You are on page 1of 4

“avGmif.Al.rkS pGefStm.


ref;crf;udk vSpvGpfwjcifa&Sum.v/ tac.cH.Oya'.tvS tcGifSa[m0f tcGifSxlSzHk.um;uatm0f./
ajzm0fSapmufSzm;oD;pGdKS orf;vSvGdKtm orf;prf.pmSAm.,HwJif OD;xGef;at; wGrf. OD;xGef;jrifhoD;tGOfigxGL
crf;om;vGwfawmf.wJhaem0fS/ ajzm0fScrf;aumifpDtpDSta0SwJhaem0fS zsifqifa&Stwm./ vdk.rmSig.vJOf;tausmifS
oJpfu'gif.ysSe,fwJif/ wvJif.csif. ajzm0fScrf;udk ya'.o&mZfpepf, pepfvDSzHk. vdk.csKyfndrfSvJOf;up'g. avufajz@SvDzHk.
aig0f;_cDajcm0fzHk. wJrf;xef.xkwfaz:. ay:.ayguf vGOfpGOf.'sm.oGL?

pepftvS 'Drdkua&pDpepf uatm0f.usifSoHkS'g. ref;crf;udk,dk/ rOf;wGdK.tac.cH. Oya'.cg/ tcGifSa[m0f tcGifSxlSzHk.
orf;az.'sm.apmufSzm;pGdKSwJif/ rOf.xGm; rOf.axmufysS,if;EJkif;,dkaem0fS wGrf.'Drdkua&pDpepf vGdKqef'sm.0gifS
wuJufnD.vSawm0f;0gifSoGL?

apmufSzm;u&dkSaem0fS crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSoD;oSabmfStvS vGdKufa&GSygif.xif.awGm@S xGmvGOfvdkSwef tGOfigom;
warG;awm0f;wJif ayg.tzmapmufSzm;jzm;atm0f.'GKrfweDScg (rOf.oDxGL weDScg ) tzmcif.vrf;/ tzmerf;wJOfS/
tzmtrGD./ tzmt&m.cH.tm.%m.zHk.um;uatm0f. yÉdoaE<.tvS tydktD.cH.pmSaom@SvJkif.? tydktD.xGmaom@SvJkif.
[H.aAG./ crf;aAG./ tm.%m.osif.oGL? xGmcGefrsKdS tay.pm;/ uGyfaem0fSrS 0gifS[J@Sya'.o&mZfpepfEJkif;aem0fSoGL?

az.uxGmcGef/ az.uxGmaAG.awGm@S crf;om;vdkSxrfSomS vJkif;vkyfSjcHrmSoD; usKdufoS vdGKufa&GS ajrmuf'gif. ygif.xif.az.
warG;awm0f;wJif/ a0GSoD;,dk w&mStvS crf;om;vdkSxrfSomSoD; usKdufoSzsKwf (vGwfS) vifScGifS/
tcGifSta&Swatm0f.awm0f;aeaeoGL?

a0GSoD;crf;e,f.udk/ vdkSt&m.atm0f. ydkvf.wef/ ydkvf.wavmifS/ ydkvf.ay.zHk.up'g. t&m.atm0f. t&m.cH.zHk.vdk@vdk@pgifpgif/
a0GSoD;oSabmfStwGdKifS a0GSoD;usKdufoStwGdKifS 'gif.csm'sm.oGL? uAGefyDoefig. tm.%m.aAG./ tm.%m.osif.om;
tcsufaem0fS apmufSzm;pGdKSzHk.crf;e,f.udk aqmif.&Guf cGKrfrmSavGS tkyfcsKyfa&SxGLwum.awm0f; aumufcH.oGL
tcGOf.awmf.zHk.rS aumpD.&if.qHkS zswfaz.w&mSwJif/ pepf,dkzHk.aem0fS w[J@Sawm0f; atmfwdkua&SpDpepfaem0fS
[J@SuJ'GKrfpepfwrJkifS/ wvGdKqefawm0f;'Drdkua&pDpepfaem0fS tvGdKqefpepfwrJkifS?

aeif. 1950 aAG twGifSum.v/ ajzm0fScrf;udk tpdGKStAl.uwGL.w&ef vGdKqefa&mif'g. ya'.o&mZfpepfzHk./
'Drdkua&pDpepfwGrf. vdkStcGifSa&S rGefAefxGefSumSa&S tpdGKStAl.zHk./ up'g. tpGdKStAl.zHk. xdGK@SAl. w,f.axmif.vGOfvGwJif
ya'.o&mZfoGKwfS0JkifSa&Stwm. &JkifSwoGdK;vG yigy&mSoGL?

1947 Am.aeif.udk uw,f.qGdK@SxGdK@SAl.cgS'g. “ytdk0f.avGmif.Al.” tpGdKSaem0fS/ 1950 Am.aeif./ vm-o*kwf 2 eDSaem0fS
,m.,D.tae. rGOf;zsifxGKd@SAl.xGLwJif [J@Sa[mif zefajymifS,if;trOfS “crf;aygifSpkytdk0f.trsKdSomStpGdKStAl.”
(jynfaxmifpkytdk0f;trsKd;om;tzJGhcsKyf/ “ytrz”§ Union Pa-O National Organization “U-P-N-O” )
EkJif;aem0fS/ uxif.wGdK. aeif. 1951Am./ rwfvm 1 eDS/ rmSavGSeDytdk0f.wrsKdSomSvGKrf;qJif.&mS yG,fSwefnD.vm.cH.wJif/
uwJrf;uJpfS wJpfSrJkifcgS'g./ xGdK@SAl.yHk.tacs.cH.Oya'.zHk.um;uatm0f./ tGOf.axGmhqHkSzswfcef;'sm. twnf.tr,fS
wAm.aem0fSoGL?

uxdGK@SAl.Am.tif;rdk;csufaem0fS
(1) vdGKqefya'.o&mZfpepfuJkifta&S
(2) 'Drdkua&pDpepfwaoGmif;rGefAefa&S
(3) wdGKufSvD,m;ukJif'kp&Jpfa&S up'g.EkJif;,dkzHk.?
OuUXaem0fS OD;bdk;cif;/ tGOftudka&Saem0fS OD;jzL/ a0GSaAG.jzm;oD;0gifSeDvGKrf;vGKrf;aem0fS xGmajzm0fScrf;aumifpD EJkif;EJkif;
0gifSoGL?

tm.Zm.eD.Aef vdkSpGefS,H jzm;wefoD;yGdKif;&if;olS/ pepfuJkifoD;awufSEsSrkSqSv/ 0g.'rm.w&GdK@SoD; puf0GdKifS,EW&m;udk
eDytdk0f.vdkSrsKdSoD;b0/ vGpfxef.aEGmifSa&Stwm. &Jkif;&Jkif;[ef[ef vGdKqefwGdKufScS xGLwum.awm0f;/ qJkifScsmydkvDS
ytdk0f.oD;zHk.twm. ayg.xmSwwS&mSawm0f;rsKdSref.ors tHkzGdK. crf.EGrfS/ irf;w&sLd;yJkif.arGm@u&dkSaem0fS tGOf.uJkifaoScgS
Oyrm. yHk.cGdKifSwJif wGrf.uaz.aoScgSeD tm.&JifSaem0fSAGefAGef0gifSoGL?

ygrJkifSrJkifSw&dkSawm0f;/ vdkSu&dkSaem0fS xmSirf;w&mSrOf.uifSrS aomutD.uifS/ aomurOf.uifSrS tD.aysm.oGif.aEGmifS/
rOf.vS rOf.yJif.qJif.b0rGef;rGef; oGdKSodGKS/ aysm.aysm. oGif.oGif.rS oJifSxGmAm. vdkSydk vdkSb0 tusKdStD.eyfoGL?

eDytkd0f.vdkSrsKdS/ eDytdk0f.b0,Haysm.oGif./ ,HurGef;oGdKS/ az.uyJif.qJif.vSAm. om.,m.cGSndrfSa&Saem0fS/ eDoGKef.udk
oScg./ uatm0f.cHydGKif;cS&mS/ uatm0f.0dGK@wOf.cgS'g. xmSirf;w&sKd;rkS/ xmStHkzGdK. crf.EGrfS0gifSzHk.,dk xdGK@Sxef. igif.jzwfS/
AufSuJkif,m.vDxGL/ vdk.zsifaqGm@S aAGm@Sw,f.wOf.vJOf; tm.Zm.eD;jzm;wefoD; utGOf.uJkifcgS'g. em.rl.em./
terf;jcHKwAm.oGL?

rOf.,l.pJif;pJif;/ rOf.uOfSpmS,G,Gaem0fS pif;pJpfwAm. xmSirf;w&mSwGrf. xmSaxmifxGm; qif.csif.rkSzHk.,dk
atm0f.qGdKufpyf axGaxmifvG0gifSoGL?

1950 Am.aeif./ vm'DZifbm 4 eDS/ crf;aygifSpkytdk0f.trsKdSomStpdGKScsKyf (ytrz) tGOfigawGm@S crf;aumifa'.o
w&yfvGKrf;vGKrf;udk/ eDytkd0f.crf;om;wrsKdSvGKrf;vGKrf; axmifwzlSwGL.w&ef ysSqEN vGKdqefa&mifvG ya'.o&mZfpepfuJkif
0g.'oGL? vGdKqefa&mifpepfuJkifyG,fSwGifS/ eDytkd0f.vdkSrsKdSzHk. tGOf.e,f eDytdk0f.oD;oSxmSvkd.qEN/ ysSe,f eDytdk0f;oD;
xmSavGmif.Al.rkS tm.&JifSwJif “ya'.o&mZfpepfuJkif tvkd.atm0f.awm0f;/ az.Am.eDytdk0f.tcGifSta&SwvJif.csifS/
crf;aygifSpk ,HwOf;acGgif Am.ta&S/ 'Drdkua&pDta&S” up'g. wGrf.aig0f;_cDajcm0fEJkif;,dkwJif &JkifSwoGdK;uGDa&mifvG eDytkd0f.
oD;ta&S EJkif;aem0fSoGL?

arm@SvJif.aem0fScgwGifS ay.ay. wefwef/ jzm;jzm; qm;qm;/ rl.rl. cdkcdk ytdk0f.tmoD. uGyfxD.ig. eDytdk0f.vdkSrsKdSta&SwJif/
ytkd0f.crf;om;vdkSjzmSaygifS (10000) waomif.vGdK&yf/ a0ifSawmif;uDS wa0ifSvGKrf;vGKrf; v,f.aqmf.vGdKqef
uGDa&miftcGifSta&SwGrf. aig0f;_cDajcm0f EkJif;uD,dk twGdKifS/ uxGKdif.pGpfSwdk;xGL awmif;uDa0ifS wa0ifvGKrf;vGKrf;cg
pkvkdSawGm@S rmSavGScef;'sm. crf;om;tpDSta0GSwef a0ifSawmif;uDS abmfvHk;uGifSudkoGL? rOf.,l.csm/ rOf.axmifxGm;
csm,if; eDvdkSrsKdS tavmif;/ tGOfigom; tm.Zm.eD.jzm;oD;yGdKif;vJif./ utGOf.'g.ap.wem./ 0g.oem./ cH.tepfem./
wGrf.oSt"dXmef.csufzHk.aem0fS xl.*k%f. c&m.a[m0fig.oGL?

tpDSta0GSyG,fS utGOf.axGm@csrwfcgS'g. qHkSzswfcsuf oGHcsuftudkuyg'g. 0ef.wefcsKyfOD;Ek aig0f;trdef;awmf.tvS
ytdk0f.trsKdSomSoD;aig0f;_cDajcm0fudk xmSvdk.csufzHk. tpJpftrJOf.wAm. wdusao.csm. rdGKifrGdKif IuKifIuKif ,HaoxGS
aEGmifSaem0fS/ tD.tGOf.pGSae;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif. om;u&dkS'g. aig0f;*wdSopPm.twGdKifS trGdKifoGKwfS ,Haqmif.&Guf
cGKrfrmSavGSaz.Am. up'g.EJkif;aem0fS oGL? aem0fSxGLwum.awm0f; tpDSta0GSudk ydGKif;0GdK@wGrf. xmSvdk.csuf vdwf'gif.e,f
(Report) wapmif.aem0fSvJ@ twGifSaem0fScg ajzm0fScrf;ytdk0f.0ef.wefOD;bdk;cif yomaxhavGS crf;aygifSpktpdk.&xsS
aem0fSoGL?

eDytdk0f.crf;e,f. aumifa&GSwajcmif.vGKrf;vGKrf;/ w&yfvGKrf;vGKrf; &Jkif;&Jkif; [ef[ef aAm@SoGD.vGKdqefrkSzHk./ uxGdKif.rmavGS
crf;om;aAm@SoGD.tpDSta0GSyG,fSzHk./ crf;aygifSpkeDytkd0f.trsKdSomSnD.vm.cH.zHk. pwJifEJkif;aem0fSzHk.wJif aeif. 1951 Am./
vmZefe0g&D 9 eDS ajzm0fSapmufSzm;pGdKSzHk./ zpfygifStHkuGKrf wGdKif.ygif.a'g@S&Dcef;wGrf. eDytdk0fStrsKdSomStGOfigom;wJif
az.vl.vJkif.csmigcef;vkd@0gifS oSabmfSw&mSzHk./ uG,f.wJifawGm@S crf;aygifSpkytdk0f.trsKdSomStpdGKScsKyf (ytrz)
u'gif;e,f'g. uuDG'g. tcGifSta&SzHk. tcsufzHk.twGdKifS/ wpGdK;wrsKdSigwJh wrGOf;zsif cGKrfrmSaqmif.&Gufaz.awm0f;oGL?

aeif. 1952 Am./ vmazaz:0g&D 28 eDSaem0fS ajzm0fScrf;tpdk.& xkwfxef.ajz@SvD vdwfaus.nm.csuf wapmif.oGL?
vdwfausk.nm.csufaem0fSaem0fS a&.rdk;'sm. tem.*gwfajzm0fScrf; vGdKif.uGKefSom.,m. a&Stwm.wJif/ Edkif.iH.awmf.
orRwoD; xGdK@SAl.avGSvJOf; txlSaumf.rosif.pdGKS wpdGKStausmifS atm0f.az:.e,f 'gif.ysScgSEJkif;v,dktwGdKifSoGL?

tacs.tae.,dkcgtvS tem.*gwfajzm0fScrf;vdGKif.uGKefSom.,m.a&SwGrf. vGpfwjcifrkS wOf.acGgif nqGmSa&S
twGufwm./ ydGKif;0dGK@wGrf.Edkif.iH.crf;xDa&S&m.udpPzHk. wdGK.oSrkS (wGdK.ajcmifrkS) ,Haz.uatm0f.aem0fS/ crf;aAG. xDaAG.
apmufSzm;oD; oSrOfaqmif.&GufcGKrfrmSavGSxGLwum.awm0f;/ a0GSoD;[H.e,f. yigy&mSudk tkyfcsKyfa&SudpPwJhaem0fS
vdk.ajymifSvJkif.rGOf;zsifvJOf;&dkSyD;aem0fSwJif/ ajzm0fScrf;OuUX awmifSjyef.csuftvSwGrf. apmufSzm;oD; twnf.wAm.
uqHkSzswfcgS'g.twGdKifS?

1? txlSaxmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif.tpdGKSudk uyg0if.aom@S'g. yk*~dKvf.v,dkzHk.aem0fS
[J@Sa[mifAm. “ajzm0fScrf;tkyfcsKyfa&S axmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif.pdGKS” EJkif;aem0fSxGL/
aeif. 1951 Am. axmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rwD.tufOya'.yk'fwef (3) tvS
Edkif.iH.awmf.orRw xGdK@SAl.az.tyfcgS'sm.oGL?
(1) owdk;r[moa&pnfol OD;jrifhodef; OuUX
(2) OD;jrifhxl; 'k OuUX
(3) owdk;r[moa&pnfol apm0f;[Hkz apmufSzm;odEMD tpdGKSEGdK@vdkSwef
(4) oa&pnfolapm0f;a&ìrHk apmufSzm;aus;oD; ?
(5) oD&dysHcsD apm0f;cGefatmif apmufSzm;abmf ?
(6) r[moa&pnfol OD;pHvl ?
(8) OD;aratmif tGOftudka&S
(9) OD;vdyf rmSzuftGOftudka&S
2? txlSaxmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif.tudk uEGdK@xGdKufuEGdK@oif'g.yk*~dKvf.zHk;aem0fS aumf.rosif.
pdGKS,dkzHk. az.tyfaEGmifScGifSatm0f.Am.oGL?
3? txlSaxmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif.om; wm.0ef.wGrf.0wW&mSzHk.aem0fS
(u) apmufzm;[H.e,f.um;uatm0f.aem0fS apmufzm;tkyfcsKyfa&SudpPzHk.ajymifSvJkif.a&Swm.
xGmaEGmifS/ wxGmaEGmifSawm0f;u&dkSaem0fS axmifxGm;Am.?
(c) tkyfcsKyfa&SudpP rOf.ajymifSvJkif.aEGmifS&dkSvJ@/ tD.tkyfcsKyfavGSxJif;Am.te,fSrJkifStD.aoef.
avsmf.?
(*) tkyfcsKyfa&SajymifSvJkif.a&Swm. rOf.wxGmaEGmifSawm0f;&dkSvJh apmufSzm;tkyfcsKyfa&S,dk/ tD.
tkyfcsKyfavGSxJif;Am.te,fSrJkifSu&dkSaem0fS az.Am.tusrf.Om%f. ajzm0fScrf;OuUXxsS?
4? txlSaxmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&SaumfSrosif.,dkaem0fS 0wW&mSwGrf.xmSrmSwm.0ef.zHk. 6 vmudk ,H
az.uxGL_zD.pD.avGSxGL/ axmufcH.csufuyg'g. vdwf'gif.e,faem0fS 'gif.e,fAm.ajzm0fScrf;OuUXxsS
oGL?

uxGdK@SAl.Am. ajzm0fScrf;axmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif.pdGKS,dkvJh uGyfpGOf.apmufSzm;anmif.&GD. apma&ìodkuf
EdkSaqmf.wrmrkSxGLum.awm0f; aumf.rosif.pGdKSudk apmufSzm;zHk. atm0f.ygaom@StmwJif crf;aygifSpkytdk0f.trsKdSomS
tpdGKScsKyf (ytrz) wGrf. ya'.o&mZfpepf tvdk.tJOfaxm0f;om;zHk. vuQH.aEGmifSawm0f;tausmifS vGdKqefa&mif
vG0gifSoGL?
aeif. 1952 Am./ vm{_yD 12 eDS/ ytrz tpGdKS [J@StpDSta0GS a'g@S&DtHkuGKrfxGL0gifSawGm@S aumf.rosif.pGdKSom;
u&DvGOf'g.aig0f;&DzHk.um;uatm0f./ az.aEGmifSawm0f;tajz.tausmifS qHkSzswf cgSEJkif;aem0fSoGL? crf;om; vdkSxrfSomS
vJkif;vkyf_cHrmSom;oD;zHk.vJh/ aumf.rosif.pGdKSudk uyg'g. yk*~dKvf.zHk.um;uatm0f. wvuQH.aEGmifSawm0f;tausmifS
vGdKqefxGLawGm@S ysSavGSqEN &JkifSwoGdK; vGpGOf.'sm.&Jkif;&Jkif; [ef[efaem0fSoGL?

ajzm0fScrf;tkyfcsKyfa&StxlSaxmifxGm;pJpfaqSa&Saumf.rosif. az.uuJkifjyifS wdGKufSeuf ,m;vDa&S tpGdKSaem0fS/
erf;crf;trwfwef OD;xGef;at; tGOfigxGdK@SAl.avGSoGL? tpGdKSaem0fSudkaem0fS ytdk0f. crf;om;erf;wJOfS/ vdkSaemif (tif;om;)
crf;om;erf;wJOfS/ uGKef.o,f./ yG,fSpmS/ ausmifSom;pGdKSzHk. yg0gif.xGLwJif/ ylSwG,fSajz@SvDavGS vdwfaus.nm.csuf
wapmif.oGL?

uxGdK@SAl.'g.aumf.rosif.pGdKScg/ wtGOf.[GKefawm0f; w'gif.ysSe,fawm0f; ajzm0fScrf;aumifpD oGLwum;awm0f; cGdKif;um;
wJif yk*~dKvf.uygaom@S'g. aum.rosif.pGdKSudkzHk.aem0fSvJh/ ae;wGrf. apmufSzm;xmSvdk.twGdKifS/ apmufSzm;oSusKduf
twGdKifSwJif wS&mSnD.rsrkSatm0f;awm0f; tausmifS/ aumf.rosif.pGdKS,kd w&mSw0gif.awm0f;tausmifS aeif. 1952
Am./ arvm 22 eDS aumf.rosif.pGdKS vGdKqefa&Som;tpGdKSzHk./ crf;&ifSom;aygifSpGKrf.zHk.wGrf. a0ifSe,f.oD.oJif./
a&mufSapmufS/ yifSw&m;/ ayG;v/ [dkyHkS/ awmif;uDS/ yifavmifS up'g.a0ifSe,f.udkuatm0f.'g. crf;&ifSom; ytdk0f./
ajzm0fS/ awmif;&GdKS/ "Ek/ vdkSaemif (tif;om;)/ vD.aom. pwJifvdkSjzmSaygifS waomif. (10000) vdGK pkAl.vGdKqef
wGL.w&efvGxGL “ya'.o&mZfpepftvdk.tJOfaxm0f;” up'g. wGrf.aig0f;_cDajcm0fEJkif;aem0fSzHk. uxif.xGL0JkifScg/
rmSavGStpDSta0GSyG,fSwefaem0fSoGL? uGyfw&mS te,fSwrJOf.awm0f;/ w&mSw0if.awm0f;rS uuef.uGufAm.
ajzm0fScrf; txlkSaxmifxGm;pJpfaqS a&Saumf.rosif.pGdKS tausmifSc&m. tvJkif;aem0fS/ obmywdOD;xGef;at;
a[mfSaysmfSa'g@SosifS uxif.xGLcg/ ytdk0f.crf;om;erf;wJOfS (udk,fpm;) ytrz tpGdKScsKyf 'kOuUX Adkvf[defarmif
xGdKif.a[mfSaysmfSa'g@Sajzm0f.avGSvJkif.oGL?

ae;wGrf.¹zGrf;oGD.avGmif.Al.rkS/ ap.wem./ 0g.oem./ tepfem.wGrf.oSt"dXmef. acGgifcH.rkSzHk.awGm@S vGdKqefwGL.w&efcsmwJif
ya'.o&mZfpepfuJkifpepf,oD; vGif;nmSajy@SjyS/ b0 oGKwfSa,efxdkSAm. aem0fSoGL?

pdGK;cGdKSvdkSrsKdSZmwfwGrf. oGD.oufoSrJifSaz.wm.0ef.tvS yGdK;tm.Zm.eD.jzm; tGOfigom;oD; wGdKufSeufvGdKqefrkSwJif
ya'.o&mZfpepfuJkifoD;b0 csKyfndrfSa,efol.xGL qJkifS0JkifScsmum.v/ ASwGdK.,dkcg eDytdk0f.tmoD;b0 vdGKif.uGKefS
om.,m./ cGS&sL.aysmf.oGif./ ndrfScsrfSa&S tpJpftrJOf. yJif.qJif.vJOf;a[mif;u&dkS'g.aig0f;&D,dk/ txGL.twGKrfwAm.
xGm;zsifpJpfaqS/ yJif.csmSxGLwJif acwf,dkcg (vkdSjzm;/ vdkSwef/ vdkSwavmifS/ vdkSay./ tGOfigom;/ axmifvGOfSom;)
eDytdk0f.tmoD; vdk.tGOf.owdSem;vHkSoGifS vGig.vJOf; 0gifSu&dkSaem0fS/ acGoGOf;wJrf;avufom; um;u'g. um;uao
xl.uGdKSusrfSwaxGmif;wpdSawGmhS pk&Grf'gif.ysSe,fAm. wcdGKif;,dkoGL? ?

cGefAefcsm
oxGKH.ay. (oD.oJif.)