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Select the best answer (or answers) for the following

questions about making a sound argument and logical
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Part 1: Sound Arguments

Questions 1-4 are based on the reading
and the website on logical fallacies
available at
A Skeptics Guide to the Universe
Logical Fallacies

1. A sound argument starts with true

premises, or facts, and then applies sound
logical principles to reach a true conclusion.
(Select one.)


Next Question

Question 1: Feedback
Correct Answer: True
A sound argument uses true facts or premises
and valid logic or reasoning to arrive at a true
conclusion. In contrast, an unsound argument
is one in which either some or all the premises
are incorrect, or invalid logic or reasoning is
used to reach a conclusion.

2. An unsound argument can result when:

(Select all that apply.)
A. a premise is wrong.

B. not all the relevant premises are

C. the premise may or may not be
D. a premise is hidden.
Next Question

Question 2: Feedback
Correct Answer: All of the above can result in an
unsound argument.
A careful analysis of an arguments premises is always
necessary. Check to make sure that the premises are in
fact correct, that all relevant premises are included, that
the argument isnt based on assumptions or
hypotheticals, and that there are no hidden premises
that is, the premise is implied in the conclusion but not
stated outright.

3. Rationalization is the tendency of people

to start with a false conclusion and then
draw upon logical fallacies to support it.
(Select one.)

Next Question

Question 3: Feedback
Correct Answer: False
Rationalization occurs when people start with
the conclusion they want, and then work
backwards, selecting the facts that fit and using
flawed reasoning to support it. However, their
conclusion may still be true; their argument just
isnt sound. (See the Fallacy Fallacy.)

4. Most common fallacies fall into one of the

following categories: (Select all that apply.)
A. Fallacies of Causation
B. Fallacies of Relevance

C. Fallacies of Presumption
D. Fallacies of Ambiguity

Next Question

Question 4: Feedback
Correct Answers: B., C., and D.
Fallacies of Relevance include fallacies that rely on
premises that arent relevant to the conclusion.
Fallacies of Presumption contain false premises and thus
fail to establish their conclusion.
Fallacies of Ambiguity use language in misleading ways.
Incorrect Answer: A.
Although there are fallacies related to causation, there
is no specific category for them.

Part 2: Logical Fallacies

For questions 5-10, click on the image
to watch the video clip, then answer
the question about it.

5. Mike and Straw Mike are talking about climate

change. What fallacy is Straw Mike guilty of?
(Select one.)
A. Genetic
B. Moving the Goal

C. Ad Hominem
D. Begging the

Next Question

Question 5: Feedback
Correct Answer: B. Moving the Goal Posts
Straw Mike is asking Mike to provide proof that doesnt exista
few thousand years of written climate records. Hes literally
moving the criteria for evidence out of range so Mike cant possibly
win the argument.
Incorrect Answers: A., C., and D. In the Genetic Fallacy an idea is
either accepted or rejected based on the source, not its merits. In
the case of Ad Hominem, your opponent attacks you rather than
addressing your argument. Begging the Question is a form of
circular reasoning where the conclusion is contained in the
question itself.
Click on Moving the Goal Posts Fallacy to watch the entire video.

6. Mike and Straw Mike are talking about fast food.

What fallacy is Straw Mike using in this clip?
(Select one.)
A. Reductio Ad

B. Non-sequitur
C. Ad Ignorantiam
D. Tu Quoque

Next Question

Question 6: Feedback
Correct Answer: D. Tu Quoque
The Tu Quoque Fallacy is a form of the Ad Hominem, or attacking the
person, Fallacy. In this case, Straw Mike dismisses Mikes argument
that the salt, fat, and sugar in fast food is contributing to obesity by
attacking Mike, saying, since you eat the stuff too, your argument must
be wrong.
Incorrect Answers: A., B., and C. Reductio Ad Absurdum stretches the
logic of an argument to an absurd conclusion. Non-sequitur is where
the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises. Ad
Ignorantiam basically states a specific belief is true because we dont
know its not true.
Click on The Adhominem Fallacy to watch the entire video.

7. What fallacy is Mike describing in this clip?

(Select one.)
A. No True

B. False Analogy
C. False
D. Slippery Slope

Next Question

Question 7: Feedback
Correct Answer: A. No True Scotsman
In the No True Scotsman Fallacy, circular reasoning is used to prove
your argument. All evidence that doesnt fit your narrow definition of
the thing or group of things youre arguing about can be ignored or
dismissed out of hand.

Click on No True Scotsman Fallacy to see the entire video.

Incorrect Answers: B., C., and D. A False Analogy compares two
similar but irrelevant things. A False Dichotomy takes many
possibilities and reduces them to two extremes. A Slippery Slope
argument basically says if we do what you suggest, terrible things will

False Dichotomy is also called Black and Whit Fallacy. Click on The
Black and White Fallacy to watch the video.

8. Mike describes some tactics used to

intentionally create a Straw Man Fallacy. These
tactics include: (Select all that apply.)
A. Deliberately

taking a point out of

B. Ignoring crucial
C. Oversimplifying
something when you
dont really
understand it.
D. Exaggerating a
claim to the point of
Next Question

Question 8: Feedback
Correct Answers: A., B., and D.
Intentional use of tactics such as taking a statement out of context,
ignoring crucial evidence, or exaggerating a claim to the point of absurdity
are used to create a straw man. As the name implies, a straw man
argument is easier to knock down, or defeat. However, when you employ
this fallacy, you are avoiding addressing your opponents real argument.
Incorrect: Answer C.
It is possible to unintentionally create a straw man when you dont
understand your opponents argument. According to Mike, this happens
and is forgivable. Youve just made a mistake; youre not trying to
deliberately discredit your opponents argument.
Click on The Straw Man Fallacy to view the entire video.

9. In the video below, Mike discusses what is, and what is

not, an Authority Fallacy (also called Argument from
Authority). Which of the following are cases of the Authority
Fallacy? (Select all that apply.)
A. Climate scientists,

who agree climate

change is real.
B. Your uncle, the
mechanical engineer,
who says Korean cars
are unsafe.
C. A mechanical
engineer, whos an
expert on car safety.
D. Your neighbor,
whos a biology major,
insists climate change
isnt real.
Next Question

Question 9: Feedback
Correct Answers: B. and D.
The Authority Fallacy should not be applied when there
is overwhelming scientific consensus around an issue,
such as climate change, or when the person really is an
expert in their field, such as car safety. It applies when
we take the opinions of people we trust, or look up to,
for evidence that something is or is not true.
Click on The Authority Fallacy to view the entire video.

10. In the video below, Mike describes the Fallacy

Fallacy. What is the Fallacy Fallacy?
(Select one.)
A. You use faulty


reasoning to reach a
correct conclusion.
B. You use a fallacy in
your argument, which
your opponent then
uses as proof your
conclusion must be
C. You end up arguing
about the argument.
D. You only use Ad
Hominem and Straw
Man fallacies to
support your

Question 10: Feedback

Correct Answer: B. In the Fallacy Fallacy you arrive at a true conclusion,
using faulty reasoning or a fallacy. Your opponent then uses that faulty
reasoning or fallacy as proof that your conclusion must be wrong.
Incorrect Answer: A. While you may have used faulty reasoning, your
conclusion may still be true.
Incorrect Answer C. While you may end up arguing about the argument
itself, rather than focusing on the evidence (or lack thereof), this is the
result not the cause of the fallacy.

Incorrect Answer D. You could use any fallacy in a Fallacy Fallacy. Its not
just limited to Ad Hominem or Straw Man Fallacies.
Click on The Fallacy Fallacy to see the entire video.

To see the sources for this quiz,

click on the links below:
A Skeptics Guide to the Universe: Logical

Logical Fallacies
The PBS Idea Channel: A Guide to Common