Procedural model 149 138. 223-226 . 133.169.71 Sincerity condition Thinking Singapore 176 .234 Translation _ commissioner/skopos 66. 193.69-70. .40. 146.expressive/instrumental 221-232. Contexting) Simile (see Metaphor) Theme/Rheme 114.227 Politeness (see also Tact Maxim) 31.

capabilities 95 -resources 8. 154 grammar-translation 72.231 126. Margaret 103. 181 Berlusconi.87. R.230 Aitchinson.distortion/manipulation (see also 138-144.sayings 50 Turn-taking 229-230 'U and Non U' 53-54 Uncertainty avoidance (see also Structure) 183 Understatement/overstatement 165.199-201.147. 146. 192194.E.generalization 128. 127.169.161-162.clothes 110.126 Well-formed/ill-formed 93. Nancy 79-80 Black. 146. 18. 92. semantic style 184 Utilitarian Discourse system 196-197. 164 . Silvio 63. Franz 1.115 Biagi. 197.181. Adler. 113. .124.98. Robert 229. 156. 154-157 Manipulation) . Thomas 24. Frederic.Zanier 45 Translator (see also Cultural Mediator) . Bell. problems 8 .80. Ruth A.43. Nancy J. 117 Writing 179. Tony 99 Blakemore. J.technical .reduplication 225-226 99.84.addition/deletion 128-138 -communicative/semantic 150-151. 108 Avirovic.64. 150 126.127.affected by environment 48 ..48.26.54.Joyce 216-217 .explanation . Roger T.236 . Harnish 108 Baker. 169.109 Bernstein. Kenneth 113 Baker. Terence 170.75.lexical meaning 231 .21.91. 123 .Mona 1. 84. Richard 2.151157. 148. 135. Translation) .231 ~ denotative v connotative meaning 60 -equivalence 81.59. 85 .79. 60.dress and class 50 .93.156 Bandler. John 2. 16 Aston.236 Value Orientations (see Orientations) Vague language (see Implicit/explicit) Value judgements 109-111. 141 Shakespeare 8.212 Values (see also under Orientations.29. 191.70.12 Bochner Stephen 79 Boddewyn 134 Boothman.136.140.clusters 58.food labelling 9 ~ "Giotto" 198 .proof reader 198 • Translation approach .foreignizing 155-156. 140-141 Benjamin.214. 47 Berlin.recent theory (see also under specific entries) 124-126. 27. Jean 63 Akimoto. 1Q7. 203-204 .and transitivity 240 .conceptual gaps 81.107.185.31.217 .94.traditional.L. Urnberto 75-76 Bowdler.promotion/advertising 66. Brake. Walter 18 Bennett.223-226 Universalism/particularism .36. 190 Blair.Nida' s deep structure 93. Richard .216 . 174-175 . 149.125.34-37.185.89.9 David Katan 10·15.41.128. Carol 11 Arsenault 48 Asher.219.61. 173. 124. Ljiljana 137 Bach. Milton.204 .239 ~ comparison with other terms 40 . 150. 172. Basil 92 Berry. Leonard 140 Blum-Kulka. 96 Bassnett. Kent Robert.232 Adelman. 137 .102.118 Worldview 11.speeding fines 24 .2. Susan 2.231 7.147.140.192 Bateson. 120 Universal modelling (see under Meta-Modeli Urdu.modes of address 28 -newspaper 129-135.136. 19. Gregory 2.201-203. 154.110.230-232 Warwick university 19. Guy 32 Austin.161.with commentary 72 «Examples ~ business practice 57 -Calvino 100.Open University guide 196 54.19.165166.128 Beekman.85.and LCC/HCC orientation 195-204 267 Translating Cultures ~ Economist guide .requests 219 .conveyed through language 75-79.86.29 . Shoshana 73 Boas.64. C.death announcement 224 -information 10. 107 Brislin.171.197.235.64. 153. 57-58. Mara B.76-77. 151.140-141.214 Borker. J.141. 145·146 -local/global (see also under Global! local) 145-146 .Logical Level 38-39.Enzo 117 Bishop. J.266 -culture-bound 60. 174. 196 Name Index 79-80 Abelson.59. M. translation 59 Virtual text/translation 124-125. 173.63. 43.228. 86.151.27.126.134. 187-188 . 10.translation of 154-157 Vietnamese.177. Yukihiro 85 Arijoki. 116. 6671.229.206 . Derek 40.136-137.intention -machine 145 -PC 76. Diane 73 Bloomfield.109 Barthes 60 Bartlett. 140.241 -role Triad (see Hall's Triad) 72 Trobriand 26 TrompenaarsLayers Turkey/Turkish . 136.195 . 120. 235-240 . Isiah 134.relationships/channels of communication 190 Universal quantifiers 96-98. 79 Bossi.104.87.health warning 224 .106.64.241 Vocative texts 224 Voice 55-56.182 -Hofstede 27.and reality 75.66-67.127.do's and don'ts 52-53 . 189 13.163 ~ of the cultural mediator 66 .

126. Jean-Rene 14 Lakoff.209. 62-65. 114.26. Peter 86 Bowdler. 112. and J. Umberto 137-138. 211.95-106.51-52.Claire 20. Mark 92 Johst.213 107. Archibold 100 Grisham. 80.217. Robert 151 161 May. Mead. 193 Kaynak Kellett. 112. 102. 188 Clinton. Robert T. Noam 92-93. Mansur 68.90.125.222. Richard 213. 113.L. Maureen 65. 59. Alan c. Diaz-Guerrero. 237. 112 Dalyrymple.142. Harold 97 96 Maistre.108.84.ean. 136.238.181.Ian 130. Christopher 10. Licia 152 Goffman.232.64. Malcolm 218 Carroll.23. Lord 100-101 89. 2. 124. 62. 13. 116.102. Hans. Robert. Angela 101. 195 187. Dell 73 Inkeles Alex 170-171 Jakobson. Andre 140 Hatim. H.91. Tim 217 Johnson. 177.74. Robert Lorenz. Italo 100. Harnish. 194 228 229. 79. Hans 18 Joyce.236 Maxwell.217. Sari 137 Carbolante. 14.210.C.164.57.D. H. 105.40.35 Carmichael L 90 Goodale. Queen 133 Hasan. 66.96.66 2. 179. Ernest 133 Hermans. Geert 20.77. Philip R.48. 107.91. Ralph Locke. 75. James 216 Kapp.138.211 Korzybski. J. Englehorn. Charles 22.170. 116 Gran.230.89 Guirdharn. 73 Calistri.237 Harper. 140 Candlin.239.208 45.24. Claudia 198 Ford. 145 Fairclough. Ruqaiya 63-64.228. Michael 187. Theo 130 Hewson. Levinson. Dodds. 161. Lady 164. 145 Holz-e-Manttari 66 Huxley.L. 75.232. Christine Locke.P. Clyde 29. Cesare 75. 136.104 47-48. J.40. John 110-111 Muhlhausler. Laura 168.174. Henry 173. Norman 34. Ernest 195-196 Chamosa. A. John M. John 2.205 Larson. 14.20. 124. Christopher 95.175. Philip . 58.207 Calvi. A. M. 117-118. 69 Lanham.230. Jacky Maslowe. Francesco 115 Mikes. and Ruth A. Brian 133 Macmillan.172.214 14 Martin. Masaomi 8. Deana R. 124 Lalljee. Roger 94 Callow.232 170-171 217 29 100 101. Mildred Leech. 127. 2. Robert 22.78. Claude Levine. 124. Winston 47. George 220 Mitford. Thomas 76 Ferraro. Peter 71.105 Chomsky. Jane 232 Kilpatrick.240 Dickens. Robert 136 Grahame. 127.172. Bill David Katan 18.72. 185. Borker 40.73. John 230 Chandler. 126 Bush.K 2. 214.172 Knight. Beverly 18 22. P. John 10 Montgomery. Charles. Geoffrey N. Kathleen 138 Freud. Santoyo 137 Graham.186_187. 146. 36-37. Falkner. 136. McLeod. 188 Chesanow.89.49. Piotr 137 Ladmiral. Charles 183-184 Hall. 41-58 128. 181 Elizabeth Il. 104. Diana.236.235. 90 Bolmes.55.238 22. Vasily 136 Cortese. John 72.27-29.199.73. Emilio 54 Moran. Kluckhohn Florence 169-170. 188 Hampden-Turner. Annelie and Karlfried Knapp 13 K1amsch.27.77. Peter Brown. 17 Kuhiwczak. Martin 77-78 Montorfano. 114. Bronislaw 84 Malotki. David 56. 173. 128 Fowler.88. 10. Kenneth 145-146 Channell.268 Bromhead.119 Denton. Konrad 62 Lyons. ISO. Bill 110. 151. Mason. Edward. Gary. Edward 148 Hagen. 178. Rupen 135 Musacchio. 74. 187 Grice. John 58 Confucius 89 Grossman. Edward 117 Lorenz.240 168.46.142 Harris. Joanna 94. 19.63.76. George 36.29-33. Nancy 54 Mizuno.236. Daniel J. 141. 164 Fabbro. John 11 Dressier.83.88. Phil 85 Koenen and Smits 82 Kondo. 132.150. Diagram Group. 102. Roman 86 James. Robert. 124.214.171. G.217 Gentzler. Josef 101.146.183.199. 184 Murdoch.177.235 269 Translating Cultures 2. 30. Roberto 139 Gavioli. 51 Major. Ekkeharr Maltx. 67 126 Halliday.185-186 Farb.214 Kroeber. Maria Teresa 205 Muskie. David 116 141 Lodovico. Basil and Ian Mason Lemke.232. 30 Morley. 143. 74.236 217 Falinski. The 187 189. 104.237 Lodge.175. Erving 34. 93 De Bono. 113. 179.81. 184.39. Danielle 24. Theodore 163 Gumperz. 194-5. Robert 212 Kat~n.97 Grimond.55.212.217. 177. Daniel N.174 Callow. Franklin 88 Kipling. Edward 232 Levi Strauss. 197 Downing. Stephen Linton. Sherlock 79-80 Honig. Jane 78 Carrell. John 196 Clarke.64-5.81. Judith 227 Hale. Jay L. Guiseppina 40 Guildford Four. 106. David 31. Nikola 117.173.170-172.78.183.223 Hogan. 108 117-118. Dooley.189 Merlo. 108.184.44. James.77.84.82.237-238.87. 59. John 7.41. 58.240 Lepschy. Edwin 14. Anna Lama and Giulio Lepschy 56.29 Kluckhohn. Fritz 68 Hemingway.R. 126.143. 126. 127.Rom 71.93 Gordon.236 Headland.78. Rudyard 70 16.117 Longacre. Raymonde 155 Gowers.74. 101.P. 118. 15.7. Rollo 19 Mcl. 113. 140 Holmes. Sidney 98.191. Rogelio 75 170. Laura 32 Calvino. Akira 10 Mole. 98. John J.26.17. Albert 87 Knapp-Potthof.173. Lewis 89.162. George 133-134 Firth. 189 Malinowski. 137.59.213 BUhler 224 Fillmore.235. Carl 150 Jefferson. Wolfgang U. John 72 MacArthur. 92. Williarn 100 174. Franco 188 55.218 Lefevere. Collodi 28 92.207. The 114 Crystal. 172. Diplock.211. Sigmund 32.ozier. Mildred Reed 55 Dilts.211 Churchill. 130. J.232 Medina-Walker. 126 Gilbert. Stephen 11 Del. Michael A.29.92. Aldous 63-64 Hymes. J. Abraham H. Pen elope Bryson. Lance and Jacky Martin 14 Hofstede.26. 13. Levinson.190 Grinder.37. Thomas 186 Johns.184 Eco.136. Richard 195 128. Kenneth 97 Grinder. 2.174. Neil 136 Greenbaurn. Thomas 195 Heider.212.27.109 Colquhoun. T. Gillian Brown. 16.217 Harre. 189. John 197 Hall. 125. S.

21.59.205. Edward C.81. 108 Sullivan. Salmon 193 Russell. Priscilla 189 Rosch. Abdel 232 Neubert. 100 Popovic. John R. Anton 140 Porter..207. Barry 215 Vaihinger.75-76.62. David 217 Trompenaars. Mafia 55. 2. Muriel 39. Susan 162 Pinker.178. 147.113.74.5'7'.74.208. 124.228.230-231. 132 Schaffner Christina 66. 60.211 19. Fons 15. William 14. David 56 Ross. 87 Valdes. 171.240.~64.224 Unsworth. JoyceMerill 18-19.14.230. 24 Waters. W. 131.7.223. Blaise 227-228 Pease. R. Talcott 170 Pascal.216 Vittorini.205.146. Jonathon 195 Szalay.155.119. 146. 145 Stewart. George F 179.Larry A.27. Margherita 32. Swithin 118 Stein. 29. President 140.R. Wim 178. Harry. Sartre. G. 27. 129.167.172. 147.L. 22. Stefania 8 O'Connor.27. 2.236 Tooley Michael 236 Toscani. Lawrence 136. Wolfram 74 Wittgenstein. Albrecht 2.91.93. 180. David A.207 Wolfe.236 43 16. Ron and Suzanne Wong Scollon 70. 164 Vannerem.148. Mary 2. Carmen 179. Howard Novelli. Stefano 224 Orwell. Mia and Mary Snell-Hornby 124-5 Vazques. Richard E. 117. 196 Palmer. 13 Rushdie.46. 136. 80.208.98-99.1'85. 181. Malcolm 187 Watzlawick. 13 Straniero Sergio Francesco 190 Strodtbeck. Edward 80 Snell-Hornby.178. Franco Taylor Torsello. Jocelyne 52. 100.214. Stack 32 Swift. D. 145. Ed'Yard .205 Taylor. Gamal.c. 170. Randolf 98.174. 13. Anna 185 Wilde. 145.228 Sperber.207. 108 Roy. Greg 193 Nasser.109 Scarpa. 12. Branca T.119. 96.228-229. 96 Sato.167.140. Eleanor H. 150-151.9. A.207.36. Kenneth 141 Parsons.41. 183. 177 Squarzina. 84. Henry. George 21.F. 181 Smith. 84. 185 Sherrin.220-221.76. 92. 181 Vermeer.84-86 Whorf.40.79. Sue 151 Treu. 150 Victor. Lorand B. 85.161'. 156. William 164 Wenders. George 175. Frances 100 Samovar. 63 Praz. John 34.91. 126.Alan 84 Seguinot Candice 9. 83.Des 132. Leonardo 99 Zeffirelli.29. 63 Santoyo.Alan 53-54 Ross. 123 Taft.35. G. David 206. Paul 74. John 186. 113. 114. 15.20.93. 61.123.93. Douglas 155 Robinson.40 Rogers.P. 132. 79. 109.147.132. 161-162 Scollon.93. R. 150 Sifianou. Ludwig 32. J. Tiziano 181 Trickey. 66. 174.l 55.222. 7375. 145 Yule. 124. 173.. 105. 89.189. 14. Beppe 200. H.216. 151. George Bernard 56.173.224-5 Wierzbicka.238 Tebbitt. A.84 Seeleye-James. 113. 10 Thatcher.170.95 Sternberg.172.48 Zanier.96. Peter 2. Steven 74. 16. B. Benjamin Lee 142 Weaver. 117. 14. 131.146.42. Deborah 34. Federica 10. 86. 145 Wilss.~'/'J6 •. James E. Edward Burnett 16 Ulrych. 192. 167 Ritzer.232 Shakespeare. Diedre 2. 172. Luigi 141 St. 36.232 Ondelli.12.43. Elliot D.105 Reddick. George 2.197.4u.43.. 137 Sapir.140 Nixon. Joseph 34. P.96. 150 Newmark. 229. 177 2.91. Robert J. 131 Ting-Toomey.99. Wilson. Charles R. Ned 99 Shreve.234 Seymour. Shannon Peters 23 Tannen. H.30.26..J. Helen 8. 189 Vincent Marrelli. 141. 140. 75 Taber.46. 75 Ribiero. 189 35 Wallet Cynthia 90 Waiter. .126-127. J.David Katan 270 Myers. 14 Talbott.204 Selby. Quintin 23 Taylor. 189 Simons. 148.34. 115. Oscar 2.147.29. Hans J. 14. 131.. 91 Searle.224 Nida. 36.212 Shaw. Carol 271 . 124. Christopher 99. 125. Stella 177. 179. Demetrio 141 Walker.147. 22. TOQ. Oliviero 194 Townsend. Margaret 232 Thompson.73. Norman 180 Tebble.21 Nostrand.227 Widdowson. Eugene A. Prime Minister 211 Saville-Troike. 129. 43 Ritchie. Gregory M.<84. 150 Snelling. 113. Cynthia B. 96.140.214.169 Strawson. 124.99.163. Gail 17-18. 145. Fred L.197.60. 124 Rosewarne.93.23 Robinson.36.233 Tylor. 229. 40.146. 193.225. 156 Schneider.58.197. George 45.73 Venuti. 185.93.26. Seeleye. Ambrose 53 St. Henry 68 Severgnini. J. Monica 53 St. 11.136.197.223. 187 Steiner.100. Agostine 53 St. 73. 186 Ross.22.37 Russell. Ned Translating Cultures 11.235 Tarantino.109. Thomas 24. Allan 232 Pierce. Mario 141 Quirk.

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