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Leadership Development:

Past, Present, and Future


Gina Hernez-Broome, Richard L. Hughes, Center for Creative Leadership

T
his article reviews notable
trends in the leadership
development field. In the
past two decades, such
trends included the proliferation
of new leadership developrnent meth-
ods and a growing recognition of the
importance of a leader's emotional
resonance with others. A growing
recognition that leadership develop-
ment involves more than just devel-
oping individual leaders has now led
to a greater focus on the context in
which leadership is developed,
thoughtful consideration about how
to best use leadership competencies,
and work/life balance issues. Future
trends include exciting potential
advances in globalization, technolo-
gy, return on investment (ROI),
and new ways of thinking about
the nature of leadership and leader-
ship development.

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The Past coaching allows for collaboration to assess and
understand the developmental task to challenge
Looking back at the stale of leadership and current constraints while exploring new possibili-
leadership development over the past 20 years, ties, and to ensure accountability and support for
we were surprised to discover more than a reaching goals and sustaining development (Ting
decade passed before HRP first contained an & Hart. 2004). Mentoring is typically defined as
article with the word "leadership" in its title. At a committed, long-term relationship in which a
the risk of making too much out of mere titles, .senior person supports the personal and profes-
we note with interest the contrast between that sional development of a junior person. It may
early period and the tact that leadership develop- be a formal program or a much more informal
ment is now one oiHRPs five key knowledge process. Recognizing the value of mentoring,
areas. The last two decades have witnessed organizations are increasingly looking at ways to
something ot an explosion of interest in leader- formalize these types of relationships as part of
ship development in organizations. Some of the their leadership development efforts.
most noteworthy issues and trends in the field Action learning is a set of organization devel-
of leadership development in the past 20 years opment practices in which important real-time
fall under these two general headings: organizational problems are tackled. Three kinds
1. The proliferation of leadership development of objectives are sought: delivering measurable
methods: organizational results, communicating learnings
2. The importance of a leader's emotionat reso- specific to a particular context, and developing
nance with and impact on others. more general leadership skills and capabilities
(Palus & Horth. 2003). Effective action learning
Proliferation of Leadership Development may range from tacit, unfacilitated learning at
Methods work to focused and high-impact learning pro-
One clear trend over the past 20 jects to transformations of people
years has been the increasing use and organizations (Marsick, 2002).
and recognition of the potency of a Using job assign- Challenging job assignments are a
variety of developmental experi- ments for develop- potent form of leadership development
ences. Classroom-type leadership and provide many of the develop-
training—for long the primary/ormcj/ mental purposes
mental opportunities in organizations
development mode—is now comple- provides benefits today. The level of organizational
mented (or even supplanted) by involvement in making job assign-
that go beyond get-
activities as diverse as high ropes ments part of their leadership devel-
courses or retlcctive journaling. ting the job done. opment process runs the gamut
Classroom training should not be from simply providing people with
the only part of a leadership develop- information about developmental
ment initiative, and may be the least critical. opportunities in their current job to a systematic
While training may even be a necessary element program of job rotation. Using job assignments
of leadership development, developmental experi- for developmental purposes provides benefits
ences are likely to have the greatest impact when that go beyond getting the job done and may
they can be linked to or embedded in a person's even result in competitive advantages for the
ongoing work and when they are an integrated set organization (Ohiott. 2004).
of experiences. Activities like coaching, mentoring, One developmental method has been so perva-
action learning, and 360-degree feedback are sive that it de.serves somewhat greater attention
increasingly key elements of leadership develop-
here: the use of 360-degree feedback to assess
ment initiatives.
leader competencies. Chappelow (2004) recently
Developmental relationships primarily take noted that perhaps the most remarkable trend in
two forms: coaching and mentoring. Coaching the field of leader development over the past 20
involves practical, goal-focused forms of one- years has been the popularity and growth of 360-
on-one learning and. ideally, behavioral change degree feedback. Others called it one of the most
(Hali, et al., 1999). It can be a short-term inter- notable management innovations of the past
vention intended to develop specific leadership decade (Atwater & Waldman. 1998: London &
skills or a more extensive process involving a Beatty, 1993). To help those organizations disap-
series of meetings over time. The most effective pointed with 360-degree feedback results, here is

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 25


some of what we have learned over the years mutually beneficial exchanges between parties
about how to implement them effectively to optimize mutual benefit including the accom-
(Chappelow. 2004): plishment of necessary organizational tasks. The
exchange-model nature of transactional leadership
1. An as.sessmeiit activity is not necessarily
tends to produce predictable and somewhat short-
developmental. Three-hundred-sixty-degree
lived outcomes. Transformational leadership
feedback should not be a stand-alone event. In
touched followers' deeper values and sense of
addition to assessment there need to be devel-
higher purpose, and led to higher levels of fol-
opment planning and follow-up activities.
lower commitment and effort and inore enduring
2. Boss support is critical for the process itself,
change. Transformational leaders provide com-
as well as for buy-in for the recipient's pelling visions of a better future and inspire trust
specific developmental goals stemming through seemingly unshakeable self-confidence
from the feedback. and conviction.
3. The 360-degree feedback process works best
if it starts with executives at the top of an Conger (1999) reviewed 15 years" research in
organization and cascades downward through- the related fields of charismatic and transforma-
out the organization. tional leadership, and observed that scholarly
4. Shoddy administration of a 360-degree feed- interest in these areas may be traceable to changes
in the global competitive business environment at
back process can be fatal.
that time such as competitive pressures to rein-
5. The timing of the process accounts for other
vent themselves and challenges to employee
organizational realities that could dilute or
commitment. Prior to that time, leadership
confound its impact.
researchers generally had not distinguished
Another kind of leadership development between the roles of leading and managing: A
method gaining popularity during the ^^^^^ person in any position of authority
past 20 years has involved teams was largely assumed to hold a leader-
(Ginnett, 1990). The prevalence and Development today ship role. It was a novel idea that
importance of teams in organizations leadership and management might
today, and the unique challenges of means providing represent ditterent kinds of roles and
leading teams, make it easy to forget people opportuni- behaviors. Hunt (1999) was even
that teams were not always so perva- more blunt about the state of scholar-
ties to learn from
sive a part of our organizational lives. ly research in the field t>f leadership
One way to convey the magnitude of their work rather in the 1980s. He described it as a
that shift is to share an anecdote gloom-and-doom period character-
than taking them
involving one of our colleagues. ized by boring work, inconsequential
During his doctoral work in organiza- away from their questions, and static answers.
tional behavior at Yale about 20 years Research in the areas of transforma-
work to learn.
ago. our colleague Robert Ginnett tional and charismatic leadership both
would tell others about his special energized scholars and interested
interest in the leadership of teams. Routinely, he organizational practitioners.
says, they would assume he musi be an athletic
One factor presumably underlying the interest
coach; who else, they'd say. would be interested
in charismatic and transformational leaders is the
in teams? nature and strength of their emotional impact on
others. The nature of the leader's emotional con-
Importance of a Leader's nectedness to others is also apparent in the growing
Emotional Resonance with interest over the past decade in topics like the
and Impact on Others leader's genuineness, authenticity, credibility, and
Twenty years ago. our understanding of lead- trustworthiness (Goleman, et al., 2002; Collins,
ership in organizations was dominated by the 2001). These seem related more to the affective
classic two-factor approach focusing on task and quality of a leader's relationships with others than
relationship behaviors. That general approach to specific leader behaviors and competencies.
can be characterized as transactiona! in nature, Attention given during the last decade to the con-
as distinguished from a qualitatively different cept of emotional intelligence also attests to that
approach often described as transformational. shifting interest. For example, Goleman, et al.
Transactional leadership is characterized by (2002) present data that a leader's ability to

26 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


resonate emotionally with others is a better based on this paradigm are more difficult to
predictor of effective executive leadership than design and implement than those that have been
is general intelligence. Recent research at the popular for the last several decades in which the
Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) has uncov- objective was to train leaders to be good man-
ered links between specific elements of emotional agers. In light of this, several themes describe
iiilelligence and specific behaviors associated the state of leadership development today:
with leadership effectiveness (Ruderman, et al., 1. Leadership development increasingly occurring
2001). Effective leadership is clearly about more within the context of work;
than just enacting the '"right" behaviors, or merely 2. Critical reflection about the role of competen-
translating feedback (e.g.. from 360-degree feed- cies in leadership development;
back) into changed behavior. One way 360- 3. Revisiting the issue of work/life balance.
degree feedback can positively impact an individ-
ual's effectiveness as a leader is by deepening Leadership Development Within the
that person's self-aw are ness about the impact of Context of Work
his/her behavior on others.
Leadership development initiatives today typ-
Much leadership development feedback natu-
ically offer performance support and real world
rally affects how people think about themselves,
application of skills through such methods as
not just their interactions with others. Similarly,
training programs, coaching and mentoring,
it can lead to re-evaluations of many aspects of
action learning, and developmental assignments.
one's life, not just one's role as a leader. It can
Combining instruction with a real business setting
affect the whole person. It follows, then, that in
helps people gain crucial skills and allows the
some ways leadership development itself involves organizations to attack relevant, crucial, real-time
the development of the whole person. The Center issues. The goal of leadership development ulti-
for Creative Leadership began during the heyday mately involves action not knowledge.
of the human potential movement, and its ideals Therefore, development today means providing
and educational philosophy still reflect a com- people opportunities to learn from their work
mitment to the value of self-directed change rather than taking them away from their work to
and growth (albeit informed by knowledge learn. It is critical to integrate those experiences
about the needs of the organization). Virtually with each other and with other developmental
all CCL leadership development programs methods. State ofthe art leadership development
include numerous activities to increase manager- now occurs in the context of ongoing work initia-
ial self-awareness, and most address balance in tives that are tied to strategic business imperatives
life, including the relationship between health, (Dotlich & Noel. 1998; Moxley & O'Connnor
fitness, and leadership. From our own participants, Wison. 1998).
representing diverse companies across
Furthermore, best practice organizations rec-
virtually all industries, the feedback is that bal-
ognize leadership as a key component of jobs at
ance in life has so far been more of an aspiration
all levels and are conniiitted lo creating leaders
for them than a reality.
throughout their organizations. Increasingly,
The Present organizations have CEOs who model leadership
development through a strong commitment to
Today, effective leadership is commonly teach leaders internally. Eor example. Carly
viewed as central to organizational success, and Fiorina at HP is annually teaching at 12 leading
more importance is placed on leadership devel- business results classes. The targets of leadership
opment than ever before. Developing "more and training programs are no longer relatively isolat-
better" individual leaders is no longer the sole ed individuals who were "anointed" by senior
focus of leadership development, although it management. Instead ofthe thin horizontal
remains a critical aspect. Increasingly, leadership slices, the program design is likely to involve
is defined not as what the leader does but rather work groups or several vertical slices ofthe
as a process that engenders and is the result of organization (Fulmer, 1997).
relationships—relationships that focus on the The proliferation of leadership development
interactions of both leaders and collaborators methods was previously noted. Not just the vari-
instead of focusing on only the competencies of ety of development methods matters; greater
the leaders. Leadership development practices variety is not necessarily better. It is also critical

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 17


to integrate variou.s developmental experiences specific to tbeir distinct business challenges and
to each other as well as to both developmental goals. Whiie common leadership qualities or
and business objectives. That way they can have competencies characterize effective leaders,
a greater collective impact than they otherwise developing sucb core leader qualities may not
could have. But such efforts at integration are be enough. The leadership competencies of a
far from universal. bcst-praclice organization uniquely fit the organi-
In reviewing the entire field of leadership zation, its particular strategy, and its business
development. McCaulcy and VanVclsor (2003) model (APQC. 2000).
noted that the approach of many organizations is This perspective has also been applied to the
events-based rather than systemic. One method individual level. Not only may organizations
of making leadership development more systemic differ in their identification of critical leadership
is to make sure il involves more than training. competencies, some would argue it is unlikely all
An array of developmental experiences must be leaders within an organization must all possess
designed and implemented that are meaningfully the same set of competencies to be successful-—
integrated with one another. ^^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ or make the organization successful.
Leadership development efforts and According to this perspective, lead-
initiatives must be ongoing, not a ers should not be accountable for
Most organizations
single program or event. The idea demonstrating a particular set of
of leadership development strategies will not need the behaviors but ratber should be held
that link a variety of developmental "Lone Ranger"type accountable for desired outcomes.
practices including work itself (e.g.. This perspective looks beyond com-
action learning projects) with other of leader as much petencies, which have a tendency to
HR systems and business strategy is as a leader who can focus on "what needs fixing," and
an emerging and probably necessary instead focuses attention on the
motivate and coor-
evolution of our state-of-practice w hole person and on peoples"
(Alldredge, eta].. 2003). dinate a team- strengths and natural talents, not on
a reductionist list of idiosyncratic
Critical Reflection about the based approach.
competencies (Buckingham &
Role of Competencies in Vosburgh. 2003). Development is
Leadership Development increasingly seen as a process of developing and
Although the field is moving away from leveraging strengths and of understanding and
viewing leadership and leadership development minimizing the impact of weaknesses.
solely in terms of leader attributes, skills, and
traits, leadership competencies remain a core Work/Life Balance Revisited
dimension of leadership development activities Health and well-being at work are issues of
in most organizations. A recent benchmarking increasing interest and attention, including their
study found that leading-edge companies define relevance to leadership. In an environment of
leadership by a set of competencies that guide constant change and unrelenting competition,
leadership development at all levels (Barrett & managing stress and personal renewal to avoid
Beeson, 2002). A majority of organizations have bum-out are becoming a central focus for leader-
identified leadership competencies, or at least sbip development. Dealing wilh multiple and
tried to define the characteristics and qualities competing demands of a fast-paced career and
of successful leaders. How then are leadership personal/family relationships and responsibilities
competencies most effectively used in leadership is a common challenge, and there is increasing
development? recognition thai a person's work and personal
Leadership competencies need to correspond life have reciprocal effects on each other. We
to the organization's particular strategy and busi- know tbat individual leader effectiveness is
ness model (intagliata. et al.. 2000). Leadership enhanced when people manage multiple roles at
development programs implemented in isolation home and at work but we continue to learn more
of tbe business environment rarely bring about about the organizational benefits and maybe even
profound or long-lasting changes; therefore, tbe benefits to family and community as well.
organizations must develop leaders and leader- We also know leadership effectiveness is corre-
ship competencies that correspond with and are lated with better health and exercising

28 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


(McDowell Larsen. et al., 2002). We need to if not all aspects of leadersbip (e.g.. strategy
better understand which assumptions about development) will require a more collaborative
organizational life are challenged by the idea of approach to leadership. The model of effective
work/life integration as well as which changes leadership in the future will be one of encouraging
organizations need to make to facilitate greater environments that unlock the entire organization's
work/life integration. human as.set potential.
Challenging work/life situations are integrally The Conference Board report "Developing
related to the need for. and development of. Business Leaders for 2010" (Barrett & Beeson,
resilience. Resilience is the ability to bounce 2002) identified four essential roles for meeting
back from adversity or hardship, a characteristic the business challenges of the future, and tbe
ihal can be developed at any time during a per- career derailers tbat will matter most in the
son's life. It is an active process of self-righting future. The four essential roles for meeting future
and growtb that helps people deal wiih hardships business chailenges include master strategist,
in a manner that is conducive to development change manager, relationship/network builder,
(Moxley & Pulley. 2004). One of tbe fundamen- and talent developer. The most important derailers
tal characteristics of resilience is that it allows in the future include hesitancy to take necessary
individuals to take difficult experiences in tbeir business risks; personal arrogance and insensitiv-
lives and use tbem as opportunities to learn. ity; controlling leadership style; and reluctance
This, in turn, develops their ability to face hard- to tackle difficult people issues.
sbips successfully in the future. Changes in tbe context in which leadership is
practiced will bring certain competencies even
The Future more to the forefront, including globalization, the
increasing use of technology, and public scrutiny
Several trends will have a major role in our
of the character and integrity of leaders.
future understanding and practice of leadership and
leadership development. Tbey represent, in differ-
Globalization/Internationalization of
ent ways, the critical role changing contexts will
Leadership Concepts, Constructs, and
play in leadership development.
Development Methods
1. Leadership competencies will still matter; Future leaders will need to be conversant in
2. Globalization/internationalization of leader- doing business internationally and conceiving
ship concepts, constructs, and development strategies on a global basis. Globalization will
methods; intensify the requirement that senior leaders deal
3. The role of technology; effectively with a complex set of constituencies
4. Increasing interest in the integrity and charac- external to the organization, (e.g.. responsibility
ter of leaders; for managing the company's interface with trade.
5. Pressure to demonstrate return on investment; regulatory, political, and media groups on a wide
6. New ways of thinking about the nature of range of issues).
leadersbip and leadership development. Leadership development is rapidly moving to
include substantial components involving intema-
Leadership Competencies Will Still tional markets, world economic trends, and focus
Matter on particular regions such as the Asia Pacific rim
Leadership competencies will still matter, but (Cacioppe. 1998). Leaders are being exposed to
they will change as the competitive environment how the world is becoming interdependent and
changes. According to a Conference Board study the need to be up to date with international trends
(Barrett & Beeson, 2002). five critical forces will that are vital to the success of the business. Use
shape leadership competencies (requirements) in of tbe internet to obtain information and to mar-
the future: 1) global competition. 2) information ket products and services worldwide is a topic in
technology. 3) the need for rapid and flexible many cuirent leadersbip development programs.
organizations. 4) teams, and 5) differing employ-
ee needs. Given these, most organizations will not The Role of Technology
need the "Lone Ranger" type of leader as much The technology revolution has changed organi-
as a leader who can motivate and coordinate a zational life. It has changed the ways information
team-based approacb. This new environment will and knowledge are accessed and disseminated, and
have greater ambiguity and uncertainty, and many
the ways in which people can communicate and

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 29


share with one another. This has profound impli- magnitude. Enron and WorldCom were two
cations for what effective leadership will look notable examples. Such events probably acceler-
like as well as how to use technology most effec- ated and deepened growing sentiment among
tively in leadership development. many—including members of organizational
Leaders will clearly have to be much more governance boards—that interrelationships
savvy with regard to technology in general. among leadership, character, and values ought
Facility and comfort with communication tech- to be made more salient.
nology and the internet will be a necessity. Given It is probably not a coincidence tbat a recent
the pace of change and the speed of response article in CEO Magazine (Martin. 2003)
time that leaders are now required to demonstrate, observed that "the age of the imperial CEO is
technological savvy has rapidly become an integral waning. In its place, a crop of new CEOs -
aspect of leadership effectiveness. It has even humble, team building, highly communicative -
been noted that the effective use of technology are rising" (p.25). Similarly, one of the intriguing
i.s proving to be a "hierarchy buster," It can be and unexpected fmdings in the book Good to
an avenue for people to communicate ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Grcrt/(Collins. 2001) wasofthe
with leaders at al! levels and when- universally modest and self-effacing
ever they need to at any time. nature of CEOs in the good-to-great
The effective use
Leading virtually is already a reality, companies. This contrasts consider-
and requirements to lead geographi- of technology is ably with the often flamboyant and
cally dispersed units and teams will proving to be a self-promoting style of many popular
only increase. Technology will not business leaders in recent years who.
be a solution for this challenge, but "hierarchy buster." despite celebrity status, typically did
it will surely be a tool. not have an enduring positive impact
The pre.ssure on costs, increased on their companies.
reality of virtual teams, and availability of tech- Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) noted that trans-
nology in leadership development has reduced formational leadership is only authentic when
the need for people to travel to training programs, it is grounded on the leader's moral character,
will make learning opportunities available to concern for others, and congruence of ethical
geographically dispersed leaders, and will allow values with action. A leader's credibility and
individuals access to learning opportunities when trustworthiness are critical, and increasing num-
it best suits their schedule. Technology can bers make the case that character—as defined by
extend learning over time rather than limiting it qualities like one"s striving for fairness, respect-
to time spent in the classroom. Technology will ing others, humility, and concern for the greater
also enhance the emergence and sharing of good—represents the most critical quality of
knowledge among participants via such venues leadership (e.g.. Sankar. 2003). Assuming there
as chat-rooms, thought leader access, e-learning is continuing if not increasing interest in the
advances, e-mentoring/ shadowing, and business character of leaders, much work is needed in the
simulations. years ahead to assure greater clarity of concept
While technoiogy is useful for some aspects about these vital-yet-elusive concepts if they are
of leadership development, it cannot replace the to play a prominent role in leadership develop-
importance of bringing leaders together to deep- ment practices in organizations.
en their relationships and their learning experi-
ence. Maximizing the effectiveness of leadership Pressure to Demonstrate Return on
development offers the best of both worlds: inte- Investment
grating face-to-face classroom and coaching The future trends noted reflect in part a
experiences with technology-based tools and response to the changing context of leadership.
processes, i.e.. blended learning solutions (e.g.. Perhaps the strongest pressure facing leadership
Alexander & Ciaschi. 2002). practitioners in the future may be to demonstrate
ROI (Kincaid & Gordick, 2(K)3). While leadership
Increasing Interest in the Integrity and development is strategically important, it is usual-
Character of Leaders ly expensive. Yet while leading-edge companies
The 1990s witnessed ethical lapses and today such as PepsiCo, IBM, and Johnson and
arrogance among senior executives of certain Johnson spend significant time and resources on
companies of disturbing-if-not-unprecedented leadership development, attempts to quantify its

30 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


benefits precisely have remained elusive and have mistic about the field's future. Our optimism is
led some to speculate that investment in develop- directly tied to some of the trends that make the
ing better leaders may be falling short of the future both challenging and interesting. For
desired impact. In today's economy, leadership example, leadership development practices will
development expenses will likely have to meet need to become better integrated in the broader
certain standards of proof of impact or return on context of organizational business challenges and
investment. Demonstrating and quantifying the systems. Thus, not only will organizations need
impact of leadership development investments is to hire and develop leaders, they will also need
likely to emerge as a priority for organizations to be the kind of organizations that nurture and
committed to building leadership strength. reinforce enactment of the kinds of behaviors
To maximize RO! lor leadership development desired in those leaders. Similarly, demands to
efforts, its payoffs organizations must effectively demonstrate ROI can encourage greater rigor and
plan, implement, and evaluate their initiatives. clarity in our understanding of the nature of lead-
They must create a "chain of impact" that con- ership development and in how we assess it.s
nects leadership development to relevant organi- impact. Meeting such challenges will be one
zational outcomes (Martineau & Hannum, 2003). important thrust of more comprehensive efforts
Historically, most organizations have not closed in the years ahead to demonstrate convincingly
the loop through systematic evaluation and thus the strategic role of people in organizations.
make assumptions about its efficacy based on
anecdotes, reactions, or hunches. Biographical Sketches
Gina Hernez-Broome is a .senior program and
New Ways of Thinking about the Nature re.search associate at the Center for Creative
of Leadership and Leadership Leaderships Colorado Springs campus, and
Development manages its Leadership Development for Human
Emerging new perspectives on the nature of Resource Profes.sionals (LDHRP). At CCL she
leadership may profoundly affect our thinking also researches how systemic factors affect an
about leadership development. Increasingly, organization's leadership capacity. Prior to join-
leadership and leadership development are seen ing the Center Gina worked in a Denvcr-hased
as inherently collaborative, social, and relational consulting firm with a diverse mix of client orga-
processes {Day. 2001). Similarly. Vicere (2002) nizations, designing and facilitating cwstomized
has noted the advent of the "networked economy" training. She gained extensive experience designing
where "partnerships, strategic and tactical, cus- (md implementing various assessment processes
tomer and supplier, personal and organizational, including certification processes, assessment center
are essential to competitive effectiveness." technology, and 360-degree feedhack processes.
As a result, leadership will be understood as Gina has also held adjunct professor positions at
the collective capacity of all members of an orga- the University of Colorado. Stie holds an MS and
nization to accomplish such critical tasks as setting a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology
direction, creating alignment, and gaining com- from Colorado State University and a BS in p.sy-
mitment. Leadership development based on this chology from the University- of Colorado.
paradigm is more difficult to design and imple-
Richard L. Hughes is a senior enterprise associate
ment than those that have been popular for the
with the Center for Creative Leadership at its cam-
last several decades in which the focus was to
pus in Colorado Springs. CO. Rich trains in manv
train individual leaders. Taking this next step
of the Center's leadership development programs
will require a deeper understanding of the role of
for senior e.u'cutives including Developing the
organizational systems and culture in leadership
Strategic Leader and Leadership at the Peak, and
development (VanVelsor & McCauley. 2004).
his re.search focuses on strategic leadership. He is
on HRPS's Puhlications Committee, and is an asso-
Conclusion ciate articles editorfor HRP in the key knowledge
The dual challenges of understanding the area of leadership development. Rich is senior
nature of leadership development and implement- author of an undergraduate te.xthook surveying the
ing effective leadership development practices field of leadership, now in its fourth edition. Before
will likely be greater than ever before. At the joining CCL. Rich headed the Department of
same time, we find ourselves guardedly opti- Behavioral Sciences and Leiuiership at the U.S. Air

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 31


Force Academy. He received his BSfrom the U.S. Htiey. J. (1994). "The New Post-Heroic Leadership." Fortune.
February 21.
Air Force Academy, his MA from the University of
Hunt, J.G, (1999), "Transfonnational/Churismatic Leadership's
Texas, and his PhD from the University of V^vming. Transformaiion of the Field: An Histoneal Essay." Leadership
Quarterly: Special Issue. Fart I: Charismatic and Transformational
Leadership: taking Stock of ihe Fresent and Future. 10(2): 129-144.
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