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Summary of Week 3

1. Mulitiple Linear ODE System (review and discussion of

derivation of determinant formula)
2. Some Typical Process Dynamics
a. First Order System
Standard Form: (dx/dt ) + x = f(t)
Characteristics: = time constant
If f(t) = Kp = constant,
x( t ) = Kp - [ Kp-x(0) ] exp( -t/ )
[ x( ) - x(0) ] = 0.632 [ Kp - x(0) ]

a. Second Order System

Standard Form:

Characteristic equation: n2 s2 + 2n s+1 = 0


Case 1: 1 (overdamped)
then s1 and s2 are both real and negative.
Case 2: =1 (critical damping)
then s1 and s2 are equal.
Case 3: 0<<1 (underdamped)
then s1 and s2 are conjugate pair of
complex roots,

Case 4: =0 (undamped)
then s1 and s2 are both pure imaginary
Case 5: <0 (unstable) then s1 and s2 are
complex pair with positive real parts.
Solution to underdamped
with f(t)=Kp, x(0)=xo and dx/dt(0) = 0.

with the following additional characteristics:

where x1* is the value of the first peak and x2* is the
value of the second peak overshooting beyond Kp.
3. Stability Conditions for Second Order Systems

From the characteristic equation of a second order system,

the process is stable if and only if all the coefficients have the
same sign.

4. Exam during 12/16/99. Reviewed Solution 12/17/99

3. Introduction to PID Control


u = ubias + Simple. Only one tuning
Proportional Control
kc e
Proportional Integral ubias +kc [e
Removes offset. Can
+ (1/I)e decrease response times.
dt ]

Offset present
Can introduce low
damping coefficient.

ubias+kc [ e
Proportional Integral + (1/ )e
Can reduce overshoot.
Derivative Contol
+ D de/dt

Derivative term needs

accompanying filter.

Where e = error = xset - x , kc = controller gain , I =

integral time , D = derivative time