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Definitation -: It gives graphical
record of history of measurements of
some physical events.

Necessity of Recorders
To have a permanent record for
Recorder record electrical and nonelectrical quantities as a function of
Electrical quantities such as voltage,
current can be recorded directly
Non-electrical quantities recorded
indirectly using transducers.

Classification of Recorders

Analog Recorders It is used when
whole system is analog type.
Digital Recorders It is used when
system has a digital output

Analog Recorder
Graphic Recorder : It display & store a
pen and ink record of the history of some
physical event.
Oscillographic Recorder (UV Recorder)
-: This recorder uses UV light as a source &
paper sensitive to UV light is used for
Magnetic Tape Recorder : In this
electrical input signal is stored in magnetic
memory & this signal can be reproduced
whenever desired

Graphic Recorder
Strip Chart Recorder -: It records
one or more variable with respect to
time. It is an X-t recorder.
X-Y Recorder -: It records one or
more dependent variable with respect
to an independent variable

Strip Chart Recorder

Galvanometer Type Recorder -: It
operate on galvanometer deflection
Null Type Recorder -: It operates
on comparison principle.

Null Type Recorder

Potentiometric Type Recorder
Bridge Recorder
LVDT Recorder

Types of Recorder
(according to Points)
Single Point Recorder -: It record
only one measured variable, it draw
single continuous curve.
Multipoint Recorder -: It record more
than one variable upto six variable. It
has maximum four pens, it has
maximum 24 inputs, it has max. 6

X-Y Recorder(Plotter)
Definition X-Y recorder is an inst.
Which gives a graphic record of
relationship b/w two variables

Method of operation of XY-Plotter

First Method First variable control the
position of the roll(paper)in Y-direction
while second variable control the position
of the recording pen(stylus) in X-direction
Second Method First variable moves
the stylus in X-direction while another
variable moves stylus in Y-direction at
right to X-direction, here paper remain

X-Y Recorder

X-Y Recorder Features

It have sensitivity of 10v/mm
Slewing speed of 1.5m/sec.
Frequency response about 6Hz for
both axis
Chart size is 250*180mm
Accuracy is about 0.3%

Plotting the curves of vaccum tube,
zener diode, rectifiers etc
Speed torque curves of motors
Resistance vs temp graph
Mechanical measurements
Regulation curves of power supply

XY recorder

XY recorder

Galvanometer type

Magnetic Recorder
A magnetic Recorder is used to
record data from electrical to
magnetic form and retrieved or
reproduced the same data in
electrical form again and again

Magnetic Recorders

Type of magnetic Recorders

There are two types of magnetic
Magnetic tape recorders
Magnetic disk recorders

It have a wide frequency range from
DC to several MHz
It have wide magnitude upto 50 db
It have low distortion
It stores electrical i/p signals in
magnetic form
It reproduce signal from magnetic
form to electrical signal

Features cntd.
Magnetic tape/disk can be used to erase old
data and reused to record new set of data
It permits multi channel recording
Data may be recorded as fast as speed of
(1.5 to 3.05 m/sec)
Data can be retrieved as low as speed of
(4.76 to 2.38 cm/sec)
Both analog as well as digital signals can be

Basic Components of magnetic

Tape/disk Recorder
Recording HeadThe construction of
magnetic head is similar to
that of a transformer
having a toroidal core with
a coil. A fine air gap of
length 5-15 micro meter is
shunted by passing a
magnetic tape/disk

Component cntd.
Magnetic Tape/disk
Magnetic tape/disk is composed of a
coating of fine magnetic iron oxide
ribbon/disk. A typical tape is 12.7 mm
wide and 25.micro meter thick. The
magnetic pattern induced in them and
retain it.

Component cntd.
Reproducing HeadThe reproducing head detects the
magnetic pattern stored on the
tape/disk and converts it back to
original electrical signal. The
reproducing head is similar in
appearance to that of a recording

Component cntd.
Tape/disk Transport MechanismThis mechanism moves the tape along the recording
or the reproducing heads at a constant speed. The
tape mechanism must be capable of handling the
tape/disk during various modes of operation without
straining, distorting or wearing the tape. This
requires that the mechanism must use arrangements
to guide the tape/disk to magnetic heads with great
precision, maintaining proper tension and obtain
sufficient tape/disk to magnetic head contact.
Arrangement for fast winding and reversing are also

Tape transport mechanism

Component cntd.
Signal Conditioning DevicesThese devices consist of amplifiers and
filters required for modifying the
signal to a format that can be
recorded on a tape/disk, reproduced
data from the tape/disk

Working of magnetic recorders

When Magnetic Tape/disk is passed through a recording
head, A recording current in the coil causes a flux of the
same shape to bridge air gap and hence to pass through
magnetic tape/disk, there by magnetizing the iron oxide
particles as the pass the gap. The state of magnetization
of the oxide as it leaves the air gap is retained, thus the
actual recording takes place at the trailing edge of the
The same tape/disk when passed through a reproduce or
playback head produce variations in reluctance of the
winding there by inducing a voltage in the winding
dependent upon the direction of magnetization and its
magnitude on the magnetic tape/disk.

Methods of recording
Direct recording
Frequency modulated recording (FM
Pulse duration modulation (PDM)

Direct recording
It is simplest method of recording,
usually required one tape/disk track
for each channel. The signal to be
recorded is amplified and mixed with a
high frequency bias and fed directly to
the recording head as a varying
electric current.

Frequency modulated
recording (FM Recording)

Frequency modulation (FM) as the

name implies uses the variation of
frequency of carrier signal to carry
the desired information instead of
varying amplitude

Pulse duration modulation

(PDM) Recording)
Pulse duration modulation method of
recording is allow simultaneous
recording of large no. of slowly
changing signals by using time division
multiplexing (TDM)

In Instrumentation systems
In Banking sector
In Music Industries etc.

Ultraviolet Recorder
Ultraviolet Recorders are basically
electromechanical oscillographic
This is a modified version of Duddels
multichannel oscillographs

Ultraviolet Recorder

Ultraviolet Recorder
This recorder consist of no. of galvanometer
(moving coil) elements mounted in a single
magnet block which reduce the size and cost
In place of white light UV light is used as a
A paper sensitive to UV light is used for
producing a trace for recording
The UV light is projected on paper with the
help of mirror attached to the moving coil

Used for signal dc & ac signal having
fundamental frequency upto 400 to
500 Hz
Recording of high frequency i/p is
possible if recorder with high paper
speed of about 10 m/sec are available
It is widely used as recorder for
research and industry

Strip Chart Recorder

It records one or more variable with
respect to time.
It is an X variable with respect to time

Strip Chart Recorder

Strip Chart Recorder

It consist of a long role of graph
paper moving vertically
The speed selector of paper driving
system is available with 1 to 100
mm/sec select manually
Stylus for marking is moving on
graph paper, horizontally proportional
to quantity being recorded

Components of Strip Chart

Paper Drive System
Marking Mechanism
(a) Marking with ink filled stylus
(b) Marking with heated stylus
Tracing Mechanism
(a)Curvilinear System
(b)Rectilinear System

Drawback of Strip Chart

Ink related problem in stylus i.e.
viscosity, discontinuity, spotting
Appearance of graph is depend on
paper quality
It unable to provide relationship b/w
two variables

Strip chart type

Digital Data Logger

Strip chart recorder is replaced by digital
It is an electronic device that records data
over time with a built in instrument or sensor
or via external instruments and sensors
They generally are small, battery powered,
portable, and equipped with a microprocessor,
internal memory for data storage, and

Digital Data Logger

Digital Data Logger

data loggers interface with a personal
computer and utilize software to
activate the data logger and view and
analyze the collected data
One of the primary benefits of using
data loggers is the ability to
automatically collect data on a 24hour basis

Upon activation, data loggers are
typically deployed and left unattended
to measure and record information
for the duration of the monitoring

It is used as a data acquisition
a comprehensive, accurate picture of
the environmental conditions being
monitored, such as air temperature
and relative humidity
Used in ISRO, DRDO for data
processing application

Unattended weather station recording
Unattended soil moisture level
Unattended gas pressure recording.
Road traffic counting.
Tank level monitoring.
Water level monitoring for
groundwater studies.

Electrical & Electronics Measurement
& Instrumentation By A.K.Sawhney
Measurement Systems, Applications &
Design By E.O.Doeblin