You are on page 1of 16



Kabaddi in Hindi means holding of Breath. Modern Kabaddi is a synthesis of the

game played in various forms under different names throughout South Asia.
Buddhiya Kabaddi is one such ancient sport which has its origin in Magadh region
and is still a popular sport among the rural youth. It was probably invented to ward
off the group attacks. History reveals that princes played to display their strength
and win their brides. The game has many popular local versions. Salle-Maan-Chi is
a popular chant for the raiders in the game and the game therefore is also locally
popular by name “CHI”.

Skill required

Running, Quickness, Observation


About the game

The game consists of two teams the Raider and the Defender with 9 players each in
the field. There are two circular posts called “castle” and “outpost” at the opposite
ends inside the bigger oval field. Dimensions of the ground are fixed on mutual
agreement. Raiders are occupants of the caste and the outpost while the Defenders
occupy the outfield. The raiders have 8 players in the castle and one Buddhiya
trapped in the outpost. The defender/raider that is “OUT” shall be sent off the field.
Raiders’ objective is to facilitate escape of the Buddhiya trapped at the outpost;
they do this by raiding the defenders and “OUT” them. A player can also get
“OUT” by going over a boundary line or part of the body touches the ground
outside the boundary.Defenders are spread in the field preventing escape of the
Buddhiya. The raiders win if the Buddhiya successfully joins them at castle
without being touched by the defenders. Defenders win if they prevent the escape
of the Buddhiya in the stipulated time or they touch the Buddhiya while she is on
her escape run towards the castle. The match has two half of 20 minutes and the
raider in 1st half becomes defender in the 2nd half. The match revolves around the
Buddhiya the Buddhiya has to escape from the outpost for castle in the stipulated
time. In the respective “half” if the Buddhiya is successful or unsuccessful in her
escape from outpost to the castle the “half” is complete. The team winning the toss
shall choose to either raid or defend in the first half.

Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) is a team sport that originated in

South Asia. Two teams occupy opposite halves of a field and take turns sending a
"raider" into the other half, in order to win points by tagging or wrestling members
of the opposing team; the raider then tries to return to his own half, holding his
breath during the whole raid.


The origin of Kabaddi can be traced to pre-historic times when man learned how to
defend in groups against animals or attack weaker animals individually or in
groups for survival and food. Though Kabaddi is primarily an South Asian game, it
is originated from Punjab (Indian Province). There is, however, concrete evidence
that the game is 4,000 years old.[citation needed] Another theory states that the sport is
actually inspired by the way Abhimanyu tried to break the Kaurava formation
(Chakravyuha) but failed.

There is a popular belief that Kabaddi originated in the South Indian State of Tamil
Nadu. A folk history of the game tells that it developed from a game of tag
between two young boys - the rule of holding one's breath being added later.
The game is known by many names, all of Tamil origin: Kabaddi, Sadugudu,
Gudugudu, Palinjadugudu and Sadugoodatthi. The word 'Kabaddi' could have
originated from the Tamil words 'kai' (hand) and 'pidi' (catch).


The Kabaddi Federation of India (KFI) was founded in 1950, and it compiled a
standard set of rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was
founded in 1973 . The AKFI has given new shape to the rules and it has also the
rights of modification in the rules. The Asian Kabaddi Federation was founded
under the chairmanship of Sharad Pawar.

Kabaddi is a very popular game in Bangladesh, especially in the villages it is also

called the 'game of rural Bengal'. In some areas Kabaddi is also known as Ha-du-
du. But despite its popularity Ha-du-du had no definite rules and it used to be
played with different rules in different areas. Ha-du-du was given the name
Kabaddi and the status of National Game of Bangladesh in 1972 .

Bangladesh Amateur Kabaddi Federation was formed in 1973 . It framed rules and
regulations for the game. Bangladesh first played a Kabaddi test in 1974 with a
visiting Indian team, which played test matches with the district teams of Dhaka,
Tangail, Dinajpur, Jessore, Faridpur and Comilla . In 1978, the Asian Amateur
Kabaddi Federation was formed at a conference of delegates from Bangladesh,
India, Nepal and Pakistan in the Indian town of Villai .

In 1979, a return test between Bangladesh and India was held at different places of
India including Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Punjab. The Asian Kabaddi
Championship was successfully arranged in 1980 and India emerged as the
champion and Bangladesh as the runners-up. Bangladesh became runners-up again
in 1985 in Asian Kabaddi Championship held in Jaipur, India. The other teams
included in the tournament were Nepal, Malaysia and Japan. Kabaddi was played
as a demonstration sport at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. The game was
included for the first time in Asian Games held in Beijing in 1990. Eight countries
took part including India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and
Bangladesh. India won the gold medal and has since won gold at the following
three Asian Games in Hiroshima in 1994, Bangkok in 1998 and Busan in 2002.
Kabaddi is popular throughout South Asia, and has also spread to Southeast Asia,
Japan and Iran. It is the national game of Bangladesh where it is known as হাডুডু
Haḍuḍu. It is the state game of Punjab, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,
and Maharashtra in India. It is played by the British Army for fun, to keep fit and
as an enticement to recruit soldiers from the British Asian community.

Game Play-

In the team, or transnational, style of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each
occupy opposite halves of a field of 12.5m × 10m (roughly half the size of a
basketball court). Each has five supplementary players held in reserve. The game is
in 20-minute halves, with a five-minute half-time break during which the teams
switch sides.

Teams take turns sending a "raider" to the opposite team's half, where the goal is to
tag or wrestle ("confine") members of the opposite team before returning to the
home half. Tagged members are "out" and sent off the field.

Meanwhile, defenders must form a chain, for example, by linking hands; if the
chain is broken, a member of the defending team is sent off. The goal of the
defenders is to stop the raider returning to the home side before taking a breath. If
the raider takes a breath before returning, the raider is sent off the field.

A player can also get out by going over a boundary line or part of the body touches
the ground outside the boundary, except during a struggle with an opposing team
Each time a player is out the opposing team earns a point. A team scores a bonus
of two points, called a lona, if the entire opposing team is declared out. At the end
of the game, the team with the most points wins.

Matches are staged on age and weight. Six officials supervise a match: one referee,
two umpires, a scorer and two assistant scorers.


1 Team:
Each team shall consist of 7 Players and one offi cial. 5 Players shall take the
ground at a time and the remaining 2 Reserves shall be substitutes.

2 Duration of the match:

The duration of the time of the match shall be two halves of 15 minutes in case
of Men, Women, Junior Boys and Junior Girls with a 5 Minutes interval.
Note: The last raid of each half of the match shall be al lowed to be completed
even after completion of the sched uled time as mentioned above.
3 System of Play.
The out and revival rule shall not be applicable. Only points scored shall be
4 Productive Raid:
Every raid shall be productive either by scoring point/points/ technical point/
self out/raider being caught. Even in case an anti or antis becomes self out, the
raid shall be considered to be over and the raider’s side shall be awarded a
point. If the raider returns safely without scoring or productive raid to his court,
the opponent team will be awarded a point. If a raid is more than 30 seconds,
the opponent team shall be awarded a point.
5 Time Out:
a Each team shall be allowed to take “Two Time Outs” of 30 seconds each in each
half; such time out shall be called for by the Captain or Coach of the team with
the permission of referee. The time out time will be added to match time.
b During the time out the teams shall not leave the ground, any violation in this;
a technical point shall be awarded to the opponent team.
c Offi cial time out can be called for by the Referee / Umpire in the event of any
injury to a player, interruption by outsiders, relining of the ground or any such
unforeseen circumstances. Such time out time will be added to the match time.
6 Substitution:
a Two Reserve players can be substituted with the permission of Referee during
time out or interval.
b Substituted players can be re-substituted.
c If any player is suspended or disqualifi ed from the match, no substitution is
for that particular player. The team will play with less number of players.
7 Result:
The team which scores the highest number of points at the end of the match
shall be declared the winner.

8 Tie in Knock Out:

If there is a tie in the knock out matches, the match will be decided on the
folloing basis:
i Both the teams should fi eld 5 players in the Court
ii Both the teams should give the names of the 3 different raiders with their Chest
Numbers as per their order of raid to the referee. Substitution of players shall
not be allowed from the fi elded 5 players.
iii Each team shall be given 3 raids by different raiders to raid alternately.
iv In case any raider in the given list of 3 raiders is injured before his chance of
raid, in such case one of the remaining 2 players in the fi elded 5 can do the
v The side which raids fi rst at the beginning of the match shall be allowed to raid
vi Even after 3 Raids if there is a tie, the game shall be decided as per the “Golden
Raid” Rule.

N.B: If player/players are suspended temporarily or disqualifi ed during the tie

breaker, the team will play with less number of players.

Golden Raid Rule:

• Even after 3-3 raids, if there is a tie, a fresh toss will be taken and the team that
wins the toss shall have the chance to raid i.e. “GOLDEN RAID”.
• If there is tie even after the Golden Raid, then a chance will be given to the
team for the Golden Raid.
• In the Golden Raid the team which scores the leading point shall be declared as
9 League System:
In the League System the team that wins the match will score two league points
the looser will score zero point. In case of Tie both the sides will score one league
point each.

Tie in league points:

If there is a tie in the league points scored in the league system, the winner and
of the pool will be decided on the basis of “For and Against Points” scored by
the following formula:
a The team which scores less than 25% of the league points will not be considered
for the “For and Against Points” formula.
b To decide the tie, the “For and Against Points” of the concerned teams against
the teams which scored 25% or more of the league points will be considered and
the difference calculated
c The team which is scoring highest score difference of “For and Against” will be
declared pool winner.
d Even after considering “For and Against Points”, if there is a tie, the total points
“SCORED FOR” only shall be counted.
e Even after this if there is a tie, the result of the match played between the teams
is to be considered.
f Even after this if there is a tie, the highest number of points scored without
25% rule shall be considered.
g Even after this if there is a tie, the Winner and Runner will be decided on toss.
Note: Walkover is given to the opponent team by the referee due to late reporting,
non-reporting or due to any other technical issues of the defaulting team. Such
will be scratched from the competition and the score of such teams shall not be
to decide the tie. The same rule shall be applicable to teams which concede
the match also.
10 If owing to failure of light or any other unforeseen circumstances, a match
not be completed in the same session; such a match shall be replayed in the next
11 In case of temporary suspension of the match, such match shall be continued
with the same score and remaining time in the same session. During the temporary
suspension the players shall not leave their respective courts without the
permission of the Referee. If a team violates this rule a technical point will be
awarded to the opponent team.
12 Nails of the players must be closely clipped and no ornaments of any sort shall
be allowed.
13 All players must have distinct numbers on their T-shirt of at least 4 Inches
in front and 6 inches thickness at the back. The team should follow the dress
code compulsorily.
14 Application of oils or any other soft substances to the body shall not be allowed.
15 Shoes are compulsory to all the players on the clay surface.

Forms of Kabaddi


In the 'Amar' form of Kabaddi, whenever any player is touched (out), he does not
go out of the court, but stays inside, and one point is awarded to the team that
touched him. This game is also played on a time basis, i.e the time is fixed. This
form of kabaddi is played in Punjab, Canada, England, New Zealand, USA,
Pakistan and Australia. In the Amar form of Kabaddi, each team consists of 5-6
stoppers and 4-5 raiders. At one time, only 4 stoppers are allowed to play on the
field. Every time a stopper stops the raider from going back to his starting point,
that stoppers team gets 1 point. on the other hand, every time the raider tags one of
the stoppers and returns to his starting point, his team gets one point. At one time,
only one of the stoppers can try to stop the raider. If more than one touch the
raider, an automatic point is awarded to the raider's team. If the stopper is pushed
out by the raider or vice versa, then the team whose member is still in the field gets
a point. If both the raider and the stopper go out, the result is a common point,
where nobody gets a point. The Amar form of kabaddi is also used by the World
Kabaddi Federation (WKF) in its National, Beach and Circle Kabaddi

'Surjeevani' Kabaddi is played under the Kabaddi Federation of India, governed by

its rules. In Surjeevani Kabaddi, one player is revived against one player of the
opposite team who is out, one out, one in. The duration, the number of players,
dimensions of the court, etc. have been fixed by the Kabaddi Federation of India.
This form of Kabaddi is the closest to the present game. In this form of Kabaddi,
players are put out and revived and the game lasts 40 minutes with a 5-minute
break in between. There are nine players on each side. The team that puts out all
the players on the opponent's side scores four extra points for a 'Iona'. The winning
team is the one that scores most points after 40 minutes. The field is bigger in this
form of Kabaddi and the 'cant' different in various regions. Modern Kabaddi
resembles this form of Kabaddi especially with regard to 'out & revival system' and
'Iona'. The present form of Kabaddi is a synthesis of all these forms with changes
in the rules.


This is played with nine players on either side, in a field of no specific

measurements. The characteristic is that a player put out has to remain out until all
his team members are out. The team that is successful in putting out all the players
of the opponent's side secures a point. This is akin to the present system of 'Iona'.
After all the players are put out, the team is revived and the game continues. The
game continues until five or seven 'Iona' are secured. The game has no fixed time.
The main disadvantage of this form of Kabaddi is that the player Is not in position
to give his best performance since he is likely to remain out for the better part of
the match until an Iona is scored.

The game, known as Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India, Ha-Do-Do in Eastern India and
Bangladesh, Chedugudu in Southern India and Kaunbada in Northern India, has
changed through the ages. Modem Kabaddi is a synthesis of the game played in
various forms under different names.[2]

A dramatized version of the Mahabharata[clarification needed] has made an analogy of the

game to a tight situation faced by a character called "Abhimaneu", heir of the
Pandava kings, when surrounded by the enemy. Buddhist literature speaks of the
Gautam Buddha playing Kabaddi.[citation needed]

Kabaddi received international exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics,

demonstrated by Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati, Maharashtra.
The game was introduced in the Indian Olympic Games at Calcutta in 1938. In
1950 the All India Kabaddi Federation came into existence and compiled standard
rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973.
After formation of the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the first men's
nationals were held in Madras (re-named Chennai), while the women's were in
Calcutta in 1955.The AKFI has given new shape to the rules and has the right to
modify them. The Asian Kabaddi Federation was founded under the chairmanship
of Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot.

Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation is now headed By Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot
as President and Mr. Muhammad Sarwar as Secretary General.

Kabaddi was introduced and popularized in Japan in 1979. The Asian Amateur
Kabaddi Federation sent Prof. Sundar Ram of India to tour Japan for two months to
introduce the game.

In 1979, a return test between Bangladesh and India was held at different places of
India including Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Punjab. The Asian Kabaddi
Championship was arranged in 1980 and India emerged as champion and
Bangladesh runner-up. Bangladesh became runner-up again in 1985 in the Asian
Kabaddi Championship held in Jaipur, India. The other teams in the tournament
were Nepal, Malaysia and Japan. The game was included for the first time in the
Asian Games in Beijing in 1990. India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka,
Pakistan and Bangladesh took part. India won the gold medal and has won gold at
the following three Asian Games in Hiroshima in 1994, Bangkok in 1998 and
Busan in 2002. India won the gold medal in the 2006 Asian Games at Doha.

Attempts to popularize kabaddi in Great Britain saw British TV network Channel 4

commission a programme dedicated to the sport. The show, Kabaddi, on Channel 4
in the early 1990s, failed to capture viewers despite fixtures such as West Bengal
Police versus the Punjab. Kabaddi was axed in 1992, but not before its presenter
Krishnan Guru-Murthy suffered a collapsed lung while participating in the sport.[4]

In the 1998 Asian games the Indian Kabaddi team defeated Pakistan in a thrilling
final match at Bangkok (Thailand). The chief coach of the team was former
kabaddi player and coach Flt. Lt. S P Singh.

The first World Kabaddi Championship was held in Hamilton, Canada, when
14,000 people at the Copps Coliseum watched top players from India, Pakistan,
Canada, England and the United States. The next edition was in Surrey, British
Columbia, which hosts the first all-kabaddi stadium.[5][6] India has remained world
champion since it was included in Asian Games and South Asian Federation
games. In 2008 Sukhbir Singh Badal mooted a professional world kabbadi league
with sponsorship to attract the best players; this league will be based in India with
tournaments in Canada as well. The current Kabaddi Championship team consists
of several local Indian players, Himanshu Batta, Ravi Venkataya, Harman
Dhaliwal, Kapil Singh and Mayank Gauri.[7]

Kabaddi is now a very popular game and is a regular sport in Asian Games, Asian
Indoor Games and Asian Beach Games apart from SAF Games. Kabaddi will be a
demonstration sport during Commonwealth Games 2010 at New Delhi.[8]

One of the many greats of the game of Kabaddi is one Grant Owens, a 3 time
Kabaddi World Champion (Twice with England, Once with the Outer Hebrides).
One of the skills that makes Owens such a great player, is his low centre of gravity
and his rumoured 7 litre lung capacity.

Holding breath



Movement of hand and foot


Safe Raid



Side Kick

Front Kick

Round Kick

Sitting Kick

Offensive Skills

Starting a Raid

Body Position during Raid

Movements during Raid


Touching with the hand

Vertical swing of arms

Horizontal swing of arms

Defensive Skills

Wrist catch or Lock

Crocodile Hold

Over the shoulder catch

Ankle catch and lock



Play Field: The play field means that portion of the ground which measures
11 metres by 7 metres (ABCD) for Men & Junior Boys and 10 meters by 6 metres
for Women, Junior Girls before struggle.

Play Field Measurements:

a. Men & Junior Boys: 11 x 9 Metres divided into two equal halves by a
mid line (as shown in the diagram).

b. Women & Junior Girls: 10 x 8 Metres.

The lines on the four sides of the play fi eld are known as the

boundaries (AB, BC, CD, and DA). All lines shall be 3 to 5 cms. width and form
the part of the play field.

• Width of all the lines shall be minimum 3 cms to maximum 5 Cms.

• It is necessary to have 3 Metres clear space outside the boundaries

• There shall be no Baulk line and Bonus line in National Club Games
The Dhyanchand Award instituted by the government of India to encourage
players from different games. The 2007 Dhyanchand Award is given to Shamsher
Singh for Kabbadi .

Int'l Canada/ America kabaddi cup 05

dedicated to late Amarjit Singh( ambi) Hathur
date : 18th Dec
Venue : Guru Nanak Stadium Ludhiana
Sports : Kabaddi & Athletics
Prizes: First 1 lakh - second 75 000
( Gurdas Maan singing live throughout the day)

Indo Canadian Sports Mela 06

( by Malwa Heritage foundation Bathinda)
Date: 8 th January
Venue: Bathinda Sports Stadium
Sports: Kabaddi & other
Prizes : first 1 lakh second - 75 000

Kalgidhar Int'l Tournament ( Kamalpura)

dates : 28,29,30,31 Jan
venue: Kamalpura stadium
sports : Kabaddi , Soccer, hockey, Volleyball
Prize : 1 lakh

Jharkhand sports tournament (organised by Mata Sahib kaur sports club)

( Mini Punjab olympics)
dates: 3, 4, 5 Feb
venue: Jharkhand ( Ludhiana)
sports : Kabaddi,soccer, Basketball,wrestling, handball, volleyball, athletics
prize : unknown
Shahid Baba Deep Singh Kabaddi cup ( Kapurthala )
date: 24th Feb
venue: Kapurthala Stadium
sports : Kabaddi Int'l teams
prize : first - 1,6000 second 1,2500


S. Talwinder Singh "Sonu" S.Balwinder Singh "Fiddu"

A famous Kabaddi player Arjuna Award Winner Kabaddi player

Related Interests