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Maths Methodologies

Calculations with decimals 2

Val O'Dowd
Marino Insitute of Education

My learning intentions
That you would be enabled to:
Explain what happens to decimal numbers when they are

multiplied or divided (does the decimal point move?)


Use an example to show how the use of of in relation to

multiplication helps understanding


Explain the importance of estimation
Give examples of some erroneous messages that can be

given to children in relation to decimals.

X
Multiply

Multiplying a decimal number by a


whole number (4th/5th class)
Units

Tenths

2 4
2.4
x4

4 lots of 4/10 = 16/10


Thats more than a unit so...
exchange for a unit
1 unit and 6/10
4 lots of 2 units = 8 plus the
1 unit
2.4
x1 4
9.6

Multiplying a decimal number by a whole


number

6 packets of sweets at 1.35 each


Calculator method
Enter 1.35 x 6
Answer 8.1
Interpret as 8.10

6 packets of sweets at 1.35 each


Non-calculator method
135 cent
X6
810 Change to and cent

Or
1.35 (x 100 to make 135)
x6
810
Count decimal places 8.10

8.10

Teaching sequence - multiplication


2 x 10 multiplying whole nos. by 10 (and multiples of 10)
0.2 x 10 multiplying a decimal by multiples of 10
4 x 0.2 multiplying whole numbers by a decimal
0.2 x 4 multiplying a decimal by a whole number
0.2 x 0.4 multiplying a decimal by a decimal

Show me the number, then multiply by 10

Units

Tenths

Hundredths

Show me 0.2 or 2/10

0.2 x 10

Units

Tenths

Hundredths

The tenths got ten times bigger


Ten groups of 0.2 or 2/10s

Show me the number that is ten times bigger than 0.23

Units

Tenths

Hundredths

0.23 or 23/100

The number that is ten times bigger

Units

Tenths

Hundredths

2.3 or 2 3/10

Show me the number


that is 10 times bigger than 3.14
H

1/10

1/100

3 1 4
3.14, 14.56, 0.45

Show me the number


that is 10 times bigger than 3.14
H

3 1
3.14, 14.56, 0.45

1/10

1/100

.
0 8 1

Decimal digit card games

Make a number less than 1


Now show me a number ten times bigger
(smaller), 100 times bigger

Target
Boards

60

0.6

6.06

60.06

6.66

600

0.66

606

Pick a number

Find a number that is ten times bigger/smaller


Make all these numbers ten times bigger/smaller

Wheres the decimal point?


0.234 + 2.341 = 2 575
47.099 - 3.9 = 43 199

36.7 x 2.25 = 82 575


2.0004 0.5

= 4 0008

What does this activity tell us about the


childs understanding of decimals?

Recipe for Chocky Bunz (makes 10)


150g cooking chocolate
175g rice krispies
Make this recipe to serve 100 people for
the school fair.
What do the children need to know?
How should they lay out their work?
How could I make the activity more
challenging? Easier?

Recipe for Chocky Bunz (makes 10)


(increase recipe for 100 people)
150g cooking chocolate
175g rice krispies

150g x 10 = 1500g (1.5 kg)


175g x 10 = 1750g (1.75 kg)
Extension activity:
If cooking chocolate costs 6.50 per kg
and a kilo box of krispies costs 3.50. How
much will we have to budget for? How much
will we charge per bun to make a profit?

Multiplying by 10

1.234567
12.34567
123.4567
1234.567
12345.67

123456.7

Multiplying a decimal number by a


decimal number (6th class)
What people sometimes think
1x1=1
Therefore
0.1 x 0.1 = 0.1
BUT
You are now multiplying
1/10 by 1/10 so

Tenths a unit divided into 10 equal parts

1/10

1/10

2/10

3/10

4/10

5/10

6/10

7/10

8/10

9/10

10/10

Multiplying decimals - of means multiply


1/10 of 1/10
is the same
as
1/10 x 1/10

1/10

2/10 of my unit is grey

4/10 of 2/10 (or 4/10 x 2/10)

4/10 of my 2/10 is 8/100

X 10

X 100

20

200

X 1000
2000

0.2

2.0

20.0

200.0

0.02

0.2

2.0

20.0

X
4
0.4

0.04

36

4 of 36
4/10 of 36

4/100 of 36

3.6

0.36

4 of 3 and 4 of less
a bit
than one
unit
4/10 of 3 and
a bit

4/10 of
36/100

X
4
0.4

0.04

36

3.6

0.36

36

3.6

0.36

144

14.4

1.44

0.4

14.4

0.04

1.44

0.144


Divide

Teaching sequence division


division inverse of multiplication
20 10 dividing whole nos. by 10 (and multiples of 10)
0.2 10 dividing a decimal by 10 (and multiples of 10)

4 0.2 dividing whole numbers by a decimal


0.2 4 dividing a decimal by a whole number
0.2 0.4 dividing a decimal by a decimal

Show me the number 1.23


Units

Tenths

Hundredths Thousandths

Divide this number by 10

1.23 10
Units

Tenths
1
10

Hundredths Thousandths
1
100

= .123 or 123/1000

1
1000

The units got ten times smaller, the tenths got


ten times smaller

Divide by 10, 100

10

100

40

0.4

0.4

0.04

0.4

0.04

0.004

Is this a bit freaky?

What are we doing dividing a number less


than one by a number less than one?

Try this
Divide a whole
Divide a decimal by a
number by a decimal
whole number
240 5
240 0.5
240 0.05

48 35 5

480 3.5 5

0.7

4800 0.35 5

0.07

Were you surprised???


Remember the two models
of division?
Division as sharing and division as grouping?

What are we doing here?

Divide a decimal by a whole number (4th class)


How many 5s in 35?
How many 5s in 3.5? (must be less than 1)
How many 5s in 0.35?
Divide a whole number by a decimal
How many 5s in 240 ?
How many 0.5 () in 240
How many 0.05 (5/100) in 240?

Dividing a decimal number by a


whole number
Units

Tenths

How many 4s in 2.4?

2 4

4 2.4

4 into 2 units I cannot do


Exchange for tenths
4 into 24/10s goes 6 times

There are 0.6 fours in 2.4

Useful tip
Make it real change the units

e.g. to cents and metres to cm e.g. 2.46 x 8


246 x 8
(ignore the decimal point?)

Multiply both by 10, 100 or 1000 to make whole


numbers and then multiply/divide by 10/100/1000
Dont just say count the decimal places
show that the digits move

But what about dividing a decimal by a decimal?


6th class

Divide a decimal by
a decimal

2.5 0.5 = 5
2.05 0.5 = 4.1

2.005 0.5 = 4.01

Check your answers


using a calculator

Dividing a decimal by a decimal


Suggested approaches

1. Check first by using estimation


2. Change the units e.g. money 71.46 0.18
(7146 cent 18 cent)

3. Multiply both numbers by 10, 100 etc.


6.8 1.7 (68 17)

Decimals Textbook Activity

A decimal is
a fraction
written as
a decimal

Decimals are
part of life
e.g. measures

Equivalence
same value,
different
appearance

The decimal
point does not move,
the numbers get
bigger and smaller.

Dont give rules you will have to break


e.g. x 10 you add a zero, or multiplication makes
numbers bigger, division makes them smaller

REMEMBER
4 x 10 =

40 BUT

4 x 36 = 144

BUT

240 5 = 48 BUT

0.4 x 10 = 4
0.4 x 0.36 =

0.144

240 0.5 = 480

Decimals 2 Quiz
1. Explain what happens to decimal numbers when they are

multiplied or divided (does the decimal point move?)


2. Use an example to show how the use of of in relation to

multiplication helps understanding


3. Explain the importance of estimation in calculations with

decimals
4. Give examples of some erroneous messages that can be
given to children in relation to decimals.

READING
Haylock, D. (2010) Mathematics
Explained for Primary Teachers

Chapter 18

Possible Resources
Fraction/decimal/percentage circles or
walls
Paper folding
Cubes
Games
Target Boards/Number fans
Money
Base 10 materials
Decimal squares