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Resumen Semana 3

- Olson Harry
- Abstract Reasoning
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derivation of determinant formula)

2. Some Typical Process Dynamics

a. First Order System

Standard Form: (dx/dt ) + x = f(t)

Characteristics: = time constant

If f(t) = Kp = constant,

x( t ) = Kp - [ Kp-x(0) ] exp( -t/ )

[ x( ) - x(0) ] = 0.632 [ Kp - x(0) ]

Standard Form:

Eigenvalues:

Case 1: 1 (overdamped)

then s1 and s2 are both real and negative.

Case 2: =1 (critical damping)

then s1 and s2 are equal.

Case 3: 0<<1 (underdamped)

then s1 and s2 are conjugate pair of

complex roots,

Case 4: =0 (undamped)

then s1 and s2 are both pure imaginary

roots.

Case 5: <0 (unstable) then s1 and s2 are

complex pair with positive real parts.

Solution to underdamped

with f(t)=Kp, x(0)=xo and dx/dt(0) = 0.

where x1* is the value of the first peak and x2* is the

value of the second peak overshooting beyond Kp.

3. Stability Conditions for Second Order Systems

the process is stable if and only if all the coefficients have the

same sign.

3. Introduction to PID Control

Type

Algorithm

Features

u = ubias + Simple. Only one tuning

Proportional Control

kc e

parameter

u=

Proportional Integral ubias +kc [e

Removes offset. Can

Contol

+ (1/I)e decrease response times.

dt ]

Caution

Offset present

Can introduce low

damping coefficient.

u=

ubias+kc [ e

Proportional Integral + (1/ )e

Can reduce overshoot.

I

Derivative Contol

dt

+ D de/dt

accompanying filter.

integral time , D = derivative time

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