Tracey Etheredge
Phil Lesko
Stacey McMullen
Robert Trevino
Differentiation Techniques
24
Problems Relating , ,
33
60
68
79
97
106
117
124
137
Taylor Series
156
179
199
Polars (NMSI)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Analyzing
(NMSI)
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
Graphical
Relationships
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
Tangent Lines
and
Linear
Approximations
(NMSI)
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
Taylor Series
(NMSI)
137
ex 1
x x 2 x3
xn
xn
... ... ,
n!
1! 2! 3!
n 0 n !
sin x x
x3 x5 x 7
x 2n1
x 2n1
... (1)n
... (1)n
; x
3! 5! 7!
(2n 1)!
(2n 1)!
n 0
cos x 1
x 2 x 4 x6
x2n
x2n
... (1)n
... (1)n
; x
2! 4! 6!
(2n)!
(2n)!
n 0
1
1 x x 2 x 3 ... x n ... x n ; 1 x 1
1 x
n0
1
1 x x 2 x 3 ... ( 1) n x n ... (1) n x n ; 1 x 1
1 x
n 0
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138
Error
f n 1 ( z )
x a)n1 where f (n1) ( z) is the maximum value that the (n+1) derivative can
(n 1)!
When looking for the interval of convergence for a Taylor Series, refer back to the interval of
convergence for each of the basic Taylor Series formulas. Fit your function to the function being tested.
Sometimes, the exam will manipulate a Taylor series to a power series before asking for the interval of
convergence. The most common test to find the interval of convergence for a power series is the Ratio
a
Test, which says that lim n 1 L . If L <1, the series converges. If L > 1, the series diverges. If L = 1,
n a
n
the test fails and another test should be used. When using the Ratio Test, it is important to remember that
the Ratio Test only checks the open interval. The endpoints of the interval must be checked separately to
determine if the interval is open or closed. If a series is known to be geometric, the endpoints do not need
to be checked since convergence requires r 1  therefore the endpoints cannot be included.
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139
Multiple Choice
( x 2)2 ( x 2)3
2
3
2
( x 2) ( x 2)3
( x 2)
2
3
(A) ( x 2)
(B)
(C)
( x 2) ( x 2) 2 ( x 2) 3
( x 2)2 ( x 2)3
(D) ( x 2)
2
3
2
( x 2) ( x 2)3
(E) ( x 2)
2
3
2 24
1 1
(B) 1
2 4
1 1
(C) 1
3 5
1 1
(D) 1
4 8
1
1
(E) 1
6 120
(A) 1
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140
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
1 x
about x 0?
1
6
1
3
1
3
6
x3 x5 x7
...
2! 4! 6!
4 x 3 16 x 5 64 x 7
x
...
2!
4!
6!
8 x 3 32 x 5 128 x 7
...
2x
3!
5!
7!
2 x 4 2 x 6 2 x8
...
2x2
3!
5!
7!
8 x 4 32 x 6 128 x8
2
...
2x
3!
5!
7!
x
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141
x 4 x5 x 6
x n 3
...
... . Which of the following
2! 3! 4!
(n 1)!
is an expression for f ( x ) ?
(A) 3 x sin x 3 x 2
(B) cos( x 2 ) 1
(C) x 2 cos x x 2
(D) x 2 e x x 3 x 2
2
(E) e x x 2 1
6. (calculator allowed)
Let P ( x ) 3 x 2 5 x 3 7 x 4 3 x 5 be the fifthdegree Taylor polynomial for the function f about x.
What is the value of f (0)?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
30
15
5
5
6
1
7. (calculator allowed)
Let f be a function with f (3) 2, f (3) 1, f (3) 6, and f (3) 12. Which of the following is
the thirddegree Taylor polynomial for f about x 3?
(A)
2 ( x 3) 3( x 3)2 2( x 3)3
(B)
2 ( x 3) 3( x 3)2 4( x 3)3
(C)
(D)
(E)
2 x 3x 2 2 x3
2 x 6 x 2 12 x3
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142
Free Response
8. (calculator allowed)
h(x)
h( x)
h( x)
h( x)
h (4) ( x)
11
30
42
99
18
80
128
488
3
448
3
584
9
317
753
2
1383
4
3483
16
1125
16
Let h be a function having derivatives of all orders for x 0. Selected values for h and its first four
derivatives are indicated in the table above. The function h and these four derivatives are increasing
on the interval 1 x 3.
(a)
Write the first degree Taylor polynomial for h about x = 2 and use it to approximate h(1.9). Is
this approximation greater or less than h(1.9)? Explain your answer.
(b)
Write the thirddegree Taylor polynomial for h about x = 2 and use it to approximate h(1.9).
(c)
Use the Lagrange error bound to show that the thirddegree Taylor polynomial for h about
x 2 approximates h(1.9) with an error less than 3 104.
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143
1 x 2 f ( x)
.
(b) Use your answer from part (a) to find lim
x 0
x4
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144
(c)
Write the first four nonzero terms of the Taylor Series for
your answer to estimate
1/2
t 2
dt .
(d) Explain why the estimate found in part (c) differs from the actual value of
than
e t dt by less
1
.
200
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145
(b)
In the Taylor series for f about x = 2, what is the coefficient of ( x 2)2 n for n 1?
(c)
Find the interval of convergence of the Taylor series for f about x = 2. Show the work that
leads to your answer.
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146
1
. The Maclaurin series for f is given by
1 x3
1 x3 x 6 x9 1 x3n ,
n
Find the first three nonzero terms and the general term for the Maclaurin series for f ( x)
(b)
Use your results from part (a) to find the sum of the infinite series
(c)
3 6 9
n 3n
5 8 1 3n 1 .
2
2 2 2
2
Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the Maclaurin series
representing
(d)
x
0
f (t ) dt .
Use the first three nonzero terms of the infinite series found in part (c) to approximate
1/ 2
0
1/ 2
0
f (t ) dt
1
of the exact value of the integral?
10, 000
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147
Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the Taylor series for f about x = 0.
(b)
x
0
(c)
The function h satisfies h( x) k f (ax) for all x, where a and k are constants. The Taylor series
for h about x = 0 is given by
h( x ) 1 x
x 2 x3
xn
.
2! 3!
n!
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148
f (2) 0
f (2) 1
f (2) 1
f (2) 2
1
1
a0 0, a1 1, a2 , a3
2
3
2
( x 2) ( x 2)3
f ( x) ( x 2)
2
3
2. E
(1998 BC 14)
x3 x5
sin x x
3! 5!
1
1
13 15
sin1 1 1
6 120
3! 5!
3. D
(2003 BC 28)
f ( x)
1
2
1 x
2
(1 x)
f ( x) 2(1 x) 3
f ( x) 6(1 x) 4 at x 0 6
6
3
2!
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149
4. E
(2008 BC23)
8 x 3 32 x5 128 x 7
sin 2 x 2 x
...
3!
5!
7!
8 x 4 32 x 6 128 x8
x sin 2 x 2 x 2
...
3!
5!
7!
5. D
(2003 BC20)
4
x
x5 x 6
x n 3
...
...
2! 3! 4!
(n 1)!
x 2 x3 x 4
x n 1
x 2 ...
(n 1)!
2! 3! 4!
x 2 e x x 1
6. A
(2003 BC 77)
P( x) 3x 2 5 x3 7 x 4 5 x5
P ( x) 6 x 15 x 2 28 x3 25 x 4
P ( x) 6 30 x 84 x 2 100 x3
P ( x) 30 168 x 300 x 2
P ( x) f ( x) at x 0
30
7. A
(2008 BC84)
f (3) 2, f (3) 1, f (3) 6, f (3) 12
( x 3) 6( x 3) 2 12( x 3)3
2
2 ( x 3) 3( x 3) 2 2( x 3)3
1!
2!
3!
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150
2: P1 (x)
is increasing on the interval 4 1: P1 (1.9)
1:
so
(a)
since
(b)
2: P3 (x)
1: P3 (1.9)
Therefore,
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151
9. 2007 BC 6
1: two of 1,
(a)
1: remaining terms
1: general terms
1: answer
(b)
Thus,
1: two terms
3 1: remaining terms
1: estimate
(c)
(d)
since
which is an alternating
series with individual terms that decrease in absolute
value to 0.
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152
10. 2005 BC 6
(a) P6 ( x) = 7 +
1: polynomial about
1! 1
3! 1
5! 1
( x  2) 2 + 4 ( x  2) 4 + 6 ( x  2) 6
2
3 2!
3 4!
3 6!
2: P6 (x)
3
each incorrect
term
max for all extra
terms,
equality
misuse of
1: coefficient
(b)
(c) The Taylor series for f about
is
1
( x  2) 2 n .
f ( x) = 7 +
2n
n=1 2 n 3
1
1
2( n+1) ( x  2) 2( n+1)
2(n + 1) 3
L = lim
n
1 1
2 n ( x  2) 2 n
2n 3
L = lim
2n
32 n
( x  2) 2
2 2 n ( x  2) 2 =
2(n + 1) 3 3
9
1: set up ratio
1: computes limit of ratio
1: identifies interior of
interval of
5
convergence
1: considers both
endpoints
1: analysis/conclusion for
both endpoints
When
the series is
the series is
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153
(a)
with
(c)
1: approximation
3 1: properties of terms
1: absolute value of fourth
term < 0.0001
(d)
The series in part (c) with
1 1 1
1 2 2 2
12
1
1
dt
0 1+ t 3 2  4 + 7 < 10 = 10240 < 0.0001
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154
(a)
3 1: remaining terms
1: general term
missing factor of 6
(b)
and
(c)
so
1: two terms
3 1: remaining terms
1: general term
missing factor of 6
1: computes
so
3
1: recognizes
or
equates 2 series for h(x)
1: values for a and k
OR
so
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155
Convergence of Series
(NMSI)
156
Note: Telescoping Series Test questions can be tested using the Alternating Series Test conditions. On
recent AP exams, the Telescoping Series Test is not listed as an answer choice, therefore it has been
omitted in the chart. Since the harmonic series shows up frequently, it is recommended that students
know this special case of the pSeries Test and that it is acceptable to cite the Harmonic Series Test as the
justification for divergence when it occurs on the AP exam.
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157
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
Multiple Choice
1. (calculator not allowed)
Which of the following series converge?
I.
n2
n 1
II.
n 1
III.
n 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(1) n
n
I only
III only
I and II only
I and III only
I, II, and III
I only
III only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II, and I
x 1n
n 1
converges?
(A) 1 x 1
(B) 1 x 1
(C) 0 x 2
(D) 0 x 2
(E) 0 x 2
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158
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
k 2 1
I.
k 3
k 1 7
II.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
1k
k 2
III.
None
II only
III only
I and III only
II and III only
x 1n
n0
3n
is
(A) 3 x 3
(B) 3 x 3
(C) 2 x 4
(D) 2 x 4
(E) 0 x 2
3 9
27
81
. . . is
2 16 128 1,024
1.60
2.35
2.40
2.45
2.50
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159
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
x 2n
n 1
n 3n
converges?
3 x 3
3 x 3
1 x 5
1 x 5
1 x 5
n2
I.
n 1
cosn
n
n 1
II.
III.
n
n 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
None
II only
III only
I and II only
I and III only
(A)
np
converges
n 1
(B)
np
diverges
n 1
(C)
n p 2
converges
n 1
(D)
n p 1
converges
n 1
(E)
n p 1
diverges
n 1
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160
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
2 n 1
n 1
3n
1
2
4
6
The series diverges
n p 1 converges?
n
n 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
p0
p 1
p 1
p2
p2
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161
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
I.
sin 2
n 0
II.
3n
n 1
III.
en
en 1
n 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
III only
I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II, and III
en
Consider the series . If the ratio test is applied to the series, which of the following inequalities
n 1 n !
results, implying that the series converges?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
e
1
n!
n!
lim 1
n e
n 1
lim
1
n
e
e
lim
1
n n 1
e
lim
1
n ( n 1)!
lim
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162
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
xn
n 1 n
xn
2
n 1 n
xn
n
e xn
n 1 n !
n 1
(D)
(E)
n! xn
n
n 1 e
2
What are all values of x for which the series 2
converges?
n 1 x 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
1 x 1
x 1 only
x 1 only
x 1 and x 1 only
x 1 and x 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
1kn
n 1
6
5
4
3
2
n 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
k
and
converge?
4
n 1
x 2n
n
converges?
3 x 1
3 x 1
3 x 1
1 x 1
1 x 1
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163
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
Free Response
18. (calculator not allowed)
A function f is defined by
1 2
3
n 1
2 x 3 x 2 . . . n 1 x n . . .
3 3
3
3
for all x in the interval of convergence of the given power series.
f ( x)
(a)
Find the interval of convergence for this power series. Show the work that leads to your answer.
f ( x)
(b) Find lim
x 0
(c)
1
3.
Write the first three nonzero terms and the general term for an infinite series that represents
1
0 f ( x) dx .
(d)
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164
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
f ( x)
n0
2 x n 1 2 x 4 x 2 8x 3 16 x 4 . . . 2 x n 1 . . .
n 1
n 1
Find the interval of convergence for the Maclaurin series for f. Justify your answer.
(b)
Find the first four terms and the general term for the Maclaurin series for f (x ) .
(c)
1
Use the Maclaurin series you found in part (b) to find the value of f .
3
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165
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
1n nx n
x 2 x 2 3x 3
...
...
f ( x)
2
3
4
n 1
for all real numbers x for which the series converges. The function g is defined by the power series
n
1 x n
x x 2 x3
g ( x) 1 . . .
...
2! 4! 6!
2n !
for all real numbers x for which the series converges.
(a)
Find the interval of convergence of the power series for f. Justify your answer.
(b)
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166
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
2x
1 x2
(a)
Write the first four nonzero terms and the general term of the Taylor series for f about x 0 .
(b)
Does the series found in part (a), when evaluated at x 1 , converge to f (1) ? Explain why or
why not.
(c)
The derivative of ln 1 x 2 is
2x
1 x2
for ln 1 x 2 about x 0 .
(d)
1
5
Use the series found in part (c) to find a rational number A such that A ln
.
4 100
Justify your answer.
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167
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
1
The Maclaurin series for ln
is
1 x
(a)
(b
xn
with interval of convergence 1 x 1 .
n
n 1
1
Find the Maclaurin series for ln
and determine the interval of convergence.
1 3x
1n
n 1
(c)
n 1
1n
np
converges, but
n2p
n 1
value of p is correct.
(d)
np
n 1
diverges, but
n2p
n 1
value of p is correct.
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168
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
(1)n (2x)n
on its interval of
n
1
n2
Find the interval of convergence for the Macluarin series of f. Justify your answer.
(b)
4x 2
for x R , where
1 2x
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169
1
1
3
3. D
(1985 BC31)
The center is x 1, so only C, D, or E are possible. Check the endpoints:
(1) n
converges by the Alternating Series Test.
n
n 1
1
At x 2 : diverges since represents the harmonic series.
n 1 n
At x 0 :
4. A
(1993 BC16)
I compare with p series, p 2 1 so converges
6
7
III converges since it represents the alternating harmonic series
5. C
(1993 BC27)
x 1
.
3
x 1
1
3
x 1 3
Convergent for 2 x 4.
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170
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
6. C
(1997 BC14)
3
1
8
3
3
a1 so the sum will be S 2 2.4
3
2
1
8
7. E
(1997 BC20)
( x 2) n
. The endpoints of the interval of convergence are when ( x 2) 3; x 1, 5 .
n3n
n 1
Check endpoints: x 1 gives the alternating harmonic series which converges and x 5 gives the
Harmonic series which diverges. Therefore the interval is 1 x 5
8. B
(1998 BC18)
I is divergent since the limit of the n th term is not zero.
II is convergent since it represents the alternating harmonic series.
III is divergent since it represents the harmonic series.
9. A
(1998 BC22)
This is the integral test applied to the series in (A). Thus the series in (A) converges. None of the
others must be true.
10. C
(2003 BC10)
4
4
2
This is a Geometric Series in which a1 and r so S 3 4
2
3
3
1
3
11. E
(2003 BC22)
n
n 1
1
p 1
12. D
(2003 BC24)
I converges by the Geometric Series Test
II diverges by the p Series Test since p 1
en
1 0
x e n 1
(2008 BC4)
e n 1 n !
e n e n !
e
n lim
n lim
By the Ratio Test, lim
0 1
n ( n 1)! e
n (n 1)n ! e n n 1
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171
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
14. D
(2008 BC12)
e n 1 x n 1 n !
e n e x n x n !
e
By the Ratio Test, lim
n n lim
n n lim x
0 1
n
(n 1)! e x n (n 1)n ! e x n n 1
Let x 1 to eliminate A and C quickly, and let x e to eliminate B.
15. D
(2008 BC16)
2
1.
x 1
2
x2 1
1
2
Therefore x 2 1 2 x 2 1 0
( x 1)( x 1) 0 for x 1 and x 1 only.
16. D
(1998 BC76)
k must be odd in order for the first series to converge by the Alternating Series Test, and k must be
less than 4 in order for the second series to converge by the Geometric Series Test, therefore 3 is the
correct solution
17. B
(1998 BC84)
Omit answers D and E since they are centered at x 0 while the solution should be centered
at x 2.
Check endpoints: x 3 converges by the Alternating Series Test and x 1 diverges by the
p Series Test therefore answer B is correct.
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172
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
n n 1
, which diverges.
At x 3 , the series is 1
3
n 0
n 1
, which diverges.
At x 3 , the series is
n 0 3
Therefore, the interval of convergence is 3 x 3 .
1
f x
3 lim 2 3 x 4 x 2 ... 2
(b) lim
x 0
x 0 32
33
34
x
9
1
1 1
2
n 1
x 1
1
1
1
1
x 2 x 2 3 x3 ... n1 x n1 ...
3
3
3
3
x 0
1 1 1
1
2 3 ... n1 ...
3 3 3
3
(d)
1: answer
1: antidifferentiation
of series
1: first three terms for
3
definite integral
series
1: general term
series.
Therefore,
1: answer
1
1
f x dx 3 .
1 2
1
3
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173
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
2x
(a)
(b)
(c)
n 2
1: sets up ratio
n 1
n
2
lim
lim
2x 2x
1 computes limit of ratio
n 1
n
n n 2
2x
1: identifies interior of
n 1
interval of convergence
2: analysis/conclusion at
1
1
2 x 1 for x
endpoints
2
2
5
1:
right endpoint
1
1
At x , the series is
which diverges since
1: left endpoint
2
n 0 n 1
1 if endpoints not
this is the harmonic series.
1
x
1
n 1 1
2
which
At x , the series is 1
n 1
2
1 if multiple intervals
n 0
converges by the Alternating Series Test.
1
1
Hence, the interval of convergence is x .
2
2
n
2
3
f x 2 4 x 8 x 16 x ... 2 2 x ...
1: first 4 terms
2 1: general term
1
1: substitutes x into
3
infinite series from b or
1
1
1 1
f 2 4 8 ... 2 2 ...
3
3 3
3
n
4 8 16
2
2 ... 2 ...
3 9 27
3
2
6
2 5
1
3
OR
2
1
1
f x
for x . Therefore,
1 2x
2
2
1
2
6
f
3 1 2 5
3
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174
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
1 n 1 x n1
n 1
(a)
n2
n 1
n 1 x
lim
n n 2 n
nx n
n 1 x
n 2 n
2
1 4
9
1
f x x x 2 ... and f 0 .
2 3
4
2
1 2
3
1
g x x x 2 ... and g 0 .
2! 4!
6!
2
y 0 f 0 g 0 0
1: sets up ratio
1: computes limit ratio
1: identifies radius of
5
convergence
1: considers both endpoints
1: analysis/conclusion for both
endpoints
1: y 0
4 1: y " 0
1: conclusion
1: reasoning
4
2 1
and g 0 .
3
4! 12
4 1
Thus, y 0 0 .
3 12
Since y 0 0 and y 0 0 , y has a
f 0
relative minimum at x 0 .
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175
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
x
1
...
...
1 x2
2x
n
2 x 2 x3 2 x 5 2 x 7 ... 1 2 x 2 n1 ...
2
1 x
(b) No, the series does not converge when x 1 because when 1: answer with reason
x 1 , the terms of the series do not converge to 0.
2t
dt
0 1 t2
(c) ln 1 x 2
2t 2t 3 2t 5 2t 7 ... dt
x
1
1
1
x 2 x 4 x 6 x8 ...
2
3
4
2
4
6
8
5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(d) ln ln 1 ...
4
4 2 2 2 3 2 4 2
2
7
1 1 1
Let A .
2 2 2 32
Since the series is a converging alternating series and the
absolute values of the individual terms decrease to 0,
1
2
3 1: value of A
1: justification
1: uses x
1 1
1
5 1 1
A ln
.
3 64 100
4 3 2
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176
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
(a)
so interval of
We must have
convergence is
1: answer
(b)
because
3 1: reason why
1: reason why
diverges for
because the
diverges for
1: correct p
and the
diverges
1: correct p
3 1: reason why
1: reason why
pseries
converges
diverges
converges
converges for
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177
Convergence of Series
Student Study Session
(a)
1:
1:
5 1:
1:
1:
sets up ratio
limit evaluation
radius of convergence
considers both endpoints
analysis and interval of
convergence
1:
1:
4
1:
1:
series for
series for
series for
analysis with geometric series
for
Therefore the radius of convergence is
When
1
.
2
the series is
the series is
(b)
for
for
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178
Integration
Techniques for the BC
Exam
(NMSI)
179
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180
Complete this worksheet as a review of the antiderivatives of the basic functions. These rules
should be memorized.
Basic Integration
Trigonometric Functions:
k f (u) du
sin(u) du
______________________
_________________________
[ f (u) g (u)] du
cos(u) du
______________________
_________________________
du
sec (u) du
______________________
n
u du
__________________________
______________________
du
u
______________________
du
______________________
u
e du
______________________
Inverse Trigonometric
du
1 u2
________________________
du
1 u
csc (u) du
2
________________________
sec(u) tan u du
________________________
csc(u) cot u du
________________________
Helpful to know:
sin u
tan(u) du cos u du
_________________________
cos u
cot(u) du sin u du
_________________________
____________________________
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181
Multiple Choice:
(Questions 1 9 are appropriate for AB)
1. (calculator not allowed)
2 x4
1 x 2 dx
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
1
2
ln 2 2
ln 2
2
ln 2 2
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
3
1
ln e x C
3
3
ex
C
3
1
x3 C
3e
3
1
ln e x C
3
x3
3 C
3e x
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
1
sin x3 C
3
1
sin x3 C
3
x3
sin x 3 C
3
3
x
sin x 3 C
3
x4
x3
sin C
3
4
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182
cos x
42 sin x dx
(A) ln 2
(B)
(C)
ln
4
ln 3
3
2
ln e
(D) ln
(E)
dy
If
sin x cos 2 x and if y = 0 when x , what is the value of y when x = 0?
2
dx
(A) 1
1
(B)
3
(C) 0
1
(D)
3
(E) 1
6. (calculator not allowed)
2
x
1
4
x
2 dx
If the substitution u is made, the integral
2
2
x
2
2 1 u
du
(A)
1
u
2
4 1 u
du
(B)
2
u
2
2 1 u
du
(C)
1
2u
2
2 1 u
du
(D)
1
4u
2
4 1 u
du
(E)
2
2u
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183
2c
1 c
f ( x) dx
5c
5
5c
c5
5
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
f ( x) dx a 2b, then
( f ( x) 5) dx
a 2b 5
5b 5 a
7b 4 a
7b 5a
7b 6 a
9. (calculator allowed)
If f is a continuous function and if F ( x) f ( x) for all real numbers x , then
f (2 x) dx
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
2 F (3) 2 F (1)
1
1
F (3) F (1)
2
2
2 F (6) 2 F (2)
F (6) F (2)
1
1
F (6) F (2)
2
2
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184
2
4
2x
xe
e 2x
2
2
2x
xe
e 2x
2
4
2x
xe
e 2x
2
2
2 2x
x e
C
4
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
C
C
C
C
x tan x C
(C)
x2
tan x C
2
sec2 x 2sec2 x tan x C
(D)
x tan x ln cos x C
(E)
x tan x ln cos x C
(B)
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185
0
2
6
4
2
1
4
3
3
1
f ( x) g ( x) dx 5 , then
f ( x) g ( x ) dx
(A) 14
(B) 13
(C) 2
(D) 7
(E) 15
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186
dx
( x 1)( x 2)
1 x 1
ln
C
3 x2
1 x2
ln
C
(B)
3 x 1
1
ln ( x 1)( x 2) C
(C)
3
(D) ln x 1 ln x 2 C
(A)
(E)
ln ( x 1)( x 2) 2 C
C
2
(2 x 3) ( x 2) 2
3
2
(E)
C
2
(2 x 3) ( x 2) 2
(A)
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187
ln 3
(A)
ln 3
2
1 ln 3
(C)
2
(D) ln 3
(E) divergent
(B)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
2 x
4 3 9 x 2 dx is
2
(A) 7 3
3 23
(B)
7
2
2
3
2
3
9 7
2
3 23
3
(D)
9 7
2
(E) nonexistent
(C)
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188
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
0.012
0
0.016
0.376
0.629
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189
Free Response
21. (calculator not allowed)
1
.
x
(d) The average value of a function f on the unbounded interval [a, ) is defined to be
b f ( x) dx
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190
reasoning.
23. (calculator not allowed) The derivative of a function f is given by f ( x ) ( x 3)e x for x 0 ,
and f (1) 7 .
(c) Find the value of f (3) .
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191
Trigonometric Functions:
k f (u) du k f (u) du
sin(u) du cos u C
cos(u) du sin u C
du u C
u n 1
u du n 1 C
du
u ln u C
du eu C
tan(u ) du ln cos x C
Inverse Trigonometric
du
u
a2 u 2 arcsin a C
1 u
du
a C
ln a
cot(u ) du ln sin u C
du
1
u
arctan C
2
a u
a
a
2
192
Students approach questions requiring the use of usubstitution or parts in a variety of ways. The
solutions to questions 4 and 10 show alternative approaches to each type of question.
1. B (1973 AB30/BC30)
2
2 x4
2 1
4
2
1 x 2 dx 1 x 4 x d x ln x x 1 (ln 2 2) (ln1 4) ln 2 2
2. C (1969 AB38)
x2
1 x3
1 x3
1
2
e x3 dx 3 e (3x ) dx 3 e C 3e x3 C
3. B (2003 AB8/BC8)
1
1
2
3
2
3
3
x cos x dx 3 3x cos x dx 3 sin( x ) c
4. A (1969 AB29)
2
x
cos x
2
2
ln
ln
ln 2
dx ln(sin x ) 2 ln1 ln
x
sin x
2
2
4
2
2
u sin x
When x , u sin
; when x , u sin 1 .
2
4
2
4
2
du cos x dx
u 1
u 1 1
cos x
1
dx 2
cos x dx 2 du ln(u )
u
sin x
2 u
4 sin x
u
2
2
2
2
2
ln1 ln
ln
ln 2
ln
2
2
2
u sin x
du cos x dx
x
2
2
cos x
1
1
2
2
sin x dx sin x cos x dx u du ln(u ) ln(sin x) x ln1 ln 2 ln 2 ln 2 ln 2
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193
3
1
Let z x c , so 5 f ( x c) dx
2 c
1 c
f ( z ) dz .
8. C (1997 AB3)
( f ( x) 5) dx f ( x) dx 5 1 dx a 2b 5 x a a 2b 5(b a) 7b 4a .
b
9. E (1998 AB82)
Since F is an antiderivative of f ,
x 3
1
1
f (2 x) dx F (2 x) F (6) F (2) .
2
2
x 1
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194
ln

cos
x
0
x sec
x dx x tan x ln  cos x  C
cos x dx f ( x ) 2 x sin x dx
x2 sin x C f ( x) .
13. B (1985 BC 21)
u f ( x)
dv sin x dx
v cos x
du f ( x ) dx
f ( x) 3x2 , so f ( x) x3 c .
14. E (2008 BC22)
u f ( x)
v g ( x)
du f ( x ) dx
dv g ( x ) dx
0
1
0
1
f ( x) g ( x) dx f ( x) g ( x) 10 g ( x) f ( x) dx
0
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195
1
1
Let x 2 : 1 B(2 1), so B ; Let x 1: 3 A 1, so A .
3
3
1
1
3
1
1
1
x 1
x 1 x 32 dx 3 ln  x 1 3 ln  x 2  c 3 ln x 2 C
2)
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
2 x 3 x 2 dx 2 ln  2 x 3  2ln  x 2  C
17. E (1973 BC36)
b 2( x 1)
( x 1)
1
1
1
dx lim 2
dx lim ln  x 2 2 x 3 b0 lim ln  b 2 2b 3  ln  3 
0 x 2x 3
2 b1 0 x 2 x 3
2 b1
2 b1
so this limit diverges.
lim
b 2
1
1 1 1
x dx lim lim .
b
b
x2
b 2 2
2
lim 9 x
b 4
1
3
2
3
3
3
2 3
(9 x ) lim 3 9 b 2 3 9 4 2 . This limit diverges.
2 x dx blim
b 2
2
2
x2
dx 0.376 .
1 x5
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196
(d) g ( x) dx lim
g ( x) dx
b4
lim
b
1 b 1
2 b 4
dx
4
b4
b4
x
1:
4
g ( x) dx 2 b 4
b4 4
b4
1: finite limit as b
2 b 4
0
b4
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197
No points shown.
Let u x dv e x dx
du dx v e x
I xe x e x dx
xe x e x
x e x dx lim xe x dx
b 0
lim xe x e x
b
b
0
lim be e 1
b
b 1
lim b b 1
b
e e
1
Integral converges to 1.
4: 2 :integration by parts
1: answer
u x 3 dv e x dx
du dx
v ex
3
f (3) 7 ( x 3)e x e x dx
1
7 3e e
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198
Integration
Techniques for the BC
Exam
(NMSI)
199
x r cos
y r sin
They are necessary to find the derivative of a polar curve in x and ycoordinates. The derivative
dy
dy
is done parametrically so that
d . Remember, when differentiating in x or y, use the
dx dx
d
product rule formula.
Find the slope of the rose curve r 3 sin 2 at the point where
Solution
First, find the rectangular coordinates of the point
9
x r cos x 3sin 2 cos
4
6
3 3
4
6
Next, find the derivative and evaluate it at the given angle
dy
dy
3sin 2 cos 6 cos 2 sin
d
dx dx
3sin 2 sin 6 cos 2 cos
d
15
3sin 2 cos 6 cos 2 sin
4 5 3
Tangent line is y
x .
4
3
4
y r sin y 3sin 2 sin
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200
1 2
r d .
2
1 2
2
2 2cos d 18.8496
0
2
1
2
2
router rinner d .
2
Notice that the integrand is the difference of the squared radii, not the square of the difference of
the radii. (Like the washer method)
The area enclosed between two polar curves is given by A
Find the area of the region that lies inside the circle r 1 and outside the cardioid r 1 cos .
Solution
The outer curve is the circle r 1 and the inner curve is the cardioid r 1 cos . The points of
intersection are
and
1 2
2
2
d 1.215.
1 1 cos
2 2
Alternate approach: If the region has symmetry, determine the area of one segment and then
A
and double
the result.
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201
Multiple Choice
1. (calculator not allowed)
Which of the following is equal to the area of the region inside the polar curve r 2cos
and outside the polar curve r cos ?
(A) 3 2 cos 2 d
0
(B)
3 cos 2 d
(C)
3 2
cos 2 d
0
2
(D) 3 2 cos d
0
(E)
3 cos d
0
1
2
4sin 2 d
0
2
1 34
2
4sin 2 d
2 4
1 56
2
4sin 2 d
2 6
1 56
2
16sin 4 d
2 6
1
16sin 2 4 d
2 0
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202
Which of the following expressions gives the total area enclosed by the polar curve
r sin 2 shown in the figure above?
(A)
1 2
sin d
2 0
(B)
(C)
1 4
sin d
2 0
(D)
sin 2 d
sin 4 d
(E) 2 sin 4 d
0
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203
4. (calculator not allowed) (AP AB Calculus Course Description sample questions) What is the
area of the region enclosed by the lemniscate r 2 18cos(2 ) shown in the figure below?
9
2
(B) 9
(C) 18
(D) 24
(E) 36
(A)
Which of the following gives the area of the region enclosed by the loop of the graph of the
polar curve r 4cos 3 shown in the figure above?
(A) 16 3 cos(3 ) d
(B)
8 6 cos(3 ) d
(C)
8 3 cos 2 (3 ) d
(D) 16 6 cos 2 (3 ) d
(E)
8 6 cos 2 (3 ) d
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204
is
(A) 0
1
(B)
2
(C) 1
(D)
(E)
7. (calculator not allowed) Determine the slope of the line tangent to the polar curve
r 1 2sin at
(A) 0
(B) 2
(C) 2
1
(D)
2
1
(E)
2
8. (calculator not allowed)
Which of the following represents the graph of the polar curve r 2sec ?
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205
Free Response
9. (calculator allowed)
S
O
5
y and the curve C given by x 1 y 2 .
3
Let S be the shaded region bounded by the two graphs and the xaxis. The line and the curve
intersect at point P.
dx
for the curve C at point P.
(a) Find the coordinates of point P and the value of
dy
2
2
2
2
(c) Curve C is a part of the curve x y 1. Show that x y 1 can be written as the
1
.
polar equation r 2
2
cos sin 2
(d) Use the polar equation from part (c) to setup an integral expression with respect to the
polar angle that represents the area of S.
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206
r sin2
1
x
3
2
1
The curve above is drawn in the xyplane and is described by the equation in polar
coordinates r sin 2 for 0 , where r is measured in meters and is measured
in radians. The derivative of r with respect to is given by
dr
1 2cos 2 .
d
(a) Find the area bounded by the curve and the xaxis
(b) Find the angle that corresponds to the point on the curve with xcoordinate 2.
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207
2 dr
,
is negative. What does this fact say about r? What does this fact
3
3 d
say about the curve?
(c) For
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208
R
x
O
The graphs of the polar curves r 2 and r 3 2 cos are shown in the figure above.
2
4
.
The curves intersect when
and
3
3
(a) Let R be the region that is inside the graph of r 2 and also inside the graph of
r 3 2 cos , as shaded in the figure above. Find the area of R.
(b) A particle moving with nonzero velocity along the polar curve r 3 2 cos has
position x t , y t at time t, with 0 when t 0. This particle moves along the
dr
dr dr
dy
dy dy
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209
(1997 BC21)
1
2
2
2 cos cos d
0
2
1
4 cos 2 cos 2 d
2 0
3
cos 2 d
2 0
3
2 2 cos 2 d
2 0
A
3 2 cos 2 d
0
2. D
(1998 BC19)
1
5
2 4sin sin ,
2
6 6
5
1
2
A 6 4sin 22 d
2 6
2
1 56 16sin 4 d
2 6
3. D
(2008 BC26)
when 0,
2
1
A 2 sin 2 d
2 0
sin 2 0; sin 1 0
sin 4 d
0
4. C
1
18cos 2 0 when ,
; A 2
4 4
2
18cos 2 ) 2 d =18
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210
5. E
(1988 BC23)
r 0 when cos 3 0
to
1 6
2
Area 4 cos 3 d
2 6
6. D
(1985 BC24)
1
Area 2 sin 2 2 d
2 0
1 2 1
1 cos 4 d
2 0 2
1
1
2
sin 4
8
4
4
0
7. A
(APlike)
dy / d
where y r sin and
dx / d
x r cos , therefore y (1 2sin ) sin and x (1 2sin ) cos .
dy / d (1 2sin ) cos 2 cos sin
=
.
dx / d (1 2sin )( sin ) 2 cos 2
Determine the slope of the tangent line to the polar curve using
0.
When ,
(1 2)(1) 2(0) 2 3
2 dx / d
(1 2sin )( sin ) 2(cos ) 2
2
2
2
8. D
(1993 BC5)
r
2; r cos 2. Since x r cos , x 2 represents the graph of the polar
sec
curve which is the vertical line x 2.
Given r 2sec ,
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211
Free Response
9. 2003 BC3
5
3
(a) At P, y 1 y 2 , so y .
3
4
5
5
Since x y , x .
3
4
1: coordinates of P
dx
1:
at P
dy
3
dx
3
dx
y
y
4 .
. At P,
dy 5
5
dy
1 y2 x
4
(c) x r cos ; y r sin
x 2 y 2 1 r 2 cos 2 r 2 sin 2 1
1
r2
2
cos sin 2
2 1: limits
1: integrand and constant
Copyright 2014 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org
212
2.786
dr
2
0 for
, r is
d
3
3
decreasing on this interval. This means the
curve is getting closer to the origin.
(c) Since
dr
0
(d) The only value in 0, where
d
2
is
1: equation
1: answer
1: information about r
1: information about the curve
1:
or 1.047
3
2
1: answer with justification
.
r
0
1.913
1.571
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213
2
1 4 3
2
2
2 3 2cos d
3
2 2 3
10.370
(a) Area
(b)
dr
dr
dt 3 d
1.732
1:
dr
dt 3
1: interpretation
The particle is moving closer to the origin, since
and r 0 when
(c)
dr
0
dt
dt 3 d
1: expression for y in
terms of
0.5
3 1: dy
dt 3
y 0 when
dy
0 and
dt
1: interpretation
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214