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Iltifat in Quran (Research II)

Iltifat in Quran (Research II)

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In This Research Project I have Tried to find a model to translate Iltifat.

It Is a Complete verified version of the research.
In This Research Project I have Tried to find a model to translate Iltifat.

It Is a Complete verified version of the research.

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Translator¶s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran

Mojtaba Mozaffary
This research project aims to find a model for translating Iltifat as a literary device.

Student Number: 8517231838 Professor: Mr. Maghsudy Course: Research (II) Date: Bahman, 1388

To: The Man Who Sold The Song!

Copyright2020©Mojtaba Mozaffary

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT _______________________________________________________________________ 3 Introduction _______________________________________________________________________ 5 History ____________________________________________________________________________ 5 The Meaning of Iltifat ______________________________________________________________ 6 Types of Iltifat _____________________________________________________________________ 6 METHOD _________________________________________________________________________ 7 Objects: ___________________________________________________________________________ 7 Design: ____________________________________________________________________________ 7 Materials: ________________________________________________________________________ 21 Precedure: _______________________________________________________________________ 22 Results: __________________________________________________________________________ 22 Discussion: _______________________________________________________________________ 23 Bibliography______________________________________________________________________ 23

2 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary

I try to check whether the translation includes the literary device or not. which is more important.Translator¶s Ability to Translate Iltifat As a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary Arak University ABSTRACT In this research. Keywords: Iltifat. Shakir. The selected translators are from different cultures and have different techniques for their translations. The most important factor is that the translator in the first step must be acquainted with the technique and second step. Translation 3 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . Yusuf Ali. Piktal. Quran. is that he must be able to visualize the scene that described in the Ayah. Irving. However if the translator is smart enough to use his hidden vocabulary he will be able to translate Iltifat even without depending on free translation. I try to find out whether five selected translators have been able to translate the literary device called Iltifat in their translations. Based on the markers of Iltifat. Literary Device. On this account. Sorour are the selected translators. I come to the result: free translation. Then I hope to find a model in which we can claim with an amount of certainty that with taking markers of Iltifat into account we could be able to find a good structure in translating the literary device. in which you take the meaning and use your own words in a readership manner. is the best way to apply the markers of Iltifat in the translation.

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list Iltifat in his 'Index of technical terms. It therefore seems necessary to deal with this important feature of Arabic literary and Qur'ânic style. but none of these writers mentions the word Iltifat. Nöldeke treated the verses referred to above as peculiarities in the language of the Qur¶an. Apostrophe as a literary device is even a much-isolated matter. in their opinion. is known as Iltifat. the author of the article on 'Kor'an' in the Encyclopedia of Islam has a section on 'language and style.The Apostrophe Literary Term is a figure of speech in which someone absent. which they need translator. Through windows. translating apostrophe by the means of literature creates unwanted problems. though it is an important feature of the style of the Qur¶an. An example of this literary device can be found in John Donne¶s Poem (The Sun Rising): Busy old fool. it should above all be the daring of the language of the Qur¶an since. As has been noted. and not everybody knows this. but in some aspects. dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it was alive and present and was able to reply. Likewise. If any 'daring' is to be attached to it. it would not be correct to assume that this stylistic feature is exclusively Qur'ânic in Arabic. with a simple mistake if the translator is not able to find the pronouns reference correctly. History About Apostrophe. it employs this feature far more extensively and in more variations than does Arabic poetry. in English language you can find rich archive of books describing apostrophe. and the author of the article on the 'Qur¶an I' in The Cambridge history of Arabic literature includes a section on 'language and style'. and change the person and number of the addressee. the daring nature of the Arabic language. Bell-Watt dedicates a section to Features of Qur'ânic style. As will be seen below. then the problem occurs: The change in Point of 5 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . and in translating pronouns.is used in many texts. They place pronouns in an unprecedented way. who dedicated a section to 'Rhetoric and allegory under the Principles of exegeses. As a literary device apostrophe-which we call it Iltifat from now on. unruly sun. Why dost thou thus. for gaining the convenience is much easier in this way. translator needs to know the referee of the pronoun. nor did Wansbrough. Apostrophe in Quran. I have to admit that as far as I know materials are too loose and incomplete. Persian sources are limited to fingers in one hand and in Arabic there are very good books such as Balaghat. Nöldeke in his discussion did not mention the term Iltifat. There are verses in Quran that obey a strange law. for reasons that will be shown below. but are not available to Iranian. One important factor to remember is that while apostrophe collocates with pronouns. and through curtains call on us? Iltifat has been called by rhetoricians shajâ'at al-carabiyya as it shows.

much quoted in balâgha books. He has provided you with good things: will they then believe in falsehood and deny Allâh's favours?' 3rd-2nd person The shift in most examples of this kind appears to be for the purpose of honouring. between 1st. Change in addressee. just imagine what should be referred to God is referred to prophet! The Meaning of Iltifat Lexically Iltifat means 'to turn/turn one's face to'. dual and plural. The first example of Iltifat in the Qur¶an. Using noun in place of pronoun. but to get acquainted with the idea. coming after praise in the 3rd person: 6 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . 2nd and 3rd person. when they passed out of sight. 2nd-3rd Person 'Allâh has given you spouses from among yourselves and through them has given you sons and grandsons. D. This. Change in case marker. Referring to the line by Jarîr.View. Al-Asma'î (216/831) is said to have used it in this sense. in holy context makes too much problem. B. 'Do you forget (how it was) when Sulaima bid us farewell at the bashâm (balsam). E. some subcategories are mentioned here. F. is of this kind: verse 4 of the Fâtiha. which is the most common and is usually divided into six kinds.' Type A is the most common type of Iltifat in Quran. reproach. threat and sometimes request. Between singular. C. Change in number. Change in person. Change in the tense of the verb. There is the famous line: 'my eye turned to the remains of (my beloved's) encampment. We are engaged with this type in this project. May the bashâm be watered abundantly!' Types of Iltifat These can be of the following types: A. my heart turned to them'. The word came to be used for turning aside in speech to talk about something before continuing with the original subject.

the important part is to choose translators. This model should enable us to translate Iltifat correctly. the Lord of all Being. Translators: Piktal. Other factors eliminate that some are more loyal to the original and some has used the readership approach. better to say as a result of their own beliefs. by clarifying the importance of Iltifat. and Shakir.' Therefore. the All-Merciful. were ayahs 1 to 3 of surah alNasr. In choosing the translators. The translators had been selected from different cultures in order to stop repetitive views. Based on the point of loyalty we can decide here which translator has zoomed out. used the term ³Allah´. the same pattern is used and can be generalized. the All-Compassionate. That is quite clear. the translator might be mistaken translating pronoun referring to the prophet into a pronoun that refers to Allah. Yusuf Ali. are used as study samples. also. using the general term in 7 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . they have all succeeded to translate Iltifat as a literary device. After choosing the ayahs. nobody can deny what happens if a translator is unable to place the literary device in his translation.'Praise belongs to Allâh. The first group of ayahs. As I said earlier. These ayahs have been selected randomly among those that consist the feature. also. You only we serve. The idea is to choose as randomly as possible. Based on the markers of Iltifat. Design: The selected ayahs and their five translations collected. a pattern has been used in order to choose translators with most different cultural differences. the Master of the Day of Judgment. That is why. the help and consult of Master Horri have done the choice of translators. a random number was created which the first number of the random number was used to choose the ayah. All of sudden we may encounter such mess. The by the use of a calculator. Thus. but Irving and Sorour used the general term ³God´. You alone we ask for help. After studying and comparing the translations together. The process of selecting was to put ayahs in a list and then enumerate them. Here is the place the difference in translations based on the Iltifat markers. the change of view point has been translated successfully but in some cases translators have zoomed in or zoomed out some points. this does not work idealistically. Here we have the discussion of the jargons of Quran and General Words. Most of the translators have used a literal approach in translating these three ayahs except for Sorour. METHOD Objects: The 10 selected ayahs that contain the Iltifat feature. The main problem rises while interpreting lines containing such mistakes. On the matter of Iltifat. for in this case we can claim that in different parts. the aim of this research project is to study five different translations of 10 ayahs that contain this feature. When jargon use is much accepted. we try to find a model out of the cases. finding a standard model for translating Iltifat as a literary device is in most of importance.

[ (5) . ( (4 ) ( 5) : (4) . except for Irving.order to be reader friendly might cause an unwanted zoom out in the viewpoint. In other tow ayahs also the terms. This process was done on all the ten ayahs. for all the focus centers are the same in all the translators. Another example here is provided to show the exact steps taken in interpreting the translations and tables and diagrams. The marker ³He is´ is the most frequent one. ] [ 4 ) ] 8 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . ³You´ and ³Thou´. I include here a part of the process and then describe the tables and diagrams. for all the translators used it. but this is only one exception and in cannot be taken into account. In this group. is diagramed and shows how soft it has spread among translators. ³Your Lord´ and ³Thy Lord´ are used interchangeably. The frequency of the marker words. working on focus centre is of no use.. 6 4 2 0 This diagram shows the frequency of words in all of three ayahs.

(5) ( The word ³master´ in the 4th ayah is third person and ³Thee´ in the 5th ayah is the marker for translation of Iltifat. Thee (alone) we ask for help. (5) The 4th ayah is as Piktal.( . and Thine aid we seek. Piktal: Master of the Day of Judgment. (5) 9 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . In translating Iltifat he has also showed lack in putting emphasize in ³ ´ which means ³thee / you´. for in ayah emphasize is on ³You alone´.  Irving: Ruler on the Day for Repayment! (4) You do we worship and You do we call on for help. The translation of the second ayah lacks more than Piktal¶s translation. and is standard. ) ). (4) Thee (alone) we worship. Yusuf Ali has missed the emphasizing ³ ´. . the emphasize on ³we worship´ does not collocates with the ayah. The translation seems to lack something.  Yusuf Ali: Master of the Day of Judgment (4) Thee do we worship..

(5)  The first sentence is again the classic use of the standard third person. depending on his trend. Among them the translation of Shakir seems to be the least exact one and Sorour s translation the most exact and even correct and beautiful.  10 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . You alone We do worship and from You alone we do seek assistance. Piktal and Yusuf Ali were unable the point of emphasize. translators mostly has made mistake on the literary device. Iltifat has been translated but in such a different scene and different Point of View. for he has involved his translation with his own opinion. This translation seems to be much better than all the other four translations. for most of the points and structures have been translated correctly plus the exact and faultless translation of Iltifat.  Sorour: And Master of the Day of Judgment.  Shakir: Master of the Day of Judgment (4) Thee do we serve and Thee do we beseech for help (5) The same familiar pattern of Piktal and Yusuf Ali is used for the translation of the 4th ayah. The translation of 5th ayah lacks more than Yusuf Ali¶s translation. not what is in the holy book. What is new in this translation is the exact and correct emphasize on 2nd person which has been gained by the excellent use of ³Lord´ at the beginning of the ayah translation and also uppercase ³You´ after that. has tried to add to the intimacy. Once again the focus has changed from 2nd person and is dedicated to 1st person plural in the first part of the 5th ayah¶s translation. (4) (Lord). and this is a great mistake.The translation of the 4th ayah is again on third person but with much emphasize on its formality (A zoom out has happened). the emphasize is backed to the 2nd person. for the misunderstanding of the point of emphasize. Irving. but with the use of uppercase ³You´ in the second part. Also the exact emphasize on worshiping Allah as the only God is reinforced by the use of ³We do worship´. The meaning of worship has been changed to serve. As said before.

In fact this table modules the standard way happened in translating Iltifat. it does not seem to be normal. Somehow. The diagram shows the distribution of words frequency. However the diagram is not in a sorted position. for mostly ayahs that contain Iltifat. that is why different changes in viewpoint occurs. All the process of comparing the translations can be briefly seen in this table. For none of the words has primary advantage to another. The model shows us the best way to translate Iltifat is to gain the exact meaning and imagining the scene described. but looking back to the translations enable us to see that Sorour in a free translation has been able to translate this literary device in an excellent way and as a result of that the dramatic scene is reconstructed in the target language. The way that translators has decided to choose the words are somehow similar. describe a scene.In the following table. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Master Ruler Thee Thine You Alone Diagram of Frequency of the Word 11 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . because of the tow unprecedented minor used beside a max used word. Translators Ayah 1 Piktal Yusuf Ali Irving Shakir Sorour Ayah 2 Master (3rd Person) Thee (Alone) (2nd Person) / Thee (Alone) (2nd Person) Master (3rd Person) Thee (2nd Person) / Thine (2nd Person) Ruler (3rd Person) You (2nd Person) / You (2nd Person) Master (3rd Person) Thee (2nd Person) / Thee (2nd Person) Master (3rd Person) You alone (2nd Person) / You alone (2nd Person) Frequency of Different Words used in translations of Iltifat in Sarah Al-Fâtiha. the words and their person are shown.

we can unveil the popularity of the words among our respective five translators. he pays more attention to his readers.This table also show the same information as the above diagram.Sorour 1 1 Irving 5 3 Yusuf Ali . 4 3.Yusuf Ali .5 1 0. For Irving. Word Master Ruler Thee Thine You Alone Frequency Translators Used The Word Name of The Translator 4 4 Piktal .Shakir .Piktal Shakir 1 1 Yusuf Ali 4 2 Irving Sorour 4 2 Piktal Sorour Frequency of Words and Translators use of the Words In this diagram.5 3 2.5 2 1. the point is clear. Yusuf Ali may has tried to collocate with the literary laws in order to keep the words in their time and epoch. We see that minors are used by Irving and Yusuf Ali.5 0 Master Ruler Thee Thine You Alone Diagram of Frequency of translators¶ choice of the words 12 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . but also contains the name of the translators that has used it.

While a zoom in may change the focus centre from plural persons to singular. we can justify the why of zooming in and out action. As shown in the table we see how the centre of focus changes as the ayah progresses.Now we come to focus centers and zooming. Translators Piktal Yusuf Ali Irving Shakir Sorour Focus Centre Part A of Ayah Focus Centre Part B of Ayah We Worship (1st Person Plural) Thee Alone (2nd Person Singular) Do We Worship (1st Person Plural) Thine aid (2nd Person Singular) Do We Worship (1st Person Plural) Do We Call (1st Person Plural) Do We Serve (1st Person Plural) Do We Beseech (1st Person Plural) You Alone (2nd Person Singular) You Alone (2nd Person Singular) Centre of Focus This diagram shows the difference between frequencies of the terms used and terms popularity among translators. Based on this diagram. the frequency of the word shows the degree of translators success in reconstructing the scene 5 4 3 2 1 0 Master Ruler Thee Thine You Alone Comparison of Words Frequency and Translators¶ choice 13 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary .

. " " " ] . 14 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . " . . " " " . " " " " " . .Another elaborative example is provided here: ( 22 ) (22) : [ [ ] » : (22) «. . " " " " .

The word they again keeps third person plural and zooms in more. the focus of camera is on the people on the boat. By all this comment. as like the ayah. this transmits the view angle to the boat. (then) they cry unto Allah. . " " " . the View Point again changes. then again explicit ye is used for the collocation of second person plural in the ayah. making their faith pure for Him only: If Thou deliver us from this. " " . (22)  The beginning He is in collocation with the last line s Allah . Next. " . " Yusuf Ali: He it is Who enableth you to traverse through land and sea. Then. At the last part of the ayah. so that ye even board ships. . . and both are third person singular. them keeps the third person plural with a zoom in. the use of the pronoun they once again zooms in to third person plural. " " " " . next them keeps the third person plural but zooms out and turns the focus toward the boat again. then comes a stormy wind and 15 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . we truly will be of the thankful.wind reached them and the wave cometh unto them from every side and they deem that they are overwhelmed therein. " . a storm. This time we forces the focus closer and changes it to first person plural. next View Point is changed by the use of they which is third person plural. and they rejoice thereat.. The word You which follows is second person plural.they sail with them with a favorable wind. the clear matter is that Piktal has been successful in translating Iltifat. when ye are in the ships and they sail with them with a fair breeze and they are glad therein. Piktal: He it is Who makes you to go on the land and the sea till.

you start to pray sincerely to God. Mostly he was able to translate Iltifat but in one situation he was unable to do this. Their . placed correctly to convey the feeling of superiority. a stormy wind comes upon them and waves reach at them from all sides and they think they are being surrounded by them. they pray to Allah. Them . They appeal to God sincerely. them . we will be grateful! (22)  He and God are doing their duty correctly in the translation. Them . they . (22) 16 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . we shall truly show our gratitude! (22)  He and Allah . a favorable breeze and a violent storm arises with waves surrounding you from all sides. and We . and they become certain that they are encompassed about. sincerely offering) their (duty unto Him saying. They . but then suddenly the wrong change of View Point happens. and You are translated correctly. Then the markers of Iltifat are all translated correctly. next it has been corrected using they feel . They . They . and they rejoice. a violent wind overtakes them and the billows surge in on them from all sides. The markers of Iltifat You . If Thou dost deliver us from this. By chaining the sentences together. and after that markers are translated correctly. Irving: He is the One Who sends you travelling along on land and at sea until when you are on board a ship. and sailing along under a fair wind and they feel happy about it. Sorour: When you are rejoicing in a boat. and they think they are being overwhelmed: they pray unto Allah. They are correctly translated and exactly change the View Point in the designed path of the ayah. them . You . they . You . and We are all the markers of Iltifat.] offering their [religion to Him: If You will save us from this. They . Irving has lost Iltifat for he has changed the View Point to Second Person instead of Third Person. Ye . If You rescue us from this we shall certainly be grateful . Shakir: He it is Who makes you travel by land and sea Until when you are in the ships. Them . He has translated Iltifat partially. They . They are: You . They . they . we will most certainly be of the grateful ones (22)  He and Allah are at their correct place as the third person singular. Thinking that you will not survive. you say. In prayer. being sincere to Him in obedience: If Thou dost deliver us from this. and they sail on with them in a pleasant breeze.the waves come to them from all sides.

Translators Ayah He (3rd P. In markers he has used them so interchangeably that he has totally missed the idea of Iltifat.P) \ They (3rd P.P) Shakir \ Them (3rd P.P) \ Allah (3rd P. Frequency of Different Words used in translations of Iltifat in Sarah Yunus Like the previous sample.P) \They (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ Ye (2nd P.P) rd nd nd He (3 P.P) \ They (3rd P.S) \ We (1st P.P) \ Them (3rd P.P) **Sorour** Sorour has used a free path for his translation.S) \ We (1st P. we don t involve him in the statistics.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ Them (3rd P.P) \ God (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.S) \ We (1st P.  It seems that because of the complexity of the plot of this ayah.P) Irving \ They (3rd P. though we see that this path has lead him away from the path to translate Iltifat.P) \ Allah (3rd P.S) \ We (1st P. This table illustrates the different changes of pronouns and based on that change in viewpoint in the plot of the ayah. 17 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary .P) \ Allah (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ You (2nd P. here we see the frequency of markers of Iltifat.P) \ Them (3rd P. He has used markers but in a free translation which cannot be checked with others.S) \ You (2 P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.S) \ You (2nd P.P) \ Them (3rd P.P) \ Piktal Them (3rd P. Sorour has translated ayah using Free Translation Rules.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ Them (3rd P.P) \They (3rd P.P) rd He (3 P.P) \ Ye (2 P. some of the translators could not get the meaning and therefore cannot translate Iltifat.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ Them (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ You (2 P. Those who has translated Iltifat in this ayah are strictly faithful to the original text and Sorour which is all against the other four has used a free translation.P) \ Yusuf Ali Them (3rd P. there is no need for further statements.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ Them (3rd P.S) \ You (2nd P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ They (3rd P.P) \ Them (3rd P. In fact he is unable to translate Iltifat n this ayah. For he has not used the first critical He .S) \ You (2 P.P) rd nd nd He (3 P. As far as the information in abundant.

Yusuf Ali .Irving . shows the syle.Yusuf Ali 18 4 Piktal .Shakir 6 4 Piktal .Irving .Yusuf Ali . In addition.Shakir 11 4 Piktal .Yusuf Ali Shakir 4 4 Piktal . We can say from this diagram that most of the translators had the similar imagination of the scene.Irving . Word He You Ye They Them Allah We God Frequency Translators Used The Word Name of The Translator 4 4 Piktal .Shakir 3 3 Piktal .Yusuf Ali .Irving .Shakir 2 2 Piktal .Yusuf Ali . 18 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary .20 15 10 5 0 He You Ye They Them Allah We God Diagram of Frequency of the Word This table shows the terms popularity among translators. minor and maxim are clearly expressed.Shakir 1 1 Irving Frequency of Words and Translators use of the Words Terms popularity.Yusuf Ali .Irving .

Translators Piktal Yusuf Ali Irving Shakir Sorour Third Person Singular Second Person Plural Third Person Plural First Person Plural 2 2 2 2 0 8 2 2 2 2 0 8 Centre of Focus 8 7 6 8 0 29 1 1 1 1 0 4 Total Here we have the portion of the focus centers in total. The reason for this diagram is the complicated plot of the ayah. This factor is the main factor in translation of Iltifat. I wanted to see what the portions of different focus centers are. This diagram is designed intentionally.We Them Ye He 0 1 2 3 4 Diagram of Frequency of translators¶ choice of the words The comparison between frequencies and popularity of the terms illustrated here. 19 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . 20 15 10 5 0 He You Ye They Them Allah We God This table shows us the frequencies of focus centers used by translators.

focus centers are discussed based on translators.Third Person Singular Second Person Plural Third Person Plural First Person Plural Frequency of Occurance of Centers of Focus Now. 8 6 First Person Plural 4 2 0 Piktal Yusuf Ali Irving Third Person Singular Second Person Plural Third Person Plural First Person Plural Shakir Sorour Third Person Plural Second Person Plural Third Person Singular 20 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary .

the most exactness must be employed. if the translator is possible to translate it skilfully. 21 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary .Grammatical Shift For The Rhetorical Purposes: Iltifât And Related Features In The Qur'ân. camera focus. A wrong or misunderstood translation may create too many problems that the translator never even dreamed of them. The complex change of View Point and as we call it now. In addition. that makes a perfect dramatic scene that its impact is much more than a simple translation. Sometimes the change of View Point is so sudden that a translator or even a native speaker may miunderstand the idea. The information about the subject matter has been gained from different essays and magzines. Collecting and interpreting the data was based on the tables and diagrams designed by Microsoft ExcelŒ. The translations has been collected by the software JAMI AL TAFASIR. emphasizing its regularity except for the null distribution of Sorour. Materials: The ayahs and difinition of the terms are take from Abdel Haleem. it also shows the distribution of focus centers. a text which has been decorised with Iltifat is one of those hard translating ones. also from books. (1992). So to translate Iltifat or Apostrophe as European say.Focus Centers Frequency Based on Translator This diagram is the most important one among the three that portrayed focus centers. Sorour has used his free translation approach and was not able to translate iltifat! Sorour Shakir Irving Yusuf Ali Piktal 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Third Person Singular Second Person Plural Third Person Plural First Person Plural Focus Centers Frequency Based on Translator and percentage By all this we can say that as far as Iltifat s concerned. for this diagram modules the standards used by tranlators and their popularity.

The Fourth step is to understand when is the viewpoint changing. excerpt from a farsi magzine for translation professionals is attached to the research. The Second step is to elaborate pronouns referee and person. tables and diagrams. to see weather the changings are applied correctly or not. The Third step is to visualize the scene in your mind.All the files used as false copy. in order to notice the formality or informality of the tone. and works used as help are included in a CDROM and attached to the Research. I tried to interpret the results. collecting statistical data and arranging them in tables and diagrams. Results: The model describes the process of translating an ayah that consist of Iltifat figure of speech. 22 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . which is bahman 1388. The Eighth step is bringing to life your translation and to check weather it collocates with the original ayah or not. 8 month prior to now. In addition. to understand the focus of emphasis. The first action was to review the bibliography again. After selecting the ayahs and comparing them together. The Seventh step is to translate the ayah with these presupositions in mind. The Last step is to check weather your reconstructed scene is performing the same or the closest to the original scene. or if you rather. too. to notice ZOOM IN and ZOOM OUT. resource. In the standard model of translation process everything must be done step by step. and excludes it¶s disadvantages. The First step is to find out the pronouns. I started the previous version and ended it by khordad 1388. finding the markers. The result was a standard criteria in translation of Iltifat as a literary device in Quran. The Sixth step is to flow the plot in your mind. Precedure: This research is a complete version of a previous versiontitled ´Translating Iltifat as a literary device in Quran´. This version has the advantage of a prior work. and based on that to choose the structure. The Fifth step is to check the jargons and terminology.

1978. Anthropological Linguistics. or if there are errors.Zribi-Hertz. Bibliography 1. 1989. Springer Publication.Schwartz. David. Asif.Discussion: The result gained in this research can be broadly tested on different ayahs to gain evidence on it¶s correctness. 3.Strawson. (Referring. Language. 23 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary . Mind. David. (On Referring). (Causality. P. The Trustees of Indian University on behalf of Anthropological Linguistics. Linguistic and Philosophy. (Anaphor Binding and Narrative Point of View: English Reflexive Pronouns in Sentence and Discourse). the more reliable it could be.Agha. S. Ann. and Presupposition). 5. Oxford University Press on behalf of The Mind Association. to encounter them and correct them in the future. S. 2. The point is that. Linguistic Society of America. F.Schwartz. New Series. Singular Terms. Referring. (Schema and Superposition in Spatial Deixis). the more practiced the model takes. 1950. 4. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition. 1996. and Proper Names).1976. Springer Publication.

From Wikipedia.Apostrophe. 13.aspx. the free encyclopedia. Hillsdale. Dialogue and Literature: Apostrophe.6.com.uk/go/toolbar/-/home/d/. 15. Lynne E.co.com/post-147. Steven. Soheil. http://www.localtutorforum.com/index. and the Collapse of Romantic Discourse. Publication. Oxford University Press. 1617. Judith F. Mastering the Apostrophe.Macovski.Bushrui. 7. From Wikipedia.com. . Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.php. http://hawzah.Abdel Haleem. Literary Terms Organization. http://www. 12. 24 Translator s Ability to Translate Iltifat as a Literary Device in 5 Translations of Quran Mojtaba Mozaffary .worldslastchance.Apologetic apostrophe.Ilchev. http://www. 1994. The Notes on the Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas.net. M A S. Duchan. Gail A. 19. 18. 1992.answers. 8. NJ. www.blogfa. Auditors.Apostrophe Literary Term. Grammatical Shift For The Rhetorical Purposes: Iltifât And Related Features In The Qur'ân.Apostrophe. Bruder.bbc. http://bahailibrary. Feb 2008. Most Holy Book.com. Deixis in narrative : a cognitive science perspective. Hewitt p.Correct Use of the Apostrophe In English.absoluteastronomy. 14. 10. 9Apostrophe (figure of speech). 11.com. http://aryaadib. the free encyclopedia. 1995.How are apostrophes used? http://wiki.Editors. Michael.

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