# Tugas Mekanika Teknik

Tugas Besar

Mekanika Rekayasa II

Dikerjakan oleh :

Lionel ‘oneil’ Zakhy
F 111 10 001

Jurusan Teknik Sipil - Fakultas Teknik
2010
1

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

Buatlah perhitungan Analisis Struktur portal 3 sendi seperti yang tergambar berikut.
q2 = 5 t/m'

P2 = 3 t

q1 = 3 t/m'

q3 = 2 t/m'

Q1

Q2

Q3

h3 = 4.00 m

h2 = 3.00 m

D

S

C

P1 = 6 t

h0 = 3.00 m

h1 = 4.00 m

B

A

L1 = 2.00 m

L2 = 4.00 m

L3 = 3.00 m

L4 = 2.00 m

L = 11.00 m

Penyelesaian :
A. Beban – beban yang bekerja

Q1 = 21 q1L1

= 21 (3)(2)

= 3 ton

Q2 = q 2 L2

= (5)(4)

= 10 ton

Q3 = 21 q 3 h3

= 21 (2)(4)

= 4 ton

1
2

1
2

B. Parameter-parameter pada batang miring (AC)
1. Panjang batang AC :
LAC =

( L1 ) + ( h1 + h2 )
2

2

= 22 + ( 4 + 3 ) = 53  7,28011 m
2

q1 = 3 t/m'

2. Sudut arah batang

C
h2 = 3.00 m

⎛h +h ⎞ ⎛4+3⎞
tanα = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ = ⎜
⎟ = 3,5
⎝ L1 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
α = arc tan ( 3,5 ) = 74,05460o

d2
P1 = 6 t

h1
4
=
= 1,14286 m
tanα 3,5
a2 = L1 − a1 = 2 − 1,14286 = 0,85714 m
a1 =

h
4
= 4,16006 m
d1 = 1 =
sinα sin74,05460o
d 2 = LAC − d1 = 7,28011 − 4,16006 = 3,12005 m

h1 = 4.00 m

3. Panjang a1 dan a2 serta d1 dan d2 :

d1

A

α

a1

a2

L1 = 2.00 m

2

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

C. Menghitung Reaksi Perletakan
q2 = 5 t/m'

P2 = 3 t

q1 = 3 t/m'

q3 = 2 t/m'

Q1

Q2

Q3

h3 = 4.00 m

h2 = 3.00 m

D

S

C

P1 = 6 t

B
h0 = 3.00 m

h1 = 4.00 m

RBH
RBV
RAH

A

RAV
L1 = 2.00 m

L2 = 4.00 m

L3 = 3.00 m

L4 = 2.00 m

L = 11.00 m

Beda tinggi perletakan (ho):
h0 = h1 + h2 − h3 = 4 + 3 − 4 = 3 m

ΣMB = 0

R AV ( L ) − R AH ( h0 ) + P1 ( h1 − h0 ) − Q1 ( L − 23 L1 ) − Q2 ( 31 L2 + L3 + L4 ) − P2 ( L4 ) − Q3 ( 23 h3 ) = 0

R AV (11) − R AH ( 3 ) + 6 ( 4 − 3 ) − 3 (11 − 23 (2) ) − 10 ( 31 (4) + 3 + 2 ) − 3 ( 2 ) − 4 ( 23 (4) ) = 0

R AV (11) − R AH ( 3 ) + 6 − 29 − 63,33333 − 6 − 10,66667 = 0

11R AV − 3R AH − 103 = 0

11R AV − 3R AH = 103

.....pers (1)

ΣM S ( kiri ) = 0

R AV ( L1 + L2 ) − R AH ( h1 + h2 ) − P1 ( h2 ) − Q1 ( 31 L1 + L2 ) − Q2 ( 31 L2 ) = 0

R AV ( 2 + 4 ) − R AH ( 4 + 3 ) − 6 ( 3 ) − 3 ( 31 (2) + 4 ) − 10 ( 31 (4) ) = 0

R AV ( 6 ) − R AH ( 7 ) − 18 − 14 − 13,33333 = 0

6R AV − 7R AH − 45,33333 = 0

6R AV − 7R AH = 45,33333

.....pers(2)

Eliminasi pers(1) dan (2) diperoleh :
R AV = +9,91525 ton ( ↑ )
R AH = +2,02260 ton ( → )

3

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

ΣM A = 0

−RBV ( L ) + RBH ( h0 ) + P1 ( h1 ) + Q1 ( 32 L1 ) + Q2 ( L1 + 32 L2 ) + P2 ( L − L4 ) − Q3 ( h0 + 32 h3 ) = 0

−RBV (11) + RBH ( 3 ) + 6 ( 4 ) + 3 ( 23 (2) ) + 10 ( 2 + 23 (4) ) + 3 (11 − 2 ) − 4 ( 3 + 23 (4) ) = 0

−RBV (11) + RBH ( 3 ) + 24 + 4 + 46,66667 + 27 − 22,66667 = 0

−11RBV + 3R AH + 79 = 0

−11R AV + 3R AH = −79

.....pers(3)

ΣMS ( kanan ) = 0

−RBV ( L3 + L4 ) − RBH ( h3 ) + P2 ( L3 ) + Q3 ( 31 h3 ) = 0

−RBV ( 3 + 2 ) − RBH ( 4 ) + 3 ( 3 ) + 4 ( 31 (4) ) = 0

−RBV ( 5 ) − RBH ( 4 ) + 9 + 5,33333 = 0

−5RBV − 4RBH + 14,33333 = 0

5RBV + 4RBH = 14,33333

.....pers (4)

Eliminasi pers(3) dan (4) diperoleh :
RBV = +6,08475 ton ( ↑ )
RBH = −4.02260 ton ( ← )

Hasil perhitungan reaksi perletakan digambarkan sebagai berikut :
q2 = 5 t/m'

P2 = 3 t

q1 = 3 t/m'

q3 = 2 t/m'

Q1

Q2

Q3

h3 = 4.00 m

h2 = 3.00 m

D

S

C

P1 = 6 t

B
h0 = 3.00 m

h1 = 4.00 m

RBH = 4,02260 t

RBV = 6,08475 t

A
RAH = 2,02260 t

L1 = 2.00 m

L2 = 4.00 m

L3 = 3.00 m

L4 = 2.00 m

L = 11.00 m

RAV =9,91525 t

4

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

Kontrol keseimbangan Statis :
ΣV = 0 ⇒

R AV + RBV − Q1 − Q2 − P2 = 0
9,91525 + 6,08475 − 3 − 10 − 3 = 0
0.00000 = 0

ΣH = 0 ⇒

.....OK .!!

R AH − RBH + P1 − Q3 = 0
2,02260 − 4,02260 + 6 − 4 = 0
0.00000 = 0

.....OK .!!

Kontrol keseimbangan momen pada setiap titik kumpul :
Syarat : ΣM = 0
-

Titik kumpul C
ΣMC (kiri )

ΣMC (kanan )

ΣM C

-

=

R AV ( L1 ) − R AH ( h1 + h2 ) − P1 (h2 ) − Q1 ( 31 L1 )

=

9,91525 ( 2 ) − 2,02260 ( 4 + 3 ) − 6(3) − 3 ( 31 (2) )

=

−14,32770 tm

=

−RBV ( L − L1 ) + RBH ( h3 ) + Q2 ( 23 L2 ) + P2 ( L2 + L3 ) + Q3 ( 31 h3 )

=

−6,08475 (11 − 2 ) + 4,02260 ( 4 ) + 10 ( 23 (4) ) + 3 ( 4 + 3 ) + 4 ( 31 (4) )

=

−54,76275 + 16,09040 + 26,66667 + 21 + 5,33333

=

14,32765 tm

=

( −14,32770 ) + (14,32765 )

=

−0,00005 ≈ 0

=

R AV ( L ) − R AH ( h1 + h2 ) − P1 ( h2 ) − Q1 ( L − 23 L1 ) − Q2 ( 31 L2 + L3 + L4 ) − P3 ( L4 )

=

9,91525 (11) − 2,02260 ( 4 + 3 ) − 6 ( 3 ) − 3 (11 − 23 (2) ) − 10 ( 31 (4) + 3 + 2 ) − 3 ( 2 )

=
=
=

109,06775 − 14,15820 − 18 − 29 − 63,33333 − 6
−21,42378 tm
RBH ( h3 ) + Q3 ( 31 h3 )

=

4,02260 ( 4 ) + 4 ( 31 (4) )

=
=

16,09040 + 5,33333
21,42373 tm

=

( −21,42378 ) + ( 21,42373 ) = −0,00005 ≈ 0

...OK .!

Titik kumpul D
ΣM D (kiri )

ΣM D ( kanan )

ΣM D

...OK .!

5

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

-

Titik kumpul S
ΣM S (kiri )

ΣM S (kanan)

=

R AV ( L1 + L2 ) − R AH ( h1 + h2 ) − P1 (h2 ) − Q1 ( 31 L1 + L2 ) − Q2 ( 31 L2 )

=

9,91525 ( 2 + 4 ) − 2,02260 ( 4 + 3 ) − 6(3) − 3 ( 31 (2) + 4 ) − 10 ( 31 (4) )

=
=

59,49150 − 14,15820 − 18 − 14 − 13,33333
−0,00003 tm ≈ 0
... OK .!

=

−RBV ( L3 + L4 ) + RBH ( h3 ) + Q3 ( 31 h3 ) + P2 ( L3 )

=

−6,08475 ( 3 + 2 ) + 4,02260 ( 4 ) + 4 ( 31 (4) ) + 3 ( 3 )

=
=

−30,42375 + 16,09040 + 5,33333 + 9
0,00002 tm  0

....OK .!

D. Menghitung Gaya – gaya Batang
1. Batang AC
Karena merupakan batang miring maka terlebih dahulu dilakukan transformasi gaya
berdasarkan arah aksial dan arah lateral batang.
- Transformasi reaksi perletakan
q1
C

P1

Rax

os α
P1 c

A

RAV s

RAH
in α cos α

α

Arah Lateral :
Rlt

α

RA
α V cos α

= R AH cos α + R AV sinα
= 2,02260cos74,054600 + 9,91525sin74,054600
= 10,08940 ton

α

RAH s
in α

RAH

Arah Aksial :

Q1 s

Q1 c
os α α
P1 s
in α

in α

Q1

= R AV cos α − R AH sinα
= 9,91525cos74,054600 − 2,02260sin74,054600
= 0,77915 ton

RAV

- Transformasi beban merata
Arah Aksial :

6

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

Q1 sinα = 21 qax LAC
2Q1 sinα 2(3) sin74,054600
=
= 0,79245 t / m
LAC
7,28011

qax =

Arah Lateral :
Q1 cos α = 21 q lt LAC
2Q1 cos α 2(3)cos74,054600
q lt =
=
= 0,22642 t / m
LAC
7,28011

Hasil transformasi beban digambarkan sebagai berikut :
x2

d1 = 4,16006 m

d1 = 4,16006 m

d2 = 3,12005 m

P1 sin α

x1

A
LAC

Q1 cos α

d2 = 3,12005 m

x1

qlt

Q1 sin α

Rax

A

C

Rlt

P1 cos α
LAC

qax

C

Arah Aksial
Arah Lateral

Bidang Momen (Mx), Bidang Geser (Dx) dan Bidang Normal (Nx)
M x1

= Rlt ( x ) −

q lt x 3
6LAC

........0 ≤ x ≤ 4,16006

0,22642 ( x )
= 0,77915 ( x ) −
6(7,28011)

3

= 0,77915 ( x ) − 0,005184 ( x )
Dx 1 =
N x1

3

dM x 1
2
= 0,77915 − 0.015551( x )
dx
= −Rax +

qax x 2
2LAC

0,79245 ( x )
= −10,08940 +
2(7,28011)
= −10,08940 + 0,05443 ( x )

2

2

7

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

Mx2

q lt x 3
= Rlt ( x ) − ( P1 sinα ) ( x − d1 ) −
6LAC

........4,16006 ≤ x ≤ 7,28011

0,22642 ( x )
= 0,77915 ( x ) − ( 6sin74,05460 ) ( x − 4,16006) −
6(7,28011)

3

0

= 24 − 4,98999 ( x ) − 0,005184 ( x )
Dx 2 =
Nx 2

3

dM x 2
2
= −4,98999 − 0,015551( x )
dx
q x2
= −Rax − P1 cos α + ax
2LAC
0,79245 ( x )
= −10,08940 − 6cos74,05460 +
2(7,28011)

2

0

= −11,73773 + 0,05443 ( x )

2

Tabel perhitungan MDN batang AC
Interval

0 ≤ x ≤ 4,16006

4,16006 ≤ x ≤ 7,28011

x

Mx (ton.m)

Dx(ton)

Nx(ton)

0.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
4.16006
4.16006
5.000
6.000
7.000
7.28011

0.000
0.774
1.517
2.197
2.785
2.868
2.868
-1.598
-7.060
-12.708
-14.328

0.779
0.764
0.717
0.639
0.530
0.510
-5.259
-5.379
-5.550
-5.752
-5.814

-10.089
-10.035
-9.872
-9.600
-9.219
-9.147
-10.796
-10.377
-9.778
-9.071
-8.853

2. Batang CS (0 ≤ x ≤ 4)
Mx

= R AV ( L1 + x ) − R AH ( h1 + h2 ) − P1 ( h2 ) − Q1 ( 31 L1 + x ) −

q2 x 3
6LCS

= 9,91525 ( 2 + x ) − 2,02260 ( 4 + 3 ) − 6 ( 3 ) − 3 ( 31 (2) + x ) −

5x 3
6(4)

= 19,83050 + 9,91525 ( x ) − 14,15820 − 18 − 2 − 3 ( x ) − 0,208333 ( x )
= −14,32770 + 6,91525 ( x ) − 0,208333 ( x )
Dx =

3

3

dM x
2
= 6,91525 − 0,625 ( x )
dx

8

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

Nx

q2 = 5 t/m'

= −2,02260 − 6
= −8,02260 ton(tekan )

q1 = 3 t/m'

S

h2 = 3.00 m

C
x

Q1

= −R AH − P1

Check apakah Mmax terdapat

Q2

dalam interval
P1 = 6 t

Syarat : Mmax Æ Dx = 0
6,91525 − 0,625 ( x ) = 0

h1 = 4.00 m

2

x=

6,91525
0,625

A
RAH = 2,02260 t

L1 = 2.00 m

L2 = 4.00 m

RAV =9,91525 t

Tabel perhitungan MDN batang CS
Interval

(0 ≤ x ≤ 4)

x
0.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
3.32632
4.000

Mx (ton.m)
-14.328
-7.624
-2.169
0.785
0.998
-0.011

Dx(ton)
6.915
6.290
4.415
1.290
0.000
-3.085

Nx(ton)
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023

9

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

3. Batang DS (Ditinjau sebelah kanan S)
Interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2

x2

P2 = 3 t

= − {−RBV ( x ) + RBH ( h3 ) + Q3 ( 31 h3 )}

M x1

x1
q3 = 2 t/m'

= − {−6,08475 ( x ) + 4,02260 ( 4 ) + 4 ( 31 (4) )}

D

S

h3 = 4.00 m

Q3

RBH = 4,02260 t

B

= − {−6,08475 ( x ) + 21,42373}
Dx 1 = −
Nx1

dMx
= −6,08475 ton
dx
= −RBH − Q4

h0 = 3.00 m

= −4,02260 − 4
= −8,02260 ton(tekan )

RBV = 6,08475 t

L3 = 3.00 m

L4 = 2.00 m

Interval 2 ≤ x ≤ 5
Mx2

= − {−RBV ( x ) + RBH ( h3 ) + Q3 ( 31 h3 ) + P2 ( x − L4 )}

= − {−6,08475 ( x ) + 4,02260 ( 4 ) + 4 ( 31 (4) ) + 3 ( x − 2 )}
= − {−6,08475 ( x ) + 16,09040 + 5,33333 + 3 ( x ) − 6}
= − {−3,08475 ( x ) + 15,42373}
Dx 2 = −

dMx
dx

Nx 2

= −RBH − Q4

= −3,08475 ton

= −4,02260 − 4
= −8,02260 ton(tekan )

Tabel perhitungan MDN batang DS
Interval
(0 ≤ x ≤ 2)

(2 ≤ x ≤ 5)

x

Mx (ton.m)

Dx(ton)

Nx(ton)

0.000
1.000
2.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000

-21.424
-15.339
-9.254
-9.254
-6.169
-3.085
0.000

-6.085
-6.085
-6.085
-3.085
-3.085
-3.085
-3.085

-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023
-8.023

10

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

4. Batang BD
q3 = 2 t/m'
D

2 x 3 ⎪⎫
⎪⎧
= − ⎨4,02260 ( x ) +

6 ( 4 ) ⎪⎭
⎪⎩

h3 = 4.00 m

Q3

q x3 ⎫
= − ⎨RBH ( x ) + 3 ⎬
6LBD ⎭

Mx

{

RBH = 4,02260 t

B

}
= {4,02260 + 0,25 ( x ) }

= − 4,02260 ( x ) + 0,08333 ( x )

x

Dx = −

RBV = 6,08475 t

Nx

dMx
dx

3

2

= −RBV = −6,08475 ton(tekan )

Check apakah Mmax terdapat dalam interval
Syarat : Mmax Æ Dx = 0
4,02260 + 0,25 ( x ) = 0
2

x= −

4,02260
0,25

Tabel perhitungan MDN batang BD
Interval

x

Mx (ton.m)

Dx(ton)

Nx(ton)

(0 ≤ x ≤ 4)

0.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000

0.000
-4.106
-8.712
-14.318
-21.424

4.023
4.273
5.023
6.273
8.023

-6.875
-6.875
-6.875
-6.875
-6.875

11

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

E. Gambar Bidang Momen
-21,424 tm
-14,328 tm
-9,254 tm
-14,328 tm
-21,424 tm
C

+0,998 tm

D

S

+2,868 tm

BIDANG MOMEN

B

SKALA JARAK
0

0

A

1m

6 t.m

2m

12 t.m

3m

18 t.m

SKALA GAYA

12

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

F. Gambar Bidang Lintang

+6,915 tm

S

C

D

+8,023 t

-5,814 t

-3,085 t

-6,085 t
+0,510 t
-5,259 t
B

+4,023 t

DIAGRAM GAYA GESER
SKALA JARAK
0

+0,779 t

A

0

1m

2m

3t

6t

3m

9t

SKALA GAYA

13

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

G. Gambar Bidang Normal

S

C

D

-8,023 t

-9,147 t
-10,796 t
-6,875 t

B

DIAGRAM GAYA NORMAL
SKALA JARAK
0

0

A

1m

2m

4t

8t

3m

12 t

SKALA GAYA

-10,089 t

14

Tugas Mekanika Teknik

VERIFIKASI HASIL PERHITUNGAN
MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM SAP 2000

15

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:07:56
S T A T I C

L O A D

Ton-m Units

C A S E S

STATIC
CASE

CASE
TYPE

SELF WT
FACTOR

1.0000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:07:56
J O I N T

PAGE 1

Ton-m Units

PAGE 2

D A T A

JOINT

GLOBAL-X

GLOBAL-Y

GLOBAL-Z

1
2
3
4
5

-6.00000
-4.00000
0.00000
5.00000
5.00000

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

0.00000
7.00000
7.00000
7.00000
3.00000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:07:56
F R A M E

E L E M E N T

Ton-m Units

RESTRAINTS
1
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

ANGLE-A

ANGLE-B

ANGLE-C

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

PAGE 3

D A T A

FRAME

JNT-1

JNT-2

SECTION

ANGLE

RELEASES

SEGMENTS

R1

R2

FACTOR

LENGTH

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

2
3
4
5

SECTION
SECTION
SECTION
SECTION

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

000000
000222
000111
000000

2
4
4
2

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

7.280
4.000
5.000
4.000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:07:56
F R A M E

S P A N

Ton-m Units

D I S T R I B U T E D

PAGE 4
L O A D S

FRAME

TYPE

DIRECTION

DISTANCE-A

VALUE-A

DISTANCE-B

VALUE-B

1
2
4

FORCE
FORCE
FORCE

Z PROJ
GLOBAL-Z
GLOBAL-X

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
-2.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

-3.0000
-5.0000
0.0000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:07:56
F R A M E

S P A N

Ton-m Units

P O I N T

L O A D S

PAGE 5

FRAME

TYPE

DIRECTION

DISTANCE

VALUE

1
3

FORCE
FORCE

GLOBAL-X
GLOBAL-Z

0.5714
0.6000

6.0000
-3.0000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:08:25
J O I N T
JOINT

Ton-m Units

PAGE 1

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

U1

U2

U3

R1

R2

R3

1

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

14.2615

0.0000

2

84.8286

0.0000

-24.2368

0.0000

25.3342

0.0000

3

84.8286

0.0000

-177.0988

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

4

84.8286

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

-4.5134

0.0000

5

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

33.0008

0.0000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:08:25
J O I N T
JOINT

Ton-m Units

PAGE 2

R E A C T I O N S

F1

F2

F3

M1

M2

M3

1

2.0226

0.0000

9.9152

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

5

-4.0226

0.0000

6.0848

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

SAP2000 v7.40 File: SAP_GAFAR
1/26/10 13:08:25
F R A M E
FRAME
1

2

3

4

E L E M E N T

Ton-m Units

PAGE 3

F O R C E S

LOC

P

V2

V3

T

M2

M3

0.00
3.64
7.28

-10.09
-9.37
-8.85

-7.792E-01
-5.731E-01
5.81

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
2.59
-14.33

0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00

-8.02
-8.02
-8.02
-8.02
-8.02

-6.92
-6.29
-4.42
-1.29
3.08

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-14.33
-7.62
-2.16
7.931E-01
0.00

0.00
1.25
2.50
3.75
5.00

-8.02
-8.02
-8.02
-8.02
-8.02

3.08
3.08
3.08
6.08
6.08

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
-3.86
-7.71
-13.82
-21.42

0.00
2.00
4.00

-6.08
-6.08
-6.08

-8.02
-5.02
-4.02

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

-21.42
-8.71
0.00

SAP2000

SAP2000 v7.40 - File:SAP_Gafar - Moment 3-3 Diagram

1/26/10 13:12:14

SAP2000

SAP2000 v7.40 - File:SAP_Gafar - Shear Force 2-2 Diagram

1/27/10 21:58:34