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1. What is WPS?

WPS is Welding Procedure Specification, It is a written document that

provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production welds.
2. What is the Welding Process?

(Gas Tungeston Arc Welding)


(Shielded Metal Arc Welding)

c) SAW

(Submerged Arc Welding)


(Flux Coated Arc Welding)


(Gas Metal Arc Welding)

f) PAW

(Plasma Arc Welding)

Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications
Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications
Part C

- Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and

Part D - Properties (Customary)
Part E - Properties (Metric)
Subsection NCA
Division 2

---- General Requirements for Division 1 and

Division 1
Subsection NB-Class 1 Components
Subsection NC-Class 2 Components
Subsection ND - Class 3 Components
Subsection NE - Class MC Components

Subsection NF Supports
Subsection NG - Core Support Structures
Subsection NH - Class 1 Component in Elevated Temperature ServiceAppendices
Division 2 - Code for Concrete Containments
Division 3 - Containments for Transport and Storage of Spent Nuclear
and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste
Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
Non Destructive Examination
Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
Division 1
Division 2 Alternative Rules
Division 3 Alternative Rules for Construction of High
Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Fiber Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
Rules for In Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant
Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks.

 ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

 ASME B 31.3 Process Piping

 ASME B 31.1 - Power Piping

 ASTM American Society of Testing Materials
 API - American Petroleum Institute
 AISC American Institute of Structural Concrete
 AWS D1.1 American Welding Society (Structural Welding)
 AWS D1.6 American Welding Society (Structure SS Welding)
4. What are the different types of Groove?
a) V Groove
b) U Groove
c) Double V Groove
5. What are the different types of Base Material with Grade?

i) A 106 Gr B
ii) A 53 Gr B
iii) API 5L Gr B

i) A 304
ii) A 304L
iii) A 316
iv) A 316L
v) A 321
vi) A 322
vii) A 347
viii) A 348

A 335 - P11
A 335 - P22

ASTM B 165 No: 4400

SB 241 Grade 5083

6. What is the Procedure Qualification Thickness Limits?


QW 452

It is the test coupon < 1 - Size welded (Dia)


Thickness always 2T T Thickness of Test Coupon


Minimum Thickness Qualified 1.5mm

7. Materials
(F Nos)









8. Material Consumables:GTAW



ER 70S 2/3/4

7016, 7018 1


ER 308, ER 308L

E 308, E 308L

ER 316, ER 316L

E 316, E316L

9. Specify Electrode Trade Name

10. Welding Position
Pipe 1GR, 2G, 5G, 6G,
Plate 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
PIPE:1G: - A Pipe is Horizontal Position and weld beed is a vertical position. The
Will be rotated.
2G: - A Pipe is Vertical Position and weld beed is Horizontal Position
5G: - A Pipe is Horizontal Position and weld beed is Vertical Position
6G: - A Pipe is a 450 Position
PLATE:1G: - Plate is Horizontal and weld is Horizontal
2G: - Plate is Vertical and weld is Horizontal
3G: - Plate is Vertical and weld is Vertical
4G: - A Plate is in Overhead Position weld is Horizontal Position

11. What is pre-heat temperature for CS, SS, ALLOY, and MONEL?
CS =Less 25 mm 100C Min , Above 25mm 800 C
SS = Max 100C
ALLOY = P 11 = 1500C, P 22 = 1490C
MONEL = Max 100C
12. Interpass Temperature
CS = 2500C
SS = 1500C
ALLOY P11 = 3000C
ALLOY P22 = 3000C
MONEL = 2000C
13. Types of Welding Position?
Uphill Position and Down Position.
14. What is PWHT?
Post Welded Heat Treatment, To Remove Residual Stress.
CS - Above 19 mm 5930C to 6490
Alloy Above 13 mm 7040C to 7460 / High Alloy 7040C to 7600C
15. Gas Backing
When we are using SS material must use Purge Gas
May be Argon / Nitrogen
16. What is Pipe?
It is a tubular item made of Metal, Plastic, and Glass etc.
17. What is the width of Weave Bead?
Max. Weave width = 3x Electrode dia.
18. Write the weld layers?
I. Root
II. Hot Pass
III. Fill
IV. Cap
19. PWHT for Ni Alloy?
> 13mm 5500C to 5850C
20. What are the main Responsibilities of Welding Inspector?
To Observe, To Record, To Compare (Acceptance Levels)

21. Type of Common Welds?

Groove Welds
Fillet Welds
Spot / Seam Welds
Plug / Slot Welds
Edge Welds
22. Type of Common Joints?
Butt Joints


Lap Joints
Open Corner Joints
Closed Corner Joints
23. Types of Joint Preparation?
Bevel, V, J, S (Single & Double Sided)
24. What are the Weldment Terms?
i. Weld Face
ii. Weld Root
iii. Fusion Zone
iv. Fusion Boundary
v. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)
vi. Weld Toes
vii. Weld Width
25. What are the Welding Imperfections?
I. Cracks
II. Gas Pores and Carities
III. Sold inclusions
IV. Lack of Fusion
V. Surface and Profile
VI. Mechanical / Surface damage
VII. Misalignment.
26. What is the Major Inspection of Material Receiving?
a) Size
b) Condition
c) Type / Specification / Schedule

d) Storage
e) Heat Number
27. Pipe Inspection (Material)?

Welded Seam




Out side




Wall Thickness

28. What is Steel?

An Alloy of the Iron with the Non Material Carbon
(0.01 -1.4% C)
29. What is Plain Carbon Steel?
Steel that contain only Iron & Carbon are main elements,Traces of
may be also present from refining.
30. Low Carbon Steel?
0.01 0.3%C

31. Medium Carbon Steel?

0.3 0.6%C
32. High Carbon Steel?
6.6 1.4 %C
33. Low Alloy Steel?
Steel Containing Iron and Carbon and other Alloying elements.
i.e.:- Mn, Co, Ni, Mo < 7% Total
34. Which of the following is a function of a Flux Coating of a SMAW electrode?
All, Insulation, Alloying, De Oxidation Shielding.
35. Write Pipe Specification?
Material Pipe, Size, Length of Pipe, Size of Bore
36. Types of Gasket?
F.F = Float Face

- Metallic Gasket

R.F = Raiced Face

- Non Metallic Gasket

37. Types of Metallic, Non Metallic Gasket?


Non Metallic

Spiral Wound Gasket

Rubber Gasket

Octagonal Ring Gasket

Asbestos Gasket

Plat Ring Gasket

Tufflon Gasket
Oil Paper Gasket

38. Write Small Bore Fittings?

39. Types of Flanges?
Weld Neck Flange
Slip On Flange
Socket Flange
Screwed Flange and Blind Flange
40. Types of Nipples?
41. Types of Caps?
But weld Caps
Threaded Caps
End Cap
42. Types of Coupling?
Full Coupling, Half Coupling, Threaded Coupling, Reducer Coupling.
43. Types of Boss?
Weld Boss, Socket Weld Boss
44. Types of Orifice Plates
Concentric Orifice
Electric Orifice
Segmetal Orifice
45. Types of Electrodes?
Coated Electrode
Bare Electrode (Non Coated Electrode)

46. Size of Electrode?

1.6 mm
2.5 mm
3.15 mm
4 mm
5 mm
6 mm
47. Duties of Welding Inspector?
I. Pre Heating (Method & Control)
II. In Process Distortion Control
III. Consumable Control
IV. Welding Process
V. Welding Run Sequence and Interpass Temperatures
VI. Min / Max Interpass Temperatures
VII. Full Compliance with all Elements given on the WPS
48. Duties of Welding Inspector after Welding?
i) Visual Inspection
ii) N D T
iii) Repairs
iv) Repair Procedure (NDT / Welding)
49. Tool Box
a) A Welding Gauges
b) Tap
c) Torch
d) Mirror
e) Pen Report
50. Fillet Weld Profiles
Convex, Concave, Mitre
51. What is the Profile Imperfection?
i) Spatter
ii) In Completely filled Groove
iii) Lack of Root Fusion
iv) Incomplete Root Penetration
v) Shrinkage Grooves

vi) Root Concaring

vii) Crater Pipe
viii) Excess Penetration
ix) Burn Through
52. Accepted Mis Alignment?
1.5 mm as per ASME 31.3
53. What is Mechanical Testing?
Hardness, Toughness, Tensile Strength, Ductility.

54. Major things of Welding Procedure?

a. Pipe Dia & Thickness
b. Welding Position
c. Process
d. Material Group
e. Consumable
f. Heat Input Range (Kg / mm)
g. Pre Heat & PWHT
55. Explain E 8018
E Electrode
80 Tensile Strength
1 for all Position
8 Coating
56. Inspection of Before Welding?
1. Application Std
2. WPS
3. Welder Qualification
4. Material Composition
5. Condition of Material
6. Types of Edge Preparation
7. Consumables
8. Welding Process.
57. Inspection of after Assembly
Clearance Dimensions
58. What is Soluble Dam?

Soluble Dam is Water Solute Material used for Refracting the Purging
Gaswith in the Pipe.
59. What should be the Radius of Long Radius Elbow?
1.5D (D is Diameter of the Pipe)
60. What is the True Welding Inspector Certifications Covered in AWS QC -1?
61. What are generally considered to be the most important quality of a Welding
Professional Attitude
62. The Vision Requirements for a CWI are near Vision Acuity on:
Jaeger J2 at 12 inches, with or with out corrective lenses.
63. The Welding Inspector should have a basic understanding of
Welding Process
Non Destructive Testing Methods
Code and Standards
64. The term used to describe delay in the production schedule to permit inspection is
Hold Point
65. Inspection report correction should be made by:
Single line out the error correct the error, date end initial
66. A definition of Ethics is:
1. Using common sense and honesty
2. Living by the rules
3. Being faire and impartial
4. Basing decisions on facts
67. For communication to be effective it should form a continuous loop
1. True
68. Proper usage and handling of compressed Gas Cylinders include.

Not welding on Cylinders

Not including the Cylinders in the ground or Electrical circuit

Securing them properly.

Identifying the gas prior to use.

69. Acetylene becomes unstable above what pressure?

15 psi

70. Oxygen is a Flammable Gas

71. Electric currents above approximately 6 milliamperes are considered
Primary currents, Harmful
72. When operating gas cylinders the primary value should be opened
One turn or less onan acetylene cylinder.
All the way onan oxygen cylinder to backseat the value
73. Why is there an increasing need for weld quality?
Less conservatives design
Government regulations
74. What AWS documents describe the rules for the CWI certification program?
75. Weld quality control should begin after welding has been initiated
76. The a acronym KASH stands for
Knowledge, Attitude, Skills and Habits.
77. A metal that is difficult to magnetize is said to have?
Low Permeability
78. Ferromagnetic Material is?
Strongly attracted by a magnet.
Capable of being magnetizer
79. A circular field may be induced in to a specimen by which of the following
a) Direct Induction (Head Shot)
b) Direct Inductions (Prods)
c) Central Conductor
80. The permeability of a material describes?
The easy with which it can be magnetized.
81. In which material can be magnetized?
Iron, Nickel, Cobalt
82. The magnetic Field is Stronger when?
The magnetizing current is flowing

83. The unit usually used to denote flux density is the?

84. Materials which are repelled magnetically are called?
Dia magnetic
85. Materials which are attracted magnetically are called?
86. The interpretation of magnetic particle indications may be aided by?
Observing the indications as they are formed
87. Materials which are strongly attracted to a magnet are called?
Magnetic Materials
88. During magnetic Particle testing generally leakage field caused by discontinuities
which are?
Transverse to magnetic Field
89. Method of magnetization is the?
Type of magnetizing Current
90. To detect very fine Cracks on contour surface the method is?
Wet particle suspension with A.C.
91. The ability of the magnet to attract or repel iron is?
Concentrated at local areas called poles
92. When testing for fine shallow surface cracks, the preferred MT method
should be?
Wet A.C.
93. Commonly used technique for preserving MT powder patterns?
Clear lacgues, transparent tape, and photography
94. The defect commonly associated with the welding process?
Lack of Penetration
95. The unit of measure of one line of flux per square centimeter of area is one?
96. Materials which are weakly attracted magnetically are called?
97. The end of a magnet at which the lines of flux are thought of a entering the
bar is?
The South Pole
98. The general term used to refer to a break in the metallic continuity of the

Past being tested is?

99. If like poles are closest the magnets will?
Repel one another
100. Surrounding an electro-magnet the magnetic field is strongest?
While the current is flowing
101. A solenoid is a coiled conductor?
Containing a number of loops

102. Longitudinal magnetization can be established in an article by?

Placing the past inside a coil through which current is flowing.
103. The strength of the magnetic fields or a coil is determined by?
The Current on the Coil,
The Number of turns in the Coil
104. Which type of current is best for detection of surface discontinuities?
Alternating current
105. Half wane DC is?
Pulsed DC, Used with dry power, used for Inspection of welder
106. When using a coil what is the effective distance on magnetic field?
6 to 9 inches on each side of the coil
107. When a yoke is used the resulting magnetic field will be?
108. Disadvantage of using a permanent yoke is?
They provide relatively low magnetic flux field
109. A Residual magnetic field is always?
Weakes that the magnetizing field producing it.

110. Dry particle examination shall not be performed if the surface temperature
Of the part is?
Exceeds 10220F
111. In wet particle examination shall not be performed if the surface
Temperature of the part is?
Exceeds 1850 F
112. In black light, light used is?

White light
113. The Examines in black light dark adaptation is?
At least 5 minutes
114. The ammeter shall be calibrated at least?
Once a year
115. In A/C yoke the lifting power is?
10 Lb at the maximum pole spacing
116. In DC or permanent yoke the lifting power is?
40 Lb at the maximum pole spacing
117. The magnetic force of yoke shall be checked?
Once a Year
There are two types of magnetic

Longitudinal Magnetic (or) Axlem Magnetic


Circular Magnetic (or) Radial Magnetic


Circular: - Current flow in the Thumb direction
The magnetic field is the finger direction
Longitudinal: - The Current flow in the finger direction
The magnetic field in the Thumb direction
120. Gauss meter?
That will measure that what amount of magnetism field retained on the

121. Permeability?
Easy to magnetism

122. Reflecturns:Opposition of magnetic field

123. Continuous magnetism?
Apply current magnetism object simently testing using iron particles
124. Residual magnetism?
Apply current after shut- off the current using the retained magnetic field
testing the object.

125. Steel melting point?

126. Prod Equipment?
i) For job thickness up to 18mm 90 Amphere per inch of prod spacing
ii) For job thickness greater than 18 mm 110 Amphere per inch of
prod spacing.
iii) The prod spacing is not less 2 inch note more. Then 8 inch
iv) Effective prod spacing is 3 to 5 inch
v) The same area is tested for 2 times one is perpendicular to other for
complete coverage.
127. The tendency at a liquid penetrant to enter a discontinuity is primarily related to?
Capillary action

128. In penetrant testing the time period from developer application to inspection after
refereed to as?
Development time

129. The method used to remove excess visible dye penetrant from a test part is
primarily deferment by the?
Surface roughness of the part under test

130. A discontinuity that must be found in welding?

Crack, lack of penetration

131. The discontinuity found I forging is?

Hydrogen flake

132. For applying non aqueous developer is normally considered most effective?

133. Developer assists in the defection of the visible dye penetrant lot indication by?
Providing a contracting back ground

134. The discontinuities would be impossible to defect using PT?


Internal inclusions

135. The penetrant system is generally considered least sensitive?

Water washable visible dye

136. In which conditions will decrease the life of a black light bulb?
Line voltage fluctuations

137. Developers improperly used?

May obscure indication

138. When using the dry developer, the drying operation is performed?
After application of the developer and before inspection

139. An Excessive concentration of developer powder in a wet developer can cause?

Creaking of the developer capacity during / after the drying
140. In penetrant system is generally considered highest sensitive?
Solvent removable fluorescent dye.
141. In a post emulsifiable dye penetrant the emulsifies time?
Is the faire needed to rise the emulsifies and excuses penetrant from the

142. The instruments used in PT to measure specific gravity of wet developers?


143. In which method is not generally accepted?

Wire blushing
144. What is the most universally used black lift source?
Enclosed mercury vapors are lamps

145. Lines indication is?

One heaving a length greater then three times the width

146. Relevant indications?


Major dimension greater than 1/16.inch

Major dimension greater than 1.6 mm

147. Lipophhilic ecrulsities are?

Oil miscible liquids used to emulsify

148. Hydrophilic emulsifies are?

Water miscible liquids used to emulsify the excess oil fluorescent

149. The maximum intensity of visible light examination is?

100 FC
150. In fluorescent light examination visible ambient light?
Should not excel 2 FC
Should not excel 20LX
151. Water wasable?
Apply penetrant if self contain emulsifies

152. Emulsifies?
Is a liquid act with surface penetrant to make water wasable after penetration
time the surface penetrant is clean with water so the surface to be drayed by
hot air than apply developer than evaluations

153. Solvent removable method?

Apply penetrant after penetration time the surface penetration is cleaned
by solvent than apply developer and evaluation

154. Dry developers?

Can be applied by spraying, flowing pricy solvent can be applied by
electrostatic spray particle should be (-) and high voltage shock all to be done
in a log chamber so we can sauce the 80% of the material

155. Non - aqueous developers?


This is only applied on dry surface this mixed with sol solvent and chock
power applied by spraying duping not allowed because the pentrant will be
cleaned so we cant find the defect

156. By Spraying?
Is advantages because the solvent enter to the discontinuity and Cary out the
penetrate and solvent can be evaporate the penatrant will form the cane
indication very well and we cant early see the defect

157. Wet developer (or) Aqueous developer?


Solvent = Particle size 0.15micron This one best


Suspended = II Quality

158. Soliable
Particle diluted with water this developer will term fungus but ready to use

159. Suspended:
Water is only the curies this will slot form fungus but an every way we have
160. Filter:
Will charge the while light to UV light 365 NM of wave length
161. Lipophilic emulsifies:
Is act with surface penatrant by diffusion process

162 What is the NDT Method?

VT = Visual Testing
AET = Acoustic Emission Testing
TIR = Thermal Infrased Real Testing
NRT = Neutron Radiographic Testing
ET= Eddy Current Testing
LT = Leak Testing

V.A.T. = Vibration Analysis Testing

RT = Radiographic Testing
UT = Ultrasonic Testing
PT = Penetrant Testing
MT = Magnetic Particle Testing

163 Wave lengths of x-ray and gamma ray

a.) 10-9 to 10-13m
164. SNTC TC -1A
Guide line for. Society of National Technical Council 1st document.

165. RSO, RT, RTFI

RSO = Radiation Safety offices,
RT = Radiographic Testing,
RTFI = Radiographic Film Interpretation.
166. D4, D7
D4 - Extra fine grain film with very high contrast
D7 - Fine grain film with high contrast and high speed
167. Does level I can do interpretation?
168. Does level II can do procedure writing?
169. Types of Penetrameter
b.) Hole type DIN
c.) Wire type ASTM
170. Types of Curie? In gamma ray sources?
Cobalt 60 5.3 years
Iridium 192 74 days
Cesium 137 30 years
Thulium 178 127 days
Ytterbium 169 31 days
171. Special purposes of curie?
Xenon 133 5.3 years
Europium 152 13 years

Gadelium 154 9.3 years

Sodium 24 15 hours
Selenium 75 121 days
Iodine 125 57.4 days

172. Who invented the iridium?

Iridium was identified and named by Tennant (England)

173. Wire type

62-years of design
Fe iron
10 & 16 Designation Number
ISO International Organization for Standardization
DIN Deusche Industry Norm

174. Hole Type


Designation number
represent thickness
of the penetrameter






Sensitivity level

1T = thickness = 0.05 inch

2T = thickness = 0.05 x 2
4T = thickness = 0.05 x 4

175. IQI - Image Quality Indicator


176. Wire type materials.

Aluminum, Copper, Iron

177. Half life period formula

No = Present Curie Strength
N = Curie strength aftert days
t = no. of days of time elapsed
T = half life period
y = decay constant is 0.693
No = e yt/T

For example: 20 curie

No = e yt/T
No = e -0.693 x 5 / 75

= e-0.462 = 0.95

178. Types of Radiographic Technique

a.) SWSI
1.) Unidirectional
2.) Penarmic
b.) DWSI
c.) DWDI

179. Developing Process

Developing 5mts
Accelerator (sodium carbonate) is an alkali
Preservative (sodium sulphate) preventing oxidation
Restrainer (potassium bromide) exposed region of silver bromide
Developing agent (hydrogenous) prevent development of unexposed
Stop bath for few seconds


Arrest the function of the developer, stop bath may contain Glacial
Acidic Acid (GAA).

Fixes is used to remove the developed silver bromide 1mts.

Fixing has a solvable compound with silver bromide
Fixes is a sodium thiosulphate a cleaning agent.

Running water after fixes thoroughly washed to remove all processing


Wetting agent is to drain water uniformly


180. Types of comer

Tech-ops 24 kg

24 kg

Gamma grid 18 kg
Rollicamera 35 kg

181. Screen cover material

Lead screen
Top screen 0.005mm
Bottom screen 0.010mm

182. Stages
Avoid guide to be bend
Use minimum guide tube length
Use collimeter
Survey meter
Area of cordon
Bate return of source
Emergency requires proper procedure
Camera back to storage room

Camera maintenance at least once in three month

Collimeter tungsten material

Calibration and Maintenance

Survey meter 3 month
Pocket dosimeter 1 year
Proper check daily,- battery check
Densitometer 90 days

Porosity due dirty electrode wire, dirty base metal, improper technique
Undercut current too high, welding speed too high, arc length too long
Incomplete fusion due to faulty joint, improper weld rod diameter,
improper weld polarity
Incomplete penetration faulty joint design, welding speed too rapid,
weld current too low, arc length too long.

183. What does sensitivity depends on?

Definition and Control
184. Acceptable density limit for viewing a weld image.
2 to 4 Densities
185. The density variation through the Penetrameter to area of invest
-15% to +30%
186. Filter is used?
To Reduce Scatter Radiation
To Absorb Secondary Radiation
To Produce Only Hard Radiation

187. Panoramic exposure, minimum number of IQI is?

3 penetrameter, 120 of part.
188. Lamination is a?
Process Defect

189. Principle of UT.

Reflection of Sound

190. Sound




191. Human Range.

20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
Below 20 Hz
5 MHz to 15 MHz
Ultrasonic Range
2 MHz to 4 MHz
Industrial Purpose
Above 204 Hz
Ultrasonic Waves

Above 20,000 Hz, it will not travel through air; it will only travel in the solid
192. Major uses for UT.
a.) Flow Detection
b.) Thickness Measurement
c.) Distance Measurement
d.) Material Characterization

193. Advantages of UT.

e.) Depth Information
f.) Immediate Result
g.) Not Hazardous
h.) High Sensitivity
i.) Portable
j.) Low Cost

194. Disadvantages of UT.

k.) Operator skill is required
l.) Indirect indication it is in the Echo form
m.) Couplant is required
n.) Non Homogenous material testing is not possible
195. I.I.W. Block?
International Institute of Welding
196. Types of Block?
V1, V2 block

197. UT Machine

Flow Detector

Analog machine

Digital machine

1.) Mod Sonic

2.) Sonatest
a.) Site Scan 140
b.) Site Scan 240
c.) Site Scan 444
d.) Site Scan 346
3.) Kraut Grammes
4.) Panameterix
5.) P x 10
6.) P x 20
198. What is the use of Couplant?
To remove the air gap between the transducer and object.
199. Types of Couplant
Water, Oil, Grease (Silicon Grease or Petroleum Grease), Gel, Wall
Paper Paste, Soft Rubber.


200. Types of reference Block

Side drill hole type
a.) 0 to 25 mm = 19 mm


b.) 25 to 50 mm = 38 mm


c.) 50 to 100 mm = 76 mm


d.) 100 to 150 mm = 114 mm

e.) 150 to 200 mm = 152 mm


201. Types of Echo pattern for scanning.

A Scan it is used in Industrial
B Scan it is used in Medical
C Scan it is used in Immersive Testing and Atomic

202. Calibration method

o.) Resolution
p.) Penetration
q.) Sensitivity
r.) Sweep linearity
s.) Screen high linearity
t.) Amptitude control linearity

203. Resolution
Place the normal probe at a focal point in V1, block for a 100mm
The echo will comes at 85, 91, 100 mm separately

204. Penetration
Place the normal on perspex, the echo will come out 50mm based upon
velocity station perspex & steel [2730:5920] 23.5 mm Perspex is equal
to 50mm of steel.
205. Sensitivity
Place the probe towards 1.6mm hole the echo will come at 15 (01)35.
206. Sweep linearity


Place the probe on thickness 25, 50, 75, 100 mm. The echo will
produce in a descending order.
207. Screen high linearity
Place the probe towards t and t to 80% and 40% reduce 2db up to
6db. The value in table is 25.6 tolerances 5% of the value.
208. Amptitude Control linearity
Place the probe towards the artificial defect to 80% reduce to 6db 12db measure the value make to 40% of height increase +6db measure
the value make 20% increase +12db measure the value, as per
tolerance 20% of the value.
209. DAC
Distance Amplitude Correction Curve
A scan 1605 MHz
210. Types of Probe.
Normal probe, Angular probe, triangular probe (45, 60, 70).
211. Normal probe, Triangular probe.
Normally used for thickness check-up only.
212. Angular Probe
Used to find the weld defect.
213. Size of the probe.
8 x 9, 20 x 22
214. Formula
beam path = t /cos
Full beam path = 2t/cos
1 beam path = 3t/cos
2 beam path = 4t/cos
215. Skip distance
skip distance = t x tan
Full skip distance = 2t x tan
1 skip distance =3t x tan
2 skip distance = 4t x tan
215. Depth
depth = beam path x cos
Full depth = 2t-beam path x cos

1 depth = beam path x cos -2t

2 depth = 3t-beam path x cos

216. Location
Beam path x sin



















218. Thumb rule

90- Thickness.
For example 24mm thickness
Nearest probe is 70, so we have to select 70 probe

219. Below 38mm we use 4mHz probe, above 38mm we use 2mHz probe.

220. V2 Block
Based upon V2 block, echo pattern facing the angle probe towards
25mm radius the 1st echo will come at 25mm make the echo to 2.5
divisions. The next echo will come in an increment of 75mm to
100mm automatically at 10th division. A 100mm range facing the
probe towards 50mm radius the 1st echo will come at 50mm make this
echo at 4th division, the next echo will increment at 75 to 125mm at the
10th division.

221. V1 Block

Based upon V1 block echo pattern face that angle probe towards
100mm radius at focal point 1st echo will come at 100mm make this
echo at 4th division. The 2nd echo travel 125 mm of increment come at
225mm on the 9th division automatically each division 25mm 50
division 250mm.

23mm thickness
Probe selection 90-t
Frequency: below 38mm 4mHz
Above 38mm 2mHz
Probe size 8 x 9, 20 x 22
Couplant: water, grease, oil

Set the Range (70)

beam path = t/cos = 23/0.5 = 46 mm

Full beam path = 2t/cos = 46/0.5 = 92mm

222. A Hot Work Permit is required for:

Areas where a fire Hazard May occur during a Welding, Cutting,


223. Eye Hazard Found in Welding Operations Include:

(i) Flying Particles (ii) Radiation (iii) Smoke and Fumes
224. Protective Equipment not suitable for Eye Protection from Welding Radiation
Clear Safety Goggles.
225. Suitable Clothing Materials for Welding and Cutting are:
Wool Chemically Treated Cotton
226. Before working on Equipment Where Machinery Guards have been removed a
Lock, Tag, and Try Procedure should be Completed.

227. In avoiding Jumes during welding the most important factors is

The Position of the Welders Head
228. It is not important to consider Ventilation during welding and cutting operations
229. When entering contained Space a Standby is not required:
230. Some of the Toxic Material the welder may be exposed to be:
Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel, Lead
231. The Welding Inspector is exposed to which of the following Safety Hazards:
(i) Radiation, (ii) Jalling Objects (iii) Electrical Shock, (iv) Eye Hazards
232. A document which covers safety in welding and cutting is:
233. The Most Important Component of an Effective Safety and Health Program is:
Management Support
234. Safety Tran king is mandated under prorisions of

235. The Abbreviation MSDS means:

Material Safety Data Sheet

236. The Abbreviation TLV means:

Threshold Limit Value
237. Employs must make all applicable MSDS data available to their employs
238. Personal must be trained to recognize Safety Hazards.
239. The Welding Inspector must offer communicated with
(i) Welder, (ii) Supervisor, (iii) Welding of Management
240. NDE Personnel (other than CWI) should be certified to what document:
241. You must have a high school diploma to become a CWI
242. The CWI Exam has several parts; these are fundamentals practical, code

243. The CWI Exam requires that the D1.1 code be used for the open book code test
244. The little of the AWS. Standard, A3.0 is:
Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
245. API Standard 1104 Cores the fabrication of Gross Counter Bridges
246. Some of the Approval Codes / Standard for the Open Book, Portion of the CWI
Exam are AWS D1.1, API 1104, AWS D 1.5, and AWSD 15.1
247. Prior to Staring a Job Assignment, the Welding Inspector should determine:
(i) What code standard, or Specification applies?
(ii) What Inspections should be conducted?
(iii) When Inspection should be
(iv) Where Records are maintained

248. When we are using Eccentric Reduces Concentric:

(i) Eccentric-Pump Suction to Avoid (ii) Pump

249. What is the Thumb Ruche to Calculate Spanner? Size of given Bolt?
1.5 Dia of Bolt
250. What is the Thumb the calculate current required for welding?
Current (AMP) = Diameter elevation (mm)* 40
251. What are Items we are remitting before the Hydro test in the line?
(i) Control Value
(ii) Organic Plate
(iii) Rote Mat
(iv) Safety Values
(v) Thermo wells
252. What is the use of Reduces?
To joint different Diameter of Pipes
Different Bolt
It has head one end and has threading other
end it is tightened with a nut

253. What is the use of Gas cut?


Stud Bolt
It is thread bolt end

Gas cut is a Certain Material used to fix between the flanges.

254. What is the use of Elbow?
Tie Joint the two Pipe, Pipe cut an angle of 450 or 900
255. What is the use of Tee?
Used to make a branch line at right angle to the main line.
256. Which one we are not considered a type of joint?
257. What is the ANSI/ASME Dimensional STD for Steel Flange & Filling?
(i) B 16.3 (ii) B 16.5 (iii) B 16.9 (IV) B 16.10