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Biol 17i Fall 20i4 Ex1 Vers A I Panc 1 Last 4 CWID digits '-5-' )
Biol 17i Fall 20i4 Ex1 Vers A I
Panc 1
Last 4 CWID digits
'-5-'
)
Biology 17 1
0
(\. \
Evolution and
Mi
term Exam 1
Fall 2014
Hardy-Weinberg Formul
for genetic equilibrium:
pz + Zpq+ q2 -- 1 = p + q
Total
Points on this exa
: 100
Total
Pages on this exain
6
I have
neither given nor rec
ved assistance on this exam.
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2014 Ex1 Vers A Page 2 Last 4 CWID diqits t\tZzyzx we saw a salt-special st,
2014
Ex1 Vers A
Page 2
Last 4 CWID diqits
t\tZzyzx we saw a salt-special st, spiked salt grass (scientific name: distichlis
spicata) that thrives in salty en
ironments across North America, including our local
sandy beaches. It takes up salt
water in its roots and has specialized glands on its
leaves that excrete white salt c
hypothesized that the salt cryst
cool in the hot desert sun. The
remove the salt from the surfa
temperature attained on one le
stals on the leaf suface. Biology 171 students
ls function as heat reflectors, and hef'p keep feoves
design an experinient rvhere they
takg
S plantg
of all the leaves, and measure the maxlmur?l
from each plant durir-rg a hot summer aftern,Jt)n,
Prooerlv format the scientific me for the spiked salt grass. (4 points)
What is a null hypothesis for t
points)
students use
thesis is true, pledi
the outcome of the, experiment, (4,points)
Shown below are maximum lea
ternperatures frorn their experimental and
control
groLrps. Calculate the mean tem
exoeriment below. Be sure to I
rature in each group. Graph the result of
el your axes. (4 points)
their
Plant
Experirlental;
Con
number
rlaximum leaf
rnax
rnum leaf
temperature,
tem
Iature,
CO
CO
41
48
I
2
46
52
14
43
_l
.+
:18
-+_5
41
14
J
Nlean
Tern
if . Evaluate the orieinal hypothesi
Last 4 CWID diqits:, Sioi 171Fa||2014 Ex1 Vers A P)fie 1 I g. There are several
Last 4 CWID diqits:,
Sioi 171Fa||2014 Ex1 Vers A
P)fie
1
I g. There are several species of sal
grass clistributed ac
ized relationshiPs ar
:ross the globe (abbreviated F-K
'e shown in the trees below,
belorv). Two different hYPother
Researchers ttsed morPhologicr
then coded sonre gerletic seqtle
I features to come u
rces into characters
p with these hypotheses, TheY
(present= I , absent=O) to map on
'le that tree is most parsimonious
to tlie trees, Youl task is to do t
re mapping and r;lrc
ints)
F
Ih. How would you determine wlie
ther salt grass that I
ves in Orange County is the same
species as the salt gl'ass that [iv :s iri Zzyzx? Be sur,
'rninatioti. (5 points
to state the species concept that
li. \'oLr discovet' that the salt grass
living in Orange Cc
Zzvzx and wonder if the popul
tiori in Zzyzx is bet'
runty is the salne species as in
:er suited to desert life than the
Oranse County' poptllation, Yo
researchers plattted 100 indivic
r use data from a lot
rals from Orange Cr
lg-term experiment where
runty and 100 individuals from
Zzyzx in a cleared alea alongsi
mortalitv , color brightness and
results. What can )/oLl conclude
populations for life in the desel
le the dry lakebed at .Zz,yzx and follorved tlieir growth,
;eed production ove
about the fitness of
r 1O years. Shown below are the
individuals from these two
? (4 points)
i
N4easure
Zzyzx
Orange
I
popLrlati
n
County
I
I
popr-rlatiott
I
i
,{verage size (cn-r)
, Avelage age at
15
32
60
66
: death (months)
i
Longest live d
12
81
i
individual (months)
i
Briglttness score (l-
?
I
I
4; dull-bright ereen)
Total lifetime seeds
i
10,284
5,12'7
prodLrced (nr-rmber
I
i
of seeds)
2014 Ex1 Vers A ?age 4 Last 4 cwtD oisits: ss, shares a most recent common
2014 Ex1 Vers A
?age 4
Last 4 cwtD oisits:
ss, shares a most recent common ancestor with spiked
2
A separate species, Baja salt g
salt grass. This ancestor was p
sent from southern California all the way down to the
tip of the Baja California penin
oeninsula was cut-off from the
ula, At some point the lower half of the Baja
pper half by an inlet to the Gulf of California. After
sorne time the inlet disappeare
and the populations came into contact with one
another. See the diasraln belo
(:.
)tt
What type of speciatiott mecha
JLrstifv vour answer, (5 points)
is most likety to have occurred in this scenario?
2b.List and describe how one evol
tionary mechanism may have acted on the
popLrlations
resulted in gpe
iation. (6 points)
2c
List one
isolatins mechanism tl
at
rnay be keeping the spiked and Baja salt grasses
separate
species today. (4 poin
)
2014 Ex1 Vers A 9aaa 4 Last4 CWID digits. i. Assume the sene for the salt
2014 Ex1 Vers A
9aaa
4
Last4 CWID digits.
i.
Assume the sene for the salt gl
of the plant from its p
nd has two alleles (G and
g) and that
you can tell the
-eenotype
GG
indivicluals have 1000 salt
enotype,
lands/mm2 (many)
Gg individLrals have 100 salt gl
nds/mm2 (intermediate)
gg indivicluals have i0 salt gla
s/mm'(few)
In a popLrlation of 10,000 spiked sa
t grass individuals living
on the playa atZzyzx 400
have manv salt slands.3200ha
e intermediate numbers
of salt glands, and 6400 have
few salt glands.
3a. What are the genotype frequen
es for this population? (4 points)
ib
What are the allele freo uencies
or this population'/ (4 points)
3c. If this lar_ge population has no
utations in the salt gland gene, mates randomly with
one another. has equal fitness a
ross all phenotypes, and remains isolated from other
he number of individuals with the G-allele in the
3d. A thLrnderstornr causes ei flash
grass plarrts. The indivicluals tl't
concentration as rvell as the oth
od that carries extra salt to our population of salt
have few salt slands can't tolerate the increased salt
r phenotypes. Scientists measure 100 of the surviving
plants and find 81 with rnany sa t glands, 18 with intermediate numbers of salt
-{lands,
and I individual with few salt g
nds, Has evolution occLlrre.d in this population.
if so,
clescribe holv one evolutionary
and relate the inforrnation from
echanism has acted, In your answer define evolution
liis question to the definition (6 points)
Biol 17i Fall 2014 Exl VersA Qana A Last 4 cwlD aigits ber that a diagram
Biol 17i Fall 2014 Exl VersA
Qana A
Last 4 cwlD aigits
ber that a diagram is a drawing with all of its parts
:ify the locations for the light reactions of
dependent reactions (i.e., Calvin Cycle) of
What woLttd happelt to the rea
tions of photosynthesis if you did the followin g? (6
points)
Light-depe
rdent reactions
Li eht-i ndependent reactions
Lirnit CO,
Limit O,
Lirnit HrO
Frorn the following list of peoF
a
our understanding of evolution
Ie select one and describe that person's contribution to
Linnaeus, Larnarck, Charles Darwin, Wallace,
\4althus, Mend el. (4 points)
b
From the following list of peop
e select a different person and describe that person's
contribr-rtion to our understandit
g of evolution Linnaeus, Lamarck. Charles Darlvin.
Wallace, Vlalthus, Mendel. (4 p rints)
What rvas ihe best part aboLrt th
trip to the desert and how would you improve the
learning experienc.e? (5 points-
automatic)