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AliciaStetson

ZacharyAsai
MarielaCeja
CST373:Ethics
3/11/15

PrivacyToday
OnSeptember11,2001ourworldchangedforever.Familiesweretornapartwhileloved
onesweretakentoosoon.Thatmorning,theterroristattacksnotonlychangedpeopleslivesbut
italsochangedtheUnitedStatesgovernment.Thistragiceventalsochangedthewaythepeople
viewprivacy.Somepeopleareparanoidwhentravelingorevengoingtothebank.Terrorisin
theeyesofthecitizensandthustheUSAPatriotActwasintroduced.Theattackon9/11raised
awarenessofhowimportantprivacyis.
Inordertounderstandtheimportanceofprivacywemustfirsthaveadefinitionanda
betterunderstandingofthebalancebetweenpersonalprivacy,andsecurity.Privacycanbe
definedaskeepinginformationhiddenorsecludedfromoneanother,orpersonallywantingtobe
secludedfrompeople.Privacyistakenveryseriouslyandhasbeentestedsincethechangeinour
society.Privacyisarightprovidedtoeverycitizenandisahugevaluetooursociety.Theright
toprivacyhasmanyrestrictionsandexclusionsinordertokeepotherssafeaswellasthe
individual.Justhowmuchprivacyonemayhavevariesinthecontextinwhichitisused.The
righttoprivacychangesfrombeingstrictlyenforcedallowingforlittlefreedomtoanindividual
toalsobeingtheleastrestrictedwhereanindividualmaydoastheyplease.Thevariouscontexts
inwhichprivacychangesandmaybedefineddifferentlyare:theviewfromtheindividual,the
family,spatial,time,andtechnology.

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Goingbackfiftyyearswhentechnologywasnotamajorpartinoureverydaylives,
privacyrightsweremuchmorethanwhattheyarenowthattechnologyiseverywherearoundus.
Before,privacywasamatterofclosingthedoortoourhome.Bydoingso,neighbors,thecity,
thecountry,andtheworldwouldbeimmediatelyblockedfromourlives.Now,technologyis
everywhere.Itisnolongeramatterofshuttingoutdoorstotechnologybecauseevenwhenwe
thinksomethingisleftprivate,itstilllieswithinadatabasethatmaybeprotectedbutifit
becomesotherwisehacked,welosetheprivacyofourinformation.
Privacyhasbecomeahugeconcerninoursocietytoday.Sincetheriseoftechnologyit
seemstobeimpossibletokeepinformationprivate.Thetechnologytodayallowsaccessto
devicessuchas:phones,laptops,andtabletsthroughbluetoothconnection.Someareunaware
thattheymayimplementapasswordinorderforothertohaveaccesstotheirdevices.Withthe
technologyadvancing,theopportunitiesincreaseforhackerstohavethetechnologytogetinto
personalinformation.Oursocietyisnotonlyparanoidthathackersmayaccesstheirpersonal
accountsbutalso,thedifferentagenciesofpeople.Sincethetragedyof9/11,theUSgovernment
hasbecomemuchmoreinterestedinknowingwhateveryoneisdoingandrequeststohave
accesstoinformationtheymightneedforaparticularcase.Theyearssince9/11correspond
withagreatexpansionofcomputerspeeds,networkcapabilities,Internethostingandsocial
networks,nearlymakingitpossibleforsecurityagenciestodowhatoneassumestheyvealways
wantedtodotoknoweverythingabouteveryone(Warwick).Oursocietyissocaughtupon
technologywithoutevenrecognizingit.WhenpeopleareloggingintoFacebookupdatingtheir
mostrecentstatus,withoutevenknowingittheirphonesarerecordingthelocationofthestatus.

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PeoplewhoareonFacebookaswellareevenalertedthattheyareinthesamearea.Thelocation
featureonsomeoftheseapplicationsallowsthedevicetorecordthelocationoneisat.
Theconcernwithprivacyisarisingbecausewearentevenawareofwhatthetechnologyability
is.Peoplearedownloadingapplicationsandagreeingtotermsandconditionswithouteven
readingthroughthem.Oftenrisksofagreeingtotermswhichapersonhasnotreadthroughare
thetheydonotknowwhatinformationisbeingsharedwithotheragencieswhichmaybetheir
location,cellphonenumber,orothermeaningfulinformation.
SincetheattacksonSeptembersocietyhasdevelopedafearofpersonalsafety,especially
thoselivinginNewYorkorWashington.Afterexperiencingplanesflyingoverheadcrashing
intoabuilding,onemightthinktwiceaboutwalkingdownthestreetortakingtheelevatorupto
thetopfloor.Oursocietyisnowusingtechnologyasatooltogetinformationneededwithout
havingtoleavethehouse.Technologygivesyoutheabilitytosearchanyquestionsyoumight
havethroughtheinternet.Thedifferentsearchenginesaretakingawayfromonereachingoutto
arealpersontogettheadvice,ormedicalfeedbackfromaprofessional.BillTancer,theauthor
of
Click
writes,Wechoosetoqueryasearchengineversustalkingtoafriend,relative,orhealth
professionalaboutourfearssuggeststhatwefindmorecomfortandprivacyconversingwithan
algorithmonthesemattersthanwewouldseekinghelpfromoneanother(Click,106).Itssadto
seeoursocietyrelyingongoogleandothersearchenginestoretrievespecificinformation.
Someapplicationsweareusingaretomanagepersonalinformationsuchasourbank
accountsandemails.Havingtheabilitytomanagesuchpersonalinformationonanapplication
canbecomeeasierforotherstohack.Peoplevaluetheirprivacyanditisbeingtestedwhenour
governmentwantstheabilitytosurveillanceeveryoneslives.Someareokaywithtrading

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personalprivacyknowingthatthegovernmentintentionsaretoprotectthecountryfromterrorist
attacks.Whileothersarenotcomfortablewiththeideaofthegovernmenthavingaccessto
personallives.AnarticlereadsintheHuffingtonPost,Obamahasbeenfightingtoregain
publictrustafteraformerNationalSecurityAgencyanalystlastyearrevealedsomeofthe
intelligencecommunity'ssecrettacticsthatsweptupphonerecordsofhundredsofmillionsin
theUnitedStates(huffingtonpost.com).Thereisanongoingdebatewhethergivingupprivacyis
worththesecurity.AnewAssociatedPresspollfindsthat,Americansincreasinglyareplacing
personalprivacyaheadofbeingkeptsafefromterrorists.Morethan60percentofrespondents
saytheyvalueprivacyoverantiterrorprotections(huffingtonpost.com).Thisnumberis
increasingsincetheadvanceoftechnology.Peoplearerealizingbygivinguptheirprivacythe
governmentistakingadvantageofeverypossiblesourceavailable.
Withouthesitation,peopledeservetherighttoprivacybutthelinebecomestroubling
whenourprivacyisbeingwelltakencareofthatthefederalagenciescannotevenaccessthe
hiddeninformationfromactualcriminals.Sincealotofpeopleareconcernedaboutthelossof
privacy,theyhavenotconcentratedonhyperprivacy.HyperprivacyisexplainedbyAmitai
Etzioni,an
IsraeliAmericansociologistandauthorof
TheLimitsofPrivacy
,asfollows:
[hyperprivacy]isbasedonencryption(basicallyaverycomplicatedcodethatprotectsthe
secrecyofthecommunicationsinvolved),theadvancedformsofwhichareverydifficult,some
believe,impossibletohack(Etzioni,75).Therehavebeenmanyadvancementsinprotectingthe
privacyofmanyasisdemonstratedwhenattemptingtomakeanewaccountontheAppleStore
orwhencreatinganewwebsiteonGoDaddy.Themeasuresthesecompanieshavetakenrestrict
auserfromsettingasimplepasswordontheiraccount.Theyaskfortheusertouseatleastone

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lowercaseanduppercaseletter,symbols,digits,andthatitbeatleast8characterslong.
Measureslikethesemakeitmuchharderforahackertoobtainthepasswordoftheuserbutalso
ourfederalagencies.
Attemptingtotackletheproblemoflosingprivacyhasbecomemuchharderbecausewith
hackersaretransitioningintomuchmoreeffectivealgorithmstoprotecttheirfileswhichhold
evidenceoftheirillegalacts.DutchorganizedcrimeandhasthebesthackersinstallingService
DevicewhichusestheInternationalDataEncryptionAlgorithm(IDEA).Thisalgorithmuses
128bitskeyswhichinorderwords,itrequiresofstrictknowledgeofthepasswordsinorderto
haveaccess.TheFBIandotheragenciesworktogethertodecryptinformationfromcriminals
butwithalgorithmsliketheIDEA,itisalmostimpossibletoeverdecryptunlesssomeone
speaks.Withthelossofcriticalinformationfromthesecriminals,itishardtosentencethemfor
theyearstheydeserve.
Privacyistaughtatayoungage.Forsomeprivacycanbethoughtofdifferently
dependingontheenvironment.Oursocietyteacheskidsthatrespectingthepeoplearoundyouis
important.Childrenaretaughtmoralsandvaluesdependingontheirculture.Mostchildrenare
taughtthatbeforeenteringintosomeoneshome,youmustknockonthedoor.Oncethatperson
answers,orallowsyouintotheirhome,thisgivespermissionintotheirpersonalhome.Our
culturesvaluesvarydependingontheperson.Growingupwearetaughtandtrainedthewayof
viewingprivacyanditsimportanceaswedotoday.Frompersonalspacetoyourownprivate
domain,wearetaughttobecourteousofothersprivacyandtonotbeinvasive.Enterthedigital
worldandtheInternethasthepowertoconnecteveryonewithacomputer,itisherewelinkour
analogsociallifetothedigitalworld.Whilenotinitiallyapparentwhenbeingfirstintroducedto

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theInternet,duetoourlackofprivacylawsincomparisontoEurope,webecomemoreorless
trainedthatthethingswepostonline,throughwhateverforms,canexistforever.Whilewe
stillfightforourprivacyrightsinthedigitalworld,wehavebecometrainedinthesensethat
wehavetobecautiousofwhatwepost,filtertheimageswedontwanttoshare,andbeawareof
everythingwesay.
Ourcultureandsocietyhastrainedustobecomeskepticsbecauseofthelackoflaws
protectingourdigitalprivacy.With
Facebook
and
Twitter
wehavelearnedthatnotonlyareour
postsneverreallydeleted,butinthetermsandconditionweagreedtograntthesesocialmedia
sitespermissiontouseourpicturesandvideos,unlesscopyrighted,asmuchandasfreelyasthey
wantedto.Wehavestartedtobecomeaccustomedtoemployersdoingresearchonjobapplicants
bybrowsingthroughtheirprofileandanyothersitesaffiliatedwiththem.
Federal agencies also
want to monitor social media sites for any emerging threats.
Apersonmaysettheiraccount
toprivatesothosewhoarentalreadyaddedasfriendscannotviewtheaccountitdoesnot
changethefactthatyourposts,pictures,andvideosarestillsavedsomewherewiththeabilityto
beaccessed,andthattheyburytheoptiontopermanentlydeleteyouraccount,makingita
moredifficulttaskforsomeonetryingtodothat.
Facebook,Twitter,Snapchat,
andotherWeb
2.0,userbasedsocialmediatypewebsites.Web2.0websitesarejustthat,socialmediaina
placewhereeverythingisallaboutbeingsocialandpublic,therereallyisnotaconceptfor
privacy.
WiththeGovernmentbecomingmoreinvasiveandemergenceoftechnologylikedigital
walletsandfingerprintscanners,weagainbegintoquestionhowmuchwecantrusttheformer
andthesecurityandprivacyofthelatter.IthasalreadybeenfoundthattheNationalSecurity

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Agency,NSA,hasbeenobtainingdigitaldatafromcellphones.TheNSAhasbeendoingglobal
sweepscollectingmillionsoftextmessagesaswellastheUnitedKingdomsGovernment
CommunicationHeadquartershasbegunusingtheNSAsdatabasetomonitorcellphone
communicationswithintheU.K.Policedepartmentsaroundthenationarealsomakingactive
stepsintocollectingcellphonedatasuchasphonenumbersandcalldurationswithoutneedfora
warrant.Somedepartmentsareusingatrickcalledtowerdumpinwhichgivesthepolicedata
ontheidentity,activity,andlocationofanycellphonesthatareconnectedtothecellulartower.
Also,somedepartmentsaredeployinganewtechnologycalledStingray,abriefcasesized
device,whichsimulatesacellphonetowerandtrickscellphonesintoconnectingtoittofeed
policesurveillancevehiclesdatastraightfromthephone.
WiththeGovernmenthavingsomuchaccesstocellphones,itraisesquestionsoverthe
securityofnewphonefeatures.
GoogleWallet
and
ApplePay
are

bothdigitalwalletsthatstore
creditcardinformationfortheusersconvenienceforwhentheygoshopping,howeverthiscan
alsomakeiteasierfortheGovernmenttotrackyourprevioustransactions.Arecentadditiontoa
fewhighendsmartphoneshasbeenfingerprintscannerstoperformactionssuchworkinglikea
passwordtounlockthephone,preventhavingtologinmultipletimesforapppurchases,orusing
the
ApplePay
feature.Whileconvenientand
Apple
sstatementsaboutitssecurity,userscant
helpbutfeelthattheGovernmentmaylooktofindawaytoobtainingusersfingerprintsto
furtheridentificationpurposes.
IntheUnitedStatesculture,personalspaceisimportantitgivesusasenseofsecurity
andsafetyamongststrangersandacquaintancesandonlythoseofcloserelationshipsareallowed
in.However,inothercultures,withtheexceptionofoneshomeorroom,personalspacedoes

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notexist.Inan
NPR.org
article,
HowDifferentCulturesHandlePersonal
SpacewrittenbyLeila
FadelandLourdesGarciaNavarro,thetwoauthorsspeakoftheirexperiencestravelingthrough
twooverlypopulatedcountries,EgyptandBrazil,andtheyreexperiencesofpersonalspacein
theseforeigncultures.Thefirstofthetwo,Cairo,Egypt,wasoverlypopulatedeverywhere.
My
producerDinaSalehandIspentonedayonamicrobus,atypeofminivanEgyptiansusetoget
aroundthecityfortheequivalentofabout25cents.We'resquishedinthebacknexttotwoother
women,and12morepeoplearepiledin
(Fadel&GarciaNavarro,2013).Whilewemaythink
oftheUnitedStatesasbecomingtoocrowdedoroverlypopulatedwithnewbornsand
immigrantsarrivingeveryday,itseemstobenothingcomparedtoforeigncountrieslikeEgypt,
India,Chinaandothers.
Wevalueourpersonalspace,andininstancesliketravelingaroundacity,manypeople
oftenshyawayfrompublictransportationandsharingacabwithastranger.Whereasinother
countriesthepublicissopopulatedthattheyhavetopileinmoreoccupantsthanthereareproper
seatsandseatbelts,becausetheresimplyarentenoughcarsforthepeople.Beingonthe
sidewalksisnodifferentifnotmorecrowdedasyouareconstantlybumpingintopeopleall
aroundyouwithoutanyspacetobreathe.Although,intheU.S.wevalueourpersonalspace
almosttoomuchanditisreflectedinthedistancebetweenpeopleasyouwatchthemwalkorsit.
Onlyfriendsandfamilieswilleverbeparticularlyclose,andstrangerswilloftentrytoputan
emptyseatbetweeneachotherorwalkatadifferentpaceuntilenoughdistanceisachieved.
Peoplewilloftengothroughgreatlengthstoavoidanykindofawkwardnessorthefeelingof
beinguncomfortable,suchassomeoneinvadingtheirpersonalspace.Butmaybesomuch
personalspaceisoverrated,asGarciaNavarronotedthatof
herepeopleareveryengaged,

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talkingtooneanother,interacting.It'samuchlivelierscenethaninmanyother
cities
(GarciaNavarro,2013)asshetraveledthroughSoaPaulo,Brazilsmetrosystem.
InCairo,evenathomethereisastilllackofprivacyasthereisaBawab,securityguard,
foreveryapartmentbuilding.Fadelevengoesontostate,
tothisdaywhenayoungwomanis
gettingmarried,familiesofthegroomwillinterrogatethebawababoutthepotentialbride.
Do
mencomeandgofromtheapartment?Doesshecomehomelateatnight?
(Fadel,2013)an
oddandcompletelyforeignconcepttoanyoneraisedinAmerica.Whilewedohavesecurity
guardsforgatedcommunities,U.S.citizenswouldfinditincrediblyinvasiveifaguardis
answeringpersonalquestionsabouttheirlivesassometakeoffensewhenfriendsorfamilytryto
gettooinvolvedinonespersonallife,Securityguardsareonlyforguardingandopeningthe
gatesforresidentsandvisitorsandrejectanyonewhodoesntbelonginordertokeepthat
communitysafer.
Onthedigitallevel,onemaythinktheU.S.hasaprettygoodgraspondigitalsecurity
andprivacy,butinrealityitisEuropethatisleapsandboundsaheadoftheU.S.Accordingtoan
NBCNews.com
article,
LaDifferenceisStarkinEU,USPrivacyLaws
writtenbyBobSullivan,
EuropeancitizenshavemuchmorecontrolovertheirprivacyandcontenthostedontheInternet.
InmanyEuropeancountries,thelawmakespeoplerespecttheprivacyofotherssuchas
forbiddingcheckoutclerkstoaskforshoppersphonenumbers.IntheU.S.,obtainingcustomer
informationisalltoocommonandhappensalmostanywhereyougo.Throughinstatingthe
EuropeanUnionDirectiveonDataProtectionof1995,eachEuropeannationisrequiredtopassa
nationalprivacylawaswellasinstateaDataProtectionAuthoritytofurtherprotectcitizens
privacy.

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TheseprotectionsactswillgoontocreateasystemmuchdifferentfromwhattheU.S.
experiences.WhethertheU.S.issoaccustomedtocompaniesandwebsitescollectingdataor
usingthingslikepicturesthatpeoplehavehostedonawebsite,Europeprotectsthecitizens
rightsmuchbetterbyrequiringconsentfromthedatasubjectsforanytypeofinformation
collectedaswellasthedatasubjectreservestherighttoreviewanycollecteddataonthemand
correctanyinaccuraciesinthereports.WheretheU.S.triestomakeanargumentofliberty,
Europemakesmoreargumentsofdignity.DignityhelpskeepthingsalignedinEuropean
countriesandstopsindividualsfrombeingconsideredtoacttooextremeitiswhatauthorities
usetoavoidscrutinyofthepress,andisarightoftenprotectedbylaw.Averybigtrendgoingon
nowintheU.S.isgivingyournewbornchildaveryuniquenameneverbeforegiventoachild.
However,accordingtoanarticleonnbcnews.com,
'LaDifference'isStarkinEU,USPrivacy
Lawswritten
byBobSullivan
,
AuthoritiesinsomeEuropeancountriescanvetoaparent's
choicefortheirbaby'snameinthenameofpreservingdignity(Sullivan,2006).While
Americansmayfeelitisanactoffreedomtonameyourchildwhateveryoulike,Idonotknow
howmanyparentstruly,thoroughlythinkofthechildsupbringingwithsuchadifferentname.
Inacommunity,apersonoftenworriesaboutothersfindingoutwheretheylive,their
birthdate,ortheirbackgroundbutwithinasinglecardliesallthisinformation,anID.TheID
wasdesignedtobeabletoidentifyapersonyetthosewhohaveaccesstotheIDcannotentirely
searchapotentialcriminalwithoutawarrant,theydonotrequireofanIDtocaptureabadguy,
andtheydonotneedtoidentifyacriminalifheiscaughtdoingamaliciousact.IDsdonothelp
muchforthepurposeofcapturingcriminalsthereforeitshouldnotbesomethingwhichshould
beimplemented.Instead,AmitaiEtzioniprovidesabettersolutioninhisbook.Etzionibelieved

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thereshouldbereliableuniversalidentifierswhichwillmakesuretheinformationofan
individualisnotsharedwithpeopletheyhavenotgiventheconsentto.Hestates,Inshort,
reliableuniversalidentifiersespeciallybiometriconescouldgoalongwaytowardensuring
thatpeoplearesecureintheiridentity,therebyallowingotherstotrustthattheyarewhothey
claimtobe(Etzioni,125).Perhapsthisisthebestapproachonecantakeinensuringtheprivacy
ofanindividualiskeptsafe.Alreadymanycaseshavebeenreportedwhereevencompanieshave
soldtheinformationofanindividualforvariousreasons.
In1993,thestateofMarylandcreatedadatabasetostorethemedicalrecordsofits
residentsyetitwaslaterfoundtobeusedforillegalpurposes.Acasepresentedwasthatthe
employeesweresellingconfidentialinformationonMedicaidrecipientstosalesrepresentatives
ofhealthmaintenanceorganizations(HMOs),anditwasalsousedbyabankertocallinthe
loansofthosebankcustomerswhomhethusdiscoveredhadcancer(Etzioni,140).Protecting
therighttoprivacyextendsfromthegovernmentkeepingsocietysafetocompaniesmakingsure
ourprivacyiskeptsafeaswell.Beforeanyonesharesanyinformation,theyshouldlookoverthe
FourthAmendmentbecauseitprovidesafoundationforacommunitarianpublicphilosophyof
privacy.Thisphilosophyrecognizesasjustifiedawholecategoryofactsinwhichconcernsfor
thecommongoodtakeprecedenceoverprivacy,ratherthanstronglyprivilegingprivacyapriori,
implyingthatabalancebetweenthesecorevaluesmustbeworkedout(Etzioni,215).
TheworldhaschangedforeversincethetragiceventsthatoccurredonSeptember11,
2001andthetechnologicaladvancesthatfollowed.WiththeGovernmentcapitalizingoffour
fearsagainstactsofterrorismtofurthertheirsecuritymeasures,thequestionbecomes,how
muchpersonalprivacyarepeoplewillingtosacrificetoprovidethesecurityourcountryneedsto

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staysafe?Thelawsandregulationsthatprotectthepeoplesrightsandprivacywillcontinuetobe
questioned.

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References

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Meyer,T.(2012,December4).RetrievedFebruary22,2015,from
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TheLimitsofPrivacy
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dleper
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Sullivan,E.,&Agiesta,J.(2014,January27).AmericansValuePrivacyOverSecurity:Poll.
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