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Fahim Pathan
Prof. Pruit
TNLZ-1000-83517
8 April 2015
Water Treatment: Elimination plan for Arsenic Filtering
In Bangladesh, I have seen many people suffer through deprivation of water. There is not
an abundant source or supply of water that can be found in such a small country. There is a vast
amount of the substance in the world, but finding quality water to drink is rare. Water is a source
of life and energy. This element is a valuable resource and it is not expendable. All the water that
exists on earth is here to stay, but it is not dispensable everywhere and to every society. Finding
usable water that can be utilized for all purposes is very difficult. Toxins such as arsenic
contaminate the water system of many countries. Arsenic is a dangerous element that causes
severe health problems to people who are exposed to it frequently. Many people die from this
contaminant and there is little to do since people have little to no awareness of the hazard that
faces that when they drink water. So I thought of a way to solve this problem by trying to cleanse
the arsenic compounded water.
The pollution of water is a great threat. Pollution and its compilation and growth on Earth
have had a disastrously negative effect in many populations. In an article in the book, the authors
Joseph Orlins and Anne Wehrly state that contamination of water continues to increase in water,
which makes water hazardous to the health of people in society and the environment. The article
written by these authors is titled, Water Pollution Poses a Serious Threat. Joseph Orlins is a
professor in civil engineering at Rowan University, which is located in Glassboro, New Jersey.
Anne Wehrly is a freelance writer and an attorney. The book was published in 2006 and the
article was published in 2003. This article written by Orlins and Wehrly is an essential read for
any Biology major student as these articles define the true negativity of pollution and how it has
a large impact in the contamination of water. As stated by the authors, only prevention and

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remediation methods may be taken to get rid of arsenic elements (Orlin 66). There is no real
solution to get rid of arsenic in something, but there have been steps taken. Some protocols may
have to be followed to ensure the safety of people who are exposed to such elements. Arsenic
poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. It has led to many disastrous events in which many
people have had to suffer. Exposure to high levels of arsenic is due to the fact that the substance
resides in the waters where all the drinking waters are extracted. The water is taken from wells.
Most people in Bangladesh think that they drink water that is safe, therefore leading to the
Bangladeshi people drinking the water. Most of these Bangladeshis victimized by the poison do
not have the knowledge that they have this contaminant entering their body. Research has
concluded that this arsenic disaster is one of the most dangerous threats to the health of people.
In order to save people from this contamination in the drinking water of people, the United States
Geological Survey is developing ideas in which people will have a safer method of getting
drinkable water.
The process of innovating a cheaper method of filtrating arsenic is tedious. Arsenic
components can be found in the body is due to the high exposure from drinking water, seafood,
and rice which is grown in water (Cottingham). Since exposure to such element is almost
improbable to extinguish, the dangers are very high. The dangers of having arsenic elements in
the drinking water can only be prevented by the creation of arsenic filter because arsenic
elements can be terminated from other substances. My thought process has stayed the same from
the beginning of the essay. I knew that you could get rid of arsenic elements, but finding the best
and cheapest method for the creation of the filter is the rigorous task. Arsenic poisoning has
affected many people around the world and creating an arsenic filter is very costly; therefore,
accessibility to cheap material is an important factor in creation of an effective arsenic filter
which will help reduce polluted contaminants of arsenic in the water utilized for drinking.

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Arsenic is a metalloid that is a very deadly toxin. This component is in part many
substances that are used in society. These substances are utilized for peoples needs, but arsenic
has ruined the usage of it then. In result of contact or interaction with arsenic elements that
contaminants to items used in society, there are many health problems that people suffer through
that are. In the article written by Alan Lansdown, Lansdown states that the arsenic element has
been used throughout history for human aid, but in recent history, arsenic has caused disaster in
healthcare of people in Third World Countries. Lansdown discusses that arsenic in drinking
water is a huge health problem for much of the population surrounding countries in South East
Asia, parts of Europe and Argentina (23). Furthermore, arsenic is very toxic due to it being a
metalloid, and people suffer severe health issues when they ingest, inhale, or come into contact
with it (24). Arsenic is a major epidemic that has plagued the environment around the world.
Although it does not spread like an actual disease, there is a high probability that people will be
exposed to it. People do not have control over being exposed to the toxin, since many do not
have access to safe, drinkable water. These people cannot tell if the water they drink is exposing
them to harmful water.
Furthermore, high exposure to arsenic element has disastrous effects on people.
According to the article written by Dr. Asutosh Ghosh, people who suffered through health
problems in relation to arsenic had suffered through manifestation of skin, hepatomegaly, and
hypertension (978). People who have come in contact with this element have suffered major
consequences because the element is very reactive within a persons body. These consequences
included damage to health of ones body in different aspects, internally and externally. All these
people who came to contact with the arsenic element were exposed thorough the drinking water,
since people who contained higher concentration of arsenic elements consumed higher amount of
water (979). This shows that there is clearly a problem with the water system people with higher

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concentration of arsenic had drank more water. This may be due to contamination in how the
water filtrates through the pipes and how the water is transported to people. The maintenance of
water is not handled very well in many places in the world. If the water does not go through
proper care and go through certain process, there is a severe problem, in the sense that many
people are getting hurt over it.
Arsenic has caused great negativity in the healthcare system and the economic system in
many less developed locations around the world. In researchers Sara V. Flanagan, Richard B.
Johnston and Yan Zhengs journal, the authors states that the arsenic components have caused
great negativity in the healthcare system and the economic system in Bangladesh. This is a major
issue due to the fact that the healthcare quality in Third world countries is horrific. Many people
are suffering from chronic diseases caused by arsenic, and there is nothing to do to help all these
people. The authors state that there is a high chance of people to get exposed to arsenic elements
(841). People will continue to die if there is a high chance of exposure to this element. Due to so
many people dying every year due to arsenic, the Growth Domestic Product is beginning to
decline which is going to put the country into more unstable (841). This causes the country to get
unbalanced as there will not be enough people to support the country. People will not want to
domesticate the society, putting the people under tragic situations. Society will not be able to
develop the location, therefore leading to abandoning the certain area. This is all because people
do not have just one element that is a necessity for survival.
There is a large amount of groundwater contamination in the US that comes from the
sewage system implemented in certain areas. This discussion is specifically about how arsenic
contamination affects the United States. In engineers Roger W. Babcock Jr., Krishna M.
Lamichhane, Michael J. Cummings, and Gloria H. Cheongs article, the authors discuss that the
onsite sewage disposal system was put into four categories that indicated what the problem with

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the sewage system was (1084). Since the sewage system is not managed well enough, there is
contaminant in there that mixes with the water through the pipes. Mixture of different
components makes the water more hazardous, so people are not getting the quality of water they
need. Although the research does concluded that most of the water systems in the US passed the
test, the results also showed that there was about thirty-two percent of the water system that did
not provide with clean water (1085). Those thirty-two percent may affect many people and they
are not given clean water due to composition of contaminants in the water. The results of the
research show that there is a need of a new on onsite sewage disposal system for the water
systems because pollutants roam the areas where people get their water from.
There are ways to eliminate arsenic from water. Kanchan Arsenic Filters is an effective
filtration system in the removal of arsenic components. In the journal that was written by
aurthorsAdjana Singh, Linda S. Smith, Shreekrishna Shrestha, and Narendra Madens, claim that
state that the Kanchan Arsenic Filter was created and it tested to be effective before in earlier
experiments conducted (596). So the KAF method had work previously by other researcher
when they tested it. The KAF method of reducing arsenic elements seems to be reasonable as it
has had efficiency and consistency in removal of the arsenic elements. Although KAF method
did prove effective, the KAF did not reduce arsenic components for all test subjects, but it was
still efficient in some materials (598). There should be some modifications to the KAF so that it
will work better. Since the KAF has worked to remove arsenic elements, there should be more
research to further the efficiency of its production.
Furthermore, the process of removing arsenate elements in drinking water using the
combination of precipitation and nanofiltration is considerable way to remove arsenate elements.
In researchers S.K. Tiwari and V.K. Pandeys article, the authors introduce the topic by stressing
the facts about how the pH levels of the membranes have significant effect on the removal of the

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arsenic from elements (88). The pH level of a substance must be maintained in order for the
arsenic element to be removed successfully. The pH levels determine whether the arsenic
components can be removed or at least neutralized to the level where it will not harm people.
Furthermore, the authors state that the higher the feed concentration on the arsenic is, the higher
the rate of the reduction of the arsenic (89). Maintaining high pH of the nanofiltration allows for
arsenic elements to be removed at a higher rate. Nanofiltration is has moderate efficiency since it
does not include a specific pH to utilize.
Furthermore, when there is an increase in the pH concentration level within the different
bamboos, there is more elimination of the arsenic elements within the water of the sand filtration.
In Bhupen K. Baruah, Bhanitas Das, and Abani K. Misras article, researchers at universities at
Assam and Meghalaya, the authors discuss that the pH level of concentration within the bamboos
is an effective way to measure the deficiency of the arsenic element (1063). Arsenic components
have a low acidic pH. So the bamboos should have a high basic pH because only a high basic pH
would be able to remove a component with low acidic pH. Bamboos have a Although the
research conclude that increase in pH will increase the rate of removal of the arsenic elements,
results also show that if the pH reached beyond 7.8, there was a huge downgrade in the rate of
removal of arsenic (1064). The pH is an effective way to reduce the amount of arsenic elements
when filtering it through sand. Maintaining the pH at a high number but not so it reaches beyond
7.8 is important because the arsenic removal rate decreases beyond that point. This gives a
measurement that allows people to moderate the arsenic filter so that they can know specifically
at which specific pH level where the arsenic component can be removed at a highly efficiency
rate.
State adsorption through oxidative minerals is an effective way of filtering arsenic
elements from contaminated water. In Professor Marisol Gallegos-Garcia, Kardia Ramirez-

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Muniz, and Shaoxian Songs article, the authors introduce the topic by stating that adsorption
through iron oxide miners are more likely to have a higher percentage of arsenic removed from
contaminated water than any other oxidative minerals (Gallegos-Garcia 304). Oxidation of the
material that contains arsenic elements will get rid of the arsenic in the material. Oxidative
mineral oxidize the water where the arsenic elements will solidify and can be easily removed
since it is not part of the water anymore. Solidification will not last long, but it will easier to
remove at that instant. Research shows that goethite, an iron oxide, is the best oxide mineral of
the oxidative minerals tested to remove arsenic elements from contaminated water because the
adsorption capacity of goethite was the greatest (Gallegos-Garcia 305). To get the best result in
removal of arsenic elements, the utilization of iron oxide in this method would be best. Iron
oxide was the metal that was best able to remove arsenic elements in the water. This method
gives a good idea of what materials might be needed for removal of arsenic elements, but
building the arsenic filter in this method will be very costly, but it is worth it since it has high
efficiency in productivity.
Arsenic elements can be distilled from water if the water is pre-oxidized using the
Fentons reagent and filtered through sand. In the article written by researchers Dipali Jasudkar,
Rupali Rakhunde, Leena Deshpande, Pawan Labhasetwar, and H.D. Juneja, the authors state that
oxidation of the arsenic element should be very important since it makes the material venerable
and can be removed by filtrating it through sand(1231). Through the oxidation process, it is easy
to mineralize organic elements such as arsenic so that it can be filtered out of the drinking water
(1231). So by oxidizing the water first, it can be filtrated later so that the arsenic elements that
had mixed with the drinking water may be removed. This makes the drinking water safer since it
gets rid of an important contaminant.

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There are many innovations that have helped terminate arsenic elements from water.
Scientist develops new ideas that can prevent the expansion of these elements. There is no
definite right answer to getting rid of the toxin because all the different types of filters have only
helped get rid of little proportion of the arsenic from the water. With the continuous development
of new ideas of how to create the perfect system of arsenic filtration, scientist have been able to
get closer to the actual thing, where the filter can filtrate at the optimum possibility so most of
the arsenic elements are destroyed. So here are various filtration methods scientists have used in
order to eliminate arsenic from water.
The Kanchan Arsenic Filter is a moderate systematic filter that gets rid of a small
proportion of arsenic element from water. In a journal written by Adjana Singh, Linda S. Smith,
Shreekrishna Shrestha, and Narendra Madens, it is claimed that the Kanchan Arsenic Filter was
created and it tested to be effective before in earlier experiments conducted (596). The KAF
method of filtration did not have a consistent based removal rate. It did work previously when
the researcher had been experimenting with it. The KAF method of reducing arsenic elements
seems to be reasonable as it has had efficiency in the sense that it still removed arsenic elements
from water, but the consistency in removal of the arsenic elements was a major disadvantage.
Although KAF method did prove effective, the KAF did not reduce arsenic components for all
test subjects, but it was still efficient in some materials (598). In order to enhance the efficiency
of the method of filtration, there needs to be some modifications to the KAF so that it will be
able to help eliminate more arsenic components. The KAF has worked well in removal of arsenic
elements, so further development of this ideology of filtrations should be more looked upon. If
they can get the method to work better, they can it to bigger plans to help further and develop it
even more.

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Furthermore, arsenate elements can be removed by the usage of both precipitation and
nanoflitration of the drinking water. In S.K. Tiwari and V.K. Pandeys article the authors stress
the facts about how the pH levels of the membranes have significant effect on the removal of the
arsenic from elements (88). The pH level of a substance must be maintained in order for the
arsenic element to be removed successfully. The higher the feed concentration on the arsenic is,
the higher the rate of the reduction of the arsenic (89). The reduction rate increase based on a
variable, so the process is time consuming. But the maintenance of high pH of the nanofiltration
allows for arsenic elements to be removed at a higher rate. So it allows for better results of
arsenic removal.
Furthermore, it is stated that as there is an increase in the pH concentration level within
the different bamboos, there is more elimination of the arsenic elements within the water of the
sand filtration. In the article, Modification of indigenous rural water filter for arsenic mitigation
using different bamboo charcoal, the authors discuss that the pH level of concentration within
the bamboos is an effective way to measure the deficiency of the arsenic element (1063).
Although the research shows this is an effective way for removing arsenate elements, there was a
huge downgrade in the rate of removal of arsenic (1064). The pH is an effective way to reduce
the amount of arsenic elements when filtering it through sand. Maintaining the pH at a high
number but not so it reaches beyond 7.8 is important because the arsenic removal rate decreases
beyond that point.
Contaminated arsenic water can also be filtered by adsorption of oxidative minerals. In
Marisol Gallegos-Garcia, Kardia Ramirez-Muniz, and Shaoxian Songs article, it is stated that
adsorption through iron oxide miners are more likely to have a higher percentage of arsenic
removed from contaminated water than any other oxidative minerals (Gallegos-Garcia 304).
Oxidation of the material that contains arsenic elements will get rid of the arsenic in the material.

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Research shows that goethite, an iron oxide, is the best oxide mineral of the oxidative minerals
tested to remove arsenic elements from contaminated water because the adsorption capacity of
goethite was the greatest (Gallegos-Garcia 305). To get the best result in removal of arsenic
elements, the utilization of iron oxide in this method would be best.
Furthermore, arsenic elements that are found in water can be distilled if the water is preoxidized by the usage of Fentons reagent and filtered through sand. In the article written by
researchers Dipali Jasudkar, Rupali Rakhunde, Leena Deshpande, Pawan Labhasetwar, and H.D.
Juneja and published in 2012, it states that oxidation of the arsenic element should be very
important since it makes the material venerable and can be removed by filtrating it through sand
(1231). Through the oxidation process, it is easy to mineralize organic elements such as arsenic
so that it can be filtered out of the drinking water (1231). Oxidization of the water will let the
arsenic element that are composed in the drinking water be filtrated and removed. This makes the
drinking water safer since it gets rid of an important contaminant that is harmful.
Although these are excellent examples of how to create an arsenic filter, they still cannot
be placed into a broader system. These methods have the ability to remove arsenic elements from
water, but they still are not at full capacity and somewhat defective since they cannot remove one
hundred percent of the arsenic toxins. If they cannot function to what is needed, it clearly needs
to be developed so that it can do the task it was built for. We are within the vicinity of completing
the arsenic filter, but there still lacks information of how the filter can work at its maximum and
how should we think in a broader sense of how to implement the filter into the water system so
that it may assist the community so that there is no further damage for the future.
Furthermore, the money it takes to gather some of the material to utilize in the arsenic
filter is too much. Such as the oxidizing material take a lot of money since it has to go through
phases where many different items will be needed. Also some of the processes take way too
much time. The time consumption makes it venerable to work in a broader system. The water in

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the water system travels in a fast pace, so if the processes takes too much time, the process in
which it will work at the water system will make it incomplete. Therefore, there will be a heavy
residue of the arsenic elements left in the water that people will drink. So the arsenic filter will
be incomplete.
It is hard to develop an entirely different way to remove arsenic elements form water.
Most, if not all, of the information of how arsenic elements can be eliminated from different
materials have been evaluated. So I have devised an idea in which arsenic elements can be
removed at an efficient rate. Instead of trying to invent a new way of removing arsenic elements
from water, I will use the different methods into one solution. My final solution will be a website
describing the arsenic filter. It will describe that the arsenic filter will utilizes chaff based
materials to remove arsenic from water. It is kind of like the bamboo experiment, but chaff is a
much cheaper material. Furthermore, when chaff materials are exposed liquid of higher base, it
can remove arsenic elements much faster. Arsenate turns into ions when exposed to bases, and
since chaff materials are much more adsorbent to bases, it can convert the arsenous acid into
arsenate ions, making it easier to remove.
Although there will not be physical demonstration of the arsenic filter, there will be a
model showing how it will look like. The arsenic filter will be pipe that consists of two layers
inside, in which the water must pass through. Both layers will consist of a net which has the
chaff material which has absorbed the base liquid. These layers will be required to change
manually because although the chaff material enables the base liquid to be absorbed for a long
time, it will not stay forever. Therefore these layers must be changed. The hard part is to
implement it into the water system. Although I do not have an idea for that, the materials used for
the filter will last and it can physically handle the water pressure. The website will demonstrate
how the idea of the arsenic filters and how it will work.

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The projected results of the end product are to develop a new idea that will efficiently
eliminate arsenic contamination in water. The website will provide a blueprint of what the design
of the arsenic filter will be. It will give ideas of what the filter will do and how the filter will
function. So the people presented with the website will view how the arsenic filter will function.
Although the arsenic filter is not developed and tested, the website presents everything that is
needed to know about the solution. Idea of the filter is developed completely based on research
and based on hypothetical conclusions, and the filter has not been physically tested by me;
however, the website gives a degree of idea of how the filter will function.
Pursuing to further develop the idea will be an idea at the back of my mind. Marketing
the product, the website, is not a very professional way of doing things at this process of the
project. Marketing will develop further problem because I have yet the knowledge of if the idea
will actually work because I did not test it yet. So it is not a good idea to try to market my idea.
Developing the idea requires much thought process, and it will take much more research and
actual tests to learn more. So the first process of how I can start by furthering my ideas is by
creating the actual arsenic filter. I can then conduct research and test the filter so I can get a
better idea of how I could improve the blueprint of the arsenic filter. I can verify if the arsenic
filter works to get rid of arsenic components from water.
Some may say that this problem is occurring at a premature stage of peoples life and that
is why so many people are inflicted by this toxin. Some may agree that the idea of developing an
arsenic filter may not the best method to solving this problem. Recent study has suggested that if
children are fed breast milk from infancy, they will have lower levels of arsenic components in
their body than if they are fed baby powder (Whiteman 2). Therefore, I may have suggested an
idea of raising awareness for people to start breast feeding their children instead of using baby
powder formula because it had good results.

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Although I do agree this plan would have worked successfully, I do not think that this
accomplishes the task that I want to accomplish. This idea is not though from a broad
prospective. It will accomplish helping children not suffer at the early stage in their life, but this
will be an aching pain for their future. Creating a website that shows what materials are required
for the arsenic filter, how it work, and what it will accomplish will help people to further
research about the topic. If the filter is successful, people will have cheap and efficient method of
creating the arsenic filter, in which it can be distributed to everyone at a low price.
Furthermore, creating a plan to develop an efficient arsenic filter will help the people at
all stages in their life. Breast feeding option applies to children. Even if you tried to feed a grown
person breast milk, they do not have research that validates that this idea will work. The option
of creation of a filter will help a large amount of people in the community. It will be available to
many people since the product is cheap. People cannot find clean water within the proximity of
their homes. This idea will help filter a dangerous element that has caused harm to an enormous
amount of people.
When I first started this project I was very enthusiastic about the topic. Little did I know
that it require so much research and so much work. No matter how much I research I could have
done, there would not be a definite answer to the problem. I grew wearisome from doing so
much detailed research, but I knew that this research would help me develop a prize for a much
better use. There are many people in my country, Bangladesh, who are suffering through diseases
because clean water cannot be found within their vicinity. It is not an option for them to get clean
water. They think that boiling the water will get rid of the contaminants that inhibit one of the
main sources of life, but it does not in most cases. So grew to like the research more after I
started to understand what the information in the articles had detailed. This learning experience
will help me further develop plans of the filter of the future.

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