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# Summary of Week 3

## 1. Mulitiple Linear ODE System (review and discussion of

derivation of determinant formula)
2. Some Typical Process Dynamics
a. First Order System
Standard Form: (dx/dt ) + x = f(t)
Characteristics: = time constant
If f(t) = Kp = constant,
x( t ) = Kp - [ Kp-x(0) ] exp( -t/ )
[ x( ) - x(0) ] = 0.632 [ Kp - x(0) ]

Standard Form:

## Characteristic equation: n2 s2 + 2n s+1 = 0

Eigenvalues:

Case 1: 1 (overdamped)
then s1 and s2 are both real and negative.
Case 2: =1 (critical damping)
then s1 and s2 are equal.
Case 3: 0<<1 (underdamped)
then s1 and s2 are conjugate pair of
complex roots,

Case 4: =0 (undamped)
then s1 and s2 are both pure imaginary
roots.
Case 5: <0 (unstable) then s1 and s2 are
complex pair with positive real parts.
Solution to underdamped
with f(t)=Kp, x(0)=xo and dx/dt(0) = 0.

## with the following additional characteristics:

where x1* is the value of the first peak and x2* is the
value of the second peak overshooting beyond Kp.
3. Stability Conditions for Second Order Systems

## From the characteristic equation of a second order system,

the process is stable if and only if all the coefficients have the
same sign.

## 4. Exam during 12/16/99. Reviewed Solution 12/17/99

3. Introduction to PID Control

Type

Algorithm
Features
u = ubias + Simple. Only one tuning
Proportional Control
kc e
parameter
u=
Proportional Integral ubias +kc [e
Removes offset. Can
Contol
+ (1/I)e decrease response times.
dt ]

Caution
Offset present
Can introduce low
damping coefficient.

u=
ubias+kc [ e
Proportional Integral + (1/ )e
Can reduce overshoot.
I
Derivative Contol
dt
+ D de/dt

## Derivative term needs

accompanying filter.

## Where e = error = xset - x , kc = controller gain , I =

integral time , D = derivative time