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Research Methods, Data Analysis, and Practice Evaluation II

SOCIAL WORK 4810
(3 credit hours)
Instructor
:
Day:
Location:
Room:

Cassandra Barragan MSW

Email:

ec0676@wayne.edu

Wednesdays 8:30 – 11:15
am
University Center
TBD

Phone/text:

248-790-1378

Office hours:

By appointment

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course is a continuation of S W 3810. The course includes information
on the integration of inferential statistics and components of quantitative
and qualitative designs appropriate for evaluating service delivery and
related policy.
This course builds on and expands knowledge and skills for social work
research covered in SW 3810, including the application of data analysis and
statistical techniques, and the use the Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS).
COURSE COMPETENCIES AND PRACTICE BEHAVIORS FOR THIS
COURSE
Competency 3: Apply critical thinking to inform and communicate
professional judgments
Practice Behavior: 3B) analyze models of assessment, prevention,
intervention and evaluation
Competency 6: Engage in research-informed practice and practice-informed
research
Practice Behavior: 6B) use research evidence to inform practice
Competency 10: Engage, assess, intervene, and evaluate with individuals,
families, groups, organizations, and communities
Practice Behaviors:

ASSESSMENT: A1. collect, organize and interpret client data
EVALUATION: D1. evaluate and assess interventions
TEXTS AND REQUIRED MATERIAL
Required Text:
Rubin, A. (2013). Statistics for Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation.
Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Required Software:
SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is available
to students for FREE at the WSU Software clearinghouse:
https://commerce.wayne.edu/clearinghouse/customer/account/l
ogin/
For further assistance with installing SPSS, contact C&IT support at
(313) 577-4778 or at
helpdesk@wayne.edu
Recommended Text:
Rubin, A. & Babbie, E. (2013). Essential research methods for social
work. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning (You may utilize the earlier
edition of Rubin & Babbie that was purchased in previous
semester)
INTRODUCTION:
Specific topics include:
1. An introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics with particular
emphasis placed on bivariate analyses.
2. Ethical and human diversity issues associated with analyzing and
interpreting data collected from culturally diverse, disenfranchised,
and at-risk populations.
3. Specific emphasis will be given to the use of practice knowledge to
inform social work research and the use of research findings to inform
social work practice.
Performance Criteria:
Through written assignments, quizzes [or tests] and class
participation, the students will be expected to achieve the
competencies identified above.
Grading and Assignments

2

Percentag
e

Assignment

Points

Competenc
ies

100

3,6,10

Attendance & Participation –
Articles

10%

Test #1

25%

100

3,6,10

Test #2

25%

100

3,6,10

Assignment #1: Measurement
in Social Work Research

20%

250

3, 10

Assignment#2: Data
Presentation

20%

250

6,10

Total

100%

800

BENCHMARK ASSIGNMENTS
Measurement Assignment:
Students will demonstrate the ability to develop measurement tools and
apply understanding of practice context and peer-reviewed literature as they
relate to measurement. Students will convey understanding of the concepts
of level of measurement and show the ability to translate measurement
instruments to SPSS data format.
Data Presentation Assignment:
Students will demonstrate the ability to independently analyze and interpret
descriptive and inferential statistical analyses and to report on the meaning
and implications of the results.
Grading Policy:
Students may pass the course with a grade of D but must maintain a C
average during the junior and senior year. (See Undergraduate Bulletin,
Wayne State University
http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu/ubk-output/index.html)
Grade distribution:
100-95 A
94.9-90 A79.9-77 C+ 76.9-73 C

89.9-87 B+ 86.9-83 B
72.9-70 C- 69.9-67
D+
3

82.9-80 B66.9-63 D

79.9-77 C+
62.9-60 D-

ORGANIZATION OF THE COURSE
This is a three-credit course composed of lecture, discussion, and practice in
data analysis. Course sessions will focus on:
1.
Describing the basic principles of hypothesis testing and
probability theory
2.
Developing reports of statistical findings, including descriptive
and inferential analyses
3.
Identifying and addressing ethical, cultural and political issues
associated with the analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of
empirical data evaluating social work interventions, programs
and policy outcomes with culturally diverse, disenfranchised, and
or at-risk populations
4.
Using research findings as an essential component for ongoing
professional development by engaging in evidence-based social
work practice Identify, critically analyze and evaluate published
sources of research appropriate for the research question and
population and assess their implications for social work practice
and social welfare policy in varied social work contexts Use
practice knowledge to identify research problems and design
measurable research questions
5.
Identification and description of the steps of the research process
and their interrelationships
6.
The development of measurement instruments with
consideration for the relationship between operational definitions
and quantifying variables, including reliability and validity
considerations salient to the measurement process Understand
the basic application and interpretation of descriptive and
inferential statistics; and
7.
Instruction in the use of SPSS to test hypotheses and conduct
basic descriptive and inferential analyses.
ROLE OF THE STUDENT AND INSTRUCTOR
See University Statement of Obligation of Students and Faculty Members of
the teaching - learning process
http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu/fib/fib2d.html
WSU STUDENT RESOURCES
Students with disabilities
http://studentdisability.wayne.edu/rights.php.
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Academic integrity and student code of conduct
http://www.doso.wayne.edu/student-conduct/Academic_Integrity.html
Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at Wayne State:
http://www.caps.wayne.edu/
POLICIES FOR THIS COURSE
1. The Wayne State University Statement of Obligations of Students
and Faculty Members to the Teaching and Learning Process
identify the role of students and instructors. Students can find
this statement at the following WSU web address,
http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu/ubk-output/gen18.html#15234.
2. Students are expected to participate in class by, (a) contributing
to class discussions and small group exercises, (b) sharing their
responses to course readings and issues and topics raised in
class, and (c) asking questions.
3. Student Disability Services - If you have a documented
disability that requires accommodations, you will need to register
with Student Disability Services for coordination of your
academic accommodations. The Student Disability Services
(SDS) office is located at 1600 David Adamany Undergraduate
Library in the Student Academic Success Services department.
SDS telephone number is 313-577-1851 or 313-577-3365 (TTY:
telecommunication device for the deaf; phone for hearing
impaired students only). Once you have your accommodations in
place, I will be glad to meet with you privately during my office
hours to discuss your special needs. Student Disability Services’
mission is to assist the university in creating an accessible
community where students with disabilities have an equal
opportunity to fully participate in their educational experience at
Wayne State University
4. The Wayne State University Writing Center is the place to
talk about your writing. Whether you are working on your first or
final draft, the Writing Center is available to advise you at any
step of the writing process. Services are free to all Wayne State
University students and faculty. Services include: one-on-one
tutoring; a library covering grammar, style and documentation;
and computer access. The Wayne State University's Writing
Center is also piloting OWL (online writing lab) called HOOT.
HOOT stands for "Hypertext One-on-one Tutoring" and it will
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enable students to e-mail us their papers for commenting.
Depending on the student's level of comfort with this technology,
we will be able to leave comments in HTML, audio, or video.
Learn more about Writing Center services at
http://www.clas.wayne.edu/writing/
5. Attendance & Participation Policy
The University’s policy on attendance states, “Students are
expected to attend all sessions of courses for which they are
registered and to notify the instructor or his or her secretary prior to
the class sessions, if possible, when the student may be absent due
to illness or similar emergency.”
In addition to attending all class sessions, students should arrive for
class on time. Students who arrive late miss important information
and disturb their classmates. Students are expected to complete
assigned reading and come prepared to participate in classroom
discussions. Please note that attendance and participation are
worth 10% of your grade.
6. Assignments and Grades
Scores earned for graded assignments and/or quizzes determine
final course grades. Handouts, distributed in class, specify the
criteria used to assess student performance on graded assignments.
All assignments are due on the date specified by the instructor. Late
assignments are penalized by 10% points off the points earned.
Deadline for submission of late assignments is no later than 24
hours before the next class. Exceptions can be made in extreme
circumstances. To avoid the late penalty contact the instructor at
least 48 hours before the assignment is due and request an
extension. Make-up examinations are available only under unusual
and unavoidable circumstances.

6

Course Learning Units
The following is an outline for class meetings, with reading assignments for
each. Readings should be completed in advance of class, to permit
participation in discussion.
Unit
Content
Reading
Unit 1

Review syllabus, graded assignments, &
introduction to course goals and objectives.
Review logic of probability sampling and
experimental, non-experimental designs, causal
inference, correlational design

Rubin:
Chapter 1

Unit 2

Levels of measurement, coding, introduction to
univariate and bivariate analyses

Rubin:
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 5

Unit 3

SPSS Introduction, data entry, conducting
descriptive statistics and correlation analysis in
SPSS

Unit 4

Review of hypothesis testing, statistical
significance, measures of association
Probability theory, sampling distributions, and
testing the null hypothesis, Type I and Type II errors

Rubin: Chapter
7
Chapter 11
Chapter 12

Unit 5

Probability theory and hypothesis testing
continued, introduction to correlation

Rubin:
Chapter 10

Unit 6

Review of basic descriptive statistics: Frequency
Rubin:
distributions, and graphs, and measures of central Chapter 4
tendency, normal distributions, z-scores,
percentiles, and effect size.
Chapter 6
Chapter 8
Chapter 9

Unit 7

Cross Tabulation & Chi-Square

Rubin:

7

Chapter 16
Unit 8

T-Tests

Rubin:
Chapter 14

Unit 9

Correlation

Rubin:
Chapter 13
Chapter 17

Unit
10

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Bivariate Analysis

Assignment

Due for review

Rubin:
Chapter 15

Final Due date

Assignment #1: Measurement in Social Work Research
Part 1: Paper

September 3

Part 2: Survey

September 17

Part 3: Codebook

September 24

Part 4: Data set Setup

September 24

October 1

Assignment #2: Data Presentation
Part 1: Research
Questions
Part 2: Output file (in
class)
Part 3: Report

October 8
October 15 - October 29

December 3

October 22 – November
19
Exams

Mid-term

October 8

Final

December 10

Articles

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Throughout the semester, you will each bring in two articles to present to
the class.
 The first is a peer reviewed article and you will briefly present the
“tips and tails” to the class.
 The second is a research related article from the news or other
media. You will briefly present the article and its relevance to
research – and whether or not it is “valid research”.
This is part of your participation and attendance.

Assignment #1
Measurement in Social Work Research
Purpose
The purpose of this assignment is for students to gain exposure to the
development of measurement tools and proficiency applying understanding
of practice context and peer-reviewed literature as it relates to
measurement. In addition, the assignment gives students the opportunity to
demonstrate understanding of the concepts of level of measurement and
ability to translate measurement instruments to SPSS data format.
Assignment Requirements
Imagine that you are developing an instrument to assess client outcomes at
an agency where you work, intern or volunteer. Your objective is to create a
short survey to assess at least one of the desired outcomes for the client
population. As an evidence-based social work practitioner, you know that
part of creating an appropriate outcome measure is to consult available
resources, including the peer-reviewed literature, for guidance as well as
your understanding of the ethical, cultural and political issues associated
with conducting research with culturally diverse, disenfranchised and at-risk
populations. You may decide to revise the existing survey or adapt/adopt an
outcome instrument from another source, such as the peer-reviewed social
work literature.
HELPFUL READINGS:
1) Review the Rubin chapter on measurement
2) Review the “Asking Questions with a Purpose” handout, posted on
Blackboard

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Your assignment must include:
Part 1. Paper: Approximately 2-3 page paper that provides a justification or
rationale for why you are recommending use of this survey tool. Your
justification should include:
A. Description of the agency setting, services provided in the program
and client population and brief discussion of how this impacts
measurement,
B. Conceptual definition of the outcomes assessed and discussion of
why they are selected,
C. At least one peer-reviewed article that speaks to some element of
measurement. That article should be attached to your assignment.
Part 2. Survey: A survey instrument measuring the desired client
outcome(s) (approximately one page)
A. It should be formatted as if you were going to administer the survey
to a client
B. Response options and instructions on how to complete the survey
should be included.
Part 3. Codebook: A codebook for the questions and responses.
A. Include the variable name associated with each question on the
survey
B. Include question numbers for the response categories for individual
questions, include variable name, label, description, value, and level of
measurement.
C. The idea is that any person – even someone unfamiliar with your
survey – could look at your SPSS data set and understand how the
variables in the data set link to the questions in the survey. The
codebook provides that link.
Example Codebook (complete in Word or Excel)
Question #1 in the survey: “What is your gender?”
Variable label: Sex
Variable description: Gender of the respondent.
Variable values: 1= Female, 2=Male, SYSMIS= 999
Level of Measurement: Nominal
Question #2 in the survey: “How old are you in years?”
Variable label: Age
Variable description: Age of Respondent in Years
Variable values: Range from 1- 95, SYSMIS=9999
Level of Measurement: Interval

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Question #15 in the survey: “How satisfied are you with your job?”
Variable label: Q15JobSat
Variable description: Satisfaction with Job
Variable values: 1= Very Dissatisfied, 2= Dissatisfied, 3= Neither
Satisfied nor Dissatisfied, 4= Satisfied, 5= Very Satisfied, SYSMIS=
999.
Level of Measurement: Ordinal
Part 4. Data set Setup: Create a SPSS data set. Your SPSS data set should
include:
A. The name of the variable. The name of the variable should be
directly linked to the question as indicated in the codebook. The name
of the variable in the codebook and the SPSS file should be the same.
B. A label for the variable that is appropriate for the variable.
C. The values for that variable
D. Values to be entered for missing data
E. The appropriate level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, scale).

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Assignment #2: Data Presentation
Purpose
The purpose of this assignment is to assess students’ ability to compute and
interpret descriptive and inferential statistical analyses using the Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Ultimately, this assignment is designed
to strengthen students’ practice evaluation skills by enhancing their overall
data analysis and interpretation skills and competencies.
General Information
Review the variables in the dataset provided by the instructor.
Explore the variables in the dataset and choose several that may be of
interest to you for the assignment. Ultimately, you will be testing hypotheses
that relate two (or more) variables. With this in mind, you will need to select
variables that have the appropriate level of measurement for the three
statistical tests outlined below.
You may work in pairs or groups for this assignment. However, keep in mind
that your write-up should be original and reflect your own work!
Assignment Requirements
Part I Pose three research questions concerning the relationship
between variables in the data set. The requirements for each type of
question are described below. You will need to provide a planning
table for each of your analyses (see example on next page).
Question #1. One question must examine the relationship between two
variables that are nominal or ordinal-level. (Chi Square)
Question #2. One question must test for statistically significant
correlations between interval or ratio-level variables. (Correlation)
Question #3. One question must test for statistically significant
differences between the means of two groups. (T-test)
Question #4. One question must test for statistically significant
differences between the means of three or more groups (ANOVA).
Part I Example:
Data Presentation Assignment, Part I
Research Questions, null and alternative hypotheses
1. Pearson r

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a. Research Question: What is the relationship between years of
education and reported hours of TV watching?
b. Null hypothesis: There is not a relationship between years of
education and reported hours of TV watching
c. Alternative hypothesis: There is a relationship between years of
education and reported TV watching.
2. Chi Square
a. Research Question: Is there an association between gender and
religious affiliation?
b. Null hypothesis: There is not an association between gender and
religious affiliation
c. Alternative hypothesis: There is an association between gender
and religious affiliation
3. Analysis of Variance (you need ANOVA OR T-test)
a. What is the relationship between racial group and reported hours
of TV watching?
b. Null hypothesis: There is not a relationship between racial group
and reported hours of TV watching
c. Alternative hypothesis: There is a relationship between racial
group and reported hours of TV watching.
You should use a planning table as you begin to write this paper to think
about each of your research questions and the level of measurement of all
your outcome variables.
Example Planning Table
Statistical Test

Example of
Independent
Variable (level of
measurement)

Dependent Variable (level
of measurement)

Pearson r
(correlation)

Years of education
(ratio)

Number of TV hours
(ratio)

Chi-Square

Gender (nominal)

Religious affiliation
(nominal)

ANOVA

Racial group (nominal)

Number of TV Hours
(ratio)

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Part 2. Submit the Output file based on your research questions and
planning table submitted for part I. Your instructor will review and grade your
output file and give feedback on your analysis prior to completion of part III.
Part 3. The report must be organized in the following manner.
1. Sample
A. Describe how each of the variables used in the analysis were
measured.
B. Conduct appropriate descriptive analyses of the variables in the
data set and present the results of your analyses and your
interpretation of the data, using both tables and text.
EXAMPLE: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS TABLE
Table 1: Example of Categorical, Ordinal, or Nominal Descriptives.
n (%)
Gender
Male

44
(50%)
44
(50%)

Female
Race
Black

22
(25%)
44
(50%)
22
(25%)

White
Other

Satisfaction with social
worker
Very satisfied
Somewhat Satisfied
Neither Satisfied
nor
Dissatisfied
Somewhat
Dissatisfied
Very Dissatisfied
Table 2: Example of Interval Level Descriptives.
n

Mean

SD
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Age (in years)
Years of Education
Other Important
Demographic
Variable

88
84
88

34.4
12.5
x

5.3
7.7
x

C. Write a brief one-paragraph summary of the data presented in the
descriptive statistics table. The summary should not simply restate
the statistics presented in the table. Instead, the summary should
direct the reader to the most important statistics while
summarizing the statistics for all variables presented in the table.
D. Discuss the degree to which this sample could be considered
representative.
E. Discuss how the sample characteristics might impact
generalizability.
2.

Bivariate Analysis
A. State the research question.
B. Describe the statistical techniques you used to answer the
research question.
C. Conduct appropriate analyses for each of the three research
questions and report the findings in APA format. Present
appropriate tables or charts to illustrate the results of your
analysis. Consult the APA manual for guidance. Please note
that simply copying and pasting SPSS output is not
appropriate APA format!
D. Write a brief one-paragraph summary of the meaning of the
results. Briefly summarize the meaning of the data in terms of
statistical and practical significance. What were the significant
differences or relationships? Are they meaningful? Consider the
strength and direction of relationships, the amount of variance
explained and the meaning of differences.
Note: Bivariate Analysis Section. For each bivariate analysis (item 2C),
you should do the following:
Step 1. State a null and alternative hypothesis for each statistical
test, and the significance level you are establishing for rejecting the
null hypothesis. Please state the independent and dependent
variables for each of your hypotheses.
Step 2. Describe the statistical techniques you used to answer the
research question.
Step 3. Present appropriate results of your analysis (see additional
notes, next page).
(Don’t just copy the examples that the instructor has presented in class.
Come up with your own research inquiries that YOU find interesting!)
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3. Implications
Discuss the ‘real world’ significance of the results of your
analyses. How can these findings inform further research on
the topics that you explored in your analysis? What additional
relationships should be examined?
Additional Notes on Reporting Statistical Tests
There a several ways of reporting each statistical test. Examples are shown
below—you may use other methods of presentation that are shown in your
textbook.
1. (χ2 =2.8, df=2, p > .05)
2. T-test (t=1.8, df=10, p <.05)
3. Analysis of Variance (F=2.3, df=12, p< .05)
4. Correlation (Pearson R): (r=0.40, r2=0.16, p < 0.05)
Before you submit your paper check the following:
1. Are your hypotheses appropriately stated (null and alternative
hypothesis)?
2. Did you identify the significance level? IV? DV?
3. Did you state whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis?
4. Did you present appropriate results?
5. Did your conclusions follow appropriately from the results you presented?

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Assignment #1 Grading Rubric
Measurement in Social Work Research
Your assignment will be graded based on the assignment
requirements and grading criteria.
General Criteria:
1. Thoroughness of the paper.
2. The appropriateness of the outcome measure for your practice context
and population.
3. Quality of the paper with regard to writing. Your paper should be
succinct and clearly written. You should proof read your paper carefully.
Part 1. Provide a justification or rationale for why you are recommending
use of this survey tool. Your justification should include:
A. Description of the agency setting, services provided in the program and
client population and brief discussion of how this impacts measurement.
Did the student do a good job telling me about the agency setting,
client population, and the impact of the measurement?
B. Conceptual definition of the outcomes assessed and discussion of why
they are selected.
After reading the paper do I understand what outcomes the student is
looking for and why they thought these outcomes were important?
C. At least one peer-reviewed article that speaks to some element of
measurement. That article should be attached to your assignment.
Did the student pick a strong peer-reviewed article that addresses the
outcome they have chosen to measure?
Did the student incorporate information from the article into their own
measure?
Part 2. A survey instrument measuring the desired client outcome(s)
(approximately one page)
A. It should be formatted as if you were going to administer the survey to a
client.
Does the survey appear to be formatted as if the student were actually
going to administer this to a client?
Do the questions appear to be asked in a manner that is clear and
easy for client to understand (no double barreled questions)?
B. Response options and instructions on how to complete the survey should
be included
Are their instructions included at the beginning of the survey and are
they clear and understandable?
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Part 3: SPSS codebook
A. Include the variable name associated with each question on the
survey.
Does the variable have a name and is it easy to understand? 3
points
B. Include question numbers for the response categories for individual
questions, include variable name, label, description, value, and level of
measurement.
Did the student include the variable name, label, description,
value, and level of measurement
C. The idea is that any person – even someone unfamiliar with your
survey – could look at your SPSS data set and understand how the
variables in the data set link to the questions in the survey. The
codebook provides that link.
Is the codebook understandable and well-organized? Are
questions in the same order on the survey and the codebook?
Part 4.: SPSS datafile
You need to create an SPSS data file with the variable information associated
with your survey included. You do NOT need to enter any data into the data
file, just make sure you establish your variable definitions using “variable
view”. The idea is that any person – even someone unfamiliar with your
survey – could look at your SPSS data set and understand how the variables
in the data set link to the questions in the survey. For example, if you were to
give me a completed survey and the data file, I should be able to enter the
data from the survey into the SPSS data file.
Is there a data file with variable information included with the survey?
Are variables, labels, and values included in the SPSS file?
Is the SPSS file arranged in a clear and well-organized manner that is
easy to understand (ie. are variable names in the same order as on the
survey)?

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Assignment #2 Grading Rubric
Data Presentation Assignment
Part I. Pose four research questions concerning the relationship between
variables in the data set. Present the planning table with variables and
appropriate levels of analysis. The requirements for each question are
described below.
Question #1. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using a chi
square test?
Question #2. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using a
correlation?
Question #3. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using a ttest?
Question #4. Is this a good question that can be analyzed using an
ANOVA?
Part II. Submit the Output file based on your research questions and
planning table submitted for part I. Your instructor will review and grade your
output file and give feedback on your analysis prior to completion of part III.
Question #1.
Question #2.
Question #3.
Question #4.

Was the chi square test analyzed appropriately?
Was the correlation analyzed appropriately?
Was the t-test analyzed appropriately?
Was the ANOVA analyzed appropriately?

Part III. Report
The report must be organized in the following manner.
1. Sample
A. Describe how each of the variables used in the analysis where
measured.
Does the student tell me how each of the variables are measured?
B. Conduct appropriate descriptive analyses of the variables in the data set
and present the results of your analyses and your interpretation of the
data, using both tables and text. Consult the APA manual for
instructions concerning the presentation of empirical data in research
reports.
Are tables with descriptive statistics included in the paper? Are tables
presented appropriately for the level of measurement? Are they in
appropriate APA format?
C. Write a brief one paragraph summary of the data presented in the
descriptive statistics table. The summary should not simply restate the
statistics presented in the table. Instead, the summary should direct
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the reader to the most important statistics while summarizing the
statistics for all variables presented in the table.
Is the one paragraph a good summary of the descriptive statistics? Does the
student bring attention to at least one important variable?
D. Discuss the degree to which this sample could be considered
representative.
Does the student address if their sample can be representative of the
greater population?
E. Discuss how the sample characteristics might impact generalizability.
Does the student do a good job at talking about the populations that this
study might be generalizable to? Do they talk about populations that might
not be as well represented?
2. Bivariate Analysis
A. State the research question.
Did the student state a research question?
B. Describe the statistical techniques you used to answer the research
question.
Did the student tell me what statistical technique they used?
C. Conduct appropriate analyses for each of the three research
questions and report the findings in APA format. Present appropriate
tables or charts to illustrate the results of your analysis. Consult the
APA manual for guidance.
Is the analysis appropriate for each of the three research questions? Are
the findings in APA format?
D. Write a brief one-paragraph summary of the meaning of the results.
Briefly summarize the meaning of the data in terms of statistical and
practical significance. What were the significant differences or
relationships? Are they meaningful? Consider the strength and
direction of relationships, the amount of variance explained and the
meaning of differences.
Did the student include a brief one- paragraph summary of the meaning of
the results?
3. Implications
Is the ‘real world’ significance of the results of your analyses discussed?
Do you explain how these findings can inform further research on the
topics that you explored in your analysis? Do you discuss additional
relationships that should be examined?

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the
American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Babbie, E. (2005). The basics of social research. Belmont, CA;
Thomson/Wadsworth.
Blanksby, P.E., & Barber, J.G. (2006). SPSS/PASW for social workers: An
introductory workbook. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Gilgun, J.F., & Abrams, L. S. (2002). The nature and usefulness of qualitative
social work research. Qualitative Social Work, 1(1), 39-55.
Healey, J. F. (2005). Statistics: A tool for social research (7th ed.). Belmont,
CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Holosko, M.J. (2006). Primer for critiquing social research: A student guide.
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