You are on page 1of 216

## Saturday Prep Session

December 13, 2014
Session 1: 9:00 10:05
Session 2: 10:10 11:15
Lunch: 11:15 12:00
Session 3: 12:05 1:10
Session 4: 1:15 2:20

## Strive for a Five!

Tracey Etheredge
Phil Lesko
Stacey McMullen
Robert Trevino

College and Career Readiness Executive Director, Dr. Linda Johnson

## AP Calculus Fall Prep Session 2014-15

Page Topics
1
Limits, Continuity, and Definitions of the Derivative
12

Differentiation Techniques

24

Problems Relating , ,

33

60

68

79

97
106

BC Topics
Series, (FR)

117

124

137

Taylor Series

156

179

199

Polars (NMSI)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

Analyzing

(NMSI)

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

Graphical
Relationships

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

Tangent Lines
and
Linear
Approximations
(NMSI)

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

Taylor Series
(NMSI)

137

## Taylor Series (BC Only)

Taylor series provide a way to find a polynomial look-alike to a non-polynomial function. This
is done by a specific formula shown below (which should be memorized).
Taylor Series centered at x = a
Let f be a function with derivatives of all orders on an interval containing x = a. Then f,
centered at x = a, can be represented by
f (a )
f (a)
f (a)
f (a)
f ( n ) (a )
0
1
2
3
f ( x)
( x a)
( x a)
( x a)
( x a) ...
( x a)n ...
0!
1!
2!
3!
n!
When a 0, f is centered at the origin which is a special case called the MacLaurin series.
Generally, it is not necessary to simplify results on the Free Response section. Answers will be
simplified on the Multiple Choice section.
The formulas (recommended to be memorized) are as follows:

ex 1

x x 2 x3
xn
xn
... ... ,
n!
1! 2! 3!
n 0 n !

sin x x

x3 x5 x 7
x 2n1
x 2n1
... (1)n
... (1)n
; x
3! 5! 7!
(2n 1)!
(2n 1)!
n 0

cos x 1

x 2 x 4 x6
x2n
x2n
... (1)n
... (1)n
; x
2! 4! 6!
(2n)!
(2n)!
n 0

## Nice to know: geometric power series:

1
1 x x 2 x 3 ... x n ... x n ; 1 x 1
1 x
n0

1
1 x x 2 x 3 ... ( 1) n x n ... (1) n x n ; 1 x 1
1 x
n 0

138

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## There are three main types of questions asked on the exam:

Write a function in terms of a series or match a series to an appropriate function
Find an error bound on an nth degree Taylor Polynomial
Find an interval or radius of convergence
Error Bounds
To determine an error bound for a Taylor polynomial, first classify the polynomial as either an alternating
or non-alternating series. Their error bounds are found as follows:
Alternating Series
When a series is alternating, the error is maximized in the next unused term evaluated at the difference
between the center of the convergence and the x-coordinate being evaluated.
Non-Alternating Series
If a series is non-alternating, the error is still tied up in the next term by the formula

Error

f n 1 ( z )
x a)n1 where f (n1) ( z) is the maximum value that the (n+1) derivative can
(n 1)!

## take on the interval.

Interval of Convergence for Taylor Series

When looking for the interval of convergence for a Taylor Series, refer back to the interval of
convergence for each of the basic Taylor Series formulas. Fit your function to the function being tested.
Sometimes, the exam will manipulate a Taylor series to a power series before asking for the interval of
convergence. The most common test to find the interval of convergence for a power series is the Ratio
a
Test, which says that lim n 1 L . If L <1, the series converges. If L > 1, the series diverges. If L = 1,
n a
n
the test fails and another test should be used. When using the Ratio Test, it is important to remember that
the Ratio Test only checks the open interval. The endpoints of the interval must be checked separately to
determine if the interval is open or closed. If a series is known to be geometric, the endpoints do not need
to be checked since convergence requires r 1 - therefore the endpoints cannot be included.

139

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

Multiple Choice

## 1. (calculator not allowed)

Let f be the function given by f ( x) ln(3 x) . The third-degree Taylor polynomial for f about
x 2 is

( x 2)2 ( x 2)3

2
3
2
( x 2) ( x 2)3
( x 2)

2
3

(A) ( x 2)
(B)
(C)

( x 2) ( x 2) 2 ( x 2) 3

( x 2)2 ( x 2)3

(D) ( x 2)
2
3
2
( x 2) ( x 2)3

(E) ( x 2)
2
3

## 2. (calculator not allowed)

What is the polynomial approximation for the value of sin 1 obtained by using the fifth-degree Taylor
polynomial about x 0 for sin x ?
1 1

2 24
1 1
(B) 1
2 4
1 1
(C) 1
3 5
1 1
(D) 1
4 8
1
1
(E) 1
6 120

(A) 1

140

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 3. (calculator not allowed)

What is the coefficient of x 2 in the Taylor series for

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1 x

1
6
1
3
1
3
6

## 4. (calculator not allowed)

If f ( x) x sin(2 x), which of the following is the Taylor series for f about x 0?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

x3 x5 x7
...
2! 4! 6!
4 x 3 16 x 5 64 x 7
x

...
2!
4!
6!
8 x 3 32 x 5 128 x 7

...
2x
3!
5!
7!
2 x 4 2 x 6 2 x8

...
2x2
3!
5!
7!
8 x 4 32 x 6 128 x8
2

...
2x
3!
5!
7!
x

141

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 5. (calculator not allowed)

A function f has Maclaurin series given by

x 4 x5 x 6
x n 3
...
... . Which of the following
2! 3! 4!
(n 1)!

is an expression for f ( x ) ?
(A) 3 x sin x 3 x 2
(B) cos( x 2 ) 1
(C) x 2 cos x x 2
(D) x 2 e x x 3 x 2
2
(E) e x x 2 1

6. (calculator allowed)
Let P ( x ) 3 x 2 5 x 3 7 x 4 3 x 5 be the fifth-degree Taylor polynomial for the function f about x.
What is the value of f (0)?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

30
15
5
5
6
1

7. (calculator allowed)
Let f be a function with f (3) 2, f (3) 1, f (3) 6, and f (3) 12. Which of the following is
the third-degree Taylor polynomial for f about x 3?
(A)

2 ( x 3) 3( x 3)2 2( x 3)3

(B)

2 ( x 3) 3( x 3)2 4( x 3)3

(C)

(D)
(E)

2 x 3x 2 2 x3
2 x 6 x 2 12 x3

142

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

Free Response
8. (calculator allowed)

h(x)

h( x)

h( x)

h( x)

h (4) ( x)

11

30

42

99

18

80

128

488
3

448
3

584
9

317

753
2

1383
4

3483
16

1125
16

Let h be a function having derivatives of all orders for x 0. Selected values for h and its first four
derivatives are indicated in the table above. The function h and these four derivatives are increasing
on the interval 1 x 3.
(a)

Write the first degree Taylor polynomial for h about x = 2 and use it to approximate h(1.9). Is

(b)

Write the third-degree Taylor polynomial for h about x = 2 and use it to approximate h(1.9).

(c)

Use the Lagrange error bound to show that the third-degree Taylor polynomial for h about
x 2 approximates h(1.9) with an error less than 3 104.

143

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

2

## Let f be the function given by f ( x ) e x .

(a) Write the first four nonzero terms and the general term of the Taylor series for f about x = 0.

1 x 2 f ( x)
.
x 0
x4

144

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

(c)

Write the first four nonzero terms of the Taylor Series for

1/2

t 2

## e t dt . Use the first two terms of

dt .

(d) Explain why the estimate found in part (c) differs from the actual value of
than

e t dt by less

1
.
200

145

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 10. (calculator not allowed)

Let f be a function with derivatives of all orders and for which f(2) = 7. When n is odd, the nth
derivative of f at x = 2 is 0. When n is even and n > 2, the nth derivative at x = 2 is given by
(n 1)!
f ( n ) (2)
.
3n
(a) Write the sixth-degree Taylor polynomial for f about x = 2.

(b)

In the Taylor series for f about x = 2, what is the coefficient of ( x 2)2 n for n 1?

(c)

Find the interval of convergence of the Taylor series for f about x = 2. Show the work that

146

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 11. (calculator not allowed)

The function f is defined by f ( x )

1
. The Maclaurin series for f is given by
1 x3

1 x3 x 6 x9 1 x3n ,
n

## which converges to f ( x) for 1 x 1 .

(a)

Find the first three nonzero terms and the general term for the Maclaurin series for f ( x)

(b)

Use your results from part (a) to find the sum of the infinite series

(c)

3 6 9
n 3n
5 8 1 3n 1 .
2
2 2 2
2

Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the Maclaurin series
representing

(d)

x
0

f (t ) dt .

Use the first three nonzero terms of the infinite series found in part (c) to approximate

1/ 2
0

## that guarantee that this approximation is within

1/ 2
0

f (t ) dt

1
of the exact value of the integral?
10, 000

147

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 12. (calculator not allowed)

Let f be the function given by f ( x) 6e x / 3 for all x.
(a)

Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the Taylor series for f about x = 0.

(b)

x
0

## general term for the Taylor series for g about x = 0

(c)

The function h satisfies h( x) k f (ax) for all x, where a and k are constants. The Taylor series
for h about x = 0 is given by
h( x ) 1 x

x 2 x3
xn
.
2! 3!
n!

148

## Taylor Series Solutions (BC Only)

We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study Sessions to
account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your own judgment, based
on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions to work in the session. Be sure
to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free response, calculator, and non-calculator)
in the time allotted.
Multiple Choice
1. B
(1997 BC 17)
f ( x) ln(3 x)
1
f ( x)
x3
1
f ( x)
( x 3) 2
2
f ( x)
( x 3)3

f (2) 0

f (2) 1
f (2) 1
f (2) 2

1
1
a0 0, a1 1, a2 , a3
2
3
2
( x 2) ( x 2)3
f ( x) ( x 2)

2
3

2. E

(1998 BC 14)
x3 x5
sin x x
3! 5!
1
1
13 15
sin1 1 1
6 120
3! 5!

3. D

(2003 BC 28)

f ( x)

1
2
1 x
2
(1 x)

f ( x) 2(1 x) 3
f ( x) 6(1 x) 4 at x 0 6
6
3
2!

149

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

4. E

(2008 BC23)
8 x 3 32 x5 128 x 7
sin 2 x 2 x

...
3!
5!
7!
8 x 4 32 x 6 128 x8
x sin 2 x 2 x 2

...
3!
5!
7!

5. D
(2003 BC20)
4
x
x5 x 6
x n 3
...
...
2! 3! 4!
(n 1)!
x 2 x3 x 4
x n 1
x 2 ...

(n 1)!
2! 3! 4!
x 2 e x x 1

6. A

(2003 BC 77)

P( x) 3x 2 5 x3 7 x 4 5 x5
P ( x) 6 x 15 x 2 28 x3 25 x 4
P ( x) 6 30 x 84 x 2 100 x3
P ( x) 30 168 x 300 x 2
P ( x) f ( x) at x 0
30
7. A
(2008 BC84)
f (3) 2, f (3) 1, f (3) 6, f (3) 12
( x 3) 6( x 3) 2 12( x 3)3
2

2 ( x 3) 3( x 3) 2 2( x 3)3
1!
2!
3!

150

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## Free Response Solutions

8. 2008 BC 3

2: P1 (x)
is increasing on the interval 4 1: P1 (1.9)
1:

so

(a)
since

(b)

so

2: P3 (x)
1: P3 (1.9)

1: reasoning

Therefore,

151

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

9. 2007 BC 6
1: two of 1,

(a)

1: remaining terms
1: general terms

(b)
Thus,

1: two terms
3 1: remaining terms
1: estimate

(c)

(d)

since

## 1: uses the third term as the

error bound
1: explanation

which is an alternating
series with individual terms that decrease in absolute
value to 0.

152

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

10. 2005 BC 6
(a) P6 ( x) = 7 +

1! 1
3! 1
5! 1
( x - 2) 2 + 4 ( x - 2) 4 + 6 ( x - 2) 6
2
3 2!
3 4!
3 6!

2: P6 (x)
3

each incorrect
term
max for all extra
terms,
equality

misuse of

1: coefficient

(b)
(c) The Taylor series for f about
is

1
( x - 2) 2 n .
f ( x) = 7 +
2n
n=1 2 n 3
1
1
2( n+1) ( x - 2) 2( n+1)
2(n + 1) 3
L = lim
n
1 1
2 n ( x - 2) 2 n
2n 3
L = lim

2n
32 n
( x - 2) 2
2 2 n ( x - 2) 2 =
2(n + 1) 3 3
9

1: set up ratio
1: computes limit of ratio
1: identifies interior of
interval of
5
convergence
1: considers both
endpoints
1: analysis/conclusion for
both endpoints

## L < 1 when x - 2 < 3.

Thus, the series converges when

When

the series is

When

the series is

153

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

(a)

with

1: general term
1:
1:

## 2 1: first four terms

1: general term

(c)

1: approximation
3 1: properties of terms
1: absolute value of fourth
term < 0.0001

(d)
The series in part (c) with

## decrease in absolute value, and have limit 0. Hence the error

is bounded by the absolute value of the next term.
4
7
10

1 1 1

1 2 2 2
12
1
1
dt
0 1+ t 3 2 - 4 + 7 < 10 = 10240 < 0.0001

154

## Taylor Series (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 12. 2007B BC6

1: two of 6,

(a)

3 1: remaining terms
1: general term
missing factor of 6
(b)

and

(c)

so

1: two terms
3 1: remaining terms
1: general term
missing factor of 6

1: computes

so
3

1: recognizes
or
equates 2 series for h(x)
1: values for a and k

OR
so

155

Convergence of Series
(NMSI)

156

## Convergence of Series (BC only)

Students should be able to:
Recognize various types of numerical series and efficiently apply the appropriate test.
Determine the sum of an infinite geometric series and be able to use that sum to create a power series
and determine its interval of convergence.
Use substitution, differentiation, and integration to create series related to given series.
Perform mathematical manipulations with series including (but not limited to) multiplication and
division.
Use the Ratio Test to determine radius or open interval of convergence of power series.
Use the other tests to check convergence at the endpoints.

Note: Telescoping Series Test questions can be tested using the Alternating Series Test conditions. On
recent AP exams, the Telescoping Series Test is not listed as an answer choice, therefore it has been
omitted in the chart. Since the harmonic series shows up frequently, it is recommended that students
know this special case of the p-Series Test and that it is acceptable to cite the Harmonic Series Test as the
justification for divergence when it occurs on the AP exam.

157

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

Multiple Choice
1. (calculator not allowed)
Which of the following series converge?

I.

n2

n 1

II.

n 1

III.

n 1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(1) n
n

I only
III only
I and II only
I and III only
I, II, and III

## 2. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following series are convergent?
1
1
1
I. 1 2 2 . . . 2 . . .
2
3
n
1 1
1
II. 1 . . . . . .
n
2 3
1n1
1 1
III. 1 2 . . . n 1 . . .
3 3
3
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

I only
III only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II, and I

## 3. (calculator not allowed)

What are all values of x for which the series

x 1n

n 1

converges?

(A) 1 x 1
(B) 1 x 1
(C) 0 x 2
(D) 0 x 2
(E) 0 x 2

158

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 4. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following series diverge?

k 2 1

I.

k 3

k 1 7

II.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1k

k 2

III.

None
II only
III only
I and III only
II and III only

## 5. (calculator not allowed)

The interval of convergence of

x 1n

n0

3n

is

(A) 3 x 3
(B) 3 x 3
(C) 2 x 4
(D) 2 x 4
(E) 0 x 2

## 6. (calculator not allowed)

The sum of the infinite geometric series
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

3 9
27
81

. . . is
2 16 128 1,024

1.60
2.35
2.40
2.45
2.50

159

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 7. (calculator not allowed)

What are all values of x for which the series
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

x 2n

n 1

n 3n

converges?

3 x 3
3 x 3
1 x 5
1 x 5
1 x 5

## 8. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following series converge?

n2

I.

n 1

cosn
n
n 1

II.

III.

n
n 1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

None
II only
III only
I and II only
I and III only

## 9. (calculator not allowed)

b dx
is finite, then which of the following must be true?
If lim
b 1 x p

(A)

np

converges

n 1

(B)

np

diverges

n 1

(C)

n p 2

converges

n 1

(D)

n p 1

converges

n 1

(E)

n p 1

diverges

n 1

160

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 10. (calculator not allowed)

What is the value of

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2 n 1

n 1

3n

1
2
4
6
The series diverges

## What are all values of p for which the infinite series

n p 1 converges?
n

n 1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

p0
p 1
p 1
p2
p2

161

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 12. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following series diverge?

I.

sin 2

n 0

II.

3n
n 1

III.

en

en 1

n 1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

III only
I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II, and III

## 13. (calculator not allowed)

en
Consider the series . If the ratio test is applied to the series, which of the following inequalities
n 1 n !
results, implying that the series converges?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

e
1
n!
n!
lim 1
n e
n 1
lim
1
n
e
e
lim
1
n n 1
e
lim
1
n ( n 1)!
lim

162

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 14. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following series converges for all real numbers x ?
(A)
(B)
(C)

xn

n 1 n

xn

2
n 1 n

xn

n
e xn

n 1 n !
n 1

(D)
(E)

n! xn

n
n 1 e

## 15. (calculator not allowed)

n

2
What are all values of x for which the series 2
converges?
n 1 x 1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1 x 1
x 1 only
x 1 only
x 1 and x 1 only
x 1 and x 1

## 16. (calculator allowed)

For what integer k, k 1 , will both

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1kn

n 1

6
5
4
3
2

## What are all values of x for which the series

n 1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

k
and
converge?
4
n 1

x 2n
n

converges?

3 x 1
3 x 1
3 x 1
1 x 1
1 x 1

163

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

Free Response
18. (calculator not allowed)
A function f is defined by

1 2
3
n 1
2 x 3 x 2 . . . n 1 x n . . .
3 3
3
3
for all x in the interval of convergence of the given power series.
f ( x)

(a)

Find the interval of convergence for this power series. Show the work that leads to your answer.

f ( x)
(b) Find lim

x 0

(c)

1
3.

Write the first three nonzero terms and the general term for an infinite series that represents
1

0 f ( x) dx .

(d)

## Find the sum of the series determined in part (c).

164

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 19. (calculator not allowed)

The Maclaurin series for the function f is given by

f ( x)

n0

2 x n 1 2 x 4 x 2 8x 3 16 x 4 . . . 2 x n 1 . . .
n 1

n 1

## on its interval of convergence.

(a)

Find the interval of convergence for the Maclaurin series for f. Justify your answer.

(b)

Find the first four terms and the general term for the Maclaurin series for f (x ) .

(c)

1
Use the Maclaurin series you found in part (b) to find the value of f .
3

165

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 20. (calculator not allowed)

The function f is defined by the power series

1n nx n
x 2 x 2 3x 3
...

...
f ( x)
2
3
4
n 1
for all real numbers x for which the series converges. The function g is defined by the power series
n
1 x n

x x 2 x3
g ( x) 1 . . .
...
2! 4! 6!
2n !
for all real numbers x for which the series converges.
(a)

Find the interval of convergence of the power series for f. Justify your answer.

(b)

## The graph of y f ( x ) g ( x ) passes through the point 0, 1 . Find y ( 0) and y ( 0 ) .

Determine whether y has a relative minimum, a relative maximum, or neither at x 0 . Give a

166

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 21. (calculator not allowed)

Let f be the function given by f ( x )

2x
1 x2

(a)

Write the first four nonzero terms and the general term of the Taylor series for f about x 0 .

(b)

Does the series found in part (a), when evaluated at x 1 , converge to f (1) ? Explain why or
why not.

(c)

The derivative of ln 1 x 2 is

2x
1 x2

## . Write the first four nonzero terms of the Taylor series

for ln 1 x 2 about x 0 .

(d)

1
5
Use the series found in part (c) to find a rational number A such that A ln
.
4 100

167

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 22. (calculator not allowed)

1
The Maclaurin series for ln
is
1 x
(a)

(b

xn
with interval of convergence 1 x 1 .
n
n 1

1
Find the Maclaurin series for ln
and determine the interval of convergence.
1 3x

1n

n 1

(c)

n 1

1n
np

converges, but

n2p

## diverges. Give reasons why your

n 1

value of p is correct.

(d)

np

n 1

diverges, but

n2p

## converges. Give reasons why your

n 1

value of p is correct.

168

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 23. (calculator not allowed)

(1)n (2x)n
on its interval of
n
1
n2

## The Maclaurin series for the function f is given by f (x)

convergence.
(a)

Find the interval of convergence for the Macluarin series of f. Justify your answer.

(b)

4x 2
for x R , where
1 2x

169

## Convergence of Series Solutions (BC only)

We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study Sessions to
account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your own judgment, based
on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions to work in the session. Be sure
to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free response, calculator, and non-calculator)
in the time allotted.
Multiple Choice
1. D
(1973 BC19)
I is a convergent p series, p 2 1
II is the harmonic series and is known to be divergent
III is convergent by the Alternating Series Test
2. C
(1985 BC14)
I is a convergent p series with p 2 1
II is the harmonic series which is divergent
III is convergent by the Geometric Series Test with r

1
1
3

3. D
(1985 BC31)
The center is x 1, so only C, D, or E are possible. Check the endpoints:

(1) n
converges by the Alternating Series Test.
n
n 1

1
At x 2 : diverges since represents the harmonic series.
n 1 n

At x 0 :

4. A
(1993 BC16)
I compare with p series, p 2 1 so converges
6
7
III converges since it represents the alternating harmonic series

5. C

(1993 BC27)

## This is a geometric series with r

Convergence for

x 1
.
3

x 1
1
3

x 1 3

Convergent for 2 x 4.

170

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

6. C

(1997 BC14)

## Convergent by the Geometric Series Test since r

3
1
8

3
3
a1 so the sum will be S 2 2.4
3
2
1
8
7. E

(1997 BC20)
( x 2) n
. The endpoints of the interval of convergence are when ( x 2) 3; x 1, 5 .

n3n
n 1
Check endpoints: x 1 gives the alternating harmonic series which converges and x 5 gives the
Harmonic series which diverges. Therefore the interval is 1 x 5

8. B
(1998 BC18)
I is divergent since the limit of the n th term is not zero.
II is convergent since it represents the alternating harmonic series.
III is divergent since it represents the harmonic series.
9. A
(1998 BC22)
This is the integral test applied to the series in (A). Thus the series in (A) converges. None of the
others must be true.
10. C

(2003 BC10)

4
4
2
This is a Geometric Series in which a1 and r so S 3 4
2
3
3
1
3
11. E

(2003 BC22)

n
n 1

1
p 1

## p 1 1 for the Comparison series to converge by the p Series Test;

therefore p 2.

12. D
(2003 BC24)
I converges by the Geometric Series Test
II diverges by the p Series Test since p 1
en
1 0
x e n 1

## III diverges by the n th Term Test since lim

13. D

(2008 BC4)

e n 1 n !
e n e n !
e
n lim
n lim
By the Ratio Test, lim
0 1
n ( n 1)! e

n (n 1)n ! e n n 1

171

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

14. D

(2008 BC12)

e n 1 x n 1 n !
e n e x n x n !
e
By the Ratio Test, lim
n n lim
n n lim x
0 1
n
(n 1)! e x n (n 1)n ! e x n n 1
Let x 1 to eliminate A and C quickly, and let x e to eliminate B.

15. D

(2008 BC16)

## By the Geometric Series Test, the series converges when

This implies

2
1.
x 1
2

x2 1
1
2

Therefore x 2 1 2 x 2 1 0
( x 1)( x 1) 0 for x 1 and x 1 only.

16. D
(1998 BC76)
k must be odd in order for the first series to converge by the Alternating Series Test, and k must be
less than 4 in order for the second series to converge by the Geometric Series Test, therefore 3 is the
correct solution
17. B
(1998 BC84)
Omit answers D and E since they are centered at x 0 while the solution should be centered
at x 2.
Check endpoints: x 3 converges by the Alternating Series Test and x 1 diverges by the
p Series Test therefore answer B is correct.

172

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## Free Response Solutions

18. 2001 BC6
n 2 x n1
n 2 x x 1
3n2
lim
(a)
lim
n
n n 1 x
n n 1 3
3
n 1
3

n n 1
, which diverges.
At x 3 , the series is 1
3
n 0

n 1
, which diverges.
At x 3 , the series is
n 0 3
Therefore, the interval of convergence is 3 x 3 .
1
f x
3 lim 2 3 x 4 x 2 ... 2
(b) lim

x 0
x 0 32
33
34
x

9
1
1 1
2

n 1

## (c) f x dx 2 x 3 x 2 ... n1 x n ... dx

0
0 3
3
3
3

x 1

1
1
1
1

x 2 x 2 3 x3 ... n1 x n1 ...
3
3
3
3
x 0
1 1 1
1
2 3 ... n1 ...
3 3 3
3
(d)

## 1: sets up ratio test

1 computes limit
4 1: conclusion of ratio
test
1: endpoint conclusion

1: antidifferentiation
of series
1: first three terms for
3
definite integral
series
1: general term

## The series representing f x dx is a geometric

0

series.
Therefore,

1
1
f x dx 3 .
1 2
1
3

173

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 19. 2002 BC6

2x

(a)

(b)

(c)

n 2

1: sets up ratio
n 1

n
2
lim
lim
2x 2x
1 computes limit of ratio
n 1
n
n n 2
2x
1: identifies interior of
n 1
interval of convergence
2: analysis/conclusion at
1
1
2 x 1 for x
endpoints
2
2
5
1:
right endpoint

1
1
At x , the series is
which diverges since
1: left endpoint
2
n 0 n 1
1 if endpoints not
this is the harmonic series.
1

x
1
n 1 1
2
which
At x , the series is 1
n 1
2
1 if multiple intervals
n 0
converges by the Alternating Series Test.
1
1
Hence, the interval of convergence is x .
2
2
n
2
3
f x 2 4 x 8 x 16 x ... 2 2 x ...
1: first 4 terms
2 1: general term

## The series in b is a geometric series.

2

1
1: substitutes x into
3
infinite series from b or

1
1
1 1
f 2 4 8 ... 2 2 ...
3
3 3
3
n

4 8 16
2
2 ... 2 ...
3 9 27
3
2
6

2 5
1
3

## express series from b

in closed form
series

OR
2
1
1
f x
for x . Therefore,
1 2x
2
2
1
2
6

f

3 1 2 5
3

174

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

1 n 1 x n1
n 1

(a)

n2

n 1

n 1 x
lim
n n 2 n

nx n

n 1 x

n 2 n
2

## The series converges when 1 x 1 .

1 2 3
When x 1 , the series is ...
2 3 4
This series does not converge, because the
limit of the individual terms is not zero.
1 2 3
When x 1 , the series is ...
2 3 4
This series does not converge, because the
limit of the individual terms is not zero.
Thus the interval of convergence is 1 x 1 .
(b)

1 4
9
1
f x x x 2 ... and f 0 .
2 3
4
2
1 2
3
1
g x x x 2 ... and g 0 .
2! 4!
6!
2
y 0 f 0 g 0 0

1: sets up ratio
1: computes limit ratio
5
convergence
1: considers both endpoints
1: analysis/conclusion for both
endpoints

1: y 0
4 1: y " 0
1: conclusion
1: reasoning

4
2 1
and g 0 .
3
4! 12
4 1
Thus, y 0 0 .
3 12
Since y 0 0 and y 0 0 , y has a

f 0

relative minimum at x 0 .

175

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 21. 2008B BC6

1
(a)
1 u u 2 ... u n ...
1 u
1
2
4
6
2 n

x
1
...

...
1 x2
2x
n
2 x 2 x3 2 x 5 2 x 7 ... 1 2 x 2 n1 ...
2
1 x

## 1: two of the first four terms

3 1: remaining terms
1: general term

(b) No, the series does not converge when x 1 because when 1: answer with reason
x 1 , the terms of the series do not converge to 0.
2t
dt
0 1 t2

(c) ln 1 x 2

## 1: two of the first four terms

1: remaining terms

2t 2t 3 2t 5 2t 7 ... dt
x

1
1
1
x 2 x 4 x 6 x8 ...
2
3
4
2
4
6
8
5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(d) ln ln 1 ...
4
4 2 2 2 3 2 4 2
2

7
1 1 1
Let A .
2 2 2 32
Since the series is a converging alternating series and the
absolute values of the individual terms decrease to 0,

1
2
3 1: value of A
1: justification
1: uses x

1 1
1
5 1 1
A ln
.
3 64 100
4 3 2

176

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 22. 2002B BC6

1: series
2 1: interval of convergence

(a)

so interval of

We must have
convergence is

(b)

because

p-series

## (d) Some p such that

p-series

3 1: reason why
1: reason why

diverges for

because the
diverges for

1: correct p

and the

diverges

1: correct p
3 1: reason why
1: reason why

p-series

converges

diverges
converges

converges for

177

Convergence of Series
Student Study Session

## 23. 2010 B BC6

(a)

1:
1:
5 1:
1:
1:

sets up ratio
limit evaluation
considers both endpoints
analysis and interval of
convergence

1:
1:
4
1:
1:

series for
series for
series for
analysis with geometric series

for
Therefore the radius of convergence is
When

1
.
2

the series is

When

the series is

## This is the alternating harmonic series, which converges.

The interval of convergence for the Maclaurin series of f is

(b)

## is a geometric series that converges to

Therefore

for

for

178

Integration
Techniques for the BC
Exam
(NMSI)

179

## Integration Techniques for the BC exam

For the BC exam, students need to:
determine antiderivatives of the basic functions
calculate antiderivatives of functions using u-substitution
use algebraic manipulation to rewrite the integrand prior to integrating
use trigonometric definitions and properties of exponents and logarithms to rewrite
solutions
use geometric interpretations of the definite integral
integration by parts
integration by partial fractions (non-repeating linear factors only)
improper integrals (as limits of definite integrals)

180

## Integration Techniques for the AB exam

Student Study Session

Complete this worksheet as a review of the antiderivatives of the basic functions. These rules
should be memorized.
Basic Integration

Trigonometric Functions:

k f (u) du

sin(u) du

______________________

_________________________

[ f (u) g (u)] du

cos(u) du

______________________

_________________________

du

sec (u) du

______________________
n
u du

__________________________

______________________
du
u
______________________

du

______________________
u
e du

______________________

Inverse Trigonometric
du
1 u2
________________________

du

1 u

csc (u) du
2

________________________

sec(u) tan u du
________________________

csc(u) cot u du
________________________
sin u
tan(u) du cos u du
_________________________

cos u

cot(u) du sin u du
_________________________

____________________________

181

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

Multiple Choice:
(Questions 1 9 are appropriate for AB)
1. (calculator not allowed)
2 x4
1 x 2 dx
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
2
ln 2 2
ln 2
2
ln 2 2

x2
e x3 dx

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

3
1
ln e x C
3
3
ex

C
3
1
x3 C
3e
3
1
ln e x C
3
x3
3 C
3e x

2
3
x cos x dx

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
sin x3 C
3
1
sin x3 C
3
x3
sin x 3 C
3
3
x
sin x 3 C
3
x4
x3
sin C
3
4

182

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

cos x
42 sin x dx
(A) ln 2
(B)
(C)

ln

4
ln 3
3
2
ln e

(D) ln
(E)

## 5. (calculator not allowed)

dy
If
sin x cos 2 x and if y = 0 when x , what is the value of y when x = 0?
2
dx
(A) 1
1
(B)
3
(C) 0
1
(D)
3
(E) 1
6. (calculator not allowed)
2

x
1
4
x
2 dx
If the substitution u is made, the integral
2
2
x
2
2 1 u
du
(A)
1
u
2
4 1 u
du
(B)
2
u
2
2 1 u
du
(C)
1
2u
2
2 1 u
du
(D)
1
4u
2
4 1 u
du
(E)
2
2u

183

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

If

2c

1 c

f ( x) dx

5c
5
5c
c5
5

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

## 8. (calculator not allowed)

If

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

f ( x) dx a 2b, then

( f ( x) 5) dx

a 2b 5
5b 5 a
7b 4 a
7b 5a
7b 6 a

9. (calculator allowed)
If f is a continuous function and if F ( x) f ( x) for all real numbers x , then

f (2 x) dx

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2 F (3) 2 F (1)
1
1
F (3) F (1)
2
2
2 F (6) 2 F (2)
F (6) F (2)
1
1
F (6) F (2)
2
2

184

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

2x
x e dx
x e2 x e 2 x

2
4
2x
xe
e 2x

2
2
2x
xe
e 2x

2
4
2x
xe
e 2x

2
2
2 2x
x e
C
4

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

C
C
C
C

## 11. (calculator not allowed)

2
x sec x dx
(A)

x tan x C

(C)

x2
tan x C
2
sec2 x 2sec2 x tan x C

(D)

x tan x ln cos x C

(E)

x tan x ln cos x C

(B)

## 12. (calculator not allowed)

If x 2 cos x dx f ( x ) 2 x sin x dx , then f ( x )
(A) 2sin x 2 x cos x C
(B) x 2 sin x C
(C) 2 x cos x x 2 sin x C
(D) 4cos x 2 x sin x C
(E) 2 x 2 cos x 4 sin x C

185

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

## 13. (calculator not allowed)

If f ( x ) sin( x ) dx f ( x ) cos x 3x 2 cos x dx , then f ( x ) could be
(A) 3 x 2
(B) x 3
(C) x 3
(D) sin x
(E) cos x

x
f ( x)
f ( x)
g ( x)
g ( x)

0
2
6
4
2

1
4
3
3
1

## The table above gives values of f , f , g , and g for selected values of x . If

f ( x) g ( x) dx 5 , then

f ( x) g ( x ) dx

(A) 14
(B) 13
(C) 2
(D) 7
(E) 15

186

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

## 15. (calculator not allowed)

dx

dx

( x 1)( x 2)

1 x 1
ln
C
3 x2
1 x2
ln
C
(B)
3 x 1
1
ln ( x 1)( x 2) C
(C)
3
(D) ln x 1 ln x 2 C
(A)

(E)

ln ( x 1)( x 2) 2 C

## 16. (calculator not allowed)

7x
(2 x 3)( x 2) dx
3
ln | 2 x 3 | 2 ln | x 2 | C
2
(B) 3ln | 2 x 3 | 2 ln | x 2 | C
(C) 3ln | 2 x 3 | 2 ln | x 2 | C
6
2
(D)

C
2
(2 x 3) ( x 2) 2
3
2
(E)

C
2
(2 x 3) ( x 2) 2
(A)

187

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

1
( x 1)
dx is
.
0 x2 2 x 3

ln 3

(A)

ln 3
2
1 ln 3
(C)
2
(D) ln 3
(E) divergent

(B)

dx
2 x 2 is
1
2
ln 2
1
2
nonexistent

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2 x
4 3 9 x 2 dx is
2

(A) 7 3
3 23
(B)
7
2
2
3

2
3

9 7
2

3 23
3
(D)
9 7
2

(E) nonexistent

(C)

188

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

## 20. (calculator allowed)

x2
If f is the antiderivative of
such that f (1) 0 , then f (4)
1 x5

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

0.012
0
0.016
0.376
0.629

189

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

Free Response
21. (calculator not allowed)

1
.
x
(d) The average value of a function f on the unbounded interval [a, ) is defined to be

b f ( x) dx

lim a
4
b
ba

190

## Integration Techniques for the BC Exam

Student Study Session

## 22. (calculator not allowed)

Determine whether or not

## xe x dx converges. If it converges, give its value. Show your

reasoning.

23. (calculator not allowed) The derivative of a function f is given by f ( x ) ( x 3)e x for x 0 ,
and f (1) 7 .
(c) Find the value of f (3) .

191

## Integration Techniques for BC Exam Solutions

We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study
Sessions to account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your
own judgment, based on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions
to work in the session. Be sure to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free
response, calculator, and non-calculator) in the time allotted.
Basic Integration

Trigonometric Functions:

k f (u) du k f (u) du

sin(u) du cos u C

## [ f (u) g (u)] du f (u) du g (u) du

cos(u) du sin u C

du u C

u n 1
u du n 1 C

du
u ln u C

## csc(u) cot u du csc u C

du eu C

tan(u ) du ln cos x C

Inverse Trigonometric
du
u
a2 u 2 arcsin a C

1 u
du
a C
ln a

cot(u ) du ln sin u C

du
1
u
arctan C
2
a u
a
a
2

192

## Student Study Session Solutions

Integration Techniques for BC

Students approach questions requiring the use of u-substitution or parts in a variety of ways. The
solutions to questions 4 and 10 show alternative approaches to each type of question.
1. B (1973 AB30/BC30)
2
2 x4
2 1
4

2
1 x 2 dx 1 x 4 x d x ln x x 1 (ln 2 2) (ln1 4) ln 2 2
2. C (1969 AB38)
x2
1 x3
1 x3
1
2
e x3 dx 3 e (3x ) dx 3 e C 3e x3 C
3. B (2003 AB8/BC8)
1
1
2
3
2
3
3
x cos x dx 3 3x cos x dx 3 sin( x ) c
4. A (1969 AB29)

2
x
cos x
2
2
ln
ln
ln 2
dx ln(sin x ) 2 ln1 ln

x
sin x
2
2
4
2

## Alternatively, rewrite the entire integral in terms of u.

2
u sin x
When x , u sin
; when x , u sin 1 .
2
4
2
4
2
du cos x dx

u 1

u 1 1
cos x
1
dx 2
cos x dx 2 du ln(u )
u
sin x
2 u
4 sin x
u

2
2

2
2
2
ln1 ln
ln
ln 2
ln
2
2
2

## Alternatively, integrate in terms of u; replace x before evaluating the definite integral.

u sin x

du cos x dx

x
2
2
cos x
1
1
2
2
sin x dx sin x cos x dx u du ln(u ) ln(sin x) x ln1 ln 2 ln 2 ln 2 ln 2

193

## Student Study Session Solutions

Integration Techniques for BC

3
1

1
1
y (0) (cos 0)3 .
3
3
3

## 6. A (1985 BC40 appropriate for AB)

x
1
u , du dx; when x 2, u 1 and when x 4, u 2
2
2
2
x
1
2
2
4
2 dx 2 1 u 2 du 2 1 u du
2 x
1 2u
1 u
7. B (1973 AB38/BC38)
2

Let z x c , so 5 f ( x c) dx

2 c

1 c

f ( z ) dz .

8. C (1997 AB3)

( f ( x) 5) dx f ( x) dx 5 1 dx a 2b 5 x a a 2b 5(b a) 7b 4a .
b

9. E (1998 AB82)
Since F is an antiderivative of f ,

x 3

1
1
f (2 x) dx F (2 x) F (6) F (2) .
2
2
x 1

## 10. A (1988 BC16)

v dx
u
x
e2 x
+ 1
e2 x
1
2
1 2x
e
0
4
1 2x 1 2x
2x
x e dx 2 xe 4 e C
Alternatively, using a non-tabular method with parts,
ux
dv e 2 x dx
1
v e2 x
du dx
2
1 2x
1 2x 1 2x
1 2x
2x
x e dx x 2 e 2e dx 2 xe 4 e C

194

## Student Study Session Solutions

Integration Techniques for BC

## 11. E (1993 BC29)

v dx
u
x
sec 2 x
+
sin x
tan x
1
cos x

ln
|
cos
x|
0

x sec

x dx x tan x ln | cos x | C

u x2
dv cos x
v sin x
du 2 x dx

## cos x dx x 2 sin x 2 x sin x dx .

cos x dx f ( x ) 2 x sin x dx

## x 2 sin x 2 x sin x dx f ( x) 2 x sin x dx (using substitution)

x2 sin x C f ( x) .
13. B (1985 BC 21)
u f ( x)
dv sin x dx
v cos x
du f ( x ) dx

## f ( x) sin( x) dx f ( x) cos x cos x f ( x) dx

f ( x) sin( x) dx f ( x) cos x 3x cos x dx
f ( x) cos x cos x f ( x) dx f ( x) cos x 3x
2

## cos x dx (using substitution)

f ( x) 3x2 , so f ( x) x3 c .
14. E (2008 BC22)
u f ( x)
v g ( x)
du f ( x ) dx
dv g ( x ) dx

0
1
0
1

f ( x) g ( x) dx f ( x) g ( x) 10 g ( x) f ( x) dx
0

## f ( x) g ( x) dx f (1) g (1) f (0) g (0) 5 (using substitution)

f ( x) g ( x) dx 4(3) 2(4) 5 15

195

## Student Study Session Solutions

Integration Techniques for BC

## 15. A (1985 BC12)

1 A( x 2) B ( x 1)

1
1
Let x 2 : 1 B(2 1), so B ; Let x 1: 3 A 1, so A .
3
3
1
1

3
1
1
1
x 1
x 1 x 32 dx 3 ln | x 1| 3 ln | x 2 | c 3 ln x 2 C

## 16. A (2008 BC19)

7 x A( x 2) B (2 x 3)
3
7
7 2
3
2
2.
Let x : A 3 ; Let. x 2 : B
3
2(

2)

3
2
2
2
2
3
3
2 x 3 x 2 dx 2 ln | 2 x 3 | 2ln | x 2 | C
17. E (1973 BC36)
b 2( x 1)
( x 1)
1
1
1
dx lim 2
dx lim ln | x 2 2 x 3 |b0 lim ln | b 2 2b 3 | ln | 3 |
0 x 2x 3
2 b1 0 x 2 x 3
2 b1
2 b1
so this limit diverges.

b

lim

b 2

1
1 1 1
x dx lim lim .

b
b
x2
b 2 2
2

## 19. E (1993 BC11)

lim 9 x

b 4

1
3

2
3
3
3

2 3
(9 x ) lim 3 9 b 2 3 9 4 2 . This limit diverges.
2 x dx blim
b 2
2
2

## 20. D (1997 BC89)

Using a calculator, f (4) f (1)

x2
dx 0.376 .
1 x5

196

## Student Study Session Solutions

Integration Techniques for BC

## 21. 2004B BC5d

1
dx lim(2 b 4)
4
b 4
b
x
This limit is not finite, so the integral is
divergent.

(d) g ( x) dx lim

g ( x) dx
b4

lim
b

1 b 1
2 b 4
dx

4
b4
b4
x

1:
4

g ( x) dx 2 b 4

## 1: indicates integral diverges

1 b
2 b 4
1:
g ( x) dx

b4 4
b4
1: finite limit as b

2 b 4
0
b4

197

## Student Study Session Solutions

Integration Techniques for BC

## 22. 1971 BC5

Let I xe x dx

No points shown.

Let u x dv e x dx
du dx v e x
I xe x e x dx
xe x e x

x e x dx lim xe x dx
b 0

lim xe x e x
b

b
0

lim be e 1
b

b 1

lim b b 1
b
e e

1
Integral converges to 1.

1

## 1: uses initial condition

4: 2 :integration by parts

u x 3 dv e x dx
du dx
v ex
3

f (3) 7 ( x 3)e x e x dx
1

7 3e e

198

Integration
Techniques for the BC
Exam
(NMSI)

199

## Polar (BC Only)

Polar coordinates are another way of expressing points in a plane. Instead of being centered at
an origin and moving horizontally or vertically, polar coordinates are centered at the pole and
measure a radius out from the pole at a given angle. The beginning angle of zero radians
corresponds to the positive x-axis. Although polar functions are differentiated in r and , the
coordinates and slope of a line tangent to a polar curve are given in rectangular coordinates.
Tangent lines
Remember the following conversions:

x r cos
y r sin

They are necessary to find the derivative of a polar curve in x- and y-coordinates. The derivative
dy
dy
is done parametrically so that
d . Remember, when differentiating in x or y, use the
dx dx
d
product rule formula.
Find the slope of the rose curve r 3 sin 2 at the point where

## equation for the line tangent to the graph.

Solution
First, find the rectangular coordinates of the point
9
x r cos x 3sin 2 cos
4
6
3 3
4
6
Next, find the derivative and evaluate it at the given angle
dy
dy
3sin 2 cos 6 cos 2 sin
d
dx dx
3sin 2 sin 6 cos 2 cos
d
15
3sin 2 cos 6 cos 2 sin
4 5 3

## 3sin 2 sin 6 cos 2 cos 3 3

3
6
4
3 3 5 3
9

Tangent line is y
x .
4
3
4
y r sin y 3sin 2 sin

200

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

## The area enclosed by a polar curve is calculated by using the formula, A

Remember that d refers to a thin pie-shaped sector.

1 2
r d .
2

Solution

1 2
2
2 2cos d 18.8496

0
2

## Area between two polar curves

1
2
2
router rinner d .

2
Notice that the integrand is the difference of the squared radii, not the square of the difference of
the radii. (Like the washer method)
The area enclosed between two polar curves is given by A

Find the area of the region that lies inside the circle r 1 and outside the cardioid r 1 cos .

Solution
The outer curve is the circle r 1 and the inner curve is the cardioid r 1 cos . The points of
intersection are

and

1 2
2
2
d 1.215.
1 1 cos

2 2
Alternate approach: If the region has symmetry, determine the area of one segment and then
A

and double

the result.

0
2

201

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

Multiple Choice
1. (calculator not allowed)
Which of the following is equal to the area of the region inside the polar curve r 2cos
and outside the polar curve r cos ?

(A) 3 2 cos 2 d
0

(B)

3 cos 2 d

(C)

3 2
cos 2 d

0
2

(D) 3 2 cos d
0

(E)

3 cos d
0

## 2. (calculator not allowed)

The area of the region inside the polar curve r 4sin and outside the polar curve r 2 is
given by
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
2
4sin 2 d

0
2
1 34
2
4sin 2 d

2 4

1 56
2
4sin 2 d

2 6
1 56
2
16sin 4 d

2 6
1
16sin 2 4 d
2 0

202

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 3. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following expressions gives the total area enclosed by the polar curve
r sin 2 shown in the figure above?
(A)

1 2
sin d
2 0

(B)

(C)

1 4
sin d
2 0

(D)

sin 2 d

sin 4 d

(E) 2 sin 4 d
0

203

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

4. (calculator not allowed) (AP AB Calculus Course Description sample questions) What is the
area of the region enclosed by the lemniscate r 2 18cos(2 ) shown in the figure below?

9
2
(B) 9
(C) 18
(D) 24
(E) 36

(A)

## 5. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following gives the area of the region enclosed by the loop of the graph of the
polar curve r 4cos 3 shown in the figure above?

(A) 16 3 cos(3 ) d

(B)

8 6 cos(3 ) d

(C)

8 3 cos 2 (3 ) d

(D) 16 6 cos 2 (3 ) d

(E)

8 6 cos 2 (3 ) d

204

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 6. (calculator not allowed)

The area of the region enclosed by the polar curve r sin(2 ) for 0

is

(A) 0
1
(B)
2
(C) 1
(D)
(E)

7. (calculator not allowed) Determine the slope of the line tangent to the polar curve

r 1 2sin at

(A) 0
(B) 2
(C) 2
1
(D)
2
1
(E)
2
8. (calculator not allowed)
Which of the following represents the graph of the polar curve r 2sec ?

205

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

Free Response
9. (calculator allowed)

S
O

5
y and the curve C given by x 1 y 2 .
3
Let S be the shaded region bounded by the two graphs and the x-axis. The line and the curve
intersect at point P.
dx
for the curve C at point P.
(a) Find the coordinates of point P and the value of
dy

## The figure above shows the graphs of the line x

2
2
2
2
(c) Curve C is a part of the curve x y 1. Show that x y 1 can be written as the
1
.
polar equation r 2
2
cos sin 2

(d) Use the polar equation from part (c) to setup an integral expression with respect to the
polar angle that represents the area of S.

206

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 10. (calculator allowed)

2

r  sin2
1

x
3

2

1

The curve above is drawn in the xy-plane and is described by the equation in polar
coordinates r sin 2 for 0 , where r is measured in meters and is measured
in radians. The derivative of r with respect to is given by

dr
1 2cos 2 .
d

(a) Find the area bounded by the curve and the x-axis

(b) Find the angle that corresponds to the point on the curve with x-coordinate -2.

207

2 dr
,
is negative. What does this fact say about r? What does this fact
3
3 d

(c) For

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

2

208

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 11. (calculator allowed)

y

R
x
O

The graphs of the polar curves r 2 and r 3 2 cos are shown in the figure above.
2
4
.
The curves intersect when
and
3
3
(a) Let R be the region that is inside the graph of r 2 and also inside the graph of
r 3 2 cos , as shaded in the figure above. Find the area of R.

(b) A particle moving with nonzero velocity along the polar curve r 3 2 cos has
position x t , y t at time t, with 0 when t 0. This particle moves along the

dr

dr dr

## . Find the value of

dt
3
dt d
terms of the motion of the particle.
curve so that

dy

dy dy

at and
dt
3
dt d

209

## Polar (BC only) Solutions

We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study Sessions to
account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your own judgment, based
on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions to work in the session. Be sure
to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free response, calculator, and non-calculator)
in the time allotted.
Multiple Choice
1. A

(1997 BC21)

1
2
2
2 cos cos d

0
2
1
4 cos 2 cos 2 d
2 0
3
cos 2 d
2 0
3
2 2 cos 2 d
2 0
A

3 2 cos 2 d
0

2. D

(1998 BC19)
1
5
2 4sin sin ,
2
6 6
5
1
2
A 6 4sin 22 d
2 6

2
1 56 16sin 4 d

2 6

3. D

(2008 BC26)
when 0,
2
1
A 2 sin 2 d
2 0

sin 2 0; sin 1 0

sin 4 d
0

4. C

## (AP Course Description Sample Questions)

1
18cos 2 0 when ,
; A 2
4 4
2

18cos 2 ) 2 d =18

210

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

5. E
(1988 BC23)
r 0 when cos 3 0

## The region is for the interval from

to

1 6
2
Area 4 cos 3 d

2 6
6. D

(1985 BC24)
1
Area 2 sin 2 2 d
2 0
1 2 1
1 cos 4 d
2 0 2

1
1
2

sin 4
8
4
4
0

7. A

(AP-like)

dy / d
where y r sin and
dx / d
x r cos , therefore y (1 2sin ) sin and x (1 2sin ) cos .
dy / d (1 2sin ) cos 2 cos sin
=
.
dx / d (1 2sin )( sin ) 2 cos 2

Determine the slope of the tangent line to the polar curve using

## dy / d (1 2sin 2 )(cos 2 ) 2(cos 2 )(sin 2 ) (1 2)(0) 2(0)(1) 0

=

0.
When ,

(1 2)(1) 2(0) 2 3
2 dx / d
(1 2sin )( sin ) 2(cos ) 2
2
2
2
8. D

(1993 BC5)

r
2; r cos 2. Since x r cos , x 2 represents the graph of the polar
sec
curve which is the vertical line x 2.
Given r 2sec ,

211

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

Free Response

9. 2003 BC3
5
3
(a) At P, y 1 y 2 , so y .
3
4
5
5
Since x y , x .
3
4

1: coordinates of P
dx
1:
at P
dy

3
dx
3
dx
y
y
4 .

. At P,
dy 5
5
dy
1 y2 x
4
(c) x r cos ; y r sin
x 2 y 2 1 r 2 cos 2 r 2 sin 2 1
1
r2
2
cos sin 2

## 1: substitutes x r cos and

y r sin into x 2 y 2 1
2
1: isolates r 2

## (d) Let be the angle that segment OP makes

3
y
3
with the x-axis. Then tan 4 .
x 5
5
4
tan 1 3 1
5
Area
r 2 d
0
2
1 tan 1 3 5
1

d
2
2 0
cos sin 2

2 1: limits
1: integrand and constant

212

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

1
(a) Area r 2 d
2 0
2
1
sin 2 d 4.382
0
2

3 1 integrand

## (b) 2 r cos sin 2 cos

2.786
dr

2
0 for
, r is
d
3
3
decreasing on this interval. This means the
curve is getting closer to the origin.

(c) Since

dr

0
(d) The only value in 0, where
d
2
is

1: equation

1:

or 1.047
3
2

.
r

0
1.913
1.571

213

## Polar (BC only)

Student Study Session

## 11. 2007 BC3

1: area of a circular
sector
2: integral for section
of limacon
4
1: integrand
1: limits and
constant

2
1 4 3
2
2
2 3 2cos d
3
2 2 3
10.370

(a) Area

(b)

dr
dr

dt 3 d

1.732

1:

dr
dt 3

1: interpretation
The particle is moving closer to the origin, since
and r 0 when
(c)

dr
0
dt

## y r sin 3 2cos sin

dy
dy

dt 3 d

1: expression for y in
terms of

0.5

3 1: dy
dt 3

## The particle is moving away from the x-axis, since

y 0 when

dy
0 and
dt

1: interpretation