You are on page 1of 10

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

PHNG PHP S-S


V
BT NG THC DNG SCHUR

Nguyn Vn Huyn
SV trng i hc Giao Thng Vn Ti Tp.HCM
nguyenhuyen_ag@yahoo.com

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 1

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

1. Li ni u
Trc ht xin nhc li c s ca phng php S-S (S.O.S-Schur). Nh chng ta
bit, chng minh mt bi ton bt ng thc ba bin dng i xng
hoc hon v bng phng php S-S th vic lm u tin l a n v dng
chun tc nh sau
M a b N a c b c 0.
2

Chng ta bt u khai thc gi thit ca bi ton. u tin l ta s c

a b

0. Nu bt ng thc cho dng i xng th ta s sp xp th

t cc bin, chng hn nh ta s sp xp a b c , cn nu bt ng thc c


dng hon v th ta s chn phn t cc hn (chn phn t nh nht hoc ln
nht) v d ta s chn c min a , b , c hoc l c max a , b , c suy ra c

b ca c 0. V vy, trong S-S cng vic ca ta l phi

chng minh c

M , N u l cc i lng khng m. C nhng trng hp cng vic ny s


rt n gin hin nhin nhng cng i khi li rt hc ba.
V tng ca S-S xut pht t bt ng thc Shur v S.O.S nn S-S t ra rt
hiu qu trong vic chng minh cc bt ng thc c dng Shur nh sau

P a , b , c F a , b, c

F a , b, c abc P a , b , ca b c b c ac a b ,

m nu nh ta s dng cc phng php c th di dng v kh phc tp.


Trong bi vit nh ny chng ta s s dng mt s phn tch c s sau
chng minh cc bi ton v d in hnh

abc a b cb c ac a b a b a b c c a cb c
2

a2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca a b a cb c
2

ab a b bc b c ca c a 6abc 2c a b a ba c b c
2

a 3 b3 c 3 3abc a b c a b a b ca cb c.
2

Ngoi ra cn c mt s cc phn tch khc m cc bn c th t mnh pht


trin thm.

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 2

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

2. Cc bi ton p dng
Bi ton 1. Vi a , b, c l ba s thc dng. Chng minh rng

abc ab bc ca a2 b2 c 2 a b cb c ac a b.

Old and New Inequalities, Volume 1


Li Gii. Bt ng thc ny tng xut hin trong quyn sch Old and New
Inequalities Vol 1 ca mt nhm cc chuyn gia bt ng thc Vasile Cirtoaje,
Titu Andresscu, Micrea Lascu,Li gii trong quyn sch ny l quy bi ton
v chng minh mt bt ng thc hnh hc. y, chng ti xin c gii
thiu vi cc bn mt li gii bng phng php S-S kh n gin.
Khng mt tnh tng qut ca bi ton, ta c th gi s a b c. Bt ng
thc trn c vit li nh sau

b2 c 2 abc a b cb c ac a b abc a 2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca ,

2
2

b2 c 2 a b c a cb c abc a b a c b c ,

M a b N a c b c 0,
2

trong

M a2 b2 c 2 a b c
N a2 b2 c 2 c abc.
Ta cn chng minh c M , N l cc s khng m. Tht vy, ta c

M a2 b2 c 2 a b c a2 a abc a a2 bc 0
N a2 b2 c 2 c abc c a2 ab b2 c 2 0.

Chng minh hon tt, ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a b c.

Nhn Xt. Ta c bi ton tng qut ca bi ton trn l

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 3

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

Tm s thc k ln nht sao bt ng thc

a 2 b 2 c 2
a b cb c ac a b ,
abc
ab bc ca
k

lun ng vi mi s thc dng a , b, c ty .


Bi ton 2. Nu a , b , c l cc s thc dng, th

4a2 b2c 2 a3 b3 c 3 abc a b cb c ac a b.

Li Gii. Bt ng thc ny tng xut hin trn din n bt ng thc Vit


Nam VIMF vi li gii bng S.O.S rt kh di v phc tp. Nm 2009 trong
quyn sch Inequalities with Beautiful Solution cc tc gi V Quc B Cn,
Trn Quc Anh, Vasile Cirtoaje a ra mt cch s dng bt ng thc
AM-GM kh c o. y vi S-S ta c mt li gii kh n gin nh sau.
u tin, ta k hiu

a 3 b3 c 3

a b c a b cb c ac a b ,
v gi s a b c. Bt ng thc trn c th vit li nh sau

abc abc a b c abc a 3 b 3 c 3 3abc ,

2
2

abc a b a b c c a cb c abc a a b a cb c ,

M a b N a c b c 0,
2

trong

M a 3 b 3 c 3 abc a b c abc a b c
N a 3 b 3 c 3 abc c abc a b c.
Ta s chng minh c M , N u l cc s khng m. Ta c

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 4

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

M a 3 b 3 c 3 abc a b c abc a b c
a 3 b 3 c 3 a b c 2 abc c
3 abc a 2 abc c
abc 3a 2c 0.
N a 3 b 3 c 3 abc c abc a b c
c a 3 b 3 c 3 abc ab a b c

3
3
c a b ab a b

c a b a b 0.
2

Vy ta c iu phi chng minh. ng thc xy ra khi a b c.

Bi ton 3. Cho a , b, c l cc s thc dng. Chng minh bt ng thc

8 a 2 b 2 c 2 a bb cc aa b c b c ac a b.
(Nguyn Vn Huyn)

Li Gii. K hiu

a b a bb cc a.
Ta vit bt ng thc li thnh

a b abc a b cb c ac a b abc a b 8abc ,


a b a b a b c c a cb c abc 2c a b a ba cb c ,
2

M a b N a c b c 0,
2

vi

M a bb cc aa b c 2abc c
N a bb cc a c abc a b.
Mt khc, ta li c

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 5

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

M a bb cc aa b c 2abc c
8abc a 2abc c abc 8 a 2c 0.
v

N a bb cc ac abc a b
c a b b c c a ab

c a bb a ab 0.

Vy bi ton c chng minh xong.


Bi ton 4. Chng minh rng nu a , b, c l di ba cnh ca mt tam gic, th

a bb cc a a b cb c ac a b 9abc
Cosmin Pohoata Virgil Nicula, Math. Reflections
Li Gii. Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s c m ax a , b , c . Ta vit bt ng
thc li nh

a bb cc a 8abc abc a b cb c ac a b ,
ab a b bc b c ca c a 6abc abc a b cb c ac a b ,
2c a b a ba c b c a b a b c c a c b c ,
2

a b 3c a b a b ca cb c 0.
2

Bt ng thc trn ng theo gi thit ca c v gi thit a , b , c l di ba

cnh ca mt tam gic, tc ta c iu phi chng minh.


Bi ton 5. Chng minh rng vi mi s dng a , b, c ta lun c

abc a b c 3a2 b2 c 2 a b cb c ac a b.
2

(Nguyn Vn Huyn)

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 6

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

Li Gii. Gi s c min a , b, c. Bt ng thc trn c vit li nh sau


2

3a2 b2 c 2 abc a b c abc 3a 2 b 2 c 2 a b c ,

2
2

3a2 b2 c 2 a b a b c c a c b c 2 abc a b c a cb c ,

M a b N a c b c 0,
2

vi

M 3 a 2 b 2 c 2 a b c 2abc
N 3 a 2 b 2 c 2 c 2abc.
Ta c

M 3 a 2 b2 c 2 a b c 2abc
3a 2 a 2abc a 3a 2 2bc 0.

N 3 a 2 b2 c 2 c 2 abc
3a 2 c 2abc c 3a 2 2bc 0.

Vy ta c iu phi chng minh.


Bi ton 6. Cho a , b, c l cc s thc dng v t
E a, b , c a a ba c b b c b a c c ac b.
Chng minh rng
1 1 1
2
2
2
2 Ea , b , c a b b c c a .
a b c

Vasisle Cirtoaje , Algebraic Inequalities


Li gii. Ch rng

Ea , b , c abc a b cb c ac a b ,
Nn bt ng thc tng ng vi

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 7

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

1 1 1
abc a b cb c ac a b a 2 b 2 c 2 ab bc ca ,

a b c
2
2
ab bc ca

a b a b c c a cb c a b a cb c ,

abc

M a b N a c b c 0,
2

vi

M ab bc caa b c abc
N ab bc ca c abc.
Ta c

M ab bc caa b c abc
bc a abc 0
N ab bc ca c abc
c 2 a b 0.
Vy ta c iu phi chng minh.

kt thc bi vit ny xin gii thiu mt s bi ton tng t cc bn t


luyn.

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 8

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

3. Bi tp tng t
Bi ton 6. Vi a , b , c l cc s thc dng. Chng minh rng

27 a2 b2c 2 a b c a b cb c ac a b.
3

Bi ton 7. Nu a , b, c l cc s thc dng, th

9a2 b2c 2 a b ca2 b2 c 2 a b cb c ac a b.


(Nguyn Vn Huyn)
Bi ton 8. Chng minh rng vi mi s thc dng a , b, c ta lun c

abc a b c a 2 b 2 c 2 3a 3 b 3 c 3 a b cb c ac a b.
(Nguyn Vn Huyn)
Bi ton 9. Cho a , b , c l cc s thc dng v t

E a , b , c a a ba c b b cb a c c ac b ,
Chng minh rng

a b c E a, b , c ab a b

bc b c ca c a .
2

(Vasile Cirtoaje, Algebraic Inequalities)


Ngoi ra cc bn c th t mnh sng to ra cc bi ton mi bng cch ghp
ngc chiu cc bt ng thc khc vi bt ng thc Schur theo dng

F a , b , c abc P a , b , ca b c b c ac a b ,
v sau kim tra n bng S-S, chc hn rng cc bn s tm c ring cho
mnh nhng bi ton hay v c o. Chc cc bn thnh cng.

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 9

The Simple Solution Is The Best Solution

Nguyenhuyen_AG

4. Ti liu tham kho


[1] Titu Andresscu, Vasile Cirtoaje, Gabriel Dospinescu, Mircea Lascu, Old
and New Inequalities, volume 1, GIL Publishing House, 2004.
[2] Vasile Cirtoaje, Algebraic Inequalities Old and New Methods GIL Publishing
House, 2004
[3] Phm Kim Hng, Secrets in Inequalities, volume 2 : Advanced Inequalities,
GIL Publishing House, 2008.
[4] V Quc B Cn, Cosmin Pohoata, Old and New Inequalities, volume 2, GIL
Publishing House, 2009.
[5] Vasile Cirtoaje, V Quc B Cn, Trn Quc Anh, Inequalities with Beautiful
Solution, GIL Publishing House, 2009.
.

Thnh ph H Ch Minh
22h22 ti ngy 29/05/2012

nguyenhuyen_@yahoo.com

Page 10