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Statistical Write-Up
Anika D. Davis
Wayne State University

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Statistical Write-Up

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1. Sample: T-Test
A. The independent variable of race was used in this T-Test and is measured at the nominal
level. The respondent’s age when their first child was born was used as the dependent
variable and measured at the interval level.
B. The results of the analysis showed that the majority respondents were white at 77.7% and
the average age of the respondents was 23.8 years old.
Table 1
Frequency Table
n (%)
Race
Black
White
Other

491 (13.8%)
2767 (77.7%)
301 (8.5%)

The dependent variable shown below, the respondent’s age when their first child was born, had
values 13 through 53 years old.
Table 2
Descriptives Table
Age (in years)

n
2643

Mean
23.8

SD
5.5

C. Of those who responded to the survey, the majority was white and the average age of all
respondents when their first child was born was 23.8 years old meaning they were almost
24 years of age.
D. Our sample could be representative of English and Spanish speaking adults 18 and over
living in households in the United States.
E. This sample is also not generalizable to those who do not have a telephone, were not
available after 3p.m. or residents of institutions and group quarters as they were not
surveyed.
This survey is not generalizable to households outside the U.S. because only those within
the U.S. were surveyed; however this survey was administered in 57 nations and could be
used to make cross-national comparisons.
However, those with mental and/or physical conditions who lived in surveyed households
are included so the sample could be generalizable to this particular population.

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2. Bivariate Analysis: T-Test
A. The research question used for this analysis is: Is there a relationship between race and
the age when a person’s first child is born?
The null hypothesis is: There is no relationship between race and the age when a person’s
first child is born.
The alternative hypothesis is: There is a relationship between race and the age when a
person’s first child is born.
B. In order to answer the research question, an independent samples T-Test was conducted to
compare white and black (IV) respondents and the age when their first child was born
(DV).
C. There was significance between the ages for whites (IV group 1) (M=24.2, SD=5.42) and
blacks (IV group 2) (M=21.9, SD=5.40); t(2420)=7.70, p=.000. Therefore, because there
was a significant result between whites and blacks, we will reject the null hypothesis.
D. Of those who responded to the survey, there were 491 black, 2767 whites, and 301
respondents who identified as other. The average age of all respondents when their first
child was born was 23.8 years old. These results suggest that race does have an impact on
the age when a person’s first child is born but I am not able to determine what kind of
impact. That is all I can infer about the relationship.
3. Implications
These results are not conclusive enough to offer any significant information regarding the
relationship between a person’s race and their age when their first child is born. Because
there was some significance in the scores between blacks and whites this topic should be
explored to determine the strength and direction of the relationship. Further research
should be conducted to measure race, socioeconomic status, and the age when the first
child was born. I believe if an ANOVA is conducted to determine the difference between
the groups the results would be more conclusive.

1. Sample: Chi-Square

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A. The independent variable for this Chi-Square analysis is gender and is measured at the
nominal level. The dependent variable is the respondent’s level of agreement with
spanking to discipline a child and is measured at the ordinal level.
B. Descriptive statistics for the Chi-Square analysis are shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1
Descriptives Table
n(%)
Sex
Male
Female
Favor spanking to discipline child
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree

1569 (44.1%)
1990 (55.9%)
610 (26.5%)
1059 (46.0%)
496 (21.5%)
139 (6.0%)

C. There was a total of 2304 individuals who responded to both questions and the majority
were women (55.9%). The majority of all 2304 respondents (46%) agreed with spanking
a child for discipline.
D. Our sample could be representative of English and Spanish speaking adults 18 and over
living in households in the United States.
E. This sample is also not generalizable to those who do not have a telephone, were not
available after 3p.m. or residents of institutions and group quarters as they were not
surveyed.
This survey is not generalizable to households outside the U.S. because only those within
the U.S. were surveyed; however this survey was administered in 57 nations and could be
used to make cross-national comparisons.
However, those with mental and/or physical conditions who lived in surveyed households
are included so the sample could be generalizable to this particular population.
2. Bivariate Analysis: Chi-Square
A. The research question used for this analysis is: Is there a relationship between a person’s
gender and favoring spanking to discipline a child.
The null hypothesis is: There is no relationship between a person’s gender and favoring
spanking to discipline a child.

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The alternative hypothesis is: There is a relationship between a person’s gender and
favoring spanking to discipline a child.
B. In order to answer the research question, a Chi-Square was performed to determine if
there is relationship between gender and favoring spanking to discipline a child.
C. There was a relationship between the two variables, X2(3,N=2304)=35.11, p.001.
Therefore, we will reject the null hypothesis because there is a significant relationship
between gender and favoring spanking to discipline a child.
D. There was a total of 2304 individuals who responded to both questions. Of those
respondents the majority respondents were women (55.9%) and 44.1% were men. Almost
half of all respondents agreed with spanking a child for discipline (46%), 610 strongly
agreed, 496 disagreed, and only 139 strongly disagreed. The findings conclude that there
is a relationship between a person’s gender and favoring spanking to discipline children
but I cannot determine the strength or direction of the relationship.
3. Implications
This test concludes that a significant amount of both men and women agree with
spanking a child for discipline. Out of 2304 respondents, 1059 agreed with spanking a
child for discipline. Less than 10% of the male and female respondents strongly disagreed
with spanking for discipline. From this research further studies can be conducted to
include socioeconomic status or religious affiliation to gain a deeper insight into
respondents who favor spanking to discipline a children.

1. Sample: Pearson-r

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A. Both variables measured in this Pearson-r analysis are at the ratio level of measurement.
The independent variable is the number of weeks the respondent worked last year and the
dependent variable is the respondent’s income.
B. Descriptive statistics for the Pearson-r correlation analysis are shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1
Descriptives Table
Weeks R. worked

n
3530

Mean
32.28

SD
22.9

Respondent’s income

2235

10.46

2.9

C. The average number of weeks the respondents worked last year was 32.28 weeks and the
average income was between \$15,000 and \$19,999.
D. Our sample could be representative of English and Spanish speaking adults 18 and over
living in households in the United States
E. This sample is also not generalizable to those who do not have a telephone, were not
available after 3p.m. or residents of institutions and group quarters as they were not
surveyed.
This survey is not generalizable to households outside the U.S. because only those within
the U.S. were surveyed; however this survey was administered in 57 nations and could be
used to make cross-national comparisons.
However, those with mental and/or physical conditions who lived in surveyed households
are included so the sample could be generalizable to this particular population.
2. Bivariate Analysis: Pearson-r Correlation
A. The research question for this analysis is: Is there a relationship between the amount of
weeks a person worked last year and their income level?
The null hypothesis is: There is no relationship between the amount of weeks a person
worked last year and their income level.
The alternative hypothesis is: There is a relationship between the amount of weeks a
person worked last year and their income level.
B. In order to answer the research question, a Pearson-r value was computed to assess the
correlation between the amount of weeks a person worked last year and their income
level.

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C. There was a correlation between the two variables, r= .494, n= 2235, p=.000 . Therefore,
because there was a significant relationship, we will reject the null hypothesis. Overall,
there is a moderate positive correlation between the amount of weeks a person worked
last year and their income level. More weeks worked last year is moderately correlated to
a higher income level.
D. The total number of respondents who disclosed the number of weeks they worked last
year was 3530 and the total number of respondents who disclosed their total income was
2235. Of the two groups, there were 2214 respondents who answered both questions. Of
the respondents who answered both questions the average number of weeks worked last
year was 32 and the average income was between \$15,000 and \$19,999.
3. Implications
There is a positive correlation between the number of weeks a person works and their
income level. This means that there is evidence that the more weeks a person works in a
year the higher their income level is. This can be explored further to determine if the
same holds true among different disciplines. It can further be explored among workers
who are paid below a working wage or minimum wage. Research comparing races and
gender can also be explored to determine if minorities are paid less. These results can
help when creating policies and to prove or dispute the belief that hard work pays in the
end.