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Grade

7 History Unit Plan

New France and British North America, 1713-1800


Essa Chang

Essa Chang

Grade 7 History
Strand A: New France and British North America, 17131800

Unit Overview
In this Grade 7 Social Studies unit, students will explore and critically analyze the experiences of
different groups in Canada between 1713 and 1800. Throughout the tripartite structure of the unit
New France, Conflict and War, and Immigrationstudents will study the period (1713-1800)
from perspectives of various different groups, including French colonists, British colonists, First
Nations, Acadians, Loyalists, and Black Loyalists. Students will conduct meaningful explorations
of the daily lives of the people in colonial Canada through gathering information from primary and
secondary sources from in print and electronic form. Students will investigate the unique
experiences each group had in Canada. The impact of the battle for North America between Britain
and France will be explored from through the lens of each of the different groups. They will
explore the changing relationship among various groups, including First Nations, early explorers,
and immigrants, as well as the conflicts and challenges experienced by each group, and connect
them to their own lives. Through this exploration, students will have various opportunities to
compare the experiences of various groups of this time with the experiences of present-day
Canadians and their lives. Students will determine the significance of events, issues, and/or
developments from the perspective of each of the groups by looking at the physical, social,
political, and economic impact on different groups as well as their long-lasting influence on
Canada as a nation.
Overall Expectations
A1. Application: Colonial and Present-Day Canada
Analyze aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between 1713 and 1800, and compare
them to the lives of people in present-day Canada
A2. Inquiry: From New France to British North America
Use the historical inquiry process to investigate perspectives of different groups on some
significant events, developments, and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada
from France to Britain
A3. Understanding Historical Context: Events and Their Consequences
Describe various significant events, developments, and people in Canada between 1713 and 1800
and explain their impact
Specific Expectations
A1.1 Analyze key similarities and differences in social values and aspects of life between presentday Canadians and some different groups and/or communities in Canada between 1713 and 1800
A1.2 Analyze some of the main challenges facing individuals and/or groups in Canada between
1713 and 1800 and ways in which people responded to those challenges, and assess similarities
and differences between some of these challenges and responses and those of present-day
Canadians

A1.3 Analyze the displacement experienced by various groups who were living in or who came to
Canada between 1713 and 1800, and compare it with present-day examples of displacement
A2.1 Formulate questions to guide investigations into perspectives of different groups on some
significant events, developments, and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada
from France to Britain
A2.2 Gather and organize information and evidence about perspectives of different groups on some
significant events, developments, and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada
from France to Britain, using a variety of primary sources and secondary sources
A2.3 Analyze and construct maps as part of their investigations into significant events,
developments, and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada from France to Britain,
with a focus on exploring their spatial boundaries
A2.4 Interpret and analyze information and evidence relevant to their investigations, using a
variety of tools
A2.5 Evaluate evidence and draw conclusions about perspectives of different groups on significant
events, developments, or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada from France to
Britain
A2.6 Communicate the results of their inquiries using appropriate vocabulary and formats
A3.1 Identify factors leading to some key events that occurred in and/or affected Canada between
1713 and 1800, and describe the historical significance of some of these events for different
individual, groups, and/or communities
A3.2 Identify key political and legal changes the occurred in and/or affected Canada during this
period
A3.3 Identify significant social and economic changes that occurred in and/or affected Canada
during this period, and explain the impact of some of these changes on various individuals, groups,
and/or communities
A3.4 Describe some significant aspects of daily life among different groups living in Canada
during this period
A3.5 Describe significant interactions between various individuals, groups, and institutions in
Canada during this period
A3.6 Identify some significant individuals and groups in Canada during this period, and explain
their contribution to Canadian heritage and/or identity
Critical Question for the Unit

For which group of people in Canada was life most challenging between the
years 1713 and 1800? That is, which group of people living in Canada between
the years 1713 and 1800 had the lowest quality of life?
*Objectives:
By the end of the unit, students should be able to:
- Develop an awareness and understanding of diverse perspectives and social values between
various groups
- Understand that everyone has a different worldview
*Broad Understanding:
Canada is a diverse nation whose roots lie in early European settlers, First Nations people, as
well as immigrants following the American Revolution. The history of places, people, events and
developments has contributed to the present-day Canada. In Grade 7, students will become
familiar with the groups of people present during 1713-1800. They will discover issues each
group was facing and compare those challenges to those of the present-day.
As outlined in the Social Studies 2013 Ontario Ministry Document, the big ideas for this unit
include the following: understanding the experiences of and challenges facing people in the past
helps put our own experiences and challenges into context; different groups responded in
different ways to the shift in power in Canada from France to Britain; and, the historical
significance of events is determined partly by their short- and long-term impact. Students will
form these ideas through thinking about our own experiences of similar challenges people in
Canada experienced in earlier times; investigating why different people view the same event in
different ways; and, think about the types of developments that permit us to respond to them in
different ways than people did in the past.
*Background Knowledge
Students should be familiar with the content from Grade 5 Strand A: Heritage and
Identity: First Nations and Europeans in New France and Early Canada
Students should be familiar with the interactions and relationships among First Nations,
European explorers, and settlers in New France prior to 1713
Students should be familiar with various groups of people living in present-day Canada,
as well as some economic, environmental, political, and social issues of our time
*Criteria for Judgment
criteria for quality of life (e.g., living conditions, security, freedoms, health, family and
community support, education, economy)
criteria for living conditions (e.g., food/diet, entertainment, transportation, working
conditions, health/medicine)
*Critical Thinking Vocabulary
Colony
Treaty
Values

Seigneur
Clergy
Slave

Power
Roles
Conflict
Perspective
Point of view
Refugee / Immigrant / Migration
Explorer
Missionary
Expulsion/ Deportation /
Displacement
Administration
Seigneurial system
Habitant

Militia Priest
Artisan
Labourer
First Nations
Loyalists
Black Loyalists
Acadians
Canadiens
New France
The Thirteen Colonies
Assimilation
Inference

*Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking:


Historical Significance
Cause and Consequence
Continuity and Change
Historical Perspective
*Strategies for the Unit:
Developing success criteria with the students
Distributing rubrics prior to starting assignments, tasks, or projects
Creating and displaying a word wall in the classroom
Inquiry-based learning
Using technology and visuals (e.g., maps, pictures)
Field trip to the archives/museum
Worksheets to guide/aid students learning
Varying presentation method
Provide context for student learning
Gathering and presenting information to their peers
Differentiating instruction
*Habits of Mind:
Curiosity
Questioning
Identifying key ideas
Attention to detail
Understanding
Critical thinking
Researching

Independent work
Metacognition
Sensitivity
Self-regulation
Collaboration
Value of listening and reading closely
Communication

Research
Organization
Evaluating Evidence
Observing

Communicating clearly
Open-mindedness
Responsibility

*Assessment and Evaluation


Students learning will be guided through diagnostic and formative assessments along the
unit and will be evaluated through the products from summative assessments. The teacher will
take anecdotal notes based on students work and observations of participation in various class
activities. Graphic organizer worksheets guide students research and help the teacher learn about
student learning. The teacher will assess students ability to gather and identify relevant and
important evidence, offer plausible conclusions about the quality of life of different groups of
people in Canada during this time and communicate their conclusions and informed judgments
effectively. Students ability to link choice with the criteria and to give concrete examples using
their knowledge from the task to support their arguments will be assessed. The success criteria
will be developed with the class and the students will be informed of them beforehand (based on
knowledge and understanding, thinking, communication, application).
Evaluations: ranking quality of life (lesson 2), historically significant event poster (lesson 4),
Loyalist in role writing (lesson 5), ROM trip assignment (lesson 6), and the culminating task.

Overview of the Unit

(*highlighted ones are the lesson plans I provide following

this overview)

Parts
Introduction:

Lesson plans
Lesson: Setting the context of life in Canada between 1713 and 1800
Part 1
- Students will watch a video about New France that introduces the period:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shZ3A4ENUA4
- Set the context by reviewing the contact and fur trade between European
settlers (from 17th century) & First Nations in New France (from Grade 5
Strand A)
- Discuss maps and start a class timeline of 1713-1800 (mark the beginning
of New France too)
- Discuss the purpose and structure of the colony of New France
- Introduce major groups that existed in this time period: British & French
colonists, First Nations, Acadians, Loyalists, Black Loyalists
- Briefly introduce the critical challenge and culminating task for the unit
Part 2: Become familiar with primary sources (library period)
- Introduce the idea of primary sources, using a primary source handout
- Students will explore primary documents, images through library research
on certain topics (e.g., French settlement in Canada, 1713 and 1800 )

Life of the
French
British

- Students will explore online archives


- Students will be given a task to choose a primary source (e.g., an image or
artefact), identify its facts and details and practice asking and answering
questions about the source (e.g., What/Where/Who/Why?)
Lesson: Colonial French settlers
Part 1: New France vs. Present-Canada
- Students will work in pairs to investigate the aspects of life and quality of
life of French colonists in New France by conducting research (print and
electronic sources)
- Students will compare and contrast New France and present-day Canada

First Nations
Part 2: Different roles of Colonial French settlers
- Critical challenge: Rank order the quality of life of the lives of five different
occupations/roles in New France between 1713 and 1800.
- Students will compare and contrast different roles and their daily lives and
challenges in New France during this period. Students will choose five roles
(e.g., habitants, clergy members, seigneurs, slaves, artisans, labourers,
priests) to research using primary and secondary sources in the form of print
and electronic sources. They will compare/contrast their roles and challenges
and will rank order them from the highest to lowest quality of life
Lesson: First Nations vs. Europeans (French and British colonists): How
they live and how they trade
- Cross-curricular links: Grade 7 ScienceUnderstanding Life
Systems Interactions in the EnvironmentOE1: Human activities
have the potential to alter the environment. Humans must be aware of
these impacts and try to control them.
- Students will use text and electronic sources to investigate and draw
conclusions about the following critical challenging question: Which
of the three groups most depended on natural resources for living?
- Students will explore the lives of First Nations, and compare and
contrast the lives of First Nations with the French colonists as well as
British colonists in order to discover how people use resources to
meet their needs and wants
- Students will explore the dynamics of these groups usage and trading
of national resources (e.g., fur, pemmican, timber, cod/whale fishing,
harvest, etc.) and the economic, social, political, an environmental
impact; how First Nations and Europeans interacted
- Students will identify economic, social, political, and geographic
factors that affect the way in which people use natural resources
- Students will explore their attitudes towards the environment and
answer the question, Which group caused the least harm to the
environment? Why?
- Students will also investigate the attitudes of French and British
missionaries, traders, soldiers and settlers and explorers towards First
Nations

Students will be given a list of sources for all the research:

Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). The Archives of Ontario


Celebrates Our Agricultural Past.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/agriculture/index.aspx
Canadian Heritage Gallery. (1999). http://www.canadianheritage.org/search.htm
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Online Exhibits from the
Archives of Ontario. French Ontario in the 17th and 18th Centuries.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/franco_ontarian/index.aspx
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). David Thompson: Map Maker,
Explorer and Visionary
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/thompson/index.aspx
The history of the Five Indian Nations of Canada.
http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.33241/3?r=0&s=1
Claiming the Wilderness http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPHOMEEP3LE.html
The Great Peace of Montreal
http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPCONTENTSE1EP3CH2PA2LE.html
Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006). Their
stories, our history: Canadas early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Baldwin, D. (2003). New France and the fur trade. Canadian History. Calgary, AL:
Weigl Educational Publishers.
Cruxton, J. B., Wilson, D., & Walker, R. (2007). Close-up Canada (2nd ed.). Don
Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Conflict and
War: Britain
vs. France
British
France
Acadians

Lesson: War and Shift in Power from France to Britain


Part 1:
-Students will explore the conflicts between the French and British during
this time, the causes of war/events/developments, and determine the
historical significance of events by looking at the consequences of the events
on different groups of people living in Canada
-Critical challenge question: What are the three most significant
events/developments that took place between 1713 and 1800 in Canada
related to the conflict between Britain and France?
-Students will do a Think, Pair, Share, then as a whole class, brainstorm,
share and discuss the issues and conflicts between the British and French in
Canada from their arrival up until the early 1700s (e.g., territorial changes,
English-French, Protestant-Catholic tensions)
-Introduce the idea of historical significance. Students will be shown a video
about historical significance (7:15) from the Thinking Consortium :
http://tc2.ca/teaching-resources/student-resources/videos-for-students.php
(e.g., wars, battles, political and legal changes, territorial changes)
-Discuss how to determine historical significance of events; provide

worksheets and model historical thinking of looking at short-term and longterm impact of events/developments. Teacher can model think aloud sample
prompts (e.g., Ask yourselves, How might Canada be different if there was
no Quebec Act of 1774?)
-Students work in groups of 4 to explore the topics below (2 per group
member), do independent research using print and electronic sources, then
share their findings with the other groups members. A list of sources will be
provided along with worksheets with charts to guide their research.
-Students will then answer the critical challenge question using their
knowledge and thinking with a worksheet that provides steps of determining
historical significance.
-Students will look into the impact of the events/war/changes on different
groups (e.g., British, French, Acadians, First Nations, etc.). For example,
problems faced by the British as they took control of Quebec (e.g., civilian
population, shortage of food, diseases, counterattacks by the French)
Students share their views and reasons in groups/class.
-Possible topics for the students to explore:
The deportation of the Acadians (1755)
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759)
The Seven Years' War (1756 1763fall of France)
The Royal Proclamation of 1763
The Quebec Act (1774)
The American Revolution (1775)
Loyalist Immigration (1783-1791)
The Constitutional Act of 1791
-Students will reflect on a few events and write about how they impacted the
lives of people back then as well as present-day Canadians. Another possible
activity, students can create an information poster on an significant event of
this time, including the responses of different groups to the event
-Possible resources for research:
Animated map: Territorial Evolution of North America in the 17th & 18th
Centuries
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/franco_ontarian/big/animati
on.aspx
Descriptive maps. French in contact with First Nations, 1763&1783 Treaty
of Paris political boundaries of NA (-1790s)
http://international.loc.gov/intldl/fiahtml/map1.html
Canadian Heritage Gallery. CANADA: A Celebration of Our Heritage.
http://www.canadianheritage.ca/books/canada.htm
- Chapter 4: British Empire and American Revolution: 1763-1791
- Chapter 5: The Moulding of British North America: 1791-1815
CBC Canada, A Peoples History.
http://www.cbc.ca/history/?MIval=EpContent.html

Episode 4 Battle for a Continent 1754-1775


Episode 5 A Question of Loyalties 1775-1815: Upper and Lower
Canada

Video: Deportation of the Acadians


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shZ3A4ENUA4
Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006).
Their stories, our history: Canadas early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Baldwin, D. (2003). Revolution, war, and the Loyalists. Canadian History.
Calgary, AL: Weigl Educational Publishers.
Cruxton, J. B., Wilson, D., & Walker, R. (2007). Close-up Canada (2nd ed.).
Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.
Deir, E., Fielding. J., Brune. N., Grant. P., & Abram. S. S. (2000). Canada:
the story of our heritage, Grade 7. Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

Immigration
from the
South

Lesson: the Loyalists in Canada


Students will explore the migration of Loyalists caused by the American
Revolution. Students will investigate the life of immigrants in Canada during
1770s-1800. Students will explore the lives of Loyalists, Black Loyalist, and
Aboriginal Loyalists with a critical challenge to find out which group had the
most challenging life in Canada. Students will conduct research, find
primary and secondary sources, and work in groups, using the criteria for
quality of life defined earlier on in the unit. Students will engage in in-role
writing and learn to take perspective of the immigrants of this time, thereby,
gaining a fuller understanding of their lives and the issues during this time.
Minds on video: Slavery: History of Canada - Episode 5: A Question of
Loyalties https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lc59h7rPUxw
Sample resources for students research:
Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006).
Their stories, our history: Canadas early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Baldwin, D. (2003). Revolution, war, and the Loyalists. Canadian History.
Calgary, AL: Weigl Educational Publishers.
Canada in the Making. (2004). Pioneers and Immigrants.
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers4_e.html#abloyalist
Canadian Heritage Gallery. CANADA: A Celebration of Our Heritage.
Retrieved from
http://www.canadianheritage.ca/books/canada.htm (Chapter 4: British
Empire and American Revolution: 1763-1791; Chapter 5: The Moulding of
British North America: 1791-1815)

CBC Canada, A Peoples History.


http://www.cbc.ca/history/?MIval=EpContent.html
- Episode 4 Battle for a Continent 1754-1775
-

Episode 5 A Question of Loyalties 1775-1815: Upper and Lower


Canada

Early Canadiana Online. http://eco.canadiana.ca/?usrlang=en


Canadian Heritage Gallery. http://www.canadianheritage.org/search.htm
Museum of Ontario Archaeology. Southwestern Ontario: the First 12,000
Years. http://diggingontario.uwo.ca/

Wrap-up
Field Trip
Day

The History Education Network. Repertory of Online Collections of Primary


Sources: Specific Topics in Canadian History.
http://thenhier.ca/en/content/repertory-online-collections-primary-sourcesspecific-topics-canadian-history#CanadianHistoryMaps
- as a wrap-up of the unit, students will go on a field trip to ROM or
Archives of Ontario for opportunities to work with a variety of tools,
materials, and equipment and collect more evidence for their culminating
task
ROM (full day visit; maximum 70 people at one time):
Activity #1:
Have the class participate in the Grade 7 Lab/Exhibit LessonCanada:
New France and British North-America 1713 to 1850: Using the primary
sources found in the ROM's galleries, students investigate the emergence and
development of New France and the subsequent transition from French to
British rule. They continue by exploring British Canadian society from the
era of Loyalist immigration to pre-Confederation. Objects in the hands-on
Lab will reflect aspects of daily life in the 18th and 19th centuries.
(http://www.rom.on.ca/school_visits/index.php?
route=product/product&path=2_30&product_id=183#.Uz8UDPldXzM)
- Combine this activity with the "Shaping Canada: Our Voices and Stories"
Digital Gallery
Activity #2:
- If time allows, have the students do an activity: Students will find two
artefacts (similar to Part 2 of the Introductory lesson) of their choice.
Students will sketch the artifacts and answer questions and make connections
(e.g., What is it? Where is it from? When was it created? Why was it created
what is its function? What are some interesting things about the artefact?
What inferences can you make from it? How does it relate to what we have
learned in class so far? What are some of the things you would like to know
more about the artefact?)
OR

Culminating
Task
Overall
expectations:
A1
A2
A3
Specific
expectations:
A1.1
A1.2
A1.3
A2.1
A2.2
A2.3
A2.4
A2.5
A2.6
A3.1
A3.2
A3.3
A3.4
A3.5
A3.6

Archives of Ontario
77 Grenville Street, 3rd floor
Toronto, Ontario
M5S 1B3
Telephone: 1-416-327-1600 Fax: 1-416-327-1999
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/index.aspx
-Students will get a tour of the Archives and will be given the task of
Activity #2 (from above)
-Students will have a chance to examine unpublished records of all Ontario
government ministries and agencies; private records of historic significance
to Ontario; photographs, maps, architectural plans, video, film and broadcast
records; and newspapers related to Ontario history
- Our class has been chosen to write a textbook of this period (1713-1800) in
Canada for a publisher!
-Students will create a class textbook resource on this unit (titled: Life in
Canada: 1713-1800title can be modified; ideally, students can vote for a
title) that covers a variety of groups and events/issues/developments that
were discussed throughout the unit.
- Students will sign up for a group (e.g., English colonists, French colonists,
First Nations, Loyalists, Black Loyalists, Acadians, Aboriginal Loyalists,
etc.) All groups must be covered. Ensure that there are at least 4 students per
assigned group. Students with the same assigned group will work together as
a team in creating a chapter about their assigned group.
- In their teams, students will write personal stories (e.g., historical fiction),
passages, or poems, along with visual images (e.g., maps, paintings, primary
resources, etc.) representing their chosen group and the time period/event to
capture the life the group during 1713-1800
- For their assigned chapter, students must as a team:
1. Introduce their assigned group of people in relation to Canada
1713-1800 in a brief overview (including their history)
2. Converge on and come up with 2 to 3 events/issues/developments
they think are the most important during 1713-1800 (e.g.,
different wars, laws, deportations, trades, etc.) that affected their
assigned group most profoundly. Discuss the impact of these
events/issues/developments on your assigned group. (review
historical significance again)
3. Present and compare/contrast the groups quality of life back then
and in present-day Canada (e.g., status in Canada, freedom, living
conditions, transportation, health/diseases, labour/work
conditions, recreation, crime and punishment, etc.)
4. Fictional account biography of a person who belongs to the
assigned group (based on historical facts,.)
5. One interesting fact about the assigned group.
-Note: Explain to students that since Canadas heritage and identity is a

composite of all of these different perspectives and lives; therefore, the


events/developments selected by all the groups will represent the most
significant ones for Canada.
Provide guiding questions for students to ask themselves during the task:
What and who should be remembered, researched and taught?
How are lives and conditions alike over time and how have they changed?
What are the causes and consequences of historical events?
Looking at the past from the perspective of those living during that time
(though their social, cultural, emotional, moral lenses)?

Some other possible topics students can cover/look into:


Important people and places
Alliances/conflict with other groups
Roles of women
The impact of a specific social, economic, environmental, or
political, change that affected the group of people
Example of different people: daily life of seigneurs, European
traders, militia, priests, nuns artisans, labourers, farm families
Create success criteria with the class. Students will be given the
rubric prior to the task

How to organize the information in the final publication will be


discussed/negotiated with the class (create a sample table of
contents). Create a timeline (using Google doc or other tools) with
significant events identifiedeach groups important
issues/events/developments will all be marked in by the class

Upon submission by the groups, the teacher will assemble the class
textbook resource and donate it to the library or present it to the class
using PowerPoint, or have each group come up and present their own
chapter to the class.

Sample Lesson Plan #1: Life of the French in New France


Lesson Overview
This lesson introduces the way of life in New France from early 1700s to 1800. Students will
investigate two critical challenge questions through conducting research using both primary and
secondary sources. In the first part of the lesson, students will work in pairs to explore the
experiences of French colonists and compare those to the experiences of present-day of people. In
the process, the criteria for quality of life will be determined. Students will write a letter
demonstrating their understanding of the life in New France for a time traveler. In part two of the
lesson is on New France's populace. Students will explore and critically analyze different roles and
common types of work of people living in New France between 1713 and 1800, such as artisans,
farmers and landlords. Students will choose five roles to examine and will conduct research and
gather evidence to rank order the quality of life of those groups. A list of websites will be provided
for both tasks, but students would have to gather evidence, take notes on the information, and
critically examine their notes in the process of completing the tasks.
Overall Expectations
A1. Application: Analyze aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between 1713 and
1800, and compare them to the lives of people in present-day Canada
A3. Understanding Historical Context: Describe various significant events, developments, and
people in Canada between 1713 and 1800 and explain their impact
Specific Expectations
A1.1 Analyze key similarities and differences in social values and aspects of life between presentday Canadians and some different groups and/or communities in Canada between 1713 and 1800
A1.2 Analyze some of the main challenges facing individuals and/or groups in Canada between
1713 and 1800 and ways in which people responded to those challenges, and assess similarities
and differences between some of these challenges and responses and those of present-day
Canadians
A3.4 Describe some significant aspects of daily life among different groups living in Canada
during this period
Critical Question/Task for the Lesson
Part 1: Which aspects of life in New France most differ from those in present-day Canada?
Part 2: Rank order the quality of life of the lives of five different occupations/roles in New France
between 1713 and 1800.
Objectives
Criteria for Judgment
By the end of the lesson, students should able to:
criteria for quality of life (e.g.,
Identify the factors that are involved in deciding
living conditions, security,
freedoms, health, family and
the quality of life
community support, education,
Describe the general living conditions of French
economy)
colonists in New France
Understand the responsibilities of and challenges
criteria for living conditions
that faced different types of workers in New
(e.g., food/diet, entertainment,
France
transportation, working
Develop a sense of continuity and change
conditions, health/medicine)

Broad Understanding
Students will learn about what determines quality of life
Students will understand that society changes in various aspects over time (socially,
politically, economically, and culturally) while certain things stay the same
Students will learn from documentary evidence how status in this society affected peoples
quality of life
Critical Thinking Vocabulary
Colony
Roles
Seigneur
Habitant
Clergy member

Slave/slavery
Artisan
Militia
Labourer
Priest

Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking

Historical Significance
Continuity and Change
Historical Perspective

Point of view
Inference
Political issues
New France

Habits of Mind

Critical thinking
Researching
Organization
Evaluating
Evidence
Independent
work

Collaboration
Attention to
detail
Communicating
clearly
Responsibility

Background Knowledge
Knowledge of the purpose and structure of the colony of New France
Knowledge of the seigneurial system in New France (as part of the Grade 5 Social Studies,
Strand A: SE A3.4 identify significant offices and institutions in New France (e.g., the
seigneurial system; the Roman Catholic Church; the king, governor, bishop, and intendant;
nuns, priests, missionaries, etc. ) and describe their importance to settlers in New France
Knowledge of how to access and use online resources
Suggested Activities

Minds-On
Show the class an illustration of Quebec City of New France in 1759 on a screen projector.
(image: Quebec City, 1759Stylized view of impressive Quebec City, capital of New
France, before its capture in 1759 by the British.
http://www.canadianheritage.ca/reproductions/20670.htm)
Prompt the students to think about the buildings, objects, and landscape of the drawing.
(e.g., prompts: It this a primary or secondary source? What do you see? What things
existed in Quebec City? What can you infer from the drawing?economy, transportation,
resources? What does this drawing not tell you? How could you find out more?)
Students will share their observations in pairs, then with the whole class
Introduce the basic demographic patterns of Quebec & Montreal in the early 1700s, but
clarify that this lesson focuses on the French
Part 1: General quality of life of French colonists in New France
-

Introduce the concept of quality of life. Have students brainstorm as a class and develop a
criteria for determining quality of life. Guide students to consider aspects such as
freedom, money, living conditions, and any other criteria they think are important.
Explain to the students the challenge of investigating various aspects of life in New France
and compare them to those in present-day Canada. (Task: Which aspects of life in New
France most significantly differ from present-day Canada?)
Distribute Gathering Information about Quality of Life to students and go over the
categories. Students are able to add their own categories as needed. Students will work in
pairs to complete a task.
Explain to students that the various aspects of life that are pertinent to the criteria of quality
of life are listed down the left-hand column and the location is listed across the top of the
other two columns.
Distribute Research Hunt Resources: New France and instruct students to use the list of
resources to conduct research and find more documents and information about New France,
and examine them to formulate their conclusions to the questions of the task. (For presentday Canada, students will have to use their prior knowledge about the life we live now. No
research is necessary).
Invite the students to think about the challenges by inferring (making informed guesses)
based on the information provided. Explain to the students how to infer using evidence.
Provide an example of inferring (e.g., although slaves would have had food and place to
stay, they would not have lived nearly as well as the seigneurs).
Present-day Canada, students will have to their prior knowledge about the aspects of life
now. Students will divide the workload evenly with their partner. (Since there are ten
categories under aspects of life, each student could research five categories)
Once each student is done their part, students will collaborate to complete the whole chart.
Then, students will individually write a letter as a response to the following prompt and
hand in their work to the teacher (rubric will be given prior to the task):
Your friend is going on a vacation by travelling in a time machine back
to New France of the early 1700s. Now that youve done your research,
write a letter to your friend about what to expect there and provide

some advice about which items to bring along the trip. Include the
following:
o Three attractions or interesting aspects of New France
o Three drawbacks of New France (or things your friend might find
difficult to adjust to)
o Three items you think your friend should pack for her trip
(maximum 3, as the time machine only allows you to take three
items from the present time). Include your reasoning behind each
item.
o Three items you wish your friend would bring back as gifts
-

Students will be given time later to share their letters in small groups.

Part 2: Common jobs/roles in New France


-

Students will explore different jobs or common types of work that existed in New France
(focusing on 1700s) by ranking those jobs in terms of the quality of life
Students will choose five roles (e.g., habitants, clergy members, seigneurs, slaves, artisans,
labourers, priests) to examine and will conduct research and gather evidence to rank order
the quality of life of those groups. (Students continue using the list of resources they used
in Part 1: Research Hunt Resources: New France)
Distribute copies of Gathering Information about French Settlers for students to use to
record the information they find about each job/role on the chart. Explain to students that
the various aspects of life that are pertinent to the criteria of quality of life are listed down
the left-hand column and the place is listed across the top of the other two columns.
Invite the students to think about the challenges by inferring (making informed guesses)
based on the information provided. Explain to the students how to infer using evidence.
Provide an example (e.g., although slaves would have had a place to stay and food to eat,
they would not have lived nearly as well as the seigneurs).
A list of websites and books will be provided for both tasks, but students would have to
gather evidence, take notes on the information, and critically examine their notes in the
process of completing the tasks.
Students rate and rank the roles according to their quality of life by filling out the chart on
Ranking the French Settlers in New France. Instruct students to use the information on the
chart Gathering Information about French Settlers to decide on the ranking. Students need
to explain the reasoning behind the ranking of each occupation. Remind the students to jot
down in the box the facts/evidence they used (in point-form).

*Note: Point out to students that the list of jobs provided is not exhaustive. For a more complete
list of the occupations in New France, they would have to do further research.
Strategies
Word Wall for the class (add words throughout the unit)
Use of technology, including laptops and videos to engage students (visual learners)

Worksheets that help students organize their research by listing categories (e.g., quality of
life, roles, challenges, etc.)
Worksheets that help students evaluating their quality of life (e.g., ranking order)
A list of appropriate print and electronic resources to aid students research
Co-creation of success criteria
Inquiry-based learning
Success Criteria Checklists/Rubrics
Group conversation and discussion
Anecdotal notes on students participation
Differentiated instruction

Assessment and Evaluation


Part 1:
Students will hand in all the provided graphic organizer worksheets to the teacher upon completion
of their task/assignment: Gathering Information About Quality of Life, Gathering Information
About French Settlers, and Ranking the French Settlers in New France. Use the rubric Assessing
Evidence and Conclusions to assess students ability to gather and identify relevant and important
evidence and offer plausible conclusions about the quality of life of different groups of people
living in New France. Use Rubric for Letter to assess students ability to gather evidence,
communicate their thinking processes, and formulate own judgments by making connections
between the perspective of an 18th century person and a 21st century person. Students ability to link
choice with the criteria and to give concrete examples using their knowledge from the task to
support their arguments will be assessed. This success criteria rubric will be provided to the
students before they start working on the assignment (based on the knowledge and understanding,
thinking, communication, application in their product or presentation) and will be marked using the
social studies levels (1 4).
Part 2:
Use the rubric Assessing Evidence and Conclusions to assess students ability to gather and identify
relevant and important evidence and offer plausible conclusions about the quality of life of
different groups of people living in New France.
-

Make observations and anecdotal notes on students collaboration with their partners, their
research skills, in-class discussions. Check that students are making inferences based on the
evidence.
Assessment for
Questioning
Brainstorming
Anecdotal notes

Assessment as
Student checklist
Questioning
Conferencing
Worksheet (quality of
life)

Assessment of
Written components
Rubric/feedback

Extension
Students may work individually or in groups on any of the following suggested activities:
-

Students choose and imagine themselves to be one of those groups of people and write a
postcard from the perspective of the chosen group/person to the persons relative living
back in their homeland.
Using the list of resources, look into the work opportunities for women in New France.
What work would have been available for women in New France? Compare the roles of
women in New France with those of present-day Canada.
What are the main differences between your life and the life of a child or a seigneurie in
New France? OR your mothers life and the life of a woman in New France? What do you
think are some reasons for the differences?
Activity from mystery quest of Working Women in New France from Mystery Quests
online so that students can explore common jobs for women and the working conditions
during that time http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/18/indexen.html

References:
Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006). Their stories, our
history: Canadas early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Canadian Heritage Gallery. (1999). Quebec City, 1759. Retrieved from
http://www.canadianheritage.ca/reproductions/20670.htm
Canadian Museum of History. (n.d.). Virtual Museum of New France. Retrieved from
http://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/introduction/
Cruxton, J. B., Wilson, D., & Walker, R. (2007). Close-up Canada (2nd ed.). Don Mills, ON:
Oxford University Press.
Duquette, C. (2007). Working women in New France. Mystery Quests. Retrieved from
http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/18/indexen.html
Hallman-Chong, S. (2007). Opposition to slavery in New France. Mystery Quests.
Retrieved from http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/16/indexen.html
McConnachie, K. (2007). The status of women in New France. Mystery
Quests. Retrieved from http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/13/indexen.html
Ontario. Ministry of Education of Ontario. The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, History and
Geography, grades 1-8: Revised 2013. Online. Retrieved from
http://edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/sshg18curr2013.pdf

Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Travels with Elizabeth Simcoe: A Visual
Journey Through Upper and Lower Canada: Significant Events in the Early History of Canada.
Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/simcoe/history.aspx

Research Hunt Resources: New France

WEBSITES:

Canadian Museum of History. Virtual Museum of New France.


http://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/introduction/
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). French Ontario in the 17th and 18th Centuries - People,
Places, and Times.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/franco_ontarian/people_and_places.aspx
France in America (Library of Congress and Bibliothque nationale de France)
http://international.loc.gov/intldl/fiahtml/fiahome.html
Canadian Heritage Gallery. CANADA: A Celebration of Our Heritage.
http://www.canadianheritage.ca/books/canada.htm (Chapter 3: A Century of New France: 1663-1763.)
CBC Canada, A Peoples History. Episode 3: Claiming the Wilderness 1670-1755: New Frances expansion/The
Great Peace/New France in the 18th Century; The Acadians
http://www.cbc.ca/history/?MIval=EpContent.html

BOOKS:

Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006). Their stories, our history: Canadas
early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Baldwin, D. (2003). New France and the fur trade. Canadian History. Calgary, AL: Weigl Educational
Publishers.
Cruxton, J. B., Wilson, D., & Walker, R. (2007). Close-up Canada (2nd ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford
University Press.
Deir, E., Fielding. J., Brune. N., Grant. P., & Abram. S. S. (2000). Canada: the story of our heritage, Grade 7.
Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

LOOKING FOR PRIMARY SOURCES:

Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Online Exhibits from the Archives of Ontario. French
Ontario in the 17th and 18th Centuries.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/franco_ontarian/index.aspx
New France, New Horizons (Library and Archives Canada).
http://champlain2004.org/html/exhibition.html
Early Canadiana Online. http://eco.canadiana.ca/?usrlang=en
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Travels with Elizabeth Simcoe: A Visual Journey Through
Upper and Lower Canada. Significant Events in the Early History of Canada.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/simcoe/history.aspx
Government of Canada. CHIN's Professional Exchange.

http://www.pro.rcip-chin.gc.ca/index-eng.jsp
Canadian Heritage Gallery. http://www.canadianheritage.org/search.htm
Museum of Ontario Archaeology. Southwestern Ontario: the First 12,000 Years. http://diggingontario.uwo.ca/
The History Education Network. Repertory of Online Collections of Primary Sources: Specific Topics in
Canadian History.
http://thenhier.ca/en/content/repertory-online-collections-primary-sources-specific-topics-canadianhistory#CanadianHistoryMaps
Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) Heritage. http://www.hbcheritage.ca/hbcheritage/home
Fur Trade
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). David Thompson: Map Maker, Explorer and Visionary
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/thompson/index.aspx
Farming/Agriculture
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). The Archives of Ontario Celebrates Our Agricultural Past.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/agriculture/index.aspx
Slavery
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Enslaved Africans in Upper Canada.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/slavery/index.aspx
Canadian Museum of History. Virtual Museum of New France Slavery.
http://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/population/slavery/
Torture and the Truth: Anglique and the Burning of Montreal. (a list of primary sources under the heading
Slavery) http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/lasociete/indexen.html
Here are some sample primary documents you could look at:
- Slavery:
Trudel, Marcel, "Two Centuries of Slavery in Qubec, Followed by the Dictionary of Slaves and of their
Owners in French Canada on CD-ROM" (Montral: Hurtubise HMH, 2004), 219-221.
http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/archives/books/2664en.html
Letter by lisabeth Rocbert de la Morandire, dite Madame Bgon, on the subject of her slaves, 25 December
1748. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/archives/diaryjournalreminiscence/2301en.html
Extracts from the Black Code, 1685. Roi de France, The status of slaves, according to the Collection of
Regulations, Edicts, Declarations and Decrees: Regarding Commerce, the Administratoin of Justice, & the
Policing of French Colonies in America and Indentured Servents, with the Black Code and Additions to the Said
Code, 1745 http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/lasociete/esclavage/2305en.html
-

Canoe/transportation. http://www.hbcheritage.ca/content/canoe/dash/full
Journal of a voyage to North-America : undertaken by order of the French King : containing the
geographical description and natural history of that country, particularly Canada, together with an
account of the customs, characters, religion, manners and traditions of the original inhabitants, in a
series of letters to the Duchess of Lesdiguieres. (1761). http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.32772/3?
r=0&s=1

Gathering Information about Quality of Life


Aspects of
Life
Food/Diet

Health/Medici
ne

Entertainmen
t

Transportatio
n

Economy

New France

Present-Day Canada

Education

Freedom

Security/Law
&
Order/Crime
and
Punishment

Communicati
on

Religion

Other

Rubric for Letter


Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Gathers and
identifies
relevant and
important
evidence
(K/U/T)

Gathers and
identifies the
most important
and relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies
relevant
statements,
including most of
the important
ones in various
primary and
secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies some
relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources, but
many important
ones are
omitted.

Gathers and
identifies no
relevant
information from
various primary
and secondary
sources.

Use of
processing
skills
(e.g.,
interpreting
data, evidence
and
information
and
formulating
conclusions)
(T)
Expression and
organization of
ideas and
information (C)

Uses processing
skills with limited
effectiveness

Uses processing
skills with some
effectiveness

Uses processing
skills with
considerable
effectiveness

Uses processing
skills with a high
degree of
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with limited
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with some
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with
considerable
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with a high
degree of
effectiveness

Appropriate
perspective
and
tone (C)

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with
limited
effectiveness
Makes
connections
within and
between various
context with
limited
effectiveness

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with
some
effectiveness
Makes
connections
within and
between various
context with
some
effectiveness

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with
considerable
effectiveness
Makes
connections
within and
between various
context with
considerable
effectiveness

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Makes
connections
within and
between various
context with a
high degree of
effectiveness

Making
connections
within and
between
various
contexts
(e.g., past and
present,
different
cultural
contexts)
(APP)

Gathering Information about French Settlers


Choose another four roles from the following: clergy members, seigneurs, slaves, artisans, labourers, priests
New France
populace
Habitants

Roles/Responsibili
ties

Working and living


conditions

Challenges

Other interesting
facts

Ranking the French Settlers in New France


Rank
1st
(highe
st
quality
of life)

2nd

3rd

4th

5th
(lowes
t
quality
of life)

Person /
group

Reasons for ranking

Assessing the Evidence and Conclusions


Outstanding
(Level 4)

Very good
(Level 3)

Competent
(Level 2)

Satisfactory
(Level 1)

Gathers and
identifies
relevant and
important
evidence
(K/U/T)

Gathers and
identifies the
most important
and relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies
relevant
statements,
including most
of the
important ones
in various
primary and
secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies some
relevant
statements in
various
primary and
secondary
sources, but
many important
ones are
omitted.

Gathers and
identifies some
relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources, but
many important
ones are
omitted.

Offers
plausible
conclusions
(T)

The conclusions
are highly
plausible and
highly
justifiable in
light of the
evidence.

The conclusions
are clearly
plausible and
highly
justifiable in
light of the
evidence.

The conclusions
are somewhat
plausible and
highly
justifiable in
light of the
evidence.

The conclusions
are plausible
but are barely
justifiable given
the evidence.

Sample Lesson Plan #2: the Loyalists in Canada


Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students will investigate the life of immigrants in Canada during the period of 1770s
and forward, focusing on the migration of the Loyalists. Students should already have an
understanding of the social, cultural, political, and economic background of Canada during this
time as well as the causes and impact of American Revolution. Students will be given three groups
to exploreLoyalists, Black Loyalist, and Aboriginal Loyalistsand a critical challenge to find
out which group had the most challenging life in Canada. Students will investigate this question
through conducting research using both primary and secondary sources. Students will work in
groups to do research and explore the experiences of the Loyalists and use the criteria for quality of
life defined earlier on in the unit. Students will engage in in-role writing and learn to take
perspective of the immigrants of this time, thereby, gaining a fuller understanding of their lives and
the issues during this time. They will be encouraged to use their background knowledge and
connect the immigrants experiences to those of others in present-day Canada. A list of websites
will be provided for both tasks, but students would have to gather evidence, take notes on the
information, and critically examine their notes in the process of completing the tasks.
Overall Expectations
A1. Application: Analyze aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between
1713 and 1800, and compare them to the lives of people in present-day Canada
A2. Inquiry: Use the historical inquiry process to investigate perspectives of different
groups on some significant events, developments, and/or issues related to the shift in
power in colonial Canada from France to Britain
A3. Understanding Historical Context: Describe various significant events,
developments, and people in Canada between 1713 and 1800 and explain their
impact

Specific Expectations
A1.1 Analyze key similarities and differences in social values and aspects of life between present-day
Canadians and some different groups and/or communities in Canada between 1713 and 1800
A1.2 Analyze some of the main challenges facing individuals and/or groups in Canada between 1713 and
1800 and ways in which people responded to those challenges, and assess similarities and differences
between some of these challenges and responses and those of present-day Canadians
A1.3 Analyze the displacement experienced by various groups who were living in or who came to Canada
between 1713 and 1800, and compare it with present-day examples of displacement
A2.2 Gather and organize information and evidence about perspectives of different groups on some
significant events, developments, and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada from France
to Britain, using a variety of primary sources and secondary sources
A2.3 Analyze and construct maps as part of their investigations into significant events, developments,
and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada from France to Britain, with a focus on
exploring their spatial boundaries
A2.4 Interpret and analyze information and evidence relevant to their investigations, using a variety of tools
A2.5 Evaluate evidence and draw conclusions about perspectives of different groups on significant events,
developments, or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada from France to Britain
A2.6 Communicate the results of their inquiries using appropriate vocabulary and formats
A3.1 Identify factors leading to some key events that occurred in and/or affected Canada between 1713 and
1800, and describe the historical significance of some of these events for different individual, groups, and/or
communities
A3.2 Identify key political and legal changes the occurred in and/or affected Canada during this period

A3.4 Describe some significant aspects of daily life among different groups living in Canada during this
period
A3.5 Describe significant interactions between various individuals, groups, and institutions in Canada
during this period

Critical Question for the Lesson


Which group of Loyalist immigrants from the 1770s and on had the most
challenging life?
Objectives
Criteria for Judgment
By the end of the lesson, students should able
criteria for quality of life (e.g., living
to:
conditions, security, freedoms, health,
Describe the general living conditions
family and community support,
education, economy)
and challenges of Loyalists, Black
Loyalists, and Aboriginal Loyalists
criteria for living conditions (e.g.,
Identify the factors that are involved in
food/diet, entertainment, transportation,
deciding the quality of life
working conditions, health/medicine)
Develop an awareness of discrimination
in the past and the present
Broad Understanding

Students will learn from documentary/primary sources the living conditions of immigrants
as well as the struggles of immigrants (build historical perspective)
Students will uncover the inequalities and discrimination in society
Students will understand the economic, political, social and cultural changes that shift in
power brings

Critical Thinking Vocabulary


Conflict
Refugee/Immigrant/Mi
gration
Slave/slavery
American Revolution

Expulsion, deportation,
displacement
First Nations
Loyalists
Black Loyalists

Historical Significance
Cause and Consequence
Continuity and Change
Historical Perspective

Point of view
Perspective
Social, cultural,
political, economic
The Thirteen Colonies

Habits of Mind

Concepts of Disciplinary Thinking

Identifying key
ideas
Critical thinking
Researching
Organization
Evaluating
Evidence
Independent

Attention to
detail
Collaboration
Communication
Openmindedness
Responsibility
Attentive

work

listening

Background Knowledge
Knowledge of the backdrop Loyalist migration (i.e., American Revolution; British-French
conflicts; power shift from French to British and the impact) covered in the previous class
Knowledge of how to access and use online resources
Suggested Activities
Minds-On
Watch a part of the video Slavery: History of Canada - Episode 5: A Question of Loyalties
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lc59h7rPUxw In a class discussion following the
video, guide the students to the topic of slavery and immigrants.
OR
Alternatively, have the students form groups of four and do a placemat/graffiti activity with
the word Immigration in the middle. Prompt questions include What is immigration?,
What does it mean for Canada?, When did it start?, How many immigrants are there
in Canada?, What are your personal connections to immigration? Do you know of any
immigrant stories from the people around you?. The goal of this activity is to engage the
students in the lesson and activate students prior background knowledge about
immigration/immigrants.
Action
Brainstorm challenges immigrants typically face in present day as a class.
Set the context of American Revolution (review from previous class). Define Loyalists.
Explain the critical challenge to the students: Which group of Loyalist immigrants
from the 1770s and on had the most challenging life? Have students share
initial thoughts and reactions.
Demonstration/Practice: Making inferences from primary sources:
- Show the students an image (Black Loyalist Experience
http://www.pc.gc.ca/apps/dfhd/page_nhs_eng.aspx?id=1576 ) using a screen projector
without giving the students the context of the image. Distribute the worksheet
Analyzing Traces. Have the students observe the illustration and fill out the chart on the
sheet. Students will come up with and share their own reactions to the image, first, with
a partner, and then with the whole class. Teacher guides the students along the way by
sharing own thoughts and interpretations with the students. As a class, discuss the
image, make inferences. Explain how historian use the primary sources to make
interpretations.
JIGSAW: Students will be placed in groups of 3. Each member in the group will be
responsible to conduct research on a group of immigrants who migrated to Canada in the
1770s (e.g., Loyalists, Black Loyalists, or Aboriginal Loyalists). The group members agree
upon their roles and responsibilities.
Distribute the list of resources Research Hunt Resources: Immigrants to students. Students
will conduct research on the group of Loyalists they are responsible for. Distribute
Gathering Information about the Loyalist Immigrants. Explain the categories along the top
row: Living conditions, Challenges, and Other. Discuss as a class about what other factors

can contribute to the quality of life of the Loyalists.


The expert groups will work together to gather information about their assigned Loyalist
group. They will gather and analyze information using primary and secondary sources
(each students must use and identify 4-6 sources, including one primary source). Each
student fills out their row of the chart on Gathering Information about the Loyalist
Immigrants.
JIGSAW wrap up: Once the students have finished their row, they leave their expert groups
and go back to their original group of 3. Each group member shares his/her own data and
information with the other two members. Students record information on their charts. The
group members discuss the life of the different groups of Loyalists, sharing, comparing,
and discussing perspectives of life in New France,
Students discuss and each create their own 3-circle Venn Diagram in the blank space
provided under the chart on Gathering Information about the Loyalist Immigrants
comparing the challenges experienced by Loyalists, Black Loyalists, and Aboriginal
Loyalists in Canada during 1770s-1800. Students will individually make an informed
judgment about the quality of life of the 3 groups and circle the group they think had the
most challenging life during this time.
Four corners: Put up signs on the four corners of the classroom: Loyalists, Black Loyalists,
Aboriginal Loyalists, Im not sure). Have students answer the question, Which group had
the most challenging life during this period? by going to the appropriate corner. Students
will share their reasons with the corner members. Class discussion and sharing will follow
(give students a chance to change their decision and move around following the
discussion).
Students then write in role journal to the following prompt for submission and eventual
presentation in small groups later on. They will choose and write as any one of the
Loyalists they learned about in the lesson. Discuss and create a success criteria for the
assignment. This assignment could also be in the form of a video, graphic novel, comic
strip, PowerPoint presentation, poem, song, etc., as long as the following prompt is
answered:

You are a Loyalist in 1784. You have just arrived in the British North American colony of
Nova Scotia. You escaped from one of the Thirteen Colonies at the end of the American
Revolution. Write about your experiences as a Loyalist in your new home of Nova Scotia in
1784. Use facts/evidence/details to back up what you are saying. Include a minimum of
four of the following topics in your writing:
- Description of your life back at home (e.g., your home colony, ethnic background,
job, family, etc)
- How you were treated by those who opposed Britain during the American
Revolution
- Reason(s) why you decided to leave the Thirteen Colonies
- Description of your route or travel from your home colony to Nova Scotia
- Description of the challenges you faced when you arrived in Nova Scotia (e.g., food,
shelter, government provisions, land grants, etc)
- Your personal reaction: your thoughts and/or feelings about living in the Thirteen
Colonies during the American Revolution, starting a new life in Nova Scotia, etc
(*Note: include a list of references used at the end4-6 sources, including one primary source)

Strategies

A list of appropriate print and electronic resources to aid students research


Worksheets that help students organize their research by listing categories (e.g., quality of
life, roles, challenges, etc.)
Worksheets that help students practice their inferring skills
Success Criteria Checklists/Rubrics
Word Wall for the class (add words throughout the unit)
Use of technology, including laptops and videos to engage students (visual learners)
Co-creation of success criteria
Inquiry-based learning
Group work and discussion
Jigsaw requires group collaboration, teamwork and respect, accountability for self and
others learning
Anecdotal notes on students participation
Provide/show students excerpt of real stories or historical fiction from Their Stories, Our
History textbook to have students become familiar with different perspectives and voices of
immigrants to Canada
Differentiated instruction (e.g., instead of having students search for primary documents,
have a set of good primary documents/sources picked out for them)
Assessment and Evaluation
Students will hand in the provided graphic organizer worksheet Gathering Information about the
Loyalist Immigrants to the teacher upon completion of their task/assignment. Use the rubric
Assessing Evidence and Conclusions (Venn Diagram) to assess students ability to gather
and identify relevant and important evidence and offer plausible conclusions about the quality of
life of different groups of Loyalist immigrants.
Students will gather and read primary/secondary sources and reflect in their journals by writing inrole as one of the Loyalists who came to Canada during this period. Use Rubric for In-role Writing
to assess students ability to gather evidence, understand the immigrant life during the time and
context, and communicate with clarity and voice. Students ability to take perspective and give
concrete examples using their sources and knowledge gained from the previous task to support
their arguments will be assessed. The success criteria rubric will be created with the students and
provided to them before they start working on the assignment (based on the knowledge and
understanding, thinking, communication, application in their product or presentation) and will be
marked using the social studies levels (1 4). Students must include a list of references for the
writing (4-6 different sources that they collected evidence from, including at least one primary
source).
Assessment for
Assessment as
Assessment of
Questioning
Questioning
In role writing
Brainstorming
Four corners
Rubric/feedback
Placemat/graffiti
Presentations
Anecdotal notes
Extension

Students may work individually or in groups on any of the following suggested activities:
- Research on how different groups of people we studied so far are faring in present-day
Canada. What happened to the Acadians? The First Nations? Black Loyalists? In your
journal compare their quality of life in present-day to that of the past (1713-1800).
Compare the changes from past and now. What has helped the change of quality of
life/living conditions, if any?
- Take the letter written for the task and create a mini-drama based it
- Activity from mystery quest of Slavery in New France
(http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/18/indexen.html) or Opposition to Slavery in New
France (http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/16/indexen.html) from Mystery Quests
online so that students can explore the slavery in New France as well as what events
contributed to slavery getting abolished

References:
Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006). Their stories, our
history: Canadas early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Baldwin, D. (2003). Revolution, war, and the Loyalists. Canadian History. Calgary, AL: Weigl
Educational Publishers.
Bond, E., Owens, Anne-Maureen, & Henderson, D. (2001). B.N.A./developing Western Canada:
New people, new lands: An integrated unit for grade 7/8. ON: Ministry of Education.
Canada in the Making. (2004). Pioneers and Immigrants. Retrieved from
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers4_e.html#abloyalist
Cruxton, J. B., Wilson, D., & Walker, R. (2007). Close-up Canada (2nd ed.). Don Mills, ON:
Oxford University Press.
Drewery, D. (Write & Director). (Sep 8, 2013). Episode 5: A question of loyalties. [Television
series episode]. In W. Chong & G. Krupa (Producers), Slavery: History of Canada. Toronto, ON:
CBC. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lc59h7rPUxw
Duquette, C. (2007). Slavery in New France. Mystery Quests. Retrieved from
http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/06/indexen.html
Fine-Meyer, R. (2013). Worksheets for historical thinking. Wednesday, October 23, 2013 [PDF
document]. Retrieved from the course online website
http://pepper.oise.utoronto.ca/~jhewitt/pepper/client2/Pepper.php?page=note10
Hallman-Chong, S. (2007). Slavery in New France. Mystery Quests. Retrieved from
http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/16/indexen.html
Hutchinson, D. (Ed.). (2010) Elementary social studies: A practical approach to teaching and
learning. activity ideas for elementary social studies. Retrieved from:
http://pepper.oise.utoronto.ca/~jhewitt/pepper/UploadedFiles/378/attachments/241955/Activity_I
deas

Lesh, B. A. (2011). Why wont you just tell us the answer?: Teaching historical thinking in
grades 7-12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Ontario. Ministry of Education of Ontario. The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, History and
Geography, grades 1-8: Revised 2013. Online. Retrieved from
http://edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/sshg18curr2013.pdf

Research Hunt Resources: Immigrants


(Loyalists, Black Loyalists, Aboriginal Loyalists)

WEBSITES:

Canada in the Making. (2004). Pioneers and Immigrants.


http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers4_e.html#abloyalist
Canadian Heritage Gallery. CANADA: A Celebration of Our Heritage. Retrieved from
http://www.canadianheritage.ca/books/canada.htm (Chapter 4: British Empire and American Revolution:
1763-1791; Chapter 5: The Moulding of British North America: 1791-1815)
CBC Canada, A Peoples History.
http://www.cbc.ca/history/?MIval=EpContent.html
- Episode 4 Battle for a Continent 1754-1775
-

Episode 5 A Question of Loyalties 1775-1815: Upper and Lower Canada

BOOKS:

Aitken, B., Haskings-Winner, J., Mewhinney, R., & Rubinstein, B. (2006). Their stories, our history:
Canadas early years. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Baldwin, D. (2003). Revolution, war, and the Loyalists. Canadian History. Calgary, AL: Weigl
Educational Publishers.
Cruxton, J. B., Wilson, D., & Walker, R. (2007). Close-up Canada (2nd ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford
University Press.
Deir, E., Fielding. J., Brune. N., Grant. P., & Abram. S. S. (2000). Canada: the story of our heritage,
Grade 7. Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

LOOKING FOR PRIMARY SOURCES:

Early Canadiana Online. http://eco.canadiana.ca/?usrlang=en


Government of Canada. CHIN's Professional Exchange.
http://www.pro.rcip-chin.gc.ca/index-eng.jsp
Canadian Heritage Gallery. http://www.canadianheritage.org/search.htm
Museum of Ontario Archaeology. Southwestern Ontario: the First 12,000 Years.
http://diggingontario.uwo.ca/

The History Education Network. Repertory of Online Collections of Primary Sources: Specific Topics in
Canadian History.
http://thenhier.ca/en/content/repertory-online-collections-primary-sources-specific-topics-canadianhistory#CanadianHistoryMaps
Historica Canada. THE CANADIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Travels with Elizabeth Simcoe: A Visual Journey
Through Upper and Lower Canada. Significant Events in the Early History of Canada.
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/simcoe/history.aspx
Slavery
Ontario Ministry of Government Services. (2011). Enslaved Africans in Upper Canada. Retrieved from
http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/slavery/index.aspx
Torture and the Truth: Anglique and the Burning of Montreal. (a list of primary sources under the
heading Slavery) http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/lasociete/indexen.html
Canadian Museum of History. Virtual Museum of New France Slavery. Retrieved from
http://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/population/slavery/

Analyzing Traces

Fine-Meyer, R. (2013). Worksheets for historical thinking. Wednesday, October 23, 2013 [PDF document]. Retrieved from the course online website http://pepper.oise.utoronto.ca/~jhewitt/pepper/client2/Pepper.php?page=note10

Gathering Information about the Loyalist Immigrants


Immigra
nt

Loyalists

Black
Loyalists

Time
perio
d
(when
?)

Locatio
n
(where
in
Canada
?)

Living Conditions
(e.g., food, health/medicine,
transportation, working
conditions, entertainment)

Challenges

Other
(jobs, relations with
other groups living in
Canada, etc.)

Aborigin
al
Loyalists

3-circle Venn Diagram organizer:

Assessing the Evidence and Conclusions


(Venn Diagram)
Outstanding
(Level 4)

Very good
(Level 3)

Competent
(Level 2)

Satisfactory
(Level 1)

Gathers and
identifies
relevant and
important
evidence
(K/U/T)

Gathers and
identifies the
most important
and relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies
relevant
statements,
including most
of the
important ones
in various
primary and
secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies some
relevant
statements in
various
primary and
secondary
sources, but
many important
ones are
omitted.

Gathers and
identifies some
relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources, but
many important
ones are
omitted.

Offers
plausible
conclusions
(T)

The conclusions
are highly
plausible and
highly
justifiable in
light of the
evidence.

The conclusions
are clearly
plausible and
highly
justifiable in
light of the
evidence.

The conclusions
are somewhat
plausible and
highly
justifiable in
light of the
evidence.

The conclusions
are plausible
but are barely
justifiable given
the evidence.

Rubric for In-role Writing

Gathers and
identifies
relevant and
important
evidence
(K/U/T)

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Gathers and
identifies the
most important
and relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies
relevant
statements,
including most of
the important
ones in various
primary and
secondary
sources.

Gathers and
identifies some
relevant
statements in
various primary
and secondary
sources, but
many important
ones are
omitted.

Gathers and
identifies no
relevant
information from
various primary
and secondary
sources.

Use of
processing
skills
(e.g.,
interpreting
data and
information
and
formulating
conclusions)
(T)
Expression and
organization of
ideas and
information (C)

Uses processing
skills with limited
effectiveness

Uses processing
skills with some
effectiveness

Uses processing
skills with
considerable
effectiveness

Uses processing
skills with a high
degree of
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with limited
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with some
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with
considerable
effectiveness

Expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with a high
degree of
effectiveness

Appropriate
perspective
and
tone (C)

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with
limited
effectiveness

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with
some
effectiveness

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with
considerable
effectiveness

Writes from the


assigned
perspective and
for the intended
audience with a
high degree of
effectiveness