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You are on page 1of 4

that is suspended from a horizontal bar

as illustrated in the figure. When the

object comes to rest we say it is at

"equilibrium" which is labeled 0 on the

vertical number line. If you give the

weight a push, either up or down, it will

start to move and the motion can be

modeled by sine and cosine functions.

The "stiffness" of the spring and the

mass of the object affect how far the

object moves from the equilibrium

position. The initial velocity and initial

2

position also affect the motion of the

spring. (We don't always start at the

equilibrium position.)

4

Ifwe neglect any damping forces (air

resistance etc.) then the motion of the

spring can be modeled by

x(t)

Vo

co

sin(wt)

+ xo cos(wt)

where xCt) is the position of the object along the number line at time t. The other

quantities are constants: w is a constant that depends on the stiffness of the spring and

the mass of the weight, Vo is the initial velocity, and Xo is the initial position of the object.

Suppose a weight is set in motion from a position 3 centimeters below the equilibrium

position and with a downward velocity of 4 centimeters per second. (Please note that the

vertical number line used for position is "upside down". This is a convention from

physics and it means that positions below equilibrium actually correspond to a positive

value.) Assume that the spring stiffness and mass of the weight mean that ca = 2 for this

system.

Part I

1) Write the function x(t) that gives the position of the weight as a function oftime tin

seconds. (Your function should consist of a sine term and a cosine term.)

2) Graph the separate sine and cosine components of your function from (1) on the same

set of axes. That is graph

XI

= Vo sin((i)t)

and

X2

::=:

Xo

(i)

-I

-5

3) Use a graphing calculator (or online graphing utility) to graph the entire function from

part (1). Use the window settings indicated below. Sketch what you see on your

calculator display.

xmin = 0

xmax = 2TC

xscl = 1-

ymin= -5

ymax=5

yscl = 1

/

-\

-5

4) Write an equation for your calculator graph in the form xU) = A cos[B(t - C)]. (Use

the trace or maximum feature of your graphing utility to help you find values for A, B,

and C. I expect to see decimal approximations for these values.)

~':/S.0

X ( +)

b~

c- 3

~ j. Co C 05 [2

(t -

-S)]

bd{Ct

ho&

va{~S

pe-'r!ods

C1e

6) Prove that the following is an identity (A is a positive constant) by filling in the blanks

below.

.

I. Asinsin(rot)+Acoscos(rot)

t: O~iYl(W{;)

f\

A[C()~~ tvslVvt\

-I-CJJ50

1-

S;hti

Commutative Property of

Addition

Commutative Property of

Multiplication

Difference identity for

cosine

StIiLv0'))

.-

=A

cos(wt - )

Part III:

Rewrite an expression of the form

<Dr

[5J sinewt) + [;] cos( wt) = IA jfi Isine rot)+ IA cas Icos( rot) in terms

@j-

!:}-

1

tan

c2

iA=~c{+cd

p:;: V ,

Q5

c.~

SIJ

o-D

~\tJ.U"

vtl.Q'SR. NO tL

C.

I

r,

C2

I"===_==.:.;;.A~===--'I

~ ~ry

v'"

= -.l.

of a cosine function:

c..., ) ~~

%0.1-

M~

pOSS \ b\'j

'bL

vu.3cq\~ .

A, is the amplitude of the cosine function and , "phi", is called the phase angle and is

measured in radians.

~.11 ~;:

~("lS\(~)'t..

.6tJ 1

;)..

4s\,,~-'t +

a..rsCOj (~-t-

d-.coS3t~

A ~ ~{S

tOJ\.

p;:.

CJl -::. ~ ~

a {is c.o')t?(-t

\I\d..)

~ \, \ ~

'l"

~. RoQ.,O-r.

o

V'I'OckL ~

0

7) Rewrite your function from part 1) in terms ofa cosine function: Acos(QJt-).

your work.

Show

8) Compare your function from part 4) and part 7). What do you observe? Write a one or

two sentence explanation.

'1(1) ~ rri c [Cz f ~.583)

wse

~iU

t: &S~

af-\ 01/\.

p

0 .~~

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