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Disusun oleh:
Nur Rosyidah 201212501138
Debi Risz Kita Handayani 201212501158
Puspita Juliani K. 201212501196



A. Background of the study
There are many kind of method to learn foreign language. It is, Audio Lingual
Method (ALM), Silent Way, Total Physical Response (TPR) and etc. Each method has
different point of view to learn foreign language. Teacher as the role model has their own
method to deliver knowledge to the student. One of most popular used high school in the last
decade is ALM, TPR and Silent way. So in this paper we observe ALM, TPR and Silent Way
method divided in a several part, there are: the goals, the role of teacher and student,
technique, the strength and the weak and the evaluation of this method.
B. Identifications of the problem
1. What is ALM, TPR and Silent Way?
2. What are the characteristic of ALM, TPR and Silent Way?
3. What are the goals of use ALM, TPR and Silent Way?
4. What are the role of Teacher and Student in class?
5. What are technique of ALM, TPR and Silent Way?
6. What are the strength of ALM, TPR and Silent Way?
7. What are the weak of ALM, TPR and Silent Way?
C. Purpose of writing
1. To know what ALM, TPR and Silent is.
2. To know what the characteristic of ALM, TPR and Silent Way are.
3. To know what the goals of use ALM, TPR and Silent Way are.
4. To know what the role of Teacher and Student in class are.
5. To know what technique of ALM, TPR and Silent Way are.
6. To know what the strength of ALM, TPR and Silent Way are.
7. To know what the weak of ALM, TPR and Silent Way are.



Audio-Lingual Method
The Audio-Lingual Method is a method for foreign language teaching which
emphasized the teaching of listening and speaking before reading and writing. Its also called
by Army Method because this method is an appeared since the world war II for the American
armies who had to learn language quickly and intensively.
In the Audio-Lingual Method, the students first hear a language, later, they speak the
language and after that, they read and write it in. Mother tongue is discouraged in the
classroom when this method is used. The Audio-Lingual Method does not learn lots of
vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drills speaking and grammar because in this method,
grammar is most important for the student. In other word, the student must repeat grammar
pattern after the teacher.
The characteristic of audio-lingual method

Dialogue is the media for teaching grammar

No native language used and translation for teaching grammar
Drills is central technique to seek the correct pronunciation for the best subject of word
structure and the sound produced to formal language as habit

Communicative goal of teaching is done after the process to have the competency of

Having been mastered in speech, them broken down into learning reading and writing

The goals of use Audio-Lingual Method

To enable the target language communicatively

The role of Teacher and Student in class

Teacher role as the an orchestra leader/modeler
The student as imitator
Technique of Audio-Lingual Method
Dialogue memorization, backward build-up drill, repetition drill, chain drill, substitution
drill, transformation drill, question-and-answer drill, use of minimal pairs, complete the
dialogue, grammar game
The strength of Audio-Lingual Method
Acknowledgement of standard grammatical within sounds, order and form.
To train tongue and ears
Accustom of conversational proficiency
Imitation of native speaker pronunciation
Correction of a mistake to pronunciation and fluency directly and immediately
Student can acquire behavioral responses
Regarded sentences as the simple word classes by behaviorist phycholinguistics
Repetition and mechanical drills were considered to be the essence of learning

The weak of Audio-Lingual Method

Student are enable to transfer skill through audio-lingualism to real communication

outside the classroom
Studying through audio-lingualism to be boring and unsatisfying
Unknown of specific detail grammatically
Spend a lot of money for audio-lingual lab
The study of vocabulary only in the context
Speech occurrences were under the rigorous control of the teacher
It makes the students to be look like a parrot (audio-lingualism)


Total Physical Response

Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method built around the
coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical (motor)
activity. Developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University,
California, it draws on several traditions, including developmental psychology, learning theory, and humanistic pedagogy, as well as on language teaching procedures proposed by
Harold and Dorothy Palmer in 1925.
The characteristic of Total Physical Response
The coordination of speech and action
Learners roles of listener and performer
Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress
Reading and writing is taught after grammar and vocabulary

Grammar is taught immediately

Grammar and vocabulary selected according to the situation
Learning language by gesture (body movement)
The teacher and the students are actors.
Students should be more active
Motorist student

The goals of use Total Physical Response

To learn to communicate in a foreign language enjoyably as Ss did in acquiring

The roles of Teacher and Student in Class

The teacher plays an active and direct role in Total Physical Response. "The instructor is
the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors". It is the teacher who
decides what to teach, who models and presents the new materials, and who selects
supporting materials for classroom use. The teacher is encouraged to be well prepared
and well organized so that the lesson flows smoothly and predictably. Asher
recommends detailed lesson plans: It is wise to write out the exact utterances you will
be using and especially the novel commands because the action is so fast-moving there
is usually not time for you to create spontaneously". Classroom interaction and turn
taking is teacher rather than learner directed. Even when learners interact with other
learners it is usually the teacher who initiates the interaction:

Learners in Total Physical Response have the primary roles of listener and performer.
They listen attentively and respond physically to commands given by the teacher.
Learners are required to respond both individually and collectively. Learners have little
influence over the content of learning, since content is determined by the teacher, who
must follow the imperative-based format for lessons.
The Technique of Total Physical Response Method
Imperative drills are the major classroom activity in Total Physical Response. They are
typically used to elicit physical actions and activity on the part of the learners.

Application of Total Physical Response


: Predicting, skill and reading the text


: Making dialogue, picturing


: Reality, demonstration, conversation


: Reality, demonstration

Instructural objectives
Understand the instruction given by teacher
Carry out teachers instruction
Point the objects instructed
Draw the pictures of the object

Label the object

Match the objects with their names
Give instruction to others
Act according to the instruction

Basic principle of Total Physical Response

Learning vocabulary must be developed first
Listening ability must be developed first
There must not be any stress in the class
Trace theory must be established/regular repetition
Action verb are the core of TPR
TPR is also a technique of teaching of vocabulary
No forcing but exploit the students error for exposing other structure points
Expose the natural use of language
Create an artificial English community in the classroom
The more often we trace the memory and the more intensively we repeat, the stronger
the memory associations are the more likely it will be recalled


Silent Way

Silent Way is a method by using no word or without saying anything just pointed
their Cuisenaire Stick to give explanation to the student. Silent way is the best tools for
learning because student can concentrate of focusing their mind on the task. With the basic
student should learn independent, Caleb Gattegno (1970) asserts that student should develop
their own responsibility and learned by own. So in this method student should motivated to
talk as much as they could and teacher only silent and observe their students. There are
several kind to observe this method.
The goals of use Silent Way
To establish learning target language fluently as same as native language, correct
pronunciation, also stress mastering in prosody elements
Students are required to learn independently
The role of Teacher and Student in class
Student role is as the center of the class learning, they motivated to talk much in the
The role of teacher is as the monitor of effort of student also student encouraged to have
active role in such language learning
Technique of Silent Way
To encourage student response by oral without direct instruction of teacher.
The basic method of learning is easily. Teacher gives orders or visual clues and then
student response as the classroom activities.
The strength of Silent Way
Class interaction is not only between student and teacher like GTM method but also with
each student too

Student has to correct their mistaken themselves, and teacher views the mistake and then
response by giving some clues or hints
More freedom for student to depend on them self
Increase an intelligent potency and creativity
One of strength of this method is teacher use Cuisenaire stick to introduce new orders
The weak of Silent Way
Teacher will find difficulties in evaluate students
Teacher must know their objective of learning so they can create teaching aids
Student will too much waste time to struggling their argument while waiting teacher
Silent way will be find dead end if student non cooperative in the classroom learning
Using Cuisenaire stick deemed unfit because not all the language could describe by
pointed something
Evaluation of Silent Way
Teacher may never give formal test, they choose to let their student go to learn
independently all the time. Teacher will focus on monitoring student error / mistaken and
make it clear.



From explanation above ALM, TPR and Silent Way, we conclude that every method has
their own strength and weak. The three of them ALM, TPR and Silent Way is good for basic
learners because in the ALM itself learn by listening and speaking. It will train student to speak
active and listen clearly. Basic learners will easily to understand if they know grammar and
vocabulary as much as. In TPR method is good for learning language because student will
understand quickly about language and more active in the class room. In the silent way is good
for basic learners too, because the way of explaining used by student itself, so they can increase
their creativity in learn and teacher as the judges.
Teacher has their own method to deliver their capability in teach language. And as the
teacher they have to recognize the ability of their student first and then determine which method
fit to their students. Because class will be incompatible if teacher uses wrong method.


Universitas Indraprasta PGRI. Teaching English as A Foreign Language. Jakarta. 2008.