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by Khenpo Karthar Rinpoche
Teaching at Karma Triyana Dharmachakra, Summer 1984. Translated by Chojor Radha. Densal Vol. 6 No. 1.
he Four Dharmas of Gampopa show how the mind follows the Dharma, how the Dharma follows the path, how the path eliminates confusion, and how out of confusion wisdom arises.
First Dharma: May My Mind Follow the Dharma
he first of the four teachings points to the understanding that we practice Dharma in order to truly benefit ourselves and others in this and future births. Whatever teachings we hear, contemplate, and put into practice should be motivated by this intention. If we practice to obtain material gain, then our minds are not following Dharma. We work in the mundane world to support our physical needs, but we practice Dharma to develop our inner understanding of this life and attain those realizations that will also benefit us in future births. The nature of samsara is constant change, and from this viewpoint, using Dharma to gain fame, wealth, or other
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temporary rewards is turning the teaching to the wrong purpose. Using Dharma properly, we generate benefits through meditation. When we receive teachings, we should put them into practice immediately. Our life is very uncertain and the time of death unpredictable, no matter what our health or age. To obtain this precious human birth and the opportunity to practice is most rare, and we may not find it in the future. Knowing this, we should immediately engage in practice that is meaningful and relevant to us, and then practice consistently. Such practice is like taking medicine. You are the patient and, until the disease is cured, you must take medicine regularly. Likewise, until our confusion is removed, we should practice Dharma regularly.
Second Dharma: May the Dharma Follow the Path
e have seen that the nature of samsara is nothing but suffering, yet every living being wants happiness, peace, and comfort. Not knowing how to obtain these, their actions only compound suffering, and they are thus constantly confused and drawn into the realm of samsara. Some people, for example, think happiness can be obtained by robbing a bank and becoming rich. The result of stealing, of course, is negative karma and its attendant suffering. If we consider our situation, there are many instances in which we think some activity will produce happiness, but it actually yields negative karma. Birds, insects, and humans are all equally busy trying to obtain that state called happiness. From birth to death, we look for wealth, fame, and other forms of worldly success, not realizing that the root of happiness is in the virtuous actions of body, speech, and mind, and that the root of suffering is in the negative actions of these three. In this ignorance, we continue in constant busyness, vaguely hoping for something good, yet creating more problems. When we can understand that all beings share a desire for happiness and yet are closed into the darkness and confusion of samsara, then with this awareness we can begin to help others. Loving-kindness is developed through the motivation of not only wanting to
help others in material ways, but also wanting to liberate them from the cycle of samsara. In order to develop this strong loving-kindness, it helps in the beginning to focus on the person you love the most, such as your mother, brother, or sister, and imagine them suffering in great pain. If you did not come to help them, and merely tried to maintain your own happiness, you would not be very comfortable. The only thing to do, of course, would be to find out how to help them. Suppose that the one you love the most was in the hell realm, burning with fire, boiled in water, and forced to drink scalding liquids, and was constantly crying out, “Someone please help me!” At that point you could not just sit there and work for your own happiness. At the sound of the word “help!” immediately your tears would flow. Likewise, if they were in the hungry ghost realm suffering from thirst, hunger and want of shelter, with their body burning at night, you would have difficulty ignoring their cries for help. Suppose this person you love has taken birth as a fish with no home, no protection in the water, and constantly searching for food simply to stay alive and stop the pangs of hunger. When they came up from the water and pleaded for help, you could not turn a deaf ear. In such ways, we use the example of the one we love most and imagine what we would do if that person cried for help from the depths of suffering. When we can freely express loving-kindness for those we love, then this loving-kindness can be expanded by knowing that not only the person we love is suffering and wants happiness, but that every living being equally wants such happiness. This realization brings forth greater generosity and loving-kindness, which eventually includes limitless numbers of living beings. Developing loving-kindness by itself, however, is not enough for effective practice; in addition, we need to develop aspiration bodhichitta. In this context aspiration bodhichitta means a deep commitment from your heart with the feeling, “From now on, I will never harm any living being, but try to help as much as I can, and not just for a short time, but until all are liberated from samsara.” Once we make this commitment we think, “If I ever break this vow, may my body be scattered into a thousand pieces.” With this commitment, we practice according to our intention. Since all practices will not go easily and smoothly, we will have to work through and overcome many difficulties, troubles and hardships, both mental and physical. When such problems arise, we
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should again reflect on the suffering of the hell realm, the hungry ghost realm and the animal realm. Compared to these, our hardships and pain are minimal. We should also see that in the past, we have worked with great energy to obtain temporary happiness—possessions, wealth, fame, and so forth. Now that we are truly working for our real benefit and that of all sentient beings, are we not willing to make at least the same effort to persevere through difficult times? When you are practicing with such a focus, no matter what happens, nothing can interfere with you. This kind of practice is called “perseverance bodhichitta,” for you are following your intentions and actually practicing them. Another way of dealing with problems that arise during practice is to concentrate on the goal of obtaining a better rebirth in order to give happiness to ourselves and others. That happiness is not temporary, but eternal wealth, and could be considered your pay or salary for working through difficulties in the same way that a job in the mundane world would reward you for your labors. Generating this perseverance bodhichitta, the great yogi Milarepa was able to meditate for years through tremendous adversity, even though he was a human being like us, who experienced pain, hunger, and thirst. Since he had confidence in his guru’s teaching about the eternal benefit that arises through practice, he was able to put himself into meditation and for long years overcome numerous difficulties with his practice. To summarize this discussion of the Second Dharma of Gampopa, we can see that, just as we obtain material rewards in the ordinary world for working hard, for taking risks and responsibility, in that same way we take the responsibility of liberating ourselves and all sentient beings. Here, too, it is clear that we have to face numerous hardships and resolve many problems. Just as we know that in the world we will not find well-paid jobs without having to put forth effort and take responsibility, we have to understand that on the spiritual path as well we have to undergo difficulties in order to help ourselves. When we follow this path, bodhichitta will develop and the bodhisattva’s conduct will grow.
Third Dharma: May the Path Eliminate Confusion
n addition to relating to loving-kindness and compassion, we can also surmount hardships by developing awareness and wisdom. We know that everything is temporary and a projection of our own mind. Every sound we hear is a projection of our mind and is interdependent with our hearing. Likewise, all visible form is interdependent, and what we consider concrete is actually like a mirage. If we can come to understand that all phenomena are not real, then there is no hardship, no difficulty to meet. If an enemy is approaching, we can take this enemy for real, allow fear to arise, and try to run away. On the other hand, if we know that this enemy is unreal, nothing but magic, then we do not generate fear and run away, but just stay there watching. The more we come to understand that all phenomena are devoid of identity, the more we can feel compassion for all living beings who are drawn into a world of confusion. In pursuing our desire to help all beings, we develop pure compassion; in applying wisdom, we understand that all phenomena are devoid of self or a fixed identity. When we reach this level of understanding, the path is eliminating confusion. When we think about benefiting all living beings, we automatically understand that to benefit them we have to work for them, to serve them, to nurse them if they are sick, to give food, shelter, and so forth. This kind of physical assistance, of course, is necessary, but it provides only temporary aid. If we offer Dharma, however, and teach them how to remove conflicting emotions and defilements, then they can attain eternal happiness—that is why Dharmic help is far more beneficial. Opening or helping to run a center is certainly a great gift we can offer to living beings, because they learn Dharma from true teachers who will show them how to remove their defilements. If we give people worldly possessions, then as long as they are involved with them, they are accumulating negative karma. We have actually prolonged their negative karma rather than teaching them how to remove it. If we teach Dharma or help to make it available, that
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activity creates endless benefits, because whoever hears will eventually remove all defilements, and will be of great help to all living beings. If we are spending our energy in the ordinary world, our activity resembles giving a piece of gold to a king; he already has an abundance of wealth and so this gold does not change his life in the least. In fact, the king could easily obtain much more gold than what we have given him. With Dharmic intention, we act so that people can be liberated from their confusion. During the time of Shakyamuni Buddha, there were people who took 253 vows that they kept pure and unbroken. It is said that in our present age, if we could offer just four words of Dharma to benefit the minds of sentient beings, this would bring an even greater accumulation of merit than keeping 253 vows did in ancient times. As Dharma practitioners, we can understand that the result of our practice leads to the removal of confusion, and eventually to complete liberation from samsara. We obtain both eternal happiness and the ability to help all living beings spontaneously. Material progress or technical development may provide some leisure or comfort for us in this world, but they do not really help to eliminate our confusion—even medical advances do not. The only thing that can actually remove defilements or neuroses is the skillful and diligent application of Dharma. For that reason, establishing and working at a center are extremely helpful for others, because we are making the Dharma available and inviting many spiritual masters who can teach Dharma in different ways depending on each individual’s capacity. Of course, we would probably not attain enlightenment the day right after a teaching, but from among those attending, there will be a few who will practice seriously and regularly. All the rest who came, even though they are not interested in the practice, have been helped, for they have heard the profound words of Dharma, and the seed of enlightenment has been planted within them. Dharmic generosity is extremely important and we should always be helpful in this way. Material generosity is only temporary and cannot remove our deep-seated problems. The three year, three month, retreat can be extremely beneficial if we can practice thoroughly and come out a teacher able to spread the Dharma. But if this does not happen, then really working for a Dharma center can be a greater benefit and provide a greater accumulation of merit than going on a three year retreat, because in working at a center you are constantly benefiting others and thus
accumulating merit every moment. A three year retreat has to be accomplished by a person of many qualities: completely devoted to the Dharma, enthusiastic, tolerant, wise, and persevering. Having become realized ourselves, if we then teach others, that, of course, is the best way to apply the Dharma and make it available. When I was young, I wanted to go into retreat for my whole life and never leave, but my teacher asked me to come out of retreat and give teachings. Whether the teachings have helped living beings in this lifetime or in future births, I do not know, but leaving retreat undoubtedly saved my life. If I had stayed in retreat, I would have certainly been killed by the communists. In retrospect, I can understand why my teacher refused my request. Through overcoming hardships and developing loving-kindness and compassion for all sentient beings, we gradually become less selfcentered, and our motivation places others first with the wish to benefit them. When this altruistic attitude arises within us and we always follow it, we enjoy the work of helping others, for we understand why they undergo such difficulties. This clearer understanding is enjoyable and enables us to work harder. As we bring others greater benefit, our own defilements gradually decrease, and eventually ego-clinging disappears. That is why it is said that the path leads to the removal of confusion.
Fourth Dharma: May Confusion be Transformed into Wisdom
here are two ways of looking at transforming confusion into wisdom. First, you can think logically that all sentient beings have the ability to attain enlightenment—the same ability as the Buddha, who has already become enlightened. Although this ability resides in all living beings, because they do not know how to remove obscurations, they are unable to realize their buddhahood. In quantity and quality, there is not the least difference between the enlightenment that is within the Buddha and the enlightenment or buddha nature that is within all sentient beings. The difference between an enlightened being and ordinary beings is that the
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buddha nature of ordinary beings is covered, and the Buddha’s buddha nature is exposed—it has come out while ours is hidden away. The wisdom of enlightened beings and the wisdom of ordinary beings is equal in quality. A simple example will illustrate this. Suppose you fill two identical basins with pure water, and one of them has some mud in it, while the other is clean. Now it is the nature of water to be clear, but because one basin has mud in it this water is not as clear as that in the clean basin. The quality and quantity of the water are the same, however. The more mud you can take out or let settle, the clearer the water becomes; finally, it becomes as clear as the water in the basin without mud. So the qualities of purity and clarity were always there—they were not obtained after the removal of the mud—but they needed the proper conditions to become manifest. The only way to keep this water clear after the silt has settled is by not moving it at all. In terms of our mind, sitting meditation, or shamata practice settles our mind and helps us maintain a clarity within ourselves. That does not mean, however, that we have completely removed our defilements, but that our mind is settled and our clarity has become manifest. The second way to transform confusion into wisdom is to practice the developing and accomplishing stages of meditation in the vajrayana. In this way, we come to the realization that everything is void and that there is no separation of projector and projection— that is the ultimate level. We also come to the understanding that everything is interdependent. For example, deep realization is dependent on the blessings of enlightened beings and is also dependent on our inner wisdom, which is constantly there and equal to that of the Buddha. Interdependence can also be illustrated by observing how we perceive objects with our eyes. If we did not have the ability to see, then even if we had eyes, we would not be able to see an object. For the object to appear, we must have the faculty of vision. Clear vision helps our eyes to see objects distinctly, just as the sun makes it easier to see objects clearly. These elements are all interdependent—they arise together and help each other. Likewise, with the blessings of realized and enlightened beings, and with our own inner wisdom, we can come to the final stages of realization. At that point, our wisdom fully emerges; we have removed the obscurations covering it so that it can shine forth completely. During all
stages of practice it is important to remember that this wisdom was there all the time. Thus the Fourth Dharma is: may the path lead to the realization of wisdom; may confusion be transformed into wisdom.
EDITED BY MICHELE MARTIN
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