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Disusun oleh:
Nur Rosyidah 201212501138
Gerda Gekai 201212501147
Debi Risz Kita Handayani 201212501158
Puspita Juliani K. 201212501196



A. Background of the study
The next task for course designers is to interpret the result of the fact-finding stahge
by making operational decision. First, they use the information gathered in order to see broad
policy; what are the significant, overall objectives of the language program? Second, they
define the audience as fully as possible; is there a uniform group of learners who will use the
program or are there sub-groups such as ESL (English as a Foreign Language) or ESP
(English for Spesific Purpose)? Third, they consider how the program can best be suited to
the particular school system, community, or language course. Local tradition may suggest or
planners that the new program should focus more on either language analysis or language
use. One of these three broad areas which result in concrete decisions are discussed in this
The separate purpose of a curriculum and a syllabus establishes basic definition for a
curriculum and a syllabus, the documents which course designers produce.. Havimg
established these terms, they are used accordingly throughout the ensuing chapter.
B. Identifications of the problem
1. What is a curriculum?
2. What is a syllabus?
3. What are components of a curriculum?
4. What are types of syllabus
C. Purpose of writing
1. To know what curriculum is.
2. To know what syllabus is.
3. To know what the components of curriculum are.
4. To know what the types of syllabus are.


The separate purposes of a curriculum and a syllabus.

The course designers full responsibility is that of setting not only broad, generals
goals but also specifying objectives which are made accessible to all those involved with the
program. The task, of course, is traditionally carried out through written documents which
are given any number of different names; guide, plans, outlines, etc. in our discussion,
however, two titles are used; curriculum and syllabus.
1. A curriculum contains a broad descriptions of general goals by indicating an overall
educational-cultural philosophy which applies across subjects together with theoretical
orientation to language and language learning which respect to the subject matter at
hand. A curriculum is often reflective of national and political trends as well.
2. A syllabus is more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learnings element
which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into a series of planned steps leading
towards more narrowly defined objectives at each level.
It seems helpful to define a curriculum and a syllabus as separate entities in order to call
attention to their particular functions, even though one document could contain sections
which express the separate purposes. An important reason for differentiating between the two
is to stress that a single curriculum can be the basis for developing a variety of specific
syllabus which are concerned with locally defined audience, particular need, and
intermediate objectives.


The components of a curriculum

Since the curriculum is concerned with a general rationale for formulating policy
decision, it combines educational-cultural goals with language goals. For example, an overall
educational approach could focus on one of the following major view:
a) A behavioristic orientation considers the human species to be a passive organism,
reacting to external, environmental stimuli.
b) Rational-cognitive orientation considers the human species to be the source and
initiator of all acts.

c) A humanistic-orientation is concerned with each individuals growth and development,

while emphasizing affective factors as well. Culturally any one of these philosophies
may suit a certain community.

Types of syllabus
The past decade, a great deal of attention has been paid to the particular language
elements that are included in a syllabus and to the organizational system according to which
they are presented. Discussion have typically considered the trade-offs, advantages, and
disadvantages of three or four major syllabus types;
a. The structural-grammatical syllabus is centered around item such as tenses, articles,
singular/plural, etc.
b. The notional (or semantico-notional) syllabus came into focus in the early seventies and
placed the semantic unit in the center of syllabus organization.
c. The functional syllabus is concerned with elements such as invitation, suggestion,
apologies, refusals, etc.
d. The situational syllabus, although less widespread than some of the others, has probably
been known in a language learning for hundreds of years with the tourist phrase book as
a notable example.

Fraida Lubin and Elite Olshtain. 1986. Developing program and materials
language learning. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press