Introduction to Non Destructive Testing

NDT
 Ability

to detect the condition of the object without destroying the functionality of the object BASIC METHODS  Visual Inspection - VT  Penetrant Testing - PT  Magnetic Particle Testing- MT  Ultrasonic Testing - UT  Radiographic Testing - RT

Visual Inspection
      

Inspection object surface visually is called Visual Inspection May or may not use accessories Gauges for identifying the dimensions of surface Magnifying glasses Borescope for internal inspection Thermal chalks, Thermocouple, for the temperature measurement Etching for checking surface condition

Etching
 for

identification of gross metallurgical discontinuity such as in welds.  For detecting the surface opening – Fore runner to Penetrant Testing  Different Etchants available for different metals

Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages  Simple  Less training required  Relatively less costly equipment Disadvantages  Slow  Inspector Fatigue is more  Surrounding environmental factors are important

Penetrant Inspection
 Is

a method that reveals discontinuities open to surface by the seepage of a liquid penetrant medium into a surface open discontinuity which seeps out after removing the excess penetrant revealing the discontinuity

Stages of Penetrant Testing
 Pre

cleaning  Application of penetrant  Dwell Time  Cleaning of Excess penetrant  Application of Developer  Inspection  Post Cleaning

DYE SYSTEMS

SOLVENT REMOVABLE DYE

DYE SYSTEMS

WATER WASHABLE DYE

POST EMULSIFICATION DYE

PT Indications

Penetrant Testing
Advantages  Simple method  Easy to train personnel  Cheap  Quick Disadvantages  Only open defects can be detected

Magnetic Particle Testing
 When

a ferromagnetic material is magnetised the flux lines flow inside the component  When there is a discontinuity in the material there is flux leakage  The leaking flux attracts a magnetic medium resulting in an indication.

Types of magnetisation
 Longitudinal

Magnetisation  Circular Magnetisation
 AC

Magnetisation  DC Magnetisation  HWDC magnetisation

Magnetic Particle Testing
COIL METHOD YOKE METHOD.

Types of Magnetisation Circular Magnetisation

HEAD SHOT METHOD

PROD METHOD

CENTRAL CONDUCTOR

Magnetic Particle Testing

PROD METHOD

MAGNETIC MEDIUM
 Dry  Wet  Fluorescent
– Requires Ultra violet lamp in darkened area – More sensitive than

 Non

– Fluorescent

Magnetic Medium - Dry
 Medium

Dry Medium

microns  Mixture of spherical and elongated powders  Spherical shape helps in mobility  Elongated shape helps in alignment to magnetic field

about 30 – 50

MAGNETIC MEDIUM - WET
 Oxides

of iron used in suspension with water, kerosene, petroleum oil.  Size : 20- 30 microns  More sensitive than dry medium

Demagnetisation
 Residual

magnetism affects further operation such as welding.  Demagnetisation is preferably done with AC  Object is moved slowly away from coil  After demagnetisation residual magnetism is checked with gauss meters

Magnetic Particle Testing
 Pre

- Cleaning  Magnetisation  Applying magnetic medium  Inspection  Post cleaning  Demagnetization

Magnetisation
 Magnetisation

to be applied in two mutually perpendicular direction  Magnetic medium to applied when the magnetisation is ‘ON’  Adequacy of field to be checked by field indicator ( Pie Gage )  Magnetic medium could be wet or dry / Fluorescent or non-fluorescent

Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages  For detecting surface & sub-surface discontinuity  Can be tested rapidly  Not very costly  Relatively less skill required for testing Disadvantages  Only useful in ferro-magnetic materials  Demagnetisation may be required for many of the parts

Ultrasonic Testing
A

beam of high frequency wave is introduced into the test object which gets reflected from the surface of any discontinuity  Used to detect and locate the surface and internal discontinuities  Amplitude of a reflected sound pulse is nearly proportional to the size of the reflector

Ultrasonic Testing
 

   

For Detecting internal flaws For almost all the materials – metals, ceramic, rubber, composites etc.. Requires only one side access Portable equipment Non hazardous Can test up to about 10 m of steel

Ultrasonic Testing

ULTRASONIC TESTING – PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE
Transducer acts as a pulser and receiver Can detect the location and depth of defect Only one side access is required

ULTRASONIC TESTING – THROUGH TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE
• Separate transmitter and receiver • Accurate Alignement of transmitter and receiver required • Cannot locate the depth of defect

PROBES

NORMAL BEAM PROBE

DUAL CRYSTAL PROBE

Test Procedure
 Calculate

scanning zones  Calibrate unit  Draw DAC  Scan  When indications observed - check the height of signal, location  Calculate location and size of discontinuity

Scanning patterns

Location of defects
BP : Beam Path Depth of defect :
BP

D = BP Cos α Position of defect P = BP Sin α

IE

DEFECT ECHO

Radiography Testing
 Employs

x rays or gamma rays to penetrate an object, detect discontinuities by recording the difference on a recording device  For internal flaws  Permanent record  Radiation Safety is a major concern

Basic Principle
X

ray machines or Ir 192 or Co 60 main sources of radiation  Hole type or Wire type penetrameters used for checking sensitivity of radiograph
Source Radiation

Radiography
 Uses

Penetrameters for ensuring the quality of the radiography procedure  Penetrameters are hole type and wire type  Sufficient radiographic density is required for the radiograph for proper evaluation

Techniques

Single Wall Single Image
Job Film Weld

Double wall Single image
Source Radiation

Techniques

Double Wall Double Image
Job Film Weld

Panoramic Exposure
Source Radiation

DOUBLE WALL DOUBLE IMAGE
ASTM Hole Type Penetrameter

SINGLE WALL SINGLE IMAGE

DIN Wire Type Penetrameter
Tungsten Tungsten Inclusion Inclusion

Porosity
Porosity

Slag Inclusion

POROSITY

`

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