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**SOCIAL WORK 4810
**

(3 credit hours)

Instructor

:

Day:

Location:

Room:

Cassandra Barragan MSW

Email:

ec0676@wayne.edu

Wednesdays 8:30 – 11:15

am

University Center

TBD

Phone/text:

248-790-1378

Office hours:

By appointment

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is a continuation of S W 3810. The course includes information

on the integration of inferential statistics and components of quantitative

and qualitative designs appropriate for evaluating service delivery and

related policy.

This course builds on and expands knowledge and skills for social work

research covered in SW 3810, including the application of data analysis and

statistical techniques, and the use the Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences (SPSS).

COURSE COMPETENCIES AND PRACTICE BEHAVIORS FOR THIS

COURSE

Competency 3: Apply critical thinking to inform and communicate

professional judgments

Practice Behavior: 3B) analyze models of assessment, prevention,

intervention and evaluation

Competency 6: Engage in research-informed practice and practice-informed

research

Practice Behavior: 6B) use research evidence to inform practice

Competency 10: Engage, assess, intervene, and evaluate with individuals,

families, groups, organizations, and communities

Practice Behaviors:

**ASSESSMENT: A1. collect, organize and interpret client data
**

EVALUATION: D1. evaluate and assess interventions

TEXTS AND REQUIRED MATERIAL

Required Text:

Rubin, A. (2013). Statistics for Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation.

Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Required Software:

SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is available

to students for FREE at the WSU Software clearinghouse:

https://commerce.wayne.edu/clearinghouse/customer/account/l

ogin/

For further assistance with installing SPSS, contact C&IT support at

(313) 577-4778 or at

helpdesk@wayne.edu

Recommended Text:

Rubin, A. & Babbie, E. (2013). Essential research methods for social

work. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning (You may utilize the earlier

edition of Rubin & Babbie that was purchased in previous

semester)

INTRODUCTION:

Specific topics include:

1. An introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics with particular

emphasis placed on bivariate analyses.

2. Ethical and human diversity issues associated with analyzing and

interpreting data collected from culturally diverse, disenfranchised,

and at-risk populations.

3. Specific emphasis will be given to the use of practice knowledge to

inform social work research and the use of research findings to inform

social work practice.

Performance Criteria:

Through written assignments, quizzes [or tests] and class

participation, the students will be expected to achieve the

competencies identified above.

Grading and Assignments

2

Percentag

e

Assignment

Points

Competenc

ies

100

3,6,10

Attendance & Participation –

Articles

10%

Test #1

25%

100

3,6,10

Test #2

25%

100

3,6,10

Assignment #1: Measurement

in Social Work Research

20%

250

3, 10

Assignment#2: Data

Presentation

20%

250

6,10

Total

100%

800

BENCHMARK ASSIGNMENTS

Measurement Assignment:

Students will demonstrate the ability to develop measurement tools and

apply understanding of practice context and peer-reviewed literature as they

relate to measurement. Students will convey understanding of the concepts

of level of measurement and show the ability to translate measurement

instruments to SPSS data format.

Data Presentation Assignment:

Students will demonstrate the ability to independently analyze and interpret

descriptive and inferential statistical analyses and to report on the meaning

and implications of the results.

Grading Policy:

Students may pass the course with a grade of D but must maintain a C

average during the junior and senior year. (See Undergraduate Bulletin,

Wayne State University

http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu/ubk-output/index.html)

Grade distribution:

100-95 A

94.9-90 A79.9-77 C+ 76.9-73 C

89.9-87 B+ 86.9-83 B

72.9-70 C- 69.9-67

D+

3

82.9-80 B66.9-63 D

79.9-77 C+

62.9-60 D-

**ORGANIZATION OF THE COURSE
**

This is a three-credit course composed of lecture, discussion, and practice in

data analysis. Course sessions will focus on:

1.

Describing the basic principles of hypothesis testing and

probability theory

2.

Developing reports of statistical findings, including descriptive

and inferential analyses

3.

Identifying and addressing ethical, cultural and political issues

associated with the analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of

empirical data evaluating social work interventions, programs

and policy outcomes with culturally diverse, disenfranchised, and

or at-risk populations

4.

Using research findings as an essential component for ongoing

professional development by engaging in evidence-based social

work practice Identify, critically analyze and evaluate published

sources of research appropriate for the research question and

population and assess their implications for social work practice

and social welfare policy in varied social work contexts Use

practice knowledge to identify research problems and design

measurable research questions

5.

Identification and description of the steps of the research process

and their interrelationships

6.

The development of measurement instruments with

consideration for the relationship between operational definitions

and quantifying variables, including reliability and validity

considerations salient to the measurement process Understand

the basic application and interpretation of descriptive and

inferential statistics; and

7.

Instruction in the use of SPSS to test hypotheses and conduct

basic descriptive and inferential analyses.

ROLE OF THE STUDENT AND INSTRUCTOR

See University Statement of Obligation of Students and Faculty Members of

the teaching - learning process

http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu/fib/fib2d.html

WSU STUDENT RESOURCES

Students with disabilities

http://studentdisability.wayne.edu/rights.php.

4

**Academic integrity and student code of conduct
**

http://www.doso.wayne.edu/student-conduct/Academic_Integrity.html

Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at Wayne State:

http://www.caps.wayne.edu/

POLICIES FOR THIS COURSE

1. The Wayne State University Statement of Obligations of Students

and Faculty Members to the Teaching and Learning Process

identify the role of students and instructors. Students can find

this statement at the following WSU web address,

http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu/ubk-output/gen18.html#15234.

2. Students are expected to participate in class by, (a) contributing

to class discussions and small group exercises, (b) sharing their

responses to course readings and issues and topics raised in

class, and (c) asking questions.

3. Student Disability Services - If you have a documented

disability that requires accommodations, you will need to register

with Student Disability Services for coordination of your

academic accommodations. The Student Disability Services

(SDS) office is located at 1600 David Adamany Undergraduate

Library in the Student Academic Success Services department.

SDS telephone number is 313-577-1851 or 313-577-3365 (TTY:

telecommunication device for the deaf; phone for hearing

impaired students only). Once you have your accommodations in

place, I will be glad to meet with you privately during my office

hours to discuss your special needs. Student Disability Services’

mission is to assist the university in creating an accessible

community where students with disabilities have an equal

opportunity to fully participate in their educational experience at

Wayne State University

4. The Wayne State University Writing Center is the place to

talk about your writing. Whether you are working on your first or

final draft, the Writing Center is available to advise you at any

step of the writing process. Services are free to all Wayne State

University students and faculty. Services include: one-on-one

tutoring; a library covering grammar, style and documentation;

and computer access. The Wayne State University's Writing

Center is also piloting OWL (online writing lab) called HOOT.

HOOT stands for "Hypertext One-on-one Tutoring" and it will

5

**enable students to e-mail us their papers for commenting.
**

Depending on the student's level of comfort with this technology,

we will be able to leave comments in HTML, audio, or video.

Learn more about Writing Center services at

http://www.clas.wayne.edu/writing/

5. Attendance & Participation Policy

The University’s policy on attendance states, “Students are

expected to attend all sessions of courses for which they are

registered and to notify the instructor or his or her secretary prior to

the class sessions, if possible, when the student may be absent due

to illness or similar emergency.”

In addition to attending all class sessions, students should arrive for

class on time. Students who arrive late miss important information

and disturb their classmates. Students are expected to complete

assigned reading and come prepared to participate in classroom

discussions. Please note that attendance and participation are

worth 10% of your grade.

6. Assignments and Grades

Scores earned for graded assignments and/or quizzes determine

final course grades. Handouts, distributed in class, specify the

criteria used to assess student performance on graded assignments.

All assignments are due on the date specified by the instructor. Late

assignments are penalized by 10% points off the points earned.

Deadline for submission of late assignments is no later than 24

hours before the next class. Exceptions can be made in extreme

circumstances. To avoid the late penalty contact the instructor at

least 48 hours before the assignment is due and request an

extension. Make-up examinations are available only under unusual

and unavoidable circumstances.

6

**Course Learning Units
**

The following is an outline for class meetings, with reading assignments for

each. Readings should be completed in advance of class, to permit

participation in discussion.

Unit

Content

Reading

Unit 1

**Review syllabus, graded assignments, &
**

introduction to course goals and objectives.

Review logic of probability sampling and

experimental, non-experimental designs, causal

inference, correlational design

Rubin:

Chapter 1

Unit 2

**Levels of measurement, coding, introduction to
**

univariate and bivariate analyses

Rubin:

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 5

Unit 3

**SPSS Introduction, data entry, conducting
**

descriptive statistics and correlation analysis in

SPSS

Unit 4

**Review of hypothesis testing, statistical
**

significance, measures of association

Probability theory, sampling distributions, and

testing the null hypothesis, Type I and Type II errors

Rubin: Chapter

7

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Unit 5

**Probability theory and hypothesis testing
**

continued, introduction to correlation

Rubin:

Chapter 10

Unit 6

**Review of basic descriptive statistics: Frequency
**

Rubin:

distributions, and graphs, and measures of central Chapter 4

tendency, normal distributions, z-scores,

percentiles, and effect size.

Chapter 6

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Unit 7

Cross Tabulation & Chi-Square

Rubin:

7

Chapter 16

Unit 8

T-Tests

Rubin:

Chapter 14

Unit 9

Correlation

Rubin:

Chapter 13

Chapter 17

Unit

10

**Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
**

Bivariate Analysis

Assignment

Due for review

Rubin:

Chapter 15

Final Due date

**Assignment #1: Measurement in Social Work Research
**

Part 1: Paper

September 3

Part 2: Survey

September 17

Part 3: Codebook

September 24

Part 4: Data set Setup

September 24

October 1

**Assignment #2: Data Presentation
**

Part 1: Research

Questions

Part 2: Output file (in

class)

Part 3: Report

October 8

October 15 - October 29

December 3

October 22 – November

19

Exams

Mid-term

October 8

Final

December 10

Articles

8

**Throughout the semester, you will each bring in two articles to present to
**

the class.

The first is a peer reviewed article and you will briefly present the

“tips and tails” to the class.

The second is a research related article from the news or other

media. You will briefly present the article and its relevance to

research – and whether or not it is “valid research”.

This is part of your participation and attendance.

Assignment #1

Measurement in Social Work Research

Purpose

The purpose of this assignment is for students to gain exposure to the

development of measurement tools and proficiency applying understanding

of practice context and peer-reviewed literature as it relates to

measurement. In addition, the assignment gives students the opportunity to

demonstrate understanding of the concepts of level of measurement and

ability to translate measurement instruments to SPSS data format.

Assignment Requirements

Imagine that you are developing an instrument to assess client outcomes at

an agency where you work, intern or volunteer. Your objective is to create a

short survey to assess at least one of the desired outcomes for the client

population. As an evidence-based social work practitioner, you know that

part of creating an appropriate outcome measure is to consult available

resources, including the peer-reviewed literature, for guidance as well as

your understanding of the ethical, cultural and political issues associated

with conducting research with culturally diverse, disenfranchised and at-risk

populations. You may decide to revise the existing survey or adapt/adopt an

outcome instrument from another source, such as the peer-reviewed social

work literature.

HELPFUL READINGS:

1) Review the Rubin chapter on measurement

2) Review the “Asking Questions with a Purpose” handout, posted on

Blackboard

9

**Your assignment must include:
**

Part 1. Paper: Approximately 2-3 page paper that provides a justification or

rationale for why you are recommending use of this survey tool. Your

justification should include:

A. Description of the agency setting, services provided in the program

and client population and brief discussion of how this impacts

measurement,

B. Conceptual definition of the outcomes assessed and discussion of

why they are selected,

C. At least one peer-reviewed article that speaks to some element of

measurement. That article should be attached to your assignment.

Part 2. Survey: A survey instrument measuring the desired client

outcome(s) (approximately one page)

A. It should be formatted as if you were going to administer the survey

to a client

B. Response options and instructions on how to complete the survey

should be included.

Part 3. Codebook: A codebook for the questions and responses.

A. Include the variable name associated with each question on the

survey

B. Include question numbers for the response categories for individual

questions, include variable name, label, description, value, and level of

measurement.

C. The idea is that any person – even someone unfamiliar with your

survey – could look at your SPSS data set and understand how the

variables in the data set link to the questions in the survey. The

codebook provides that link.

Example Codebook (complete in Word or Excel)

Question #1 in the survey: “What is your gender?”

Variable label: Sex

Variable description: Gender of the respondent.

Variable values: 1= Female, 2=Male, SYSMIS= 999

Level of Measurement: Nominal

Question #2 in the survey: “How old are you in years?”

Variable label: Age

Variable description: Age of Respondent in Years

Variable values: Range from 1- 95, SYSMIS=9999

Level of Measurement: Interval

10

**Question #15 in the survey: “How satisfied are you with your job?”
**

Variable label: Q15JobSat

Variable description: Satisfaction with Job

Variable values: 1= Very Dissatisfied, 2= Dissatisfied, 3= Neither

Satisfied nor Dissatisfied, 4= Satisfied, 5= Very Satisfied, SYSMIS=

999.

Level of Measurement: Ordinal

Part 4. Data set Setup: Create a SPSS data set. Your SPSS data set should

include:

A. The name of the variable. The name of the variable should be

directly linked to the question as indicated in the codebook. The name

of the variable in the codebook and the SPSS file should be the same.

B. A label for the variable that is appropriate for the variable.

C. The values for that variable

D. Values to be entered for missing data

E. The appropriate level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, scale).

11

**Assignment #2: Data Presentation
**

Purpose

The purpose of this assignment is to assess students’ ability to compute and

interpret descriptive and inferential statistical analyses using the Statistical

Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Ultimately, this assignment is designed

to strengthen students’ practice evaluation skills by enhancing their overall

data analysis and interpretation skills and competencies.

General Information

Review the variables in the dataset provided by the instructor.

Explore the variables in the dataset and choose several that may be of

interest to you for the assignment. Ultimately, you will be testing hypotheses

that relate two (or more) variables. With this in mind, you will need to select

variables that have the appropriate level of measurement for the three

statistical tests outlined below.

You may work in pairs or groups for this assignment. However, keep in mind

that your write-up should be original and reflect your own work!

Assignment Requirements

Part I Pose three research questions concerning the relationship

between variables in the data set. The requirements for each type of

question are described below. You will need to provide a planning

table for each of your analyses (see example on next page).

Question #1. One question must examine the relationship between two

variables that are nominal or ordinal-level. (Chi Square)

Question #2. One question must test for statistically significant

correlations between interval or ratio-level variables. (Correlation)

Question #3. One question must test for statistically significant

differences between the means of two groups. (T-test)

Question #4. One question must test for statistically significant

differences between the means of three or more groups (ANOVA).

Part I Example:

Data Presentation Assignment, Part I

Research Questions, null and alternative hypotheses

1. Pearson r

12

**a. Research Question: What is the relationship between years of
**

education and reported hours of TV watching?

b. Null hypothesis: There is not a relationship between years of

education and reported hours of TV watching

c. Alternative hypothesis: There is a relationship between years of

education and reported TV watching.

2. Chi Square

a. Research Question: Is there an association between gender and

religious affiliation?

b. Null hypothesis: There is not an association between gender and

religious affiliation

c. Alternative hypothesis: There is an association between gender

and religious affiliation

3. Analysis of Variance (you need ANOVA OR T-test)

a. What is the relationship between racial group and reported hours

of TV watching?

b. Null hypothesis: There is not a relationship between racial group

and reported hours of TV watching

c. Alternative hypothesis: There is a relationship between racial

group and reported hours of TV watching.

You should use a planning table as you begin to write this paper to think

about each of your research questions and the level of measurement of all

your outcome variables.

Example Planning Table

Statistical Test

Example of

Independent

Variable (level of

measurement)

**Dependent Variable (level
**

of measurement)

Pearson r

(correlation)

Years of education

(ratio)

Number of TV hours

(ratio)

Chi-Square

Gender (nominal)

Religious affiliation

(nominal)

ANOVA

Racial group (nominal)

Number of TV Hours

(ratio)

13

**Part 2. Submit the Output file based on your research questions and
**

planning table submitted for part I. Your instructor will review and grade your

output file and give feedback on your analysis prior to completion of part III.

Part 3. The report must be organized in the following manner.

1. Sample

A. Describe how each of the variables used in the analysis were

measured.

B. Conduct appropriate descriptive analyses of the variables in the

data set and present the results of your analyses and your

interpretation of the data, using both tables and text.

EXAMPLE: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS TABLE

Table 1: Example of Categorical, Ordinal, or Nominal Descriptives.

n (%)

Gender

Male

44

(50%)

44

(50%)

Female

Race

Black

22

(25%)

44

(50%)

22

(25%)

White

Other

**Satisfaction with social
**

worker

Very satisfied

Somewhat Satisfied

Neither Satisfied

nor

Dissatisfied

Somewhat

Dissatisfied

Very Dissatisfied

Table 2: Example of Interval Level Descriptives.

n

Mean

SD

14

Age (in years)

Years of Education

Other Important

Demographic

Variable

88

84

88

34.4

12.5

x

5.3

7.7

x

**C. Write a brief one-paragraph summary of the data presented in the
**

descriptive statistics table. The summary should not simply restate

the statistics presented in the table. Instead, the summary should

direct the reader to the most important statistics while

summarizing the statistics for all variables presented in the table.

D. Discuss the degree to which this sample could be considered

representative.

E. Discuss how the sample characteristics might impact

generalizability.

2.

Bivariate Analysis

A. State the research question.

B. Describe the statistical techniques you used to answer the

research question.

C. Conduct appropriate analyses for each of the three research

questions and report the findings in APA format. Present

appropriate tables or charts to illustrate the results of your

analysis. Consult the APA manual for guidance. Please note

that simply copying and pasting SPSS output is not

appropriate APA format!

D. Write a brief one-paragraph summary of the meaning of the

results. Briefly summarize the meaning of the data in terms of

statistical and practical significance. What were the significant

differences or relationships? Are they meaningful? Consider the

strength and direction of relationships, the amount of variance

explained and the meaning of differences.

Note: Bivariate Analysis Section. For each bivariate analysis (item 2C),

you should do the following:

Step 1. State a null and alternative hypothesis for each statistical

test, and the significance level you are establishing for rejecting the

null hypothesis. Please state the independent and dependent

variables for each of your hypotheses.

Step 2. Describe the statistical techniques you used to answer the

research question.

Step 3. Present appropriate results of your analysis (see additional

notes, next page).

(Don’t just copy the examples that the instructor has presented in class.

Come up with your own research inquiries that YOU find interesting!)

15

3. Implications

Discuss the ‘real world’ significance of the results of your

analyses. How can these findings inform further research on

the topics that you explored in your analysis? What additional

relationships should be examined?

Additional Notes on Reporting Statistical Tests

There a several ways of reporting each statistical test. Examples are shown

below—you may use other methods of presentation that are shown in your

textbook.

1. (χ2 =2.8, df=2, p > .05)

2. T-test (t=1.8, df=10, p <.05)

3. Analysis of Variance (F=2.3, df=12, p< .05)

4. Correlation (Pearson R): (r=0.40, r2=0.16, p < 0.05)

Before you submit your paper check the following:

1. Are your hypotheses appropriately stated (null and alternative

hypothesis)?

2. Did you identify the significance level? IV? DV?

3. Did you state whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis?

4. Did you present appropriate results?

5. Did your conclusions follow appropriately from the results you presented?

16

**Assignment #1 Grading Rubric
**

Measurement in Social Work Research

Your assignment will be graded based on the assignment

requirements and grading criteria.

General Criteria:

1. Thoroughness of the paper.

2. The appropriateness of the outcome measure for your practice context

and population.

3. Quality of the paper with regard to writing. Your paper should be

succinct and clearly written. You should proof read your paper carefully.

Part 1. Provide a justification or rationale for why you are recommending

use of this survey tool. Your justification should include:

A. Description of the agency setting, services provided in the program and

client population and brief discussion of how this impacts measurement.

Did the student do a good job telling me about the agency setting,

client population, and the impact of the measurement?

B. Conceptual definition of the outcomes assessed and discussion of why

they are selected.

After reading the paper do I understand what outcomes the student is

looking for and why they thought these outcomes were important?

C. At least one peer-reviewed article that speaks to some element of

measurement. That article should be attached to your assignment.

Did the student pick a strong peer-reviewed article that addresses the

outcome they have chosen to measure?

Did the student incorporate information from the article into their own

measure?

Part 2. A survey instrument measuring the desired client outcome(s)

(approximately one page)

A. It should be formatted as if you were going to administer the survey to a

client.

Does the survey appear to be formatted as if the student were actually

going to administer this to a client?

Do the questions appear to be asked in a manner that is clear and

easy for client to understand (no double barreled questions)?

B. Response options and instructions on how to complete the survey should

be included

Are their instructions included at the beginning of the survey and are

they clear and understandable?

17

**Part 3: SPSS codebook
**

A. Include the variable name associated with each question on the

survey.

Does the variable have a name and is it easy to understand? 3

points

B. Include question numbers for the response categories for individual

questions, include variable name, label, description, value, and level of

measurement.

Did the student include the variable name, label, description,

value, and level of measurement

C. The idea is that any person – even someone unfamiliar with your

survey – could look at your SPSS data set and understand how the

variables in the data set link to the questions in the survey. The

codebook provides that link.

Is the codebook understandable and well-organized? Are

questions in the same order on the survey and the codebook?

Part 4.: SPSS datafile

You need to create an SPSS data file with the variable information associated

with your survey included. You do NOT need to enter any data into the data

file, just make sure you establish your variable definitions using “variable

view”. The idea is that any person – even someone unfamiliar with your

survey – could look at your SPSS data set and understand how the variables

in the data set link to the questions in the survey. For example, if you were to

give me a completed survey and the data file, I should be able to enter the

data from the survey into the SPSS data file.

Is there a data file with variable information included with the survey?

Are variables, labels, and values included in the SPSS file?

Is the SPSS file arranged in a clear and well-organized manner that is

easy to understand (ie. are variable names in the same order as on the

survey)?

18

**Assignment #2 Grading Rubric
**

Data Presentation Assignment

Part I. Pose four research questions concerning the relationship between

variables in the data set. Present the planning table with variables and

appropriate levels of analysis. The requirements for each question are

described below.

Question #1. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using a chi

square test?

Question #2. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using a

correlation?

Question #3. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using a ttest?

Question #4. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using an

ANOVA?

Part II. Submit the Output file based on your research questions and

planning table submitted for part I. Your instructor will review and grade your

output file and give feedback on your analysis prior to completion of part III.

Question #1.

Question #2.

Question #3.

Question #4.

**Was the chi square test analyzed appropriately?
**

Was the correlation analyzed appropriately?

Was the t-test analyzed appropriately?

Was the ANOVA analyzed appropriately?

**Part III. Report
**

The report must be organized in the following manner.

1. Sample

A. Describe how each of the variables used in the analysis where

measured.

Does the student tell me how each of the variables are measured?

B. Conduct appropriate descriptive analyses of the variables in the data set

and present the results of your analyses and your interpretation of the

data, using both tables and text. Consult the APA manual for

instructions concerning the presentation of empirical data in research

reports.

Are tables with descriptive statistics included in the paper? Are tables

presented appropriately for the level of measurement? Are they in

appropriate APA format?

C. Write a brief one paragraph summary of the data presented in the

descriptive statistics table. The summary should not simply restate the

statistics presented in the table. Instead, the summary should direct

19

**the reader to the most important statistics while summarizing the
**

statistics for all variables presented in the table.

Is the one paragraph a good summary of the descriptive statistics? Does the

student bring attention to at least one important variable?

D. Discuss the degree to which this sample could be considered

representative.

Does the student address if their sample can be representative of the

greater population?

E. Discuss how the sample characteristics might impact generalizability.

Does the student do a good job at talking about the populations that this

study might be generalizable to? Do they talk about populations that might

not be as well represented?

2. Bivariate Analysis

A. State the research question.

Did the student state a research question?

B. Describe the statistical techniques you used to answer the research

question.

Did the student tell me what statistical technique they used?

C. Conduct appropriate analyses for each of the three research

questions and report the findings in APA format. Present appropriate

tables or charts to illustrate the results of your analysis. Consult the

APA manual for guidance.

Is the analysis appropriate for each of the three research questions? Are

the findings in APA format?

D. Write a brief one-paragraph summary of the meaning of the results.

Briefly summarize the meaning of the data in terms of statistical and

practical significance. What were the significant differences or

relationships? Are they meaningful? Consider the strength and

direction of relationships, the amount of variance explained and the

meaning of differences.

Did the student include a brief one- paragraph summary of the meaning of

the results?

3. Implications

Is the ‘real world’ significance of the results of your analyses discussed?

Do you explain how these findings can inform further research on the

topics that you explored in your analysis? Do you discuss additional

relationships that should be examined?

20

21

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the

American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Babbie, E. (2005). The basics of social research. Belmont, CA;

Thomson/Wadsworth.

Blanksby, P.E., & Barber, J.G. (2006). SPSS/PASW for social workers: An

introductory workbook. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Gilgun, J.F., & Abrams, L. S. (2002). The nature and usefulness of qualitative

social work research. Qualitative Social Work, 1(1), 39-55.

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23

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