1.6K views

Uploaded by syukurkk

Power Electronic

save

- TM60T i
- Industrial-Electronics-Lecture-Notes-07-Automatic-Welding.pdf
- Issa Batarseh Power Electronics_PDF
- Bee4113 Chapter 3
- D1WWEF01E
- M4100
- Carlingtech_Digital_Switching_Systems_ECS-III
- HIGH VOLTAGE TECHNOLOGY MODULE (QUESTION AND ANSWER).docx
- Coffee Partners v. San Francisco Coffee and Roastery
- Switch_Ratings.pdf
- Great White Shark Enterprises v. Caralde, Jr. GR No. 192294 2012 (DIGEST)
- PRESSURE SIWTCH
- 2.power diodes.ppt
- datasheet reele.pdf
- Electrical SBA (Cape) Transmission power line Test
- Electric Warship
- Comprehensive Electrical System Maintenance Checklists
- Mac3 Sequencer
- ETS_BL_E02_A02
- Ebc11 Controller
- DC Contactors - AllPowerSource
- Mc 521 Swing Manual 204027 c
- Indicators
- 4 Technical Description of Plant
- 745T Installation
- EE271lab1Sum09
- Creda AquaThermo Manual
- M&M - FS4-3T
- MCB-MCCB
- 1144_2012-032LR_orr-draft
- Breakdown in Liquids 2011 Update
- Persepsi Pelajar Elektrik (Eksa)
- Introduction ADSP
- KAJIAN Final Edited (2) (2)
- Review of Electrical Fundamentals Asmar
- Force Commutated Inverters
- DE1 Project That Demonstrates a Binary to BCD Converter
- LNP 4 PENYELENGGRAAN FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEM
- LNP 3 PENGUJIAN FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEM
- Oscillator
- LNP 2 PEMASANGAN FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEM
- LNP 1 BLUE PRINT FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEM

You are on page 1of 15

Practical

Switches

**Ideal and Practical Switches
**

To assess the performance of a switch, we look at two aspects of its

behaviour :

(i)

static, and

(ii)

dynamic

If the switch is either in its ON or OFF state, we call this a static

condition.

The dynamic condition is the transition from one static state to the

other.

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

2

**Ideal static characteristics :
**

On-state :

**1. Able to carry any value of forward current
**

2. Has zero voltage drop

3. Has zero on-state resistance

4. Has zero power dissipation

Off-state:

**1. Able to withstand infinite open-circuit voltage
**

2. Has zero leakage current

3. Has infinite off-state resistance

**Ideal Dynamic Characteristics:
**

1. Zero turn-on time

2. Zero turn-off time

3. Infinite dv/dt rating

4. Infinite di/dt rating

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

3

**Static performance of practical switches
**

•

**Power semiconductor switches depart to some extent from the
**

ideal – there is a small but finite voltage drop in the ON state and a

small but finite “leakage current” in the OFF state.

•

**The leakage current that flows in the OFF state causes the power
**

dissipation in the device.

•

**Usually the power dissipation due to this leakage current is small in
**

comparison with the power dissipation in the ON state therefore the

power dissipation due to OFF state leakage can be neglected.

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

4

**Dynamic performance of practical switches
**

A real switch needs a finite time ton for ON switching and toff for OFF

switching.

These finite switching times have two major consequences:

i. They limit the highest repetitive switching frequencies possible.

ii. They introduce additional power dissipation in the switched

themselves.

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

5

**Switching characteristics of practical devices
**

Practical switching devices have non-zero :

i

i. rise time

Power

ii. fall time

v

Switch

iii. delay time

v

iv. storage time

Voltage and current reference directions

control

**td : delay time
**

ts: storage time

tf: fall time

tr: rise time

ton: turn-on time

toff: turn-off time

ton = td + tr

toff = ts + tf

t

v

Turn‐on

Turn‐off

t

i

t

tr

ts

td

tf

ton

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

toff

tc

6

Switching characteristics of

practical devices (continued):

• During the transition there

is power dissipation taking

place inside the switch.

v

Turn-off

t

i

• Instantaneous power

dissipated is given by the

product of terminal voltage

v and terminal current i.

t

tr

ts

td

tf

ton

Power

Loss

i

v

Turn-on

toff

tc

Turn-on

loss

Conduction

loss

Power

Switch

Voltage and current reference directions

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

Turn-off

loss

t

7

**Power Loss Model of a Generic Switch
**

Input power, Pin

Power

lost, Ploss

Useful output

power, Pout

Gate power

input, Pgate

**Energy conservation principle requires that
**

Pout = Pin + Pgate - Ploss

In general, the gate power input is very much smaller that that of the supply

power, Pin . So, we can write

Pout = Pin - Ploss

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

8

Switching Losses

Four types of power losses occur in a practical switch:

1. Turn-on loss

2. Conduction loss

3. Turn-off loss

4. Gate driver power input

The instantaneous power loss in a practical switch is given by the expression

p(t) = v(t).i(t)

The average power loss during a time T is

1

P

T

T

p( )d

0

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

9

i

Power

Switch

v

**Three types of power losses in a
**

practical switch:

Voltage and current reference directions

**i. Average turn-on loss:
**

v

Turn-on

Turn-off

tr

1

Pon

tr

p( )d

0

t

**ii. Average turn-off loss is
**

i

Poff

t off

1

t off

p( )d

t

0

tr

td

iii. Average conduction loss is

Pcond

1

t cond

tcond

p( )d

ts

tf

ton

Power

Loss

0

toff

tc

Turn-on

loss

Conduction

loss

Turn-off

loss

t

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

10

**The total energy W (in joules) dissipated in the switch in one switching
**

cycle is given by the sum of the areas under the power waveform during ton

and toff. Hence, the average power dissipation is

Pdiss

W

Ts

1

Ts

t off

ttcond

tr

p( )d p( )d p ( )d

0

0

0

where Ts is the switching period. The switching frequency is

fs

1

Ts

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

11

**It is important to consider losses in power switches:
**

i.

**to ensure that the system operates reliably under prescribed ambient
**

conditions

**ii. so that heat removal mechanism (e.g. heat sink, radiators, coolant) can be
**

specified. Heat sinks and other heat removal systems are costly and bulky.

iii. losses in switches affects the system efficiency

If a power switch is not cooled to its specified junction temperature, the full

power capability of the switch cannot be realised. Derating of the power switch

ratings may be necessary.

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

12

Example

Consider a power switching device whose current and voltage

waveforms are as shown in Figure 1. Determine

(a) the turn-on energy loss

(b) the turn-off energy loss

(c) the average power dissipation.

Assume a switching frequency of 40 kHz.

250 V

100 A

1 μs

3 μs

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

t

13

**Practical switch specifications
**

Important parameters of practical devices to consider when using

them as a switch:

1. Voltage ratings: forward and reverse repetitive peak

voltages, and ON-state forward voltage drop.

2. Current ratings: average, rms, repetitive peaks, nonrepetitive peak, OFF-state leakage current.

3. Switching frequency/switching speed: Device heating

increases with the switching speed.

4. di/dt rating: The power switching device needs a minimum

amount of time before its whole conducting surface comes

into play in carrying the full current. If the current rises

rapidly, the current flowing may be concentrated to a

certain area and the device may be damaged.

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

14

**Practical switch specifications (continued)
**

5. dv/dt rating: A semiconductor device has an internal

junction capacitance, Cj. If the voltage across the switch

changes rapidly during turn-on, turn-off, and while

connecting the main supply, the current Cjdv/dt flowing

through Cj may be too high, thereby causing damage to the

device.

6. Safe operating area: sets the maximum current, voltage,

and power loss that can be handled safely by the device.

7. Temperature: maximum allowable junction temperature.

Dr.ZAH, UTHM

15

- TM60T iUploaded byMohd Shahrir
- Industrial-Electronics-Lecture-Notes-07-Automatic-Welding.pdfUploaded bySheehan Kayne De Cardo
- Issa Batarseh Power Electronics_PDFUploaded bybrunoverg
- Bee4113 Chapter 3Uploaded byKung ChinHan
- D1WWEF01EUploaded byLeonardo Figueroa
- M4100Uploaded bykylegaze
- Carlingtech_Digital_Switching_Systems_ECS-IIIUploaded bycyazhni
- HIGH VOLTAGE TECHNOLOGY MODULE (QUESTION AND ANSWER).docxUploaded byrazifhamzah
- Coffee Partners v. San Francisco Coffee and RoasteryUploaded byNenzo Cruz
- Switch_Ratings.pdfUploaded byRubayet
- Great White Shark Enterprises v. Caralde, Jr. GR No. 192294 2012 (DIGEST)Uploaded byNicky Botor
- PRESSURE SIWTCHUploaded byAdam Samy
- 2.power diodes.pptUploaded byMuhammad Irfan
- datasheet reele.pdfUploaded byEsteban Quito
- Electrical SBA (Cape) Transmission power line TestUploaded byTarick Edwards
- Electric WarshipUploaded byGip Cong
- Comprehensive Electrical System Maintenance ChecklistsUploaded byAshwinSiddaramaiah
- Mac3 SequencerUploaded byYesid Felipe Leguizamon Lopez
- ETS_BL_E02_A02Uploaded byAmit Sadhu
- Ebc11 ControllerUploaded byBilly Robb
- DC Contactors - AllPowerSourceUploaded bydallyman47
- Mc 521 Swing Manual 204027 cUploaded byRodrigo Valenzuela
- IndicatorsUploaded bysaizu1
- 4 Technical Description of PlantUploaded byIsmael Khalil
- 745T InstallationUploaded byJetmir Brika
- EE271lab1Sum09Uploaded byDũng Gooner
- Creda AquaThermo ManualUploaded byelectricshowers
- M&M - FS4-3TUploaded byJack Duff
- MCB-MCCBUploaded byDuy Pham
- 1144_2012-032LR_orr-draftUploaded byEduardo Gil

- Breakdown in Liquids 2011 UpdateUploaded bysyukurkk
- Persepsi Pelajar Elektrik (Eksa)Uploaded bysyukurkk
- Introduction ADSPUploaded bysyukurkk
- KAJIAN Final Edited (2) (2)Uploaded bysyukurkk
- Review of Electrical Fundamentals AsmarUploaded bysyukurkk
- Force Commutated InvertersUploaded bysyukurkk
- DE1 Project That Demonstrates a Binary to BCD ConverterUploaded bysyukurkk
- LNP 4 PENYELENGGRAAN FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEMUploaded bysyukurkk
- LNP 3 PENGUJIAN FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEMUploaded bysyukurkk
- OscillatorUploaded bysyukurkk
- LNP 2 PEMASANGAN FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEMUploaded bysyukurkk
- LNP 1 BLUE PRINT FIRE FIGHTING ALARM SYSTEMUploaded bysyukurkk