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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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A Compilation of the
Questions and Suggested Answers
In the
PHILIPPINE BAR EXAMINATIONS 2007-2013
In

CRIMINAL LAW
Compiled and Arranged By:
Rollan, Faith Chareen Pet2x D.
Salise, Hector Christopher Jay-Arh Jr. M.
(University of San Jose-Recoletos School of Law)

ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS by the


UP LAW COMPLEX (2007, 2009, 2010) &
PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF LAW SCHOOLS (2008)

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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FOREWORD
This work is a compilation of the ANSWERS TO BAR
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS by the UP LAW COMPLEX ,
Philippine Association of Law Schools from 2007-2010 and
local law students and lawyers forum sites from 2011-2013
and not an original creation or formulation of the authors.
The authors were inspired by the work of Silliman Universitys
College of Law and its students of producing a very good
material to everyone involved in the legal field particularly the
students and the reviewees for free. Hence, this work is a
freeware.
Everyone is free to distribute and mass produce copies of this
work, however, the authors accept no liability for the content of
this reviewer, or for the consequences of the usage, abuse, or
any actions taken by the user on the basis of the information
given.
The answers (views or opinions) presented in this reviewer are
solely those of the authors in the given references and do not
necessarily represent those of the authors of this work.
The Authors.

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Titles are based on Sillimans Compilation [Arranged by Topic])

General Principles
Equal Protection Clause (2013)......................................................................................11
General Principles; Territoriality (2008).......................11
General Principles; Constitutional Provision Limiting
the Power of Congress to Enact Penal Laws (2012)..............12

FELONIES
Conspiracy (2012).............................12
Conspiracy (2008)..........................................................................................................12
Conspiracy vs. Conspiracy to Commit Rebellion
vs. Conspiracy to Commit Murder (2012)............................13
Impossible Crime of Murder (2009).....................13

JUSTIFYING & EXEMPTING CIRCUMSTANCES


Exempting Circumstances (2007)..................................................................................14
Exempting Circumstances; Accessories; Ascendants (2010)...........................................14
Exempting Circumstances; Insanity (2010)....................................................................15
Exempting Circumstances; Insanity; Effect (2010).........................................................15
Justifying Circumstances; Battered Woman Syndrome (2010)........................................16

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES
Mitigating; Voluntary Surrender (2009)..........................................................................17
Privilege Mitigating Circumstance (2012)......................................................................17
Privilege Mitigating Circumstance vs. Ordinary Mitigating Circumstance (2012)............17

AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCES
Aggravating Circumstances; Dwelling; Nocturnity; Use of Picklock (2009)......................18
Specific Aggravating Circumstance; Use of Unlicensed Firearm (2009)...........................18

PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE FOR FELONIES


Accomplice (2012) ........................................................................................................19
Accomplice (2009).........................................................................................................19
Accomplice (2009).........................................................................................................19
Accomplice vs. Conspirator (2012) ................................................................................20
Accomplice vs. Conspirator (2007).................................................................................22
Anti-Fencing Law; Fencing (2013)..................................................................................22
Anti-Fencing Law; Fencing (2010)..................................................................................24
Anti-Fencing Law; Fencing (2019)..................................................................................24
Criminal Liability; Accessories (2013)............................................................................25

PENALTIES
Delito Continuado (2009)...............................................................................................25
Habitual Delinquency (2012)..........................................................................................26
Habitual Delinquency vs. Recidivism (2012)..................................................................26

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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Heinous Crimes Law (2010)...........................................................................................27


Indeterminate Sentence Law (2012)...............................................................................28
Indeterminate Sentence Law (2007)...............................................................................28
Indeterminate Sentence Law; Homicide (2010)..............................................................29
Indeterminate Sentence Law; Homicide (2009)..............................................................29
Indeterminate Sentence Law; Illegal Possession of Drugs (2009)....................................30
Penalties; Civil Liability (2010)......................................................................................30
Penalties; Homicide (2013)............................................................................................30
Penalties; Perpetual Absolute Disqualification (2007).....................................................31
Penalties; Reclusion Perpetua vs. Life Imprisonment (2009)..........................................32
Probation Law; Period Covered (2009)............................................................................32
Probation Law; Oder Denying Probation (2010)..............................................................33
Suspension of Sentence; Adults/Minors (2013)..............................................................33
Suspension of Sentence; Adults/Minors (2009)..............................................................34

EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY


Amnesty (2009).............................................................................................................34
Pardon; Effect (2009).....................................................................................................35
Prescription of Crimes; Commence to Run (2010)..........................................................35
Prescription of Crimes; Discovery Rule (2009)...............................................................36
Prescription of Crimes; Interrupted (2010)....................................................................37
Prescription of Crimes; Parricide (2010)........................................................................37

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE LAW OF


NATIONS
Misprision of Treason (2010).........................................................................................38
Qualified Piracy; Special Complex Crime (2008).............................................................38

CRIMES AGAINST THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF THE STATE


Arbitrary Detention; Unlawful Arrest; Extralegal Killing (2008)......................................39
Violation of Domicile (2009)..........................................................................................39

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER


Delivering Prisoners from Jail; Corruption of Public Officials (2013)..............................40
Delivering Prisoners from Jail; Corruption of Public Officials;
Falsification of Public Documents (2009).............................40
Direct Assault (2013).........................42
Direct Assault (2009).....................................................................................................43
Inciting to Sedition; Acts (2007)....................................................................................43

CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS


Bribery (2010)...............................................................................................................44
Maliciously Refraining from Instituting or Prosecuting an Offender (2008)......44
Malversation (2009).......................................................................................................45
Malversation (2008).......................................................................................................46
Malversation (2008).......................................................................................................46
Malversation; Falsification (2008).......................47

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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Qualified Bribery (2010).................................................................................................47

CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS


Complex Crime; Rape with Homicide & Theft (2009)......................................................48
Criminal Liabilities; Rape; Frustrated Homicide or Murder;
Theft; Use of Picklock (2009)...............................................48
Death Caused in a Tumultuous Affray (2010).................................................................49
Giving Assistance to Suicide (2008)..........................49
Homicide; Stages of Execution (2012)............................................................................50
Less Serious Physical Injuries (2009)........................51
Less Serious Physical Injuries; Simple Negligence (2007)...............................................51
Murder; Frustrated; Qualified Treachery (2009).............................................................52
Murder; Reckless Imprudence (2007).............................................................................53
Murder; treachery (2008)...............................................................................................54

CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY


Acts of Lasciviousness (2009)........................................................................................55
Exploitation of Child Labor (2009).................................................................................55
Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention (2009)............................................................55
Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention with Rape (2013).....................................56
Light coercion (2007)....................................................................................................57
Unjust Vexation (2010)..................................................................................................58
Unjust Vexation (2009)..................................................................................................58

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY


Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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Brigandage; Brigands (2012)..........................................................................................59


Brigandage vs. Robbery in Band (2012)..........................................................................59
BP 22 (2013)..................................................................................................................60
BP 22 (2010)..................................................................................................................61
Estafa; Abuse of Confidence (2007)................................................................................62
Estafa and B.P. 22 (2009)...............................................................................................63
Estafa; Falsely Pretending to Possess Power (2008)....................63
Estafa through Falsification (2013)................................................................................64
Highway Robbery (2012)................................................................................................65
Persons Exempt from Criminal Liability (2008).....................65
Robbery; By a Band (2010).............................................................................................66
Robbery in an Inhabited House (2008)...........................................................................66
Robbery w/ Homicide (2010).........................................................................................67
Robbery w/ Homicide (2009).........................................................................................67
Robbery w/ Homicide (2009).........................................................................................68
Robbery w/ Homicide (2007).........................................................................................68
Robbery w/ Homicide; Complex Crime (2009)................................................................69
Theft (2012)..................................................................................................................70
Theft (2010)..................................................................................................................71
Theft (2008)..................................................................................................................71
Theft; Qualified Theft (2010).........................................................................................72

CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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Concubinage (2010).......................................................................................................72
Qualified Seduction; Classes of Offenders (2007)............................................................73

CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL STATUS OF PERSONS


Bigamy; Elements (2012)...............................................................................................73
Bigamy; First Marriage Null and Void (2012)..................................................................74
Bigamy; Psychological Incapacity (2012).......................................................................74
Bigamy; Perjury; Adultery (2008)...................................................................................75

CRIMES AGAINST HONOR


Libel; Defamatory Utterances against Public Figure (2013).............................................76
Libel; Proof of Truth (2009)............................................................................................77
Libel; Unfair Competition (2010)....................................................................................77

QUASI-OFFENSES
Criminal Negligence; Reckless Imprudence Resulting in Homicide (2008)...................77

MISCELLANEOUS
Chain of Custody (2009)................................................................................................78
Doctrine of Pro Reo (2012)............................................................................................79
Doctrine of Pro Reo (2010)............................................................................................79
Human Rights Violations (2008)....................................................................................79
Intervention vs. Diversion (2009)..................................................................................80
No Criminal Liability (2008)...........................................................................................80
Three-Fold Rule (2013)..................................................................................................81

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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SPECIAL PENAL LAWS


Anti-Carnapping Act (2012)...........................................................................................82
Anti-Carnapping Act (2008)...........................................................................................82
Anti-Graft & Corrupt Practices RA 3019 (2010)...........................................................83
Anti-Graft & Corrupt Practices RA 3019; Indirect Bribery (2009).................................84
Dangerous Drugs Act (2007)...........................................................................................85
Harboring or Assisting in the Escape of a
Person who has Committed a Crime PD 1829 (2008).........85
Illegal Possession of Drugs; Mala Prohibita (2009)..........................................................86
R.A. 9160; Anti-Money laundering Act (2009)................................................................86
R.A. 9160; Anti-Money Laundering Act; Freeze Order (2010)..........................................86
R.A. 9160; Anti-Money Laundering Act; Stages (2010)...................................................87
R.A. 9262; Violence Against Women and Children Act;
Battered Woman Syndrome (2010)......................................87
R.A. 9262; Violence Against Women and Children Act;
Battered Woman Syndrome; Phases (2010)..........................88
Syndicated Estafa (2010)...............................................................................................88
Torture (2012)...............................................................................................................89

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


2013 Criminal Law Exam MCQ (October 20, 2013).90
2012 Criminal Law Exam MCQ (October 21, 2012)...104
2011 Criminal Law Exam MCQ (November 20, 2011).....150

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES

bill

as

faithrollan5@yahoo.com

it

will

result

in

economic

inequality in the field of criminal justice.


Equal Protection Clause (2013)

The

bill

runs

protection

afoul

with

clause

of

the
the

equal
1987

No. XI. Assume that you are a member of

Constitution.

the legal staff of Senator Salcedo who wants

clause in the Constitution does not

to file a bill about imprisonment at the

merely bar the creation of inequalities

National Penitentiary in Muntinlupa. He

but commands as well the elimination of

wants to make the State prison a revenue

existing inequalities.

The

equal

protection

earner for the country through a law


providing for premium accommodations for

Additionally, the purpose of imposing

prisoners

penalties, which is to secure justice,

(other

than

those

under

maximum security status) whose wives are

retribution

allowed conjugal weekend visits, and for

defeated and put to naught if the bills

those

program/scheme

who

want

long-term

premium

accommodations.

and

reformation,
should

will

be

eventually

become a law.

For conjugal weekenders, he plans to rent


out rooms with hotel-like amenities at rates
equivalent

to those

charged

by

4-star

General Principles; Territoriality (2008)

hotels; for long-term occupants, he is

No. VI. Hubert and Eunice were married in

prepared to offer room and board with

the

special meals in air conditioned single-

studies in New York and met his former

occupancy rooms, at rates equivalent to

girlfriend

Eula.

those charged by 3-star hotels.

friendship

and

What advice will you give the Senator from


the point of view of criminal law, taking into
account the purpose of imprisonment (7%)
and considerations of ethics and morality
(3%)? (10% total points)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
I would advice Senator Salcedo to forgo

Philippines.

Hubert
They
finally

took

graduate

renewed
decided

their
to

get

married. The first wife, Eunice, heard about


the marriage and secures a copy of the
marriage contract in New York. Eunice filed
a case of Bigamy against Hubert in the
Philippines.
(a) Will the case prosper? Explain. (4%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

and permanently abandon his proposed

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

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No, because the Philippine Courts have

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2. The law must not be a bill of

no jurisdiction over a crime committed

attainder,

meaning

outside of the Philippine territory. Under

provide

the principle of territoriality, penal laws,

judicial proceedings.

it

punishment

cannot
without

specifically the RPC, are enforceable

3. The law must not impose cruel,

only within the bounds of our territory

unusual or degrading punishment.

(Art. 2, RPC).
No person shall be held to answer for a
(b) If Eunice gave her consent to the
second marriage, what will your answer be?
Explain. (3%)

criminal offense without due process of


law.

FELONIES

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Conspiracy (2012)
The

answer

will

be

the

same.

The

consent of Eunice would not confer

No. IX. a. Define conspiracy. (5%)

jurisdiction on Philippine Courts.


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

General

Principles;

Constitutional

Provision Limiting the Power of Congress


to Enact Penal Laws (2012)

When two or more persons come to an


agreement concerning the commission
of a felony and decide to commit it,
there is conspiracy.

No. III. b. What are the constitutional


provisions limiting the power of Congress to
enact penal laws? (5%)

Conspiracy (2008)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

No. XI. Ricky was reviewing for the bar


exam when the commander of a vigilante

The constitutional provision limiting the

group came to him and showed him a list of

power of Congress to enact penal laws

five policemen to be liquidated by them for

are the following:

graft and corruption. He was further asked

1. The law must not be an ex post


facto law or it should not be given
a retroactive effect.

if any of them is innocent. After going over


the list, Ricky pointed to two of the
policemen as honest. Later, the vigilante
group liquidated the three other policemen

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in the list. The commander of the vigilante

conspiracy will not be considered as an

group reported the liquidation to Ricky. Is

independent felony but as a manner of

Ricky criminally liable? Explain. (7%)

incurring

criminal

conspiracy
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

and

the

Commander

of

the

vigilante. Mere vouching for the honesty


of the two (2) policemen in the list
cannot make him a co-conspirator for
the

killing.

commit

homicide,

not

punishable if A and B conspire to

No, there was no conspiracy between


Ricky

to

responsibility.

Ricky

enjoys

the

presumption of innocence.

kill X, conspiracy is not punishable.


The

law

provides

conspiracy

to

be

no

penalty

commit

for

homicide.

Homicide if pursuant to conspiracy to


commit homicide, A embraced X and
then B stabbed and killed X, the
conspirators

are

equally

liable

for

homicide. Conspirators are equally liable


for homicide. Conspiracy in this case

Conspiracy vs. Conspiracy to Commit


Rebellion

vs.

Conspiracy

to

Commit

will

be

considered

as

manner

of

incurring liability.

Murder (2012)
No. IX. b. Distinguish by way of illustration
conspiracy as a felony from conspiracy as a
manner of incurring liability in relation to
the crimes of rebellion and murder. (5%)

Impossible Crime of Murder (2009)


No. IV. a. Charlie hated his classmate,
Brad, because the latter was assiduously
courting Lily, Charlies girlfriend. Charlie
went to a veterinarian and asked for some

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

poison on the pretext that it would be used


Conspiracy to commit rebellion if A

to kill a very sick, old dog. Actually, Charlie

and B conspired to overthrow the

intended to use the poison on Brad.

government, conspiracy is punishable.


Conspiracy to commit rebellion is a

The veterinarian mistakenly gave Charlie a

felony. Rebellion if they committed

non-toxic powder which, when mixed with

rebellion, they are equally liable for the

Brads food, did not kill Brad.

crime of rebellion. However, they will


not

be

additionally

charged

with

conspiracy to commit rebellion. Since


they committed what they conspired,

Did Charlie commit any crime? If so, what


and why? If not, why not? (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

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Charlie committed an impossible crime

No, the court did not act correctly in

of murder. His act of mixing the non-

ordering the accused to indemnify the

toxic powder with Brads food, done with

victim. Since the killing of ken was

intent to kill, would have constituted

committed

murder which is a crime against persons,

circumstances in Article 247, revised

had it not been for the employment of a

Penal Code, it is the consensus that no

means

crime was committed in the light of the

which,

unknown

to

him,

is

under

the

exceptional

pronouncement in People v Cosicor (79

ineffectual (Art. 4, par. 2, RPC).

JUSTIFYING & EXEMPTING


CIRCUMSTANCES

Phil.

672

[1947])

that

banishment

(destierro) is intended more for the


protection of the offender rather than as
a penalty. Since the civil liability under

Exempting Circumstances (2007)

the

Revised

Penal

Code

is

the

consequence of criminal liability, there


No. IV. a. Macky, a security guard, arrived

would be no legal basis for the award of

home

indemnity when there is no criminal

late

one

night

after

rendering

overtime. He was shocked to see Joy, his

liability.

wife, and Ken, his best friend, in the act of


having sexual intercourse. Macky pulled

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

out his service gun and shot and killed Ken.


Yes, because the crime punishable by
The court found that Ken died under

desteirro was committed, which is death

exceptional circumstances and exonerated

under exceptional circumstances under

Macky

Art. 247 of the Revised Penal Code.

of

murder

but

sentenced

him

to destierro, conformably with Article 247 of


the Revised Penal Code. The court also
ordered Macky to pay indemnity to the

Exempting Circumstances; Accessories;

heirs of the victim in the amount of

Ascendants (2010)

P50,000.
No. XXII. Immediately after murdering Bob,
Did the court correctly order Macky to pay

Jake went to his mother to seek refuge. His

indemnity even though he was exonerated

mother told him to hide in the maids

of murder? Explain your answer. (10%)

quarters until she finds a better place for


him

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

to

hide.

After

two

days,

Jake

transferred to his aunts house. A week


later, Jake was apprehended by the police.

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Can Jakes mother and aunt be made

The

following

criminally liable as accessories to the crime

catatonic inside the maids quarters. He

of murder? Explain. (3 %)

was brought to the National Center for


Mental

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

day,

Health

Romeo

(NCMH)

was

where

found

he

was

diagnosed to be mentally unstable.

Obviously, Jakes mother was aware of


her sons having committed a felony,
such that her act of harboring and

Charged

with

murder,

Romeo

pleaded

insanity as a defense.

concealing him renders her liable as an

Will Romeos defense prosper? Explain.

accessory. But being an ascendant to

(2%)

Jake,

she

is

exempt

from

criminal

liability by express provision of Article


20 of the Revised Penal Code.

No, Romeos defense of insanity will not

On the other hand, the criminal liability


of Jakes aunt depends on her knowledge
of his commission of the felony, her act
of harboring and concealing Jake would
render her criminally liable as accessory
to

the

crime

of

murder;

otherwise

without knowledge of Jakes commission


of the felony, she would not be liable.

Exempting

Circumstances;

Insanity

(2010)

prosper because, even assuming that


Romeo was insane when diagnosed
after he committed the crime, insanity
as a defense to the commission of crime
must have existed and proven to be so
existing at the precise moment when the
crime was being committed. The fact of
the case indicate that Romeo committed
the crime with discernment.

Exempting

Circumstances;

Insanity;

Effect (2010)

No. XIII. a. While his wife was on a 2-year


scholarship abroad, Romeo was having an
affair with his maid Dulcinea. Realizing that
the affair was going nowhere, Dulcinea told
Romeo that she was going back to the
province

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

to

marry

her

childhood

sweetheart. Clouded by anger and jealousy,


Romeo strangled Dulcinea to death while

No. XIII. b. While his wife was on a 2-year


scholarship abroad, Romeo was having an
affair with his maid Dulcinea. Realizing that
the affair was going nowhere, Dulcinea told
Romeo that she was going back to the
province

to

marry

her

childhood

sweetheart. Clouded by anger and jealousy,

she was sleeping in the maids quarters.


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Romeo strangled Dulcinea to death while

Fearing for her life, Jill left and stayed with

she was sleeping in the maids quarters.

her sister. To woo Jill back, Jack sent her

The

following

day,

Romeo

was

found

catatonic inside the maids quarters. He


was brought to the National Center for
Mental

Health

(NCMH)

where

he

was

diagnosed to be mentally unstable.


Charged

with

murder,

Romeo

floral arrangements of spotted lilies and


confectioneries.

Two

days

later,

Jill

returned home and decided to give Jack


another

chance.

After

several

days,

however, Jack again came home drunk.


The following day, he was found dead.

pleaded

insanity as a defense.

Jill was charged with parricide but raised


the defense of "battered woman syndrome."

What is the effect of the diagnosis of the


NCMH on the case? (2%)

Would the defense prosper despite the


absence of any of the elements for justifying
circumstances of self-defense under the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Revised Penal Code? Explain. (2%)


The effect of the diagnosis made by
NCMH is possibly a suspension of the
proceedings

against

Romeo

and

his

commitment to appropriate institution


for treatment until he could already
understand the proceedings.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, Section 26 of Rep. Act No. 9262
provides that victim-survivors who are
found by the courts to be suffering from
battered woman syndrome do not incur
any

criminal

and

civil

liability

notwithstanding the absence of any of


Justifying

Circumstances;

Battered

Woman Syndrome (2010)


No. XIX. c. Jack and Jill have been married

the

elements

for

justifying

circumstances of self-defense under the


Revised Penal Code.

for seven years. One night, Jack came


home drunk. Finding no food on the table,
Jack started hitting Jill only to apologize
the following day.
A week later, the same episode occurred
Jack came home drunk and started hitting
Jill.

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MITIGATING

present),
age

b.

Voluntary

surrender

the

circumstance

of

is

acted

with

discernment)

are

privileged mitigating circumstances.

Mitigating; Voluntary Surrender (2009)


XI.

and

minority (if the child above 15 years of

CIRCUMSTANCES

No.

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mitigating circumstance in all acts and

Privilege

omissions punishable under the Revised

Ordinary Mitigating Circumstance (2012)

Penal Code.

Mitigating

Circumstance

vs.

No. II. b. Distinguish a privileged mitigating


circumstance from an ordinary mitigating

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

circumstance as to reduction of penalty and


False,

Voluntary

appreciated

surrender

in

cases

of

may

be

criminal

offsetting

against

aggravating

circumstance/s. (5%)

negligence under Art. 365 since in such


cases,

the

imposed
Art.

62

courts

are

authorized

to

a penalty without considering


regarding

mitigating

and

aggravating circumstances.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The distinction between ordinary and
privilege mitigating circumstances are:
(a) Under the rules for application of
divisible penalties (Article 64 of the

Privilege Mitigating Circumstance (2012)


No. II. a. What is a privileged mitigating
circumstance? (5%)

Revised Penal Code), the presence of a


mitigating circumstance, has the effect
of applying the divisible penalty in its
minimum period. Under the rules on
graduation of penalty (Articles 68 and
69), the presence of privileged mitigating

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

circumstance has the effect of reducing


Privileged mitigating circumstances are

the penalty one or two degrees lower. (b)

those that mitigate criminal liability of

Ordinary mitigating circumstances can

the crime being modified to one or two

be

degrees

lower.

circumstances.

cannot

be

circumstance.

These

off-set
The

circumstances
by

aggravating

circumstance

of

off-set

by

the

aggravating

Privileged

mitigating

circumstances are not subject to the offset rule.

incomplete justification or exemption


(when majority of the conditions are
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AGGRAVATING

purposely or especially sought for by


Wenceslao,

CIRCUMSTANCES
Aggravating

Circumstances;

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taken

Dwelling;

Nocturnity; Use of Picklock (2009)

nighttime

advantaged

was

of

obviously

by

him

in

committing the other crimes. Under the


objective test, noctunity is aggravating
when taken advantage of by the offender

No. XVII. b. Wenceslao and Loretta were

during the commission of the crime thus

staying

facilitating the same. The use of a

in

the

occupying

same

different

boarding

rooms.

house,

One

late

picklock to enter the room of the victim

evening, when everyone in the house was

is

not

an

aggravating

circumstance

asleep, Wenceslao entered Lorettas room

under Art. 14 of the Code but punished

with the use of a picklock. Then, with force

as a crime by itself where the offender

and violence, Wenceslao ravished Loretta.

has no lawful cause for possessing it.

After he had satisfied his lust, Wenceslao

The use of picklocks is equivalent to

stabbed Loretta to death and, before leaving

force upon things in robbery with force

the room, took her jewelry.

upon things.

Discuss the applicability of the relevant


aggravating

circumstances

of

dwelling,

nocturnity and the use of the picklock to

Specific Aggravating Circumstance; Use


of Unlicensed Firearm (2009)

enter the room of the victim. (3%)


No. I. c. The use of an unlicensed firearm in
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Dwelling

is

aggravating

homicide
because

the

crimes were committed in the property


of

Lorettas

room

which

in

law

is

considered as her dwelling. It is well

is

considered

generic

aggravating circumstance which can be


offset

by

an

ordinary

mitigating

circumstance.
SUGGESTED ASNWER:

settled that dwelling includes a room


in a boarding house being occupied by

False, offsetting may not take place

the offended party where she enjoys

because the use of an unlicensed firearm

privacy, peace of mind and sanctity of

in homicide or murder is a specific

an abode.

aggravating circumstance provided for


by Rep. Act. No. 8294. It is not one of

Nocturnity

or

nighttime

is

also

the generic aggravating circumstances

aggravating because although it was not


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under Article 14 of the Revised Penal

Rubens liability is that of an accomplice

Code (People v. Avecilla, 351 SCRA 63

only because he merely cooperated in

[2001]).

Poncianos determination to kill Freddie.


Such cooperation is not indispensable to

PERSONS CRIMINALLY

the killing, as in fact the killing was

LIABLE FOR FELONIES

carried out without the use of Rubens


gun. Neither way Ruben may be regarded

Accomplice (2012)

as a co-conspirator since he was not a


participant in the decision-making of

No. V. a. Who is an accomplice? (5%)

Ponciono to kill Freddie; he merely


cooperated in carrying out the plan

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

which was already in place (Art. 18,

Accomplices are those persons who, not


being

principal,

cooperate

in

the

execution of the offense by previous or


simultaneous acts (Article 18)

RPC).
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Ruben

cannot

be

held

liable

as

an

accomplice in the killing of Freddie


because his act of lending his gun to
Accomplice (2009)

Ponciano

did

not

have

the

relation

between the acts done by the latter to


No. V. a. Ponciano borrowed Rubens gun,
saying that he would use it to kill Freddie.
Because Ruben also resented Freddie, he
readily lent his gun, but told Ponciano: "O,
pagkabaril

mo

kay

Freddie,

isauli

mo

kaagad, ha." Later, Ponciano killed Freddie,


but used a knife because he did not want
Freddies neighbors to hear the gunshot.

that attributed to Ruben. Even if Ruben


did not lend his gun, Ponciano would
have consummated the act of killing
Freddie. In other words, Rubens act in
lending his gun was not a necessary act
to enable Ponciano to consummate the
crime.

What, if any, is the liability of Ruben?


Explain. (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Accomplice (2009)
No. V. b. Ponciano borrowed Rubens gun,
saying that he would use it to kill Freddie.
Because Ruben also resented Freddie, he

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readily lent his gun, but told Ponciano: "O,

Yes, the answer would be the same

pagkabaril

mo

because Ruben lent his gun to Ponciano

kaagad, ha." Later, Ponciano killed Freddie,

with knowledge that it would be used in

but used a knife because he did not want

killing a person, thus with knowledge

Freddies neighbors to hear the gunshot.

that the gun would be use to commit a

mo

kay

Freddie,

isauli

crime. It is of no moment who was killed


Would your answer be the same if, instead

so long as Ruben is aware when he lent

of Freddie, it was Manuel, a relative of

the gun that it would be used to commit

Ruben, who was killed by Ponciano using

a crime.

Rubens gun? Explain. (3%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Accomplice vs. Conspirator (2012)

No, the answer would not be the same


because Ruben lent his gun purposely for
the killing of Freddie only, not for any
other killing. Poncianos using Rubens
gun

in

Freddie

killing
is

beyond

person

other

Rubens

then

criminal

intent and willing involvement. Only


Ponciano

will

answer

for

the

crime

against Manuel.
It has been ruled that when the owner of
the gun knew it would be used to kill a
particular person, but the offender used
it to kill another person, the owner of

No. V. b. Distinguish an accomplice from a


conspirator as to their knowledge of the
criminal

design

of

the principal,

their

participation, the penalty to be imposed in


relation to the penalty for the principal, and
the requisites/elements to be established
by the prosecution in order to hold them
criminally responsible for their respective
roles in the commission of the crime. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The differences between accomplice and
conspirator are as follows:

the gun is not an accomplice as to the


killing of the other person. While there

Accomplice

was community of design to kill Freddie

Conspirator

between Ponciano and Ruben, there was

Knowledge

They

know

They know of

none with respect to the killing of

of

and

agree

and

Manuel.

criminal

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

design
the

the

with
of

the

join

in

the criminal

criminal

design. They

design.

know

the

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

principal

They

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come

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criminal

specifically

to know it

intention

prescribes

after

because they

penalty

principals

themselves

therefor.

have

have decided

Prerequisit

reached the

upon

es

decision

course

and

action.

the

such

(1) The

(1) That

commu

two or

nity

of

more

criminal

perso

design;

ns

that is,

came

to

knowing

to

cooperate

the

agree

in

criminal

ment;

only

then

do

they

agree

of

its

execution

design

an

(2) That

Participati

Accomplice

Conspirators

of

on

s are mere

are

principa

agree

instrument

authors

ment

who

the crime.

the
of

the

by

direct

conce

particip

rned

ation,

the

essential to

he

comm

the

concurs

ission

commission

with the

of

of

latter in

crime;

his

and

perform
acts

not

the

crime.
Penalty

the

One degree

Same

lower

principal.

that

than
of

principal.

as

purpose

(3) That

; and

the

(2) The

execu

Note:

perform

tion

Conspiracy

ance of

of the

alone is not

previou

felony

punishable,

was

except
cases
the

in
where
law

or

simulta

decide

neous

acts

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that are

upon.

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conspirator

incurs

criminal

not

liability not only for his individual

indispe

acts in the execution of the crime

nsable

but also for the acts of the other

to

participants in the commission of

the

commis

the crime collectively. The acts of

sion

the

of

other

participants

the

execution

of

crime.

considered

also

conspirator

the
for

as

in

the

crime

are

acts

of

purposes

a
of

collective criminal responsibility.


3. An accomplice participates in the
execution of a crime when the

Accomplice vs. Conspirator (2007)


No.

V.

a.

Distinguish

criminal design or plan is already

between

an

in place; whereas a conspirator


participates in the adoption or

accomplice and a conspirator. (10%)

making of the criminal design.


4. An accomplice is subjected to a

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

penalty one degree lower than


The distinction between an accomplice

that of a principal; whereas a

and a conspirator are:

conspirator incurs the penalty of

1. An

accomplice

incurs

criminal

a principal.

liability by merely cooperating in


the

execution

without

of

the

participating

principal,

by

crime
as

prior

Anti-Fencing Law; Fencing (2013)

or
a

No. VI. Roberto bought a Toyota Fortuner

the

from Iigo for P500,000. While driving his

commission of a crime as a co-

newly-bought car, Roberto met a minor

principal.

accident that made the examination of his

simultaneous
conspirator

acts;

whereas

participates

in

criminal

vehicle's Registration Certificate necessary.

liability in an individual capacity

When the policeman checked the plate,

by his act alone of cooperating in

chassis and motor numbers of the vehicle

the execution of the crime; while

against those reflected in the Registration

2. An

accomplice

incurs

Certificate, he found the chassis and motor


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numbers to be different from what the

carnapped the vehicle, old it to Roberto

Registration Certificate stated. The Deed of

who did not take part in the crime.

Sale covering the sale of the Fortuner,

Roberto should have known also that the

signed by Iigo, also bore the same chassis

car

and

properly documented as the deed of sale

motor

numbers

as

Roberto's

was

Registration Certificate. The chassis and

and

motor

reflect

numbers

on

the Fortuner

were

stolen

because

registration
the

it

certificate

correct

was

not

did

not

of

the

numbers

found, upon verification with the Land

vehicles engine and chassis. Apparently,

Transportation Office, to correspond to a

he made no effort to check the papers

vehicle previously reported as carnapped.

covering his purchase. Lastly, Robertos


defense of good faith is flawed because

Roberto claimed that he was in good faith;

Presidential Decree 1612 is a special law

Iigo sold him a carnapped vehicle and he

and, therefore, its violation in regarded

did not know that he was buying a

as malum prohibitum, requiring no proof

carnapped vehicle.

of criminal intent (Dimat v. People, GR

If you were the prosecutor, would you or


would you not charge Roberto with a crime?

No. 181184, January 25, 2012).


ALTERNATIVE ANSWER;

(7%)
The
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Law.

The

elements

of

fencing are: 1) a robbery or theft has


been committed; 2) the accused, who
took no part in the robbery or theft,
buys,

receives,

given

show

that

Roberto

bought the car form Inigo; that a deed

I will charge Roberto with violation of


Anti-Fencing

facts

possesses,

keeps,

acquires, conceals, sells or disposes, or

of sale covering the subject vehicle was


executed by Inigo; that there is also a
copy of the Registration Certificate;
that Roberto aver, too, of being a buyer
in

good

faith

and

lacking

of

any

knowledge that the subject car is a


carnapped vehicle.

buys and sells, or in any manner deals in

As against the foregoing, there is only a

any article or object taken during that

certificate from the Land Transportation

robbery or theft; 3) the accused knows or

Office showing that the vehicle had been

should have known of that the thing was

previously reported as carnapped.

derived form that crime; and 4) by the


deal he makes he intends to gain for

Consequently, in light of the satisfactory

himself or for another. Here, someone

explanation of Roberto of his possession

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

of

the

vehicle,

the

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presumption

of

authorship of the theft upon a person


found

in

possession

of

the

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alleged fencing has been committed


fact which I wanting in this case.

stolen

personal property finds no application in

It should be noted that the suspect is

the instant case.

engaged in the buy and sell of used


garments, which are in the nature of

There is, thus, no probable cause or

movable property carries with it a prima

evidence to warrant the prosecution of

facie presumption of ownership. The

Riberto for any wrongdoing.

presumption of fencing arises only


when the article or item involved is the
subject of a robbery or thievery (Sec. 5,

Anti-Fencing Law; Fencing (2010)

PD 1612).

No. V. Arlene is engaged in the buy and sell


of used garments, more popularly known

Anti-Fencing Law; Fencing (2009)

as"ukay-ukay." Among the items found by


the police in a raid of her store in Baguio

No. XI. c. In a prosecution for fencing under

City were brand-new Louie Feraud blazers.

P.D. 1612, it is a complete defense for the

Arlene was charged with "fencing." Will the


charge prosper? Why or why not? (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

accused to prove that he had no knowledge


that the goods or articles found in his
possession had been the subject of robbery.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

No, the charge of fencing will not


prosper. Fencing is committed when a

False,

fencing

person, with intent to gain foe himself or

accused should have known that the

for another, deals in any manner with an

goods or articles had been the subject of

article of value which he knows or

theft or robbery (P.D. No. 1612[a]). Mere

should be known to him to have been

possession of the stolen goods gives rise

derived from the proceeds of theft or

to

robbery (Sec. 2, PD 1612). Thus, for a

fencing.

the

prima

is

committed

facie

if

presumption

the

of

charge of fencing to prosper, it must


first be

established

that a theft or

robbery of the article subject of the

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Moreover, the facts as given in the

Criminal Liability; Accessories (2013)

problem would show lack or absent of


No. III. Modesto and Abelardo are brothers.

intent to conceal the effects of the crime

Sometime in August, 1998 while Abelardo

as Abelardo is described as being unsure

was in his office, Modesto, together with

of what to do under the circumstances.

two other men in police uniform, came with


two heavy bags. Modesto asked Abelardo to

Even if he can be considered as an

keep the two bags in his vault until he

accessory under paragraph 2 of Article

comes back to get them. When Abelardo

19, RPC, Abelardo is not liable, being the

later examined the two bags, he saw

brother of Modesto under Article 20,

bundles of money that, in his rough count,

RPC.

could not be less than P5 Million. He kept

PENALTIES

the money inside the vault and soon he


heard the news that a gang that included
Modesto

had

been

engaged

in

bank

robberies. Abelardo, unsure of what to do


under the circumstances, kept quiet about
the two bags in his vault. Soon after, the
police captured, and secured a confession
from, Modesto who admitted that their loot
had been deposited with Abelardo.

Delito Continuado (2009)


No. XIII. a. Angelo devised a Ponzi Scheme
in which 500 persons were deceived into
investing their money upon a promise of a
capital return of 25%, computed monthly,
and

guaranteed

by

post-dated

checks.

During the first two months following the


investment, the investors received their

What is Abelardo's liability? (7%)

profits, but thereafter, Angelo vanished.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Angelo was charged with 500 counts of


estafa and 2,000 counts of violation of

Abelardo is not criminally liable.

Batas Pambansa (BP) 22. In his motion to


To be criminally liable as an accessory

quash, Angelo contends that he committed

under Article 19 of the Code, such

person must have knowledge of the

continuado, hence, he committed only one

commission of the crime. The term

count of estafa and one count of violation of

knowledge

BP 22.

synonymous
suspicion

under the law is


with

that

the

not

suspicion.

Mere

crime

been

has

continued

crime,

or delito

What is delito continuado? (1%)

committed is not sufficient.

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

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crimes committed, the period of time the


crimes

are

committed,

the

number

of

Delito continuado refers to a crime

crimes committed and

constituted

relation to the penalty to be imposed on a

by

several

overt

acts

committed by the offender in one place,

their

effects in

convict. (5%)

at about the same time, and all such


overt acts violate one and the same
provision

of

penal

law,

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

thus

demonstrating that all such acts are the

Difference

product of a single indivisible criminal

habitual delinquency:

relation.

Hence,

all

said

acts

are

considered as one crime only.

between

recidivism

and

(a) Nature of crime in recidivism,


the

first

crime,

aggravated

second

and

the

crime

are

embraced in the same Title of the

Habitual Delinquency (2012)

Revised Penal Code. In habitual

No. VIII. a. Who is a habitual delinquent?


(5%)

delinquency, the first, second and


third crimes must be a habitualdelinquency crime, and that is,
serious or less serious physical

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

injuries, theft, robbery, estafa or


A person shall be deemed to be habitual

falsification of document.

delinquent, if within a period of ten year

(b) Time element in recidivism, the

from his release or last conviction of the

accused was convicted of the first

crimes of serious or less serious physical

crime by final judgment at the

injuries,

time of trial of the second crime.

robo,

hurto

estafa

or

falsification, he is found guilty of any of

In

said crimes a third time or oftener

accused was convicted of the first

(Article 62 of the Revised Penal Code).

habitual-delinquency

habitual

delinquency,

the

crime;

within 10 years after conviction


or release, he was found guilty of
Habitual

Delinquency

vs.

Recidivism

habitual-delinquency

crime

for

the second time; within 10 years

(2012)

after conviction or release he was


No.

VIII.

b.

Distinguish

habitual

found

guilty

of

habitual-

delinquency from recidivism as to the


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delinquency crime for the third

prosecutors that all respondents be charged

time or oftener.

with violation of the "Heinous Crimes Law."

(c) Number of crimes in recidivism,

The prosecution panel agreed with the

there must be at least two crimes

CHR. As the Chief Prosecutor tasked with

committed;

habitual

approving the filing of the Information, how

delinquency, there must be at

will you pass upon the recommendation?

least three crimes committed.

Explain. (5%)

while

in

Nature of the aggravating circumstance

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recidivism

is

ordinary

aggravating

circumstance, the presence of any which


will trigger the application of the penalty
for the second crime committed in its
maximum period unless it is off-set by a
mitigating

or

special

aggravating

circumstance, the presence of which will


trigger

the

imposition

of

additional

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The CHR is correct in describing the
crime committed as heinous crimes,
as

defined

in

the

preamble

of

the

Henious Crimes Law (Rep. Act No.


7659), despite the passage of Rep. Act
No. 9346 prohibiting the imposition of
the death penalty.

penalty for the third or subsequent

However, the Henious Crimes Law does

crime. This is not subject to the off-set

not

rule.

amendatory law increasing the penalty


for

define
the

crimes;

crime

it

is

specified

only

therein

an
as

heinous, to a maximum of death. Thus,


the heinous crime committed shall be

Heinous Crimes Law (2010)

prosecuted under the penal law they are


No. IV. Because of the barbarity and

respectively defined and penalized, such

hideousness of the acts committed by the

as the Revised Penal Code as the case

suspects/respondents in cutting off their

may be. The circumstances making the

victims appendages, stuffing their torsos,

crimes

legs, body parts into oil drums and bullet-

qualifying

riddled vehicles and later on burying these

proper. The crime shall be designated as

oil

of

defined and punished under the penal

earth-moving

law violated and the penalty shall be

machinery, the Commission on Human

reclusion perpetua without the benefit of

Rights

parole, as the case may be in lieu of the

drums,

backhoes

vehicles
and

(CHR)

recommended

to

with

other

the

investigating
the

panel

of

use

team
public

heinous
or

may

generic

be

alleged

aggravating,

as
if

death penalty.

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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wife, and Ken, his best friend, in the act of


having sexual intercourse. Macky pulled

Indeterminate Sentence Law (2012)


No.

VI.

Sentence

b.

How

Law

is

the

applied

out his service gun and shot and killed Ken.

Indeterminate

in

imposing

sentence? (5%)

The court found that Ken died under


exceptional circumtances and exonerated
Macky

of

murder

but

sentenced

him

to destierro, conformably with Article 247 of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the Revised Penal Code. The court also

If crime is punishable under the Revised

ordered Macky to pay indemnity to the

Penal Code, the court shall sentenced

heirs of the victim in the amount of

the

P50,000.

accused

to

an

indeterminate

sentence maximum term of which shall


be that which, in view of the attending
circumstances,

could

be

properly

imposed under the rules of the said


Code, and the minimum which shall be
within the range of the penalty next
lower to that prescribed by the Code for
the offense. If the offense is punishable
under a special law, the court shall
sentence

the

accused

to

While serving his sentenced, Macky entered


the prohibited area and had a pot session
with Ivy (Joys sister). Is Macky entitled to
an indeterminate sentence in case he is
found guilty

of

the

use

of

prohibited

substances? Explain your answer.


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

an

No, Macky s not entitled to the benefit

indeterminate sentence, the maximum

of the Indeterminate Sentence Law (Act

term of which shall not exceed the

4103, as amended) for having evaded the

maximum fixed by said law and the

sentence which banished or placed him

minimum shall not be less than the

on destierro. Sec. 2 of the said law

minimum term prescribed by the same

expressly provides that the law shall not

(Section 1 of Act 4103).

apply to those who shall have evaded


sentence.

Indeterminate Sentence Law (2007)

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

No. IV. b. Macky, a security guard, arrived

No, because the penalty for use of any

home

rendering

dangerous drug by a first offender is not

overtime. He was shocked to see Joy, his

imprisonment but rehabilitation in a

late

one

night

after

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

government

center

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for

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minimum

one (1) year and is divisible, is covered

period of six (6) months (Sec. 15, R.A.

by the indeterminate Sentence Law. The

9165). The Indeterminate Sentence Law

said law requires that the sentence in

does not apply when the penalty is

this case should reflect a minimum term

imprisonment not exceeding one year.

for purposes of parole, and a maximum


term

fixing

imprisonment.
Indeterminate Sentence Law; Homicide

the

limit

Imposing

of
a

the

straight

penalty is incorrect.

(2010)
No. I. An agonizing and protracted trial
having come to a close, the judge found A
guilty beyond reasonable doubt of homicide

Indeterminate Sentence Law; Homicide


(2009)

and imposed on him a straight penalty of

No. XII. a. In a conviction for homicide, the

SIX (6) YEARS and ONE (1) DAY of prision

trial court appreciated two (2) mitigating

mayor.

circumstances

The

public

prosecutor

objected to the

sentence on the ground that the proper


penalty should have been TWELVE (12)
YEARS

and

ONE

(1)

DAY

of reclusion

temporal.

application

of

the

(1)

aggravating

circumstance. Homicide under Article 249


of the Revised Penal Code is punishable by
reclusion temporal, an imprisonment term of
twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty
(20)

years.

Applying

the

Indeterminate

of a straight penalty of SIX (6) MONTHS


ONE

(1)

penalty to be imposed. Explain. (3%)

Indeterminate

Sentence Law should lead to the imposition


and

one

Sentence Law, determine the appropriate

The defense counsel chimed in, contending


that

and

DAY

of prision

correccional only. Who of the three is on the


right track? Explain. (3%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Under the Indeterminate Sentence Law,
the minimum of the sentence shall be
anywhere within the range of 6 years
and 1 day to 12 years imprisonment
within the maximum of the sentence

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

shall be anywhere within the range of


None

of

the

contention

is

correct

because the Indeterminate Sentence Law


for the crime of homicide, which is
penalized

by

mprisonment

Reclusion Temporal minimum i.e., not


lower than 12 years and 1 day to not
more than 14 years and 8 months.

exceeding

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

Indeterminate

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Sentence

Law;

Illegal

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bush. Since the puppy did not have a


collar, she brought it home so she could

Possession of Drugs (2009)

have it as a pet. Her son in fact begged Eva


No. XII. b. Will your answer be the same if

Marie to keep the puppy. The following day,

it is a conviction for illegal possession of

Eva Marie bought a collar for the puppy

drugs under R.A. 9165 (Dangerous Drugs

and

Act of 2002), the prescribed penalty of

treatment.

brought

it

to

veterinarian

for

which is also imprisonment for a term of


twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty
(20) years? Why or why not? (3%)

Did she incur civil liability? Explain. (2%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Eva Marie may incur civil liability if the


owner of the puppy would incur a loss

No, my answer will not be the same


because violations of Rep. Act 9165 are
mala prohibita in which mitigating and
aggravating

circumstances

appreciated.

Although

in

are

not

People

v.

Simon (234 SCRA 555[1994]), it was held


that Art. 64 can be applied if the special
law

adopted

the

nomenclature

of

penalties provided under the RPC, such


pronouncement cannot be applied in the
instant

case

because

the

for

illegal

possession of drugs under R.A. 9165 do


not follow the technical nomenclature of

due to non-restitution or return thereof


to the owner. Finding any property of
value, legally regarded as lost property,
would constitute theft if the finder failed
to

deliver

the

same

to

the

local

authorities or to its owner (Art. 308 par.


1). Once Eva Marie is found guilty of
theft, she will incur civil liability, which
consists of restitution or reparation for
damage caused and indemnification for
consequential damages (Art. 100 RPC).
The general rule is: a person who is
criminally liable is also civilly liable.

penalties in the RPC and thus, cannot be


divided

into

periods.

Hence,

the

existence of mitigating and aggravating


circumstances cannot be appreciated.

Penalties; Homicide (2013)


No. I. Bruno was charged with homicide for
killing the 75-year old owner of his rooming

Penalties; Civil Liability (2010)


No. XVIII. b. On her way home, Eva Marie
saw an injured chow chow puppy behind a

house. The prosecution proved that Bruno


stabbed the owner causing his death; and
that the killing happened at 10 in the

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evening in the house where the victim and

first attacked him and did so without

Bruno lived. Bruno, on the other hand,

provocation

successfully

proved that he voluntarily

however, no reasonable necessity of the

surrendered to the authorities; that he

means employed to defend himself, after

pleaded guilty to the crime charged; that it

Bruno

was the victim who first attacked and did so

weaponless victim. There are also no

without any provocation on his (Bruno's)

aggravating

part, but he prevailed because he managed

because it was not shown that Bruno

to draw his knife with which he stabbed the

disregarded the age of the victim or that

victim.

nighttime facilitated the commission of

The

penalty

for

homicide

is

reclusion temporal.

of

used

his

part.

knife

There

to

stab

circumstances

is,

the

present,

the crime; moreover, dwelling cannot be


appreciated because the crime happened

Assuming a judgment of conviction and

in the house where both Bruno and the

after

victim lived. In contrast, there are two

considering

the

attendant

circumstances, what penalty should the

mitigating

judge impose? (7%)

voluntary surrender and plea of guilt.


Applying

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Bruno

should

indeterminate

be

sentenced

sentence

correccional

the

Indeterminate

namely,
Sentence

Law, the maximum term of the medium


to

an

penalty

of

arresto mayor in any of its period to


precion

circumstances,

in

its

medium

period and the minimum term should be


within the range of the penalty next
lower in degree or arresto mayor in any
of its period.

period as maximum. Bruno was entitled


to

two

priviledged

mitigating

circumstances of incomplete self-defense

Penalties;

and the presence of at least two ordinary

Disqualification (2007)

mitigating circumstances without any


aggravating circumstance under Articles
69 and 64(5) of the Revised Penal Code,
respectively, which lower the prescribed
penalty for homicide which is reclusion
temporal to prision correccional.

Perpetual

Absolute

No. I. What are the penalties that may be


served simultaneously? (10%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The

penalties

that

may

be

simultaneously
There is incomplete self-defense because
Bruno proved that it wa the victim who

served
are

imprisonment/destierro and:

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

1. Perpetual

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absolute

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Probation Law; Period Covered (2009)

disqualification;
2. Perpetual special disqualification;

No. XV. c. Joe was 17 years old when he

3. Temporary

committed homicide in 2005. The crime is

absolute

punishable by reclusion temporal. After two

disqualification;
4. Temporary

special

disqualification;

years in hiding, he was arrested and


appropriately charged in May 2007. Since

5. Suspension from public office, the

Republic Act 9344 (Juvenile Justice and

right to vote and be voted for, and

Welfare Act of 2006) was already in effect,

the right to follow a profession or

Joe moved to avail of the process of

calling;

intervention or diversion.

Fine; and any principal penalty with its

Suppose Joe was convicted of attempted

accessory penalties.

murder

with

special

aggravating

circumstance and was denied suspension


of
Penalties; Reclusion Perpetua vs. Life
Imprisonment (2009)
No. XI. a. Life imprisonment is a penalty

sentence,

would

he

be

eligible

for

probation under Presidential Decree (PD)


968, considering that the death penalty is
imposable for the consummated felony?
Explain. (2%)

more favorable to the convict than reclusion


perpetua.
SUGGESETD ANSWER:
False, Life Imprisonment is unfavorable
to a convict because the penalty is
without a fixed duration, unlike the
penalty of reclusion perpetua which has
a fixed duration of 40 years and the
convict may be eligible for pardon after
30 years of imprisonment (People v.
Penillos, 205 SCRA 546 [1992]).

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, he would be eligible for probation
because the penalty imposable on Joe
will not exceed 6 years imprisonment.
Even if it would be considered that the
crime

committed

was

punishable

by

death, the penalty as far as Joe I


concerned

can

only

be

reclusion

perpetua because RA 9344 forbids the


imposition of the capital punishment
upon offenders thereunder.

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The murder being attempted only, the

The brothers petition for prohibition

prescribed penalty is two degree lower

should both be denied.

than reclusion perpetua; hence, prision


mayor. Because Joe was 17 years old

Matts petition for probation shall be

when

the

denied because he was convicted for

should be

drug-trafficking. Section 24 of R.A. 9165

lowered further by one degree because

(Comprehensive Dangerous Drug Act of

his minority is a privilege mitigating

2002) expressly provides, Any person

circumstance;

prision

convicted for drug trafficking or pushing

correccional or imprisonment within the

under this Act, regardless of the penalty

range of ix months and 1 day to 6 years

imposed by the court, cannot avail of the

is the imposable.

privilege granted by the Probation Law

he

penalty

committed

of

the

prision mayor

hence,

crime,

or

Presidential

Decree

No.

968,

as

amended.
Probation Law; Oder Denying Probation
(2010)
Suspension of Sentence; Adults/Minors
No. XX. Matt was found guilty of drug

(2013)

trafficking while his younger brother Jeff


of

No. V. Michael was 17 years old when he

and

was charged for violation of Sec. 5 of R.A.

other paraphernalia for dangerous drugs

9165 (illegal sale of prohibited drug). By the

under Section 12 of Republic Act No. 9165.

time he was convicted and sentenced, he

was

found

equipment,

guilty

of

instrument,

possession
apparatus

was

already

21

years

old.

The

court

Matt filed a petition for probation. Jeff

sentenced him to suffer an indeterminate

appealed

the

penalty of imprisonment of six (6) years and

pendency of which he also filed a petition

one (1) day of prision mayor, as minimum,

for probation.

to seventeen (17) years and four(4) months

his

conviction

during

The brothers counsel argued that they


being first time offenders, their petitions for
probation should be granted. How would
you resolve the brothers petitions for
probation? Explain. (3%)

of reclusion temporal, as maximum, and a


fine

of

P500,000.Michael

applied

for

probation but his application was denied


because the probation law does not apply to
drug offenders under R.A. 9165. Michael
then sought the suspension of his sentence

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
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under R.A. 9344 or the Juvenile Justice

No. XV. b. Joe was 17 years old when he

and Youth Welfare Code.

committed homicide in 2005. The crime is


punishable by reclusion temporal. After two

Can Michael avail of the suspension of his

years in hiding, he was arrested and

sentence provided under this law? (7%)

appropriately charged in May 2007. Since


Republic Act 9344 (Juvenile Justice and

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Welfare Act of 2006) was already in effect,

The benefits of a suspended sentence


can no longer apply to Machel. The
suspension of sentence lasts only until
the law reaches the maximum age and
thus, could no longer be considered a
child for purposes of applying Rep. Act
No. 9344. However, he shall be entitled
to the right of restoration, rehabilitation
and reintegration in accordance with the

Joe moved to avail of the process of


intervention or diversion.
Suppose Joes motion for intervention or
diversion was denied, and he was convicted
two (2) years later when Joe was already 21
years old, should the judge apply the
suspension of sentence? Explain. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

law to give him the chance to live a


normal life and become a productive

No,

member of the community. Accordingly,

sentence

Michael

an

already 21 years old. Suspension of

agricultural camp and other training

sentence is availing under RA 9344 only

facility in accordance with Section 51 of

until a child reaches the maximum age

Rep. Act No. 9344 (People v. Jacinto, GR

of twenty-one (21) years.

may

be

confined

in

the

judge

should

anymore

not

because

suspend
Joe

was

No. 182239, March 16, 2011; People v.


Salcedo, GR. No. 186523, June 22, 2011;

EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL

Padua v. People, GR No. 1683, July 23,

LIABILITY

2008 and People v. Sarcia, GR No.


169641, September 10, 2009).

Amnesty (2009)
No. II. Antero Makabayan was convicted of

Suspension of Sentence; Adults/Minors


(2009)

the

crime

of

Rebellion.

While

serving

sentence, he escaped from jail. Captured,


he was charged with, and convicted of,
Evasion of Service of Sentence. Thereafter,

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the President of the Philippines issued an

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Pardon; Effect (2009)

amnesty proclamation for the offense of


Rebellion. Antero applied for and was

No. I. a. Amado, convicted of rape but

granted

granted

the

benefit

of

the

amnesty

an

President,

proclamation.

absolute
and

pardon

one

year

by

the

thereafter,

convicted of homicide, is a recidivist.


Antero then filed a petition for habeas
corpus, praying for his immediate release
from confinement.

He claims that the

amnesty extends to the offense of Evasion


of Service of Sentence. As judge, will you
grant the petition? Discuss fully. (4%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
True,

rape

is

now

crime

against

persons and, like the crime of homicide,


is embraced in the same Title of the
Revised penal Code under which Amado
had been previously convicted by final

SUGGESTED ANSWER;

judgment. The absolute pardon granted


Yes, I will grant the petition because the

him for rape, only excuse him from

sentence evaded proceeded from the

serving the sentence for rape but did not

offender as a crime of Rebellion which

erase

has been obliterated by the grant of

therefore unless expressly remitted by

amnesty to the offender (Art. 89[3],

the pardon.

the

effect

of

the

conviction

RPC).
Since the amnesty erased the criminal
complexion of the act committed by the

Prescription of Crimes; Commence to

offender as a crime of

Run (2010)

rebellion and

rendered such act a though innocent,


the sentence lost its legal basis. The
purported

evasion

thereof

therefore

cannot subsist (People v. Patriarca, 341


SCRA 464[200]).
Amnesty obliterates, not only the basis
of conviction, bur also all the legal effect
thereof.

No. XVII. a. A killed his wife and buried her


in their backyard. He immediately went into
hiding in the mountains.
Three years later, the bones of As wife were
discovered by X, the gardener. Since X had
a standing warrant of arrest, he hid the
bones in an old clay jar and kept quiet
about it. After two years, Z, the caretaker,
found the bones and reported the matter to
the police.

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After 15 years of hiding, A left the country

Charged in court, Baldo claims that the

but returned three years later to take care

crime he committed had already prescribed.

of his ailing sibling. Six years thereafter, he


was charged with parricide but raised the
defense of prescription.

Is Baldos contention correct? Explain. (3%)


SUGGESTED ANWER:

Under the Revised Penal Code, when does


the

period

of

prescription

of

crime

commence to run? (1%)

No, Baldos contention is not correct


because the crime committed has not
yet prescribed. The prescriptive period

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Generally, the period of prescription of a
crime commences to run from the date
it was committed; but if the crime was
committed clandestinely, the period of
prescription of the crimes under the
Revised Penal Code commence to run
from the day on which the crime was
discovered by the offended party, the
authorities or their agents (Art. 91, RPC).

of the crime committed commenced to


run only after it was report to the police
on January 2, 1970, not on the date it
was clandestinely committed on January
2, 1960. Under the discovery rule, which
govern when the crime is not publicly
committed, the prescriptive period of a
crime commences to run only from the
day on which the crime is discovered by
the offended party, the authorities or
their agents: in this case, from January
2, 1970 when it made known to the
police authorities until January 2, 1980,

Prescription of Crimes; Discovery Rule

when Balo was arrested and charged. The

(2009)

killing committed, whether homicide or


murder, is punishable by an afflictive

No. VI. Baldo killed Conrad in a dark

penalty which prescribes within twenty

corner, at midnight, on January 2, 1960.

(20) year, whereas only around ten (10)

Dominador witnessed the entire incident,

years ha lapsed from January 2, 1970

but he was so scared to tell the authorities

(when the authorities discovered the

about it.

commission of the crime) to January 2,


1980 (when the accused was charged in

On January 2, 1970, Dominador, bothered

court).

by his conscience, reported the matter to


the police. After investigation, the police
finally arrested Baldo on January 6, 1980.
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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

Prescription

of

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Crimes;

Interrupted

(2010)

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a standing warrant of arrest, he hid the


bones in an old clay jar and kept quiet
about it. After two years, Z, the caretaker,

No. XVII. b. A killed his wife and buried her

found the bones and reported the matter to

in their backyard. He immediately went into

the police.

hiding in the mountains.


After 15 years of hiding, A left the country
Three years later, the bones of As wife were

but returned three years later to take care

discovered by X, the gardener. Since X had

of his ailing sibling. Six years thereafter, he

a standing warrant of arrest, he hid the

was charged with parricide but raised the

bones in an old clay jar and kept quiet

defense of prescription.

about it. After two years, Z, the caretaker,


found the bones and reported the matter to
the police.

Is As defense tenable? Explain. (3%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

When is it interrupted? (1%)

No, the defense of prescription of the


crime

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

is

not

tenable.

The

crime

committed is parricide which prescribes


The running of the prescriptive period of

in twenty (20) years (Art. 90, RPC). It

the crime is interrupted when any kind

was only when the care-taker, Z found

of investigative proceeding is instituted

the victims bones and reported the

against the guilty person which may

matter to the police that the crime is

ultimately

deemed

lead

to

his

prosecution

legally

discovered

by

the

(Panaguiton, Jr. v. Dept. of Justice, G.R.

authorities or their agents and thus the

No. 167571, Nov. 25, 2008).

prescriptive

period

of

the

crime

commenced to run.
When A left the country and returned
Prescription of Crimes; Parricide (2010)

only after three (3) year, the running of


the prescriptive period of the crime is

No. XVII. c. A killed his wife and buried her

interrupted

in their backyard. He immediately went into

prescription shall not run when the

hiding in the mountains.

offender is absent from the Philippine

Three years later, the bones of As wife were

and

suspended

because

Archipelago (Art. 91, RPC).

discovered by X, the gardener. Since X had

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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Since A had been in hiding for 15 years

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

after the commission of the crime and


the prescriptive period started running

Yes,

only after 5 years from such commission

Misprision of Treason under Art. 116 of

when the crime was discovered, only 10

the Revised Penal Code, for failing to

years lapsed and 3 years thereof should

report or make known as soon as

be

prescriptive

possible to the governor or provincial

period was interrupted and suspended.

fiscal or to the mayor or fiscal of the

Hence, the 3 years.

City where she resides, the conspiracy

deducted

when

the

Myra

committed

the

crime

of

between her Italian boyfriend and the

CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL


SECURITY AND THE LAW OF
NATIONS

Chinese

General

to

commit

treason

against the Philippine Government in


time of war. She decided to report the
matter to the proper authorities only
after two (2) weeks.

Misprision of Treason (2010)


No. XXI. Because peace negotiations on the
Spratlys situation had failed, the Peoples

Qualified Piracy; Special Complex Crime

Republic of China declared war against the

(2008)

Philippines. Myra, a Filipina who lives with


her Italian expatriate boyfriend, discovered

No. VII. a. The inter-island vessel M/V Viva

e-mail correspondence between him and a

Lines I, while cruising off Batanes, was

certain General Tung Kat Su of China.

forced to seek shelter at the harbor of

On March 12, 2010, Myra discovered that


on even date her boyfriend had sent an email to General Tung Kat Su, in which he
agreed to provide vital information on the
military defense of the Philippines to the
Chinese government in exchange for P1
million and his safe return to Italy. Two
weeks later, Myra decided to report the
matter to the proper authorities.
Did Myra commit a crime? Explain. (3%)

Kaoshiung, Taiwan because of a strong


typhoon. While anchored in said harbor,
Max,

Baldo

and

Bogart

arrived

in

speedboat, fired a bazooka at the bow of the


vessel,

boarded

it

and

divested

the

passengers of their money and jewelry. A


passenger of M/V Viva Lines I, Dodong
advantage of the confusion to settle an old
grudge with another passenger, and killed
him. After their apprehension, all four were
charged with qualified piracy before a
Philippine court.

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Was the charge of qualified piracy against

enforced

the three person ( Max, Badong and Bogart

arbitrary detention under Art. 124 or

Unlawful Arrest under Art. 269 of the

who

boarded

the

inter-island

vessel

correct? Explain. ( 3% )

RPC.

Extralegal

considered
Yes, they (Max, Baldo and Bogart) boarded

disappearance

killing

murder

constitutes

can

and/or

also

be

homicide

under Art. 248/249, RPC.

and fired upon the ship, and divested the


passengers of their money and jewelry (Art.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

122, 123, RPC, as amended by R.A. 7659


and P.D. 532). As long as murder or

The petition for the writ of amparo is

homicide is committed as a result of or on

not a criminal proceeding and will not

occasion of piracy, the special complex

determine the guilt of the respondents.

crime of qualified piracy is committed.

If the evidence so warrants, the amparo


court

CRIMES AGAINST THE


FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF THE
STATE

may

Department

refer
of

the

Justice

case
for

to

the

criminal

prosecution (A.M. No. 07-9-12-SC) of the


military officers for the special complex
crime of kidnapping with murder or
homicide under Art. 267 of the Revised

Arbitrary

Detention;

Unlawful

Arrest;

Penal Code as amended by R.A. 7659.

Extralegal Killing (2008)


No. I. a. After due hearing on a petition for
a writ of amparo founded on the acts of
enforced

disappearance

and

extralegal

killing of the son of the complainant


allegedly done by the respondent military
officers, the court granted the petition. May
the military officers be criminally charged
in court with enforced disappearance and
extralegal killing? Explain fully. (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, the respondent military officers
may be criminally charged in court since

Violation of Domicile (2009)


No. I. e. A policeman who, without a judicial
order, enters a private house over the
owners opposition is guilty of trespass to
dwelling.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
False,

the

crime

committed

by

the

policeman in this case is violation of


domicile because the official duties of a
policeman carry with it an authority to

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make searches and seizure upon judicial

which the check was issued, the terms

order. He is therefore acting under color

and conditions relating to the issuance

of his official authority (Art. 128, RPC).

are irrelevant to the prosecution of the


offender. For this reason, the request of

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC

Frankto defer the deposit of the check

ORDER

as it ahs insufficient funds will not

Delivering

Prisoners

militate against his prosecution for BP


from

Jail;

Corruption of Public Officials (2013)


No. X. Frank borrowed P1,000,000 from his
brother Eric. To pay the loan, Frank issued
a post-dated check to be presented for
payment a month after the transaction. Two

22. Despite notice, Frank can still be


charged.
Moreover, if what is charged is Estafa,
Frank, being a brother of the offended
party, cannot be held criminally liable
under Article 332, RPC.

days before maturity, Frank called Eric


telling him he had insufficient funds and
requested that the deposit of the check be

Delivering

deferred. Nevertheless, Eric deposited the

Corruption

check and it was dishonored. When Frank

Falsification of Public Documents (2009)

Prisoners
of

from

Public

Jail;

Officials;

failed to pay despite demand, Eric filed a


complaint against him for violation of Batas

No. X. To secure the release of his brother

Pambansa Big. 22 (The Bouncing Checks

Willy, a detention prisoner, and his cousin

Law).

Vincent,

who

is

serving

sentence

for

homicide, Chito asked the RTC Branch


Was the charge brought against Frank

Clerk of Court to issue an Order which

correct? (7%)

would allow the two prisoners to be brought

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, the charges brought against Frank
is correct. Violation of BP 22 is malum
prohibitum which is committed by mere
issuance of a check. Good faith is not a
defense. As long as the check was issued
on account or for value, the purpose for

out of jail. At first, the Clerk refused, but


when Chito gave her P50,000.00, she
consented.
She then prepared an Order requiring the
appearance in court of Willy and Vincent,
ostensibly as witnesses in a pending case.
She forged the

judges signature,

and

delivered the Order to the jail warden who,

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in turn, allowed Willy and Vincent to go out

to such criminal plan; otherwise

of jail in the company of an armed escort,

he would not be liable for said

Edwin. Chito also gave Edwin P50,000.00

crime if he escaped pursuant to

to leave the two inmates unguarded for

human instinct only.

three minutes and provide them with an

c. Vincent, being a prisoner serving

opportunity to escape. Thus, Willy and

sentence

by

final

judgment,

Vincent were able to escape.

committed the crime of Evasion


of Service of Sentence (Art. 157,

What crime or crimes, if any, had been

RPC) for escaping during the term

committed by Chito, Willy, Vincent, the

of his imprisonment.

Branch Clerk of Court, Edwin, and the jail


warden? Explain your answer. (5%)

d. The

Branch

Clerk

of

Court

committed the crimes of:


1. Direct Bribery (Art. 210, RPC)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

for accepting the P50,000.00

The crime committed in this case are as


follows:

in consideration of the Order


she

issued

to

enable

the

prisoners to get out of jail;

a. Chito committed the crimes of


1. Delivery of Prisoners from Jail

2. Falsification
Document

of

for

Public

forgoing

(Art. 156, RPC) for working out

judges

the escape of prisoners Willy

Order (Art. 171, RPC);

2. Two counts of Corruption of


Officials

on

said

3. Delivery of Prisoners from Jail

and Vincent;
Public

signature

the

(Art.

212,

(Art.

156,

principal

RPC),
of

as

Chito

coby

indispensable cooperation for

RPC); and
Public

making the false Order and

Documents, as a principal by

forgoing the judges signature

inducement (Art. 172[1], RPC).

thereon,

3. Falsification

of

b. Willy Committed the crime of


Delivery of Prisoners from Jail

to

enable

the

prisoners to get out of jail;


4. Evasion of Service of Sentence

(Art. 156, RPC) as a principal by

(Art.

157,

RPC);

indispensable participation if he

principal

was aware of the criminal plan of

indispensable cooperation for

Chito to have them escape from

making the false Order that

of

as

Vincent

coby

prison and he did escape pursuant


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enable

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Vincent

to

evade

service of his sentence;


e. Edwin,

the

jail

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his examination booklet and sent him out


of the room, causing Mariano extreme

guard

who

embarrassment.

escorted the prisoner in getting


out of jail, committed the crimes

In

of

approached Miss Reyes and without any

1. Infidelity in the Custody of

warning, slapped her on the face. Mariano

Prisoners, especially conniving

would have inflicted grave injuries on Miss

with or consenting to Evasion

Reyes had not Dencio, another student,

for

intervened. Mariano then turned his ire on

leaving

unguarded

the

the

Dencio

provide them an opportunity

causing him injuries.

2. Direct Bribery for receiving


the

P50,000.00

as

consideration for leaving the


prisoners

unguarded

and

and

following

prisoners escorted by him and


to escape (Art. 223, RPC);

punched

day,

him

Mariano

repeatedly,

What crime or crimes, if any, did Mariano


commit? (7%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

allowing them the opportunity

Mariano is liable for two counts of direct

to escape (Art. 210, RPC);

assault. First, when he slapped Miss

The jail warden did not commit nor


incur a crime there being no showing
that

class

he

was

subordinates
negligence

aware

had
on

of

done

his

part

what

nor

of

that

his
any

would

amount to infidelity in the custody of


prisoners.

Reyes, who is a person in authority


expressly mentioned in Article 152 of
the Revised Penal Code, who was in the
performance of her duties on the day of
the commission of the assault. Second,
when he repeatedly punched Dencio,
who became an agent of the person in
authority when he came to the aid of a
person in authority, Miss Reyes (Celig v.
People, GR No. 173150, July 28, 2010).

Direct Assault (2013)


No. VII. Miss Reyes, a lady professor,
caught

Mariano,

one

of

her

students,

cheating during an examination. Aside from


calling Mariano's attention, she confiscated
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Direct Assault (2009)

Yes,

Rigorberto

Assault
No.

III.

Rigoberto

because

is

guilty

the

of

Direct

employment

of

the

violence was by reason of an actual

Lorenzo.

performance of a duty by the offended

Armed with a piece of wood commonly

party acting as a practicing lawyer.

known as dos por dos, Rigoberto hit Judge

Lawyers

Lorenzo on the back, causing the latters

authority by virtue of Batas Pambansa

hospitalization

Blg. 873, which states that lawyers in

71st birthday

party

gate-crashed

faithrollan5@yahoo.com

of

for

Judge

30

days.

Upon

are

considered

persons

in

investigation, it appeared that Rigoberto

the

had a grudge against Judge Lorenzo who,

professional duties or on the occasion of

two years earlier, had cited Rigoberto in

such

contempt and ordered his imprisonment for

persons in authority. But the crime

three (3) days.

having been committed 10 years ago,

(a) Is Rigoberto guilty of Direct Assault?


Why or why not? (3%)

actual

performance

performance

shall

of
be

their
deemed

may have already prescribed because it


is punishable by a correctional penalty.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, Rigoberto is not guilty of Direct
Assault

because

Judge

Lorenzo

has

ceased to be a judge when he was

Inciting to Sedition; Acts (2007)


No. VI. What are the different acts of
inciting to sedition? (10%)

attacked. He has retired (71 years old)


from

his

position

as

person

in

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

authority when he was attacked. Hence,


the attack on him cannot be regarded as

The different acts which constitute the

against a person in authority anymore.

crime of inciting to sedition are:

(b) Would your answer be the same if the

1. Inciting others through speeches,

reason for the attack was that when Judge

writings, banners and other media

Lorenzo was still a practicing lawyer ten

of representation to commit acts

years ago, he prosecuted Rigoberto and

which constitutes sedition;

succeeded in sending him to jail for one


year? Explain your answer. (3%)

2. Uttering

seditious

words,

speeches or circulating scurrilous


libels against the Government of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the Philippines or any of its duly

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constituted

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which

On the other hand, a public prosecutor

tend to disturb or obstruct the

may be prosecuted for this crime in

performance of official functions,

respect of the bribery committed, aside

or which tend to incite others to

from dereliction of duty committed in

cabal

violation of Art. 208 of the Revised Penal

and

authorities,

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meet

for

unlawful

purposes;

Code, should he refrain form prosecuting

3. Inciting through the same media


of

representation

rebellious

conspiracies or riots;
4. Stirring

people

to

an offender who has committed a crime


punishable by reclusion perpetua and/or
death in consideration of any offer,

go

against

promise, gift or present.

lawful authorities, or disturb the


peace and public order of the

Meanwhile, a police officer who refrains

community or of the Government;

from arresting such offender for the

or

same consideration abovestated, may be

5. Knowingly concealing any of the


aforestated

evil

practices

(Art.

142, Revised Penal Code).

prosecuted for this felony since he is a


public

officer

entrusted

with

law

enforcement.

CRIMES COMMITTED BY
PUBLIC OFFICERS

Maliciously Refraining from Instituting


or Prosecuting an Offender (2008)

Bribery (2010)
No. IV. a. Manolo revealed to his friend
No. II. b. May a judge be charged and

Domeng his desire to kill Cece. He likewise

prosecuted for such felony? How about a

confided to Domeng his desire to borrow his

public prosecutor? A police officer? Explain.

revolver. Domeng lent it. Manolo shot Cece

(5%)

in Manila with Domeng's revolver. As his

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

gun was used in the killing, Domeng asked


Mayor Tan to help him escape. The mayor

No, a judge may not be charged of this

gave Domeng P5,000.00 and told him to

felony because his official duty as a

proceed to Mindanao to hide. Domeng went

public officer is not law enforcement but

to Mindanao. The mayor was later charged

the determination of cases already filed

as an accessory to Cece's murder.

in court.

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Can he be held liable for the charge?

however, it was found that Roger and Jessie

Explain. (4 %)

falsified the disbursement vouchers and


supporting documents in order to make it

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

appear that qualified recipients who, in

If Domeng is not the principal to the


crime of murder, the Mayor may not be

fact, are non-existent individuals, received


the money.

held liable as accessory since he merely

Roger

assisted in the escape of an accomplice.

malversation

Par.

of

violation of Section 3 (e) of R.A. 3019 for

harboring or assisting in the escape of a

causing undue injury to the government.

principal. The mayor, however can be

Discuss the propriety of the charges filed

held liable as principal in the crime of

against Roger and Jessie. Explain. (4%)

of

Art.

19,

RPC

speaks

and

Jessie

are

through

charged

with

falsification

and

maliciously refraining from instituting or


prosecuting an offender under Art. 208

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

of the RPC.
The
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

charge

of

malversation

through

falsification is not correct because the


falsification of several documents ware

If Domeng is a principal by indispensable

not

cooperation, the mayor can be held

money

liable as an accessory to the murder

falsifications were committed to cover

under Art. 19 (3), RPC.

up

necessary
that

or

hide

means
were
the

to

obtain

malversed,
malversation

the
the
and

therefore, should be separately treated


from

malversation.

The

given

facts

separately treated from malversation.

Malversation (2009)

The given facts state that Roger and

No. XVI. Roger and Jessie, Municipal Mayor

Jessie falsified disbursement vouchers

and Treasurer, respectively, of San Rafael,

and supporting documents in order to

Leyte, caused the disbursement of public

make it appear that qualified recipients

funds allocated for their local development

received the money. Art. 48, RPC on

programs for 2008. Records show that the

complex crime is not applicable.

amount of P2-million was purportedly used


as financial assistance for a rice production
livelihood

project.

Upon

investigation,

They should be charged of violation of


section 3(e) of RA 3019 for the breach of
public trust and due injury cause to the

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Government. The violation is a crime

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Malversation (2008)

malum prohibitum.
No. XIV. a. Eliseo, the deputy sheriff,
conducted

the

execution

sale

of

the

property of Andres to satisfy the judgment


Malversation (2008)

against him in favor of ABC Corporation, a

No. V. b. Eman, a vagrant, found a bag


containing

identification

cards

and

diamond ring along Roxas Blvd. Knowing


that it was not his, he went to a nearest
police station to seek help in finding the
owner of the bag. At the precint PO1 Melvin
attended to him. In the investigation Eman
proposed to PO1 Melvin, "in case you don't
find the owner let's just pawn straight to
the pawnshop and pawned the ring for
P50,000.00 Eman never saw PO1 Melvin
again.

is any? Explain ( 3% )

However,

with
the

an

controlled

original

representative

charter.
of

the

corporation failed to attend the auction


sale.

Gonzalo,

the

winning

bidder,

purchased property for P100,000 which he


paid to Eliseo. Instead of remitting the
amount to the Clerk of Court as ex-officio
Provincial Sheriff, Eliseo lent the amount to
Myrna, his officemate, who promised to
repay the amount within two months, with
interest thereon. However, Myrna reneged

malversation of property under Art. 217,


RPC since the subject ring appears to be
the

misappropriation.

and
same

amount.

if any, committed by Eliseo. (4%)

PO1 Melvin committed the crime of

accountability

Corporation, Eliseo failed to remit the said

(a) State with reasons, the crime or crimes,

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

pawning

corporation

or

on her promise. Despite demands of ABC

What is the criminal liability of PO1 Melvin,

his

government-owned

the

act

of

constitutes

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Eliseo

committed

Malversation

for

allowing Myrna to misappropriate the


money

for

which

he,

as

Sheriff,

is

accountable (Art. 217, RPC). In this case,


the act of Eliseo of lending the amount
to

his

officemate

is

tantamount

to

permitting any other person to take the


public

funds,

considering

that

the

P100,000 involved is a public funds, it


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should be turned-over to the Office of

He can be charged with qualified theft

the Clerk of Court.

since the property stolen is mail matter


(Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan).

(b) Would your answer to the first question


be the same if ABC Corporation were a

He may also be charged with forgery

private corporation? Explain. (3%)

under Art. 169 (2) RPC, because there

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The answer would be the same since
even if ABC is a private corporation,
Eliseo is still accountable for it, and the

was a material alteration on a genuine


document (Luis B. Reyes, The Revised
Penal Code, Volume II, page 198, 16th
Edition [2006] citing US v. Solito, 36 Phil
785).

same should be delivered to the Court.


He may be charged with falsification
under Art. 171 (1), (2) RPC, because he
Malversation; Falsification (2008)

counterfeited

signatures

to

make

it

appear that the payees signed the money


No. X. Upon opening a letter containing 17

order and received payment.

money orders, the mail carrier forged the


signatures of the payees on the money
orders and encashed them. What crime or
crimes did the mail carrier commit? Explain
briefly. (6%)

Qualified Bribery (2010)


No. II. a. What is the crime of qualified
bribery? (2%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
In Peo. v. Villanueva, the Supreme Court
held that the mail carrier is guilty of
malversation and falsification.
In US v, Gorospe, 31 Phil, the Supreme
Court ruled the crime is infidelity in the
custody of documents.

Qualified robbery is a crime committed


by a public officer who is entrusted with
law enforcement who, in consideration
of any offer, promise, gift or offer,
refrains from arresting or prosecuting an
offender who has committed a crime
punishable by reclusion perpetua and/or
death (Art. 211-A, RPC).

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CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS

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same constitutes theft. His possession


and use of the picklock without lawful

Complex Crime; Rape with Homicide &

cause is by itself punishable under Art.

Theft (2009)

304, RPC.

No. XVII. a. Wenceslao and Loretta were


staying

in

occupying

the

same

different

boarding

rooms.

house,

One

late

evening, when everyone in the house was


asleep, Wenceslao entered Lorettas room
with the use of a picklock. Then, with force
and violence, Wenceslao ravished Loretta.
After he had satisfied his lust, Wenceslao
stabbed Loretta to death and, before leaving
the room, took her jewelry.

Criminal

Liabilities;

Homicide

or

Rape;

Murder;

Frustrated

Theft;

Use

of

Picklock (2009)
No. XVII. c. Wenceslao and Loretta were
staying

in

occupying

the

same

different

boarding

rooms.

house,

One

late

evening, when everyone in the house was


asleep, Wenceslao entered Lorettas room

What crime or crimes, if any, did Wenceslao


commit? Explain. (4%)

with the use of a picklock. Then, with force


and violence, Wenceslao ravished Loretta.
After he had satisfied his lust, Wenceslao
stabbed Loretta to death and, before leaving

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the room, took her jewelry.


Wenceslao

committed

the

following

crimes: (1) the special complex crime of

Would your answer to [a] be the same if,

rape with homicide (2) theft and (3)

despite

unlawful possession of picklocks and

sustained, Loretta survived? Explain. (3%)

similar tools under Art. 304, RPC. His


act

of

having

carnal

knowledge

of

Loretta against her will and with the use


of force and violence constituted rape,
plus the killing of Loretta by reason or
on the occasion of the rape, gave rise to
the special complex crime of rape with
homicide. Since the taking of the jewelry
was an afterthought as it was dome only
when he was about to leave the room
and when Loretta was already dead, the

the

serious

stab

wounds

she

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, the answer will be different. In that
case, the crime committed would be four
separate crimes of (1) rape (2) frustrated
homicide or murder (3) theft and (4)
unlawful possession and use of picklocks
under

Art.

304,

RPC.

The

special

complex crime of rape with homicide is


constituted only when both of them are

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not

consummated,

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they

are

to

be

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In this case, there is no tumultuous

charges and punished separately. In any

affray

since

the

event, the possession of the picklock

rumble belong to organized fraternities.

without lawful cause, more so its use

The killer of

in an unlawful entry is punishable as a

Fraternity could not be any other but

crime by itself.

member

of

participants

A, a
the

in

member of
rival

the
SFC

fraternity.

Conspiracy is therefore present among


the attackers form the rival fraternity
Death Caused in a Tumultuous Affray
(2010)

The liability of the attackers should be


collective for the crime of homicide or

No. X. A, B and C are members of SFC


Fraternity.

and thus rules out the idea of an affray.

While

eating

in

murder as the case may be.

seaside

restaurant, they were attacked by X, Y and


Z, members of a rival fraternity. A rumble

Giving Assistance to Suicide (2008)

ensued in which the abovenamed members


of the two fraternities assaulted each other

No.

in a confused and tumultuous manner

sweethearts, but their parents had objected

resulting in the death of A. As it cannot be

to their relationship because they were first

ascertained who actually killed A, the

cousins. They forged a pact in writing to

members of the two fraternities who took

commit suicide. The agreement was to

part in the rumble were charged for death

shoot each other in the head which they

caused in a tumultuous affray. Will the

did. Joan died. Due to medical assistance,

charge prosper? Explain. (4%)

Francis

VIII.

Francis

survived.

Is

and

Joan

Francis

were

criminally

liable for the death of Joan? Explain. (5%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, the charge of death caused in a

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

tumultuous affray will not prosper. In


death caused by tumultuous affray under

Yes.

Art. 251 of the Revised Penal Code, it is

assisting in the suicide of Joan, as

essential that the persons involved did

evidenced by their written pact (Art.

not compose groups organized for the

253, RPC).

common

purpose

of

assaulting

Francis

is

criminally

liable

for

and

attacking each other reciprocally.

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Homicide; Stages of Execution (2012)

proven,

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the

frustrated

crime

or

committed

attempted

is

homicide. If

No. X. a. Explain and illustrate the stages

intent to kill is not proven, the crime

of execution of the crime of homicide,

committed is physical injuries. Thus,

taking into account the nature of the

lack of intent to kill is a defense in

offense, the essential element of each of the

attempted or frustrated homicide.

stages of execution and the manner of


committing such international felony as

Nature of the crime if the offender with

distinguished

intent to kill attempted to inflict or

from

felony

committed

through reckless imprudence. (5%)

inflicted non-mortal wounds upon the


victim, he already directly commenced

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

an overt act to commit homicide. Hence,

Elements of the crime homicide as an


intentional

felony

has

three

stages,

attempted, frustrated and consummated.


In

whatever

committed,

stages

intent

to

homicide
kill

must

is
be

established for being an indispensable


element thereof. However, if the victim
died as a consequence of wound cause by
an act committed with malice, intent to
kill in conclusive presumed and the
crime

committed

is

consummated

homicide. Because of this conclusive


presumption, lack of intent to kill is not
a defense in consummated homicide.
(Note: In consummated homicide, the
accused may provide lack of intent to
kill

for

purpose

mitigating

of

appreciating

circumstance

of

the

praeter

intentionem). But if the victim did not


die as a consequence of wounds cause by
an act committed with malice, intent to
kill

must

be

established

beyond

the

crime

committed

is

attempted

homicide if he failed to inflict mortal


wounds upon the victim by reason of
some cause or accident other than his
own

spontaneous

desistance.

If

the

offender with intent to kill inflicted


mortal wounds upon the victim, he
already performed all acts of execution
which would produced the homicide as a
consequence.

Hence,

the

crime

is

frustrated or consummated homicide. If


death is not produced despite the mortal
character of the wounds due to causes
independent to the will of the offender,
the

crime

committed

homicide. If
crime

In

frustrated

death is produced, the

committed

homicide.

is

this

is

consummated

situation,

all

the

elements necessary for execution and


accomplishment of homicide are present
if the victim die due to wounds inflicted
with the offender with intent to kill.

reasonable doubt. If intent to kill is


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Intentional felony and culpable felony

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

homicide regardless of stages must be


committed with malice (general intent)

No, the answer would not be the same.

and intent to kill (specific intent). Even

Charlie would be criminally liable for less

if there I no intent to kill and evil intent,

serious physical injuries because his act

the offender is liable for culpable felony

of mixing the powder with Brads food

if the victim died or injured as a result of

was done with felonious intent and was

the recklessness of the former. If there

the proximate cause of Brads illness for

is no intent to kill, evil intent and

10 days. It cannot constitute attempted

recklessness on the part of the accused,

murder, although done with intent to

he is not liable for his intentional act,

kill, because the means employed is

which cause the death of or injury upon

inherently ineffectual to cause death and

the victim because of the exempting

the crime committed must be directly

circumstance of accident.

linked to the means employed, not to


the intent. Liability for an impossible
crime

can

only

arise

from

consummated act.
Less Serious Physical Injuries (2009)
No. IV. b. Charlie hated his classmate,
Brad, because the latter was assiduously

Less Serious Physical Injuries; Simple

courting Lily, Charlies girlfriend. Charlie

Negligence (2007)

went to a veterinarian and asked for some


poison on the pretext that it would be used

No. IX. During a concert of Gary V. and in

to kill a very sick, old dog. Actually, Charlie

order to prevent the crowd from rushing to

intended to use the poison on Brad.

the stage, Rafael Padilla {a security guard}


pointed his gun at the onrush of people.

The veterinarian mistakenly gave Charlie a

When the crowd still pushed forward,

non-toxic powder which, when mixed with

Rafael fired his gun into air to scare them

Brads food, did not kill Brad.

off. However, the bullet hit one of the metal


roof supports, ricocheted and then hit one

Would your answer be the same if Brad

of the stage crew members, causing injuries

proved to be allergic to the powder, and

which resulted in the latters confinement

after ingesting it with his food, fell ill and

in a hospital for twelve days.

was hospitalized for ten (10) days? Explain.


(3%)

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What crime/s did Rafael commit? Explain

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ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

your answer. (10%)


The
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

crime

resulting

is

in

reckless
less

imprudence

serious

physical

injuries, because the discharge of the


The crime committed by Rafael is Simple

firearm was not necessary under the

Negligence Resulting in Less Serious

circumstances

Physical Injuries. Rafael is a security

should be aware of the possibility of

guard

injuries that could result from such

and

was

on

duty

when

he

discharged the firearm. The discharged

and

therefore,

Rafael

discharge of the firearm.

of the firearm was not calculated to


cause alarm or danger but simply to
ward

off

the

unruly

crowd

which

persisted in moving forward, thereby

Murder; Frustrated; Qualified Treachery

challenging the duty he was to fulfill

(2009)

there. The discharge of the firearm,


therefore, should neither constitute a
crime of Alarms and Scandal under Art.
155 of the Revised Penal Code nor may
such discharge amount to a crime of
Illegal Discharge of Firearms under Art.
254 of the Code since it was not directed
towards a particular person when the
firearm was discharged.

from the discharge of the firearm betrays


a lack of precaution in a situation where
the danger to the discharge of the
firearm is not clearly manifest, thus
considered as simple imprudence only.
crime

committed

buy-bust operation, Tommy was convicted


of violation of Section 5, Republic Act 9165.
On

appeal,

Tommy

questioned

the

admissibility of the evidence because the


police officers who conducted the buy-bust
operation failed to observe the requisite
"chain

of

custody"

of

the

evidence

confiscated and/or seized from him.

However, the physical injuries resulting

The

No. XIV. Following his arrest after a valid

is

Simple

What is the "chain of custody" requirement


in drug offenses? What is its rationale?
What is the effect of failure to observe the
requirement? (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Imprudence Resulting In Less Serious

Chain of Custody requirement in drug

Physical

physical

offense refers to the duly recorded,

injuries required only twelve (12) days of

authorized movement and custody of

Injuries,

since

the

medical attention.
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seized

dangerous

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drugs,

controlled

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Murder; Reckless Imprudence (2007)

chemicals, plant sources of dangerous


of

No. VII. Eddie brought his son Randy to a

time

local faithhealer known as "Mother Himala."

confiscation/seizure thereof from the

He was diagnosed by the faithhealer as

offender, to its turn-over and receipt in

being possessed by an evil spirit. Eddie

the forensic laboratory for examination

thereupon authorized the conduct of a

to

eventual

"treatment" calculated to drive the spirit

presentation/offer in court as evidence

from the boys body. Unfortunately, the

of

procedure conducted resulted in the boys

drugs,

and

laboratory

dangerous

its
the

drugs

from

safekeeping
criminal

destruction

equipment
the

and

violation,

(Dangerous

and

Drugs

for

Board

Regulation No. 1 Series of 2002).

death.
The faithhealer and tree others who were

the

part of the healing ritual were charged with

authenticity of the corpus delicti or

murder and convicted by the lower court. If

body

you are appellate court Justice, would you

Its

rationale
of

the

improbable

is

to

crime

that

preserve

by

the

rendering
original

it

item

seized/confiscated in violation has been


exchanged or substituted with another
or tampered with or contaminated. It is
a method of authenticating the evidence
as

would

support

finding

beyond

reasonable doubt that the matter is what


the prosecution claims to be.

questionable,

renders
not

the

the

conviction

upon

appeal?

Explain your answer. (10%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, the conviction of murder should not
be

sustained,

because

there

is

no

indication that the accused acted with


intent to kill Randy. On the contrary,

Failure to observe the chain of custody


requirement

sustain

evidence

trustworthy

and

insufficient to prove the corpus delicti


beyond reasonable doubt. Hence, Tommy
would be acquitted on reasonable doubt.

the facts show that the accused acted to


treat the victim in a way of driving the
evil spirit which was believed to have
possessed

him.

Considering

that

proximate cause of the victims death


was the healing ritual done by the
accused which is not recognized in law
as legitimate, the accused are criminally
liable for the victims death. As they
may have overdone the healing ritual
they conducted on the victims body,

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causing the latters death, although the

round 3:00 in the morning, Mauro, a

intent to kill was absent, the accused

member of the criminal syndicate, arrived

may

be

Reckless

held

criminally

Imprudence

liable

for

at Antonio's home and hurled a grenade

Resulting

in

inti an open window of the bedroom where

Homicide.

Antonio, his wife and their three year-old


daughter were sleeping. All three of them

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

were killed instantly when the grenade

No, because none of the circumstances

exploded.

qualifying the killing to murder in Art.

State, with reason, the crime or crimes that

248 attended the crime.

had

The

faithhealer

should

only

and

be

his

liable

co-accused

for

homicide,

because they are not authorized by law

been

committed

aggravating

as

well

circumstances,

as
if

the
any,

attendant thereto. (7%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

to practice medicine and were therefore


acting illegally although the wrongful act

Roger & Mauro conspired to commit the

done

crime of murder qualified by treachery,

was

different

form

what

they

intended.

with the use of means involving great


waste and ruin. In this case, Mauro is
liable

syndicate in Malate, Manila, demanded the


payment by Antonio, the owner of a motel
in that area, of P10,000 a month as
With

the

monthly

payment, Roger assured, the syndicate


would provide protection to Antonio, his
business,

and

his

employees.

Should

Antonio refuse, Roger warned, the motel


owner

would

either

be

principal

by

direct

hurled into an open window of the

No. XV. Roger, the leader of a crime

money".

participation by using a grenade and

Murder; Treachery (2008)

"protection

as

killed

or

victims bedroom. Killing the victims


while they were sleeping and in no
position

to

defend

themselves,

is

treacherous act (People v. Aguilar, 88


Phil 693, 1951).
The

following

are

the

aggravating

circumstances:
1. Sec. 3, R.A. 8294 when a person

his

commits any of the crime under

establishment destroyed. Antonio refused to

the RPC or special laws with the

pay the protection money. Days later, at

use of explosive, etc. and alike

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incendiary devices which resulted

Leoncios lewd acts in the course of

in the death of any person.

dancing. So where the dance ended,

2. Art.

23,

R.A.

7659

organized/syndicated

crime

Leoncios continued dirty acts cannot be


veiled as still part of dancing.

group.

CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL


LIBERTY AND SECURITY

Exploitation of Child Labor (2009)


No. I. b. The creditor who resorts to forced
labor of a child under the pretext of

Acts of Lasciviousness (2009)

reimbursing himself for the debt incurred


No. XVIII. b. At the Maligaya Disco Club,

by the childs father commits the crime of

Leoncio and Evelyn were intimately dancing

slavery

a very seductive dance number. While


gyrating with their bodies, Leoncio dipped

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

his private parts in Evelyns buttocks.


Incensed, Evelyn protested, but Leoncio

False, the proper offense is exploitation

continued and tightly embraced her.

of

child

labor

(Art.

273,

RPC).

Exploitation of child labor is committed


Would your answer be the same if, even

by a person, who under the pretext of

after

Leoncio

reimbursing himself of a debt incurred

continued to dance dirty, rubbing his

by an ascendant, guardian or person

private

entrusted with the custody of a minor,

the

music

parts

had

on

stopped,

Evelyns

buttocks?

shall against the minors will, retain him

Explain. (3%)

in his services.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The

crime

would

lasciviousness.

then

That

be

the

acts

music

of
for

dancing had already stopped, puts an

Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention


(2009)

end to any pretense of dancing by


Leoncio. His continues dirty acts absent

No. IX. Virgilio, armed with a gun, stopped

the dancing as there was no music

a van along a major thoroughfare in Manila,

anymore is patently lewd and lascivious.

pointed

More

shouted: "Tigil! Kidnap ito!"

so,

Evelyn

already

protested

the

gun

at

the

driver

and

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Terrified, the driver, Juanito, stopped the

care of the child until the ransom is

van and allowed Virgilio to board. Inside the

paid, the crime committed is Serious

van were Jeremias, a 6-year-old child, son

Illegal Detention because the offended

of a multi-millionaire, and Daday, the

party deprived of liberty is a female (Art.

childs nanny. Virgilio told Juanito to drive

267, par.4, RPC).

to a deserted place, and there, ordered the


driver to alight. Before Juanito was allowed

As to Juanito, the driver of the van who

to

tell

was seriously intimidated with a gun

Jeremias parents that unless they give a

pointed at him and directed to stop the

ransom of P10-million within two (2) days,

van and allow the gun-man to board the

Jeremias would be beheaded. Daday was

same,

told to remain in the van and take care of

deserted place, the crime committed by

Jeremias until the ransom is paid. Virgilio

Virgilio I Grave Coercion (Art. 286, RPC)

then drove the van to his safehouse.

and Slight Illegal Detention (Art. 268,

go,

Virgilio

instructed

him

to

and

thereafter

to

drive

to

RPC) for holding the driver before he was


What crime or crimes, if any, did Virgilio

allowed to go.

commit? Explain. (5%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention
The crime committed against Jeremias,

with Rape (2013)

the 6 year-old child, is Kidnapping with


Art.

No. II. While walking alone on her way

267(4), RPC. The evident criminal intent

home from a party, Mildred was seized at

of the offender, Virgilio, is to lock up the

gun point by Felipe and taken on board a

child to demand ransom. Whether or not

tricycle to a house some distance away.

the ransom was eventually obtained will

Felipe was with Julio, Roldan, and Lucio,

not affect the crime committed because

who drove the tricycle.

Serious

the

Illegal

demand

for

Dtention

ransom

under

is

not

an

element of the crime; it only qualifies


the penalty to death but the imposition
of the penalty is now prohibited by Rep.
Act. No. 9346.

At the house, Felipe, Julio, and Roldan


succeeded in having sexual intercourse
with Mildred against her will and under the
threat of Felipe's gun. Lucio was not around
when the sexual assaults took place as he

As to Daday, the nanny of the child who

left

after

was told to remain in the van and take

Mildred

bringing
to

their

his

colleagues

destination,

but

and
he

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returned everyday to bring food and the

purpose (People v. Miranda, Jr., GR No.

news

Mildred's

186417, July 27, 2011). Albeit, Lucio

disappearance. For five days, Felipe, Julio

was not around when the sexual assault

and Roldan kept Mildred in the house and

took place, his complicity is evident as

took turns in sexually assaulting her. On

he was the one who drove the tricycle

the 6th day, Mildred managed to escape;

and returned every day to bring food and

she proceeded immediately to the nearest

news to his cohorts.

in

town

about

police station and narrated her ordeal.


What crime/s did Felipe, Julio, Roldan, and
Lucio commit and what was their degree of
participation? (7%)

Light coercion (2007)


No. X. Pinky was a lessee of a market stall
owned by Giovanni. When Pinky refused to

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

pay

her

rental,

Giovanni

nailed

some

Felipe, Julio, Roldan and Lucio are all

wooden barricades on one of the sides of

liable of the special complex crime of

the market stall and posted this warning:

kidnapping and serious illegal detention

"We have closed this portion of the door. Do

with rape. It was sufficiently proved that

not open it or else something may happen

the four kidnapped Madrid and held her

to you."

in detention for five days and carnally


abused her. Notably, however, no matter

What crime/s did Giovanni commit, if any?

how many rapes have been committed in

Explain your answer. (10%)

the special complex crime of kinapping


with rape, the resultant crime is only
one

kidnapping

with

rape.

The

composite acts are regarded as a single


indivisible offense with only one penalty.
The offense is not forcible abduction
with raoe since it was obvious that the
intent is to detain the victim.

all of them are principally liable because


of implied conspiracy as they acted
a

single

criminal

The crime committed by Giovanni is


light coercion under Art. 287 of the
Revised Penal Code, commonly referred
to as unjust vexation. Although what was
done by Giovanni could reasonably be
assumed as a retaliation to the lessees

As to the degree of their participation,

toward

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

design

or

refusal to pay rent, absent any clear


violence in the premises, such would not
bring about a case of grave coercion. The
situation should be interpreted liberally

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in favor of the offender. The rule of pro

and brought up on inquest. What charge/s,

reo

if any, may he be held responsible for?

precludes

any

finding

for

grave

coercion, because it would be against the


offender.

Explain. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

The written warning which states or


else something may happen to you is so
equivocal that it may not be interpreted
as felonious. A crime is never presumed;
it is contrary that is presumed.

Canuto may be held liable only for the


milder crime of unjust vexation which
is a form of light coercion under Art. 287
of the Revised Penal Code. Instead of the
crime of acts of lasciviousness although
the offender is known for his voyeurism.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
The crime committed by Giovanni is
grave coercion because barricading one
of the sides of the market stall was an
act of violence deliberately done. It is
not only an act of unjust vexation or
light coercion but of grave coercion.

Our Revised Penal Code inclines towards


milder

criminal

consistent

with

responsibility,

the

presumption

of

innocence under our system applying


penal laws. Holding the hip of a person is
not per se lascivious but undoubtedly
annoys, irritates, and vexed the young
offended

party.

The

attitude

to

prosecute the offender for the milder


crime of unjust vexation may be proper

Unjust Vexation (2010)

considering his age and civil status.


No.

VII.

widower

of

ten

years,

septuagenarian Canuto felt that he had


license to engage in voyeurism. If not
peeping into his neighbors rooms through
his powerful single-cylinder telescope, he
would trail young, shapely damsels along
the hallways of shopping malls. While going
up the escalator, he stayed a step behind a
mini-skirted one, and in a moment of
excitement, put his hand on her left hip
and massaged it. The damsel screamed and
hollered for help. Canuto was apprehended

Unjust Vexation (2009)


No. XVIII. a. At the Maligaya Disco Club,
Leoncio and Evelyn were intimately dancing
a very seductive dance number. While
gyrating with their bodies, Leoncio dipped
his private parts in Evelyns buttocks.
Incensed, Evelyn protested, but Leoncio
continued and tightly embraced her.

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What crime or crimes, if any, did Leoncio

force and violation, they shall be deemed

commit? Explain. (3%)

highway robbers or brigands (Article 306


of the Revised Penal Code).

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Leoncio committed the crime of unjust
vexation only because the act was done

Brigandage vs. Robbery in Band (2012)

in the course of dancing. The act of


dirty

No. VII. a. Distinguish brigandage from

dancing. The act of dipping his private

robbery in band as to elements, purpose of

parts in Evelyns buttocks during a very

the of fender and agreement among the

seductive dance, although offensive to

offenders. (5%)

dipping

his

private

part

of

Evelyn, may be viewed as part of a dirty


dancing. Lewd intent cannot simply be
presumed from the act of dirty dancing.
The fact that the act was perpetrated in
a public place and with an audience,
negates lewd design or lascivious intent,
which is essential in the crime of acts of
lasciviousness.

CRIMES AGAINST
PROPERTY

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The

following

distinction

between

brigandage and robbery by band: The


main object of the Brigandage Law is to
prevent

the

robbers.

The

formation
heart

of

of

bands

the

of

offense

consists in the formation of a band by


more than three armed persons for the
purpose indicated in Article 306 of the
Revised Penal Code. Such formation is
sufficient to constitute a violation of

Brigandage; Brigands (2012)

Article 306. It would not be necessary to


show, in a prosecution under it, that a

No. VII. a. Who are brigands? (5%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
When more than three armed persons
form a band of robbers for the purpose of
committing robbery in the highway, or
kidnapping persons for the purpose of
extortion or to obtain ranom, for any
other purpose to be attained by means of

member or members of the band actually


committed robbery or kidnapping or any
other

purpose

attainable

by

violent

means. The crime is proven when the


organization and purpose of the band are
shown to be such as are contemplated by
Art. 306. On the other hand, if robbery
or kidnapping, etc., the crime would not
be brigandage, but only robbery. Simply

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because robbery was committed by a

ransom;

band of more than three armed persons,


it

would

not

follow

that

it

3. Any

was

other

committed by a band of brigands. In the

purpose

Spanish text Article 306, it is required

to

that the band sala a los campos para

achieved

dedicarse a robar (People v. Puno, G.R.

by means

No. 97471, February 17, 1993).

of

be

force

or
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

violence.

Brigandage
Elements

Robbery in

Agreeme

The

Band

nt

among

more

agreement

More than

than

three

is only to

at least 4

three

armed men is to

commit

persons;

armed

commit robbery

particular

malefactor

in the highway.

robbery.

1. There are

2. They
form

band

of

robbers;

The

s take part
in

the

commissio

3. The

purpose

of

robbery.

BP 22 (2013)
No. X. Frank borrowed P1,000,000 from his

is any of

brother Eric. To pay the loan, Frank issued

the

a post-dated check to be presented for

following:

payment a month after the transaction. Two

(see

days before maturity, Frank called Eric

below)
Purpose

agreement

telling him he had insufficient funds and

1. Commit

Commit

requested that the deposit of the check be

robbery

robbery,

deferred. Nevertheless, Eric deposited the

but

check and it was dishonored. When Frank

in

highway;
2. Kidnap
to extort
or

get

not

necessaril

failed to pay despite demand, Eric filed a

complaint against him for violation of Batas

in

highway.

Pambansa Big. 22 (The Bouncing Checks


Law).

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Was the charge brought against Frank

The two then approached trader C whom

correct? (7%)

they asked to change the check with cash,


even

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, the charges brought against Frank
is correct. Violation of BP 22 is malum
prohibitum which is committed by mere
issuance of a check. Good faith is not a
defense. As long as the check was issued

agreeing

discounted

that

at

the

exchange

P85,000.00

with

be
the

assurance that the check shall be funded


upon maturity. Upon Cs presentment of
the check for payment on due date, it was
dishonored

because

the

account

had

already been closed.

on account or for value, the purpose for

What action/s may C commence against A

which the check was issued, the terms

and B to hold them to account for the loss

and conditions relating to the issuance

of her P85,000.00? Explain. (5%)

are irrelevant to the prosecution of the


offender. For this reason, the request of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Frankto defer the deposit of the check

A criminal action for violation of BP 22

as it ahs insufficient funds will not

may be filed against B who drew the

militate against his prosecution for BP

postdated check against a closed bank

22. Despite notice, Frank can still be

account, for value paid by C, and with

charged.

knowledge at the time he issued the


check

Moreover, if what is charged is Estafa,

that

the

account

thereof

is

already closed.

Frank, being a brother of the offended


party, cannot be held criminally liable

A cannot be held liable under BP 22

under Article 332, RPC.

because he was a mere endorser of Bs


check to C who exchanged the check in
cash. BP 22 does not apply to endorser
of checks. Hence only a civil action may

BP 22 (2010)
No. VIII. A asked financial support from her
showbiz friend B who accommodated her by
issuing in her favor a postdated check in
the sum of P90,000.00. Both of them knew
that the check would not be honored
because Bs account had just been closed.

be filed by C against A to recover the


P85,000.00.
Although

simultaneous

action

for

estafa is authorized by law for the


issuance of a worthless check, under the
given facts, the check was discounted
and thus issued in a credit transaction

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for a pre-existing indebtedness. Criminal

intent to cause damage attends the

liability for estafa does not arise when a

falsification, it will be the same damage

check has been issued in payment for a

or intent to cause damage that will

pre-existing debt.

attend the estafa.


If

such

talaan

or

ledger

was

commercial document, damage or proof


Estafa; Abuse of Confidence (2007)

of

No. VIII. Fe is the manager of a rice mill in


Bulacan. In order to support a gambling
debt, Fe made it appear that the rice mill
was earning less than it actually was by
writing in a "talaan" or ledger a figure lower
than what was collected and paid by their
customers. Fe then pocketed the difference.
What crime/s did Fe commit, If any?
Explain your answer. (10%)

intent

to

cause

damage

is

not

necessary. The falsification alone if done


with intent to pervert the truth, would
bring

about

criminal

liability

for

falsification of a commercial document.


Damage or intent to cause damage,
would sustain the estafa independently
of the falsification of the commercial
document. In this case, two (2) separate
crimes are committed; namely, estafa
and

falsification

of

the

commercial

document. The falsification should not

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

be complexed with the estafa since it

If the talaan or ledger which Fe made

was not committed as a necessary means

to

to commit the estafa but rather resorted

show

document,

falsehood
they

only

was

crime

private
that

Fe

to,

to

conceal

committed was estafa thru abuse of

misappropriation

confidence or

pocketed.

unfaithfulness. Criminal

liability for falsification of a private


document does not arise without damage
or at least proof of intent to cause
damage. it cannot co-exist with the
crime of estafa which is also essentially
requires damage or at least proof of
intent

to

cause

damage.

Since

the

talaan was falsified to cover-up or


conceal

the

misappropriation

of

the

amount involved, whatever damage or

of

or

hide

the

the

amount

she

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
The crimes committed by Fe are theft
and falsification of private document
because Fes possession of the proceeds
of the rice mill was only physical, not
juridical

possession,

and

having

committed the crimes with grave abuse


of confidence, it is qualified theft.

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The falsification is a separate crime from

of

violation

of

BP

22,

the theft because it was not committed

swindling is achieved through distinct

as a necessary means to commit the

fraudulent

theft but resorted to only to hide or

different time or dates, and in different

conceal the unlawful taking.

amounts.

machinations
Moreover,

his

since

each

contrived
drawing

at
of

separate checks payable to each payee is


a separate criminal resolution, as they
must be of different amounts and of

Estafa and B.P. 22 (2009)

different dates. He acted with separate

No. XIII. b. Angelo devised a Ponzi Scheme


in which 500 persons were deceived into
investing their money upon a promise of a
capital return of 25%, computed monthly,
and

guaranteed

by

post-dated

checks.

During the first two months following the

fraudulent intent against each swindling


and issuing each check. It cannot be
maintained that hi acts are the product
of one criminal resolution only.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

investment, the investors received their

Yes, Angelo committed only one count of

profits, but thereafter, Angelo vanished.

estafa and one count of violation of BP

Angelo was charged with 500 counts of


estafa and 2,000 counts of violation of
Batas Pambansa (BP) 22. In his motion to
quash, Angelo contends that he committed
a

continued

crime,

22 because his acts were propelled by


one and the same intent to defraud
(Santiago v. Garchitorena, 228 SCRA
214[1993]).

or delito

continuado, hence, he committed only one


count of estafa and one count of violation of

Estafa; Falsely Pretending to Possess

BP 22.

Power (2008)

Is Angelos contention tenable? Explain.

No. IX. a. Dennis leased his apartment to

(4%)

Myla for P10,000 a month. Myla failed to

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, his contention is not tenable. He
committed as many count of estafa
against the 500 victims and 2000 count

pay the rent for 3 months. Gabriel, the son


of Dennis, prepared a demand letter falsely
alleging that his father had authorized him
to collect the unpaid rentals. Myla paid the
unpaid rentals to Gabriel who kept the
payment.

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estafa

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through

falsification

of

public

Did Gabriel commit a crime? Explain. (4%)

document.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Was the criminal charge proper? (7%)

Yes, Gabriel committed the crime of


Estafa under Art. 315, Par. 2(a), RPC by
fraudulent acts executed prior to or
simultaneous with the fraud or falsely
pretending to possess agency. Myla paid
the money because she relied upon the
demand letter prepared by Gabriel with
the

false

allegation

that

he

was

authorized to collect rentals.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The criminal charge of estafa through
falsification is correct. William forged
the signature of his mother-in-law in the
Special Power of Attorney, which is a
public document, as a necessary means
to sell her properties to third parties
without delivering the proceeds thereof.
Although

the

relationship

of

affinity

created between William and his motherin-law survived the death of either party

Estafa through Falsification (2013)

to the marriage, the coverage of the

No. VIII. William is the son-in-law of

absolutory cause under Article 332 (1) of

Mercedes who owns several pieces of real

the

property. In 1994, William's wife, Anita,

applied to him. It is strictly limited to

died.

the

the simple crimes of theft, estafa and

preparation of a Special Power of Attorney

malicious mischief. It does not apply

(SPA) giving him the authority to sell two (2)

where any of the crimes mentioned is

parcels of land registered in the name of

complex with another crime. This is

Mercedes. The signature of Mercedes in the

because

SPA was forged and, through this forged

through

SPA

document, the matter acquires a very

In

and

1996,

William

without

the

caused

consent

and

Revised

Penal

when

estafa

falsification

knowledge of Mercedes, William succeeded

serious

public

in selling the two (2) parcels for Php

beyond

the

2,000,000. He pocketed the proceeds of the

liabilities

sale.

themselves.

of

Code

cannot

is

committed

of

dimension
respective
family

be

public

and

goes

rights

and

member

Effectively,

among

when

the

offender resorts to an act that breaches


Mercedes eventually discovered William's

the public interest in the integrity of

misdeeds and filed a criminal complaint.

public documents as a mean to violate

William was subsequently charged with

the property rights of a family member,

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he

is

removed

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form

the

protective

person

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on

any

Philippine

highway.

mantle of the absolutory cause under

Hence, the elements of highway robbery

Article 332 (Intestate Estate of Manolita

are:

Gonzales Vda. De Carungcong v. People,


a. Intent to gain;

GR No. 181409, February 11, 2010.

b. Unlawful taking of property of


another;
c. Violence against or intimidation
Highway Robbery (2012)

of any person;
d. Committed

No. IV. b. A postal van containing mail

on

Philippine

highway;

matters, including checks and treasury

e. Indiscriminate victim

warrants, was hijacked along a national


highway by ten (1 0) men, two (2) of whom

To

were armed. They used force, violence and

robbery, the prosecution must prove

intimidation

that the accused were organized for the

against

three

(3)

postal

obtain

conviction

for

highway

employees who were occupants of the van,

purpose

resulting

and

indiscriminately. If the purpose is only a

transportation of the entire van and its

particular robbery, the crime is only

contents.

robbery, or robbery in a band if there are

in

the

unlawful

taking

If you were the defense counsel, what are


the elements of the crime of highway
robbery that the prosecution should prove

of

committing

robbery

at least four armed participants (See:


People v. Mendoza, G.R. No. 104461,
February 23, 1996).

to sustain a conviction? (5%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Persons Exempt from Criminal Liability

Under Section 2 of P.D. 532, highway


robbery is defined as he seizure of any
person for ransom, extortion or other
unlawful purposes, or the taking away of
the property of another by means of
violence

against

or

intimidation

of

person or force upon things or other


unlawful

means,

committed

by

any

(2008)
No. IX. b. Dennis leased his apartment to
Myla for P10,000 a month. Myla failed to
pay the rent for 3 months. Gabriel, the son
of Dennis, prepared a demand letter falsely
alleging that his father had authorized him
to collect the unpaid rentals. Myla paid the

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unpaid rentals to Gabriel who kept the


payment.

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The elements of this crime are:


1. Unlawful

Can Gabriel invoke his relationship with


Dennis to avoid criminal liability? Explain.
(3%)

property

taking

of

belonging

personal

to

another

(the earnings of the taxi-driver);


2. Intent to gain in the taking (of
the earnings which belong to the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

taxi-driver);

No. Gabriel cannot invoke Art. 332, RPC

3. Violence against or intimidation

(Persons exempt from criminal liability).

of person or force upon things

It is Myla, not the father Dennis, who is

was employed in the taking; and

the offended party under Art. 315 (2)(a)

4. There

were

more

than

three

(Luis B. Reyes, The Revised Penal Code,

armed malefactors taking part in

Volume

the commission of the robbery

II,

page

853,16th

Edition

[2006]).

(Art. 296 in relation to Art. 294,


Revised Penal Code)

Robbery; By a Band (2010)

Robbery in an Inhabited House (2008)

No. XXIII. a. Christopher, John, Richard,

No. XIII. Lucas had been the

and Luke are fraternity brothers. To protect

houseboy of spouses Nestor and Julia for

themselves from rival fraternities, they all

Five Years. One Night, while Nestor and

carry guns wherever they go. One night,

Julia were out having dinner, Lucas and his

after attending a party, they boarded a

friend Pedro gained entry into the masters'

taxicab, held the driver at gunpoint and

bedroom with the used of a false key. They

took the latters earnings.

found Julia's jewelry box in one of the

What crime, if any, did the four commit?


Enumerate the elements of the crime. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

cabinets

which

was

unlocked.

stay-in

Lucas

believed that Julia's jewelry inside the box.


Unknown to Lucas and Pedro, the box was
empty. Pedro took the box and left the
bedroom with Lucas. They were shock

The crime committed is robbery by a

when they saw Nestor in the sala, pointing

band since there were four (4) offenders

a gun at them. Nestor ordered them to stop

acting in concert in committing the

and hand over the box. Pedro complied. It

robbery and all the four were armed.

turned out that Nestor had just arrived in

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time to see Lucas and Pedro leaving the

No, the crime becomes robbery with

master's bedroom with the box.

homicide and all the fraternity brothers


are liable. The existence of a band shall

State with reasons, the crime or crimes, if

be

any, Lucas and Pedro committed. (7%)

aggravating circumstance. Also, if the

appreciated

only

as

generic

firearms used were unlicensed, the same

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

would

Lucas and Pedro committed Robbery in


an Inhabited House (Art. 299) for gaining
entry into the house by means of a false
key.

only

be

taken

as

generic

aggravating circumstance as provided by


the

Rep.

Act

Bolinguet,

No.

G.R.

8294

(People

Nos.

v.

137949-52,

December 11, 2003).

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Lucas and Pedro may also be charged
with
abused

qualified
the

theft

trust

and

because

Lucas

confidence

of

Nestor and Julia, which gave his access


to the house.

Robbery w/ Homicide (2009)


No. I. d. A person who, on the occasion of a
robbery, kills a bystander by accident is
liable for two separate crimes: robbery and
reckless imprudence resulting in homicide.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Robbery w/ Homicide (2010)


No. XXIII. b. Christopher, John, Richard,
and Luke are fraternity brothers. To protect
themselves from rival fraternities, they all
carry guns wherever they go. One night,
after attending a party, they boarded a
taxicab, held the driver at gunpoint and
took the latters earnings.

False, only one crime of robbery with


homicide

is

constituted

because

the

Revised Penal Code punishes the crime


as only one indivisible offense when a
killing, whether intentional or accident,
was committed by reason or on occasion
of a robbery (Art. 294[1], RPC; People v.
Mabasa, 65 Phil. 568 [1938]).

Would your answer be the same if they


killed the driver? Explain. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

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Robbery w/ Homicide (2009)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

No. VIII. While Alfredo, Braulio, Ciriaco,

Braulio shall be liable for Robbery with

and

bank,

Homicide (Art. 294[1], RPC) for killing

ensued

Alfredo, since the killing was by reason

Domingo

policemen
between

were

arrived.
the

robbing
A

bank

firefight
robbers

and

the

of the robbery. Ciriaco and Domingo

responding policemen, and one of the

having conspire only in the commission

policemen was killed.

of the robbery, should only incur liability


for the crime conspired upon the

(b) Suppose it was Alfredo who was killed

robbery, unless they were with Braulio

by the responding policemen, what charges

during

can be filed against Braulio, Ciriaco and

prevented the same but they did not, in

Domingo? Explain. (2%)

which case they shall be also be liable for

the

killing

and

could

have

Robbery with Homicide.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The crime of which Brulio, Ciriaco and
Domingo can be charge is Robbery with
Homicide (Art. 249[1], RPC) because the
killing resulted by reason or on occasion

It is of no moment that the person killed


is one of the robbers and he was killed
during the robbery (People v. Barot, 89
SCRA 16 [1979]).

of the robbery. It is of no moment that


the person killed is one of the robbers. A
killing by reason or on occasion of the
robbery,

whether

deliberate

Robbery w/ Homicide (2007)

of

accidental, will be a component of the

No. III. Jervis and Marlon asked their

crime of Robbery with Homicide, a single

friend, Jonathan, to help them rob a bank.

indivisible offense, as long as

Jervis and Marlon went inside the bank,

it is

immediately connected to the robbery.

but were unable to get any money from the


vault because the same was protected by a

(c) Suppose in the course of the robbery,

time-delay

before the policemen arrived, Braulio shot

themselves with the customers cellphones

and

heated

and a total of P5,000 in cash. After they

disagreement on who should carry the

dashed out of the bank and rushed into the

money bags, what would be the criminal

car, Jonathan pulled the car out of the

liability of Braulio, Ciriaco and Domingo?

curb, hitting a pedestrian which resulted in

Explain. (2%)

the latters death.

killed

Alfredo

following

mechanism.

They

contented

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What crime or crimes did Jervis, Marlon

the robbery. Even though the death was

and

accidental, it is enough that such death

Jonathan

commit?

Explain

your

answer. (10%)

was

caused

by

any

of

the

robber

felonious act and on the occasion of the


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

commission of the robbery People vs.

Jervis and Marlon committed the crime

Guiapar, 129 SCRA 539 [1984]).

of robbery, while Jonathan committed


the special complex crime of robbery
with homicide.

Robbery w/ Homicide; Complex Crime


(2009)

Jervis and Marlon are criminally liable


for the robbery only, because that was

No. VIII. a. While Alfredo, Braulio, Ciriaco,

the crime conspired upon and actually

and

committed by them, assuming that the

policemen

customers

between

was

affected

with

Domingo

were

arrived.
the

robbing
A

bank

firefight
robbers

bank,
ensued

and

the

intimidation. They will not incur liability

responding policemen, and one of the

for the death of the pedestrian because

policemen was killed.

they have nothing to do with it. Only


Jonathan will incur liability for the

What crime or crimes, if any, had been

death of the pedestrian, aside from the

committed? Explain. (3%)

robbery, because he alone brought about


such death. Although the death caused
was not intentional but accidental, it
shall be a component of the special
complex crime of robbery with homicide
because it was committed in the course
of the commission of the robbery.

was conspiracy among them to commit


the

indivisible offense, and Direct Assault


with Multiple Attempted Homicide, a

796 [1934]).

robbery with homicide, because there


and

Homicide (Art. 294[1], RPC), a single

249, RPC; People v. Gayrama, 60 Phil.

Jervis, Marlon and Jonathan committed

robbery

The crime committed are Robbery with

complex crime (Art. 48, Art. 148 and Art.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

death

of

the

pedestrian was caused on the occasion of

Robbery with Homicide was committed


because one of the responding policeman
was killed by reason or on occasion of
the

robbery

being

committed.

The

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complex crime of Direct Assault with

only

Multiple

(Valenzuela v. People, G.R. No. 160188,

Attempted

Homicide

was

committed in respect of the offenders

be

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attempted

or

consummated

June 21, 2007, En Banc).

firing guns at the responding policemen


who are agents f person in authority
performing their duty when fired at to
frustrate such performance (People v.
Ladjaalam, G.R. No. 136149-51, Sept. 19,
2000).

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Parsing through the statutory definition
of theft under Article 308, it is clear that
theft is already produced upon the
taking of personal property of another
without the latters consent.
Each

Theft (2012)

felony

under

the

RPC

has

subjective phase, or that portion of the


No. III. a. Is the crime of theft susceptible of

act

commission

between

in

the

frustrated

stage?

constituting
the

the

act

crime

which

included

begins

the

Explain your answer in relation to what

commission of the crime and the last act

produces

performed by the offender which, with

the

consummated

crime
stage

of

theft

in

its

and

by

way

of

prior

acts,

should

result

in

the

illustration of the subjective and objective

consummated crime. After that point

phases of the felony. (5%)

has been breached, the subjective phase


ends and the objective phase begin. It

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

has been held that if the offender never

No, unlawful taking is deemed complete


form the moment the offender gains
possession of the thing, even if he has
no opportunity to dispose of the same.
Unlawful taking, which is the deprivation
of

ones

personal

property,

is

the

passes

the

subjective

phase

of

the

offense, the crime is merely attempted.


On the other hand, the subjective phase
is completely passed incase of frustrated
crimes,

for

in

such

instances,

subjectively the crime is complete.

element which produces the felony in its

Unlawful taking, which is the deprivation

consummated stage. At the same time,

of

without unlawful taking as an act of

element which produces the felony in its

execution, the offense could only be

consummated stage. At the same time,

attempted theft, if at all. Thus, theft

without unlawful taking as an act of

ones

personal

property,

is

the

cannot have a frustrated stage. Theft can

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execution,

the

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offense could

only

attempted theft, if at all.

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that it was not his, he went to a nearest


police station to seek help in finding the
owner of the bag. At the precint PO1 Melvin
attended to him. In the investigation Eman
proposed to PO1 Melvin, "in case you don't

Theft (2010)

find the owner let's just pawn straight to

No. XVIII. a. On her way home, Eva Marie


saw an injured chow chow puppy behind a
bush. Since the puppy did not have a
collar, she brought it home so she could
have it as a pet. Her son in fact begged Eva
Marie to keep the puppy. The following day,
Eva Marie bought a collar for the puppy
and

brought

it

to

veterinarian

the pawnshop and pawned the ring for


P50,000.00 Eman never saw PO1 Melvin
again.
What is the criminal liability of Eman, If
any? Explain. (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

for
Eman is guilty of theft (Art. 308, RPC)

treatment.
Did Eva Marie incur criminal liability in
bringing the puppy home as a pet? Explain.
(2%)

for failure tp return the lost property to


the rightful owner. His intent to gain
became apparent when he proposed to
pawn the ring and to share the proceeds

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

with PO1 Melvin.

Yes, Eva Marie incurred criminal liability

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

for the crime of simple theft. The puppy


is personal property which is susceptible
of

taking

and

has

pecuniary

value.

Obviously, she took it with intent to own


it; hence, with intent to gain.

Eman has no criminal liability. The fact


alone that he suggested to PO1 Melvin
such an improper proposal does not
make Eman criminally laible. It is noted
that there was no overt act on the part
of Eman. Hence, a criminal thought or
mere intention, no matter how immoral

Theft (2008)

or

imporper

it

may

be,

will

never

constitute a felony. (Luis B. Reyes, The


No. V. a. Eman, a vagrant, found a bag

Revised Penal Code, Volume 1, page 32,

containing

16th Edition [2006]).

identification

cards

and

diamond ring along Roxas Blvd. Knowing

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Page 71 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY

Theft; Qualified Theft (2010)


No. XIV. Paul lives with his long-time
girlfriend

Joan

in

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condominium

in

Concubinage (2010)

Makati. For more than a year, he has been

No. XV. Suspecting that her husband of

secretly saving money in an envelope under

twenty years was having an affair, Leilanie

their bed to buy her an engagement ring.

hired a private investigator to spy on him.

One day, while Joan was cleaning their

After two weeks, the private investigator

room, she found the envelope, took the

showed Leilanie a video of her husband

money, and left Paul. As prosecutor, what

having sexual intercourse with another

crime, if any, would you charge Joan?

woman in a room of a five-star hotel. Based

Explain. (3%)

on what she saw on the video, Leilanie


accused her husband of concubinage.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Joan may be charged for qualified theft
because she took away personal property
belonging to Paul without the latters

Will the case of concubinage prosper?


Explain. (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

consent, so obviously with intent to


gain, and with grave abuse of confidence.

No, a case for concubinage will not


prosper

because

said

crime

may

be

But Joan may invoke as a defense Art.

committed only by a husband in three

332 of the Revised Penal Code, under

(3) ways, viz:

which no criminal liability but only civil


liability shall result for the crime of

1) By keeping a mistress in the


conjugal dwelling; or

theft, swindling or malicious mischief


committed by spouses, among other.

2) By having sexual intercourse with


a

The

reference

to

theft

under

woman

not

his

wife

under

scandalous circumstances; or

the

Article embraces both simple theft and

3) By cohabiting with a woman not

qualified theft, and the reference to

his wife in any other place (Art.

spouses include common-law or live-

334, RPC).

in relationship (People v. Constantino,


60 O.G. 3603 [1963]).

The facts of the case given do not


constitute any of the situations abovestated.

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Page 72 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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Qualified Seduction; Classes of Offenders

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1. Those who abuse their authority.

(2007)

Examples:

person

in

public

authority, guardian, teacher or a


No. V. What are the three (3) classes of

person who, in any capacity, is

offender in the crime of qualified seduction?

entrusted with the education or

Give an example of each.

custody of the woman seduced.


2. Those who abuse the confidence

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

reposed

1. Those

who

exercise

Those
moral

influence over the victim, such as


a priest who acts as spiritual
adviser of the victim, or a teacher
in the school where the victim is
enrolled;
2. A

brother

or

ascendant

them.

Examples:

priest, house servant, domestics.

The three (3) classes of offenders in the


crime of qualified seduction are:

on

who

abuse

their

relationship.

Examples: a brother who seduced his


sister;

ascendant

descendant.

Art.

who
337,

seduced
Revised

his
Penal

Code).

CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL


STATUS OF PERSONS

by

consanguinity of the victim, such


as her uncle; and
3. Those

who

domestic

Bigamy; Elements (2012)

are
in

regarded

relation

to

as
the

victim, enjoying the confidence


and intimacy shared by members
of the same household, such as
household helpers and boarders
living under the same roof and
with

same

household

as

the

victim.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

No. I. a. What are the elements of the crime


of bigamy? (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The elements of bigamy are: (1) the
offender has been legally married; (2) the
first

marriage

has

not

been

legally

dissolved, or in case his or her spouse is


absent, the absent spouse has not been
judicially declared presumptively dead;

The three (3) classes of offenders in the

(3) he contracts a subsequent marriage;

crime of qualified seduction are:

and (4) the subsequent marriage would


have been valid had it not been for the

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Page 73 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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the

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existence of the first (Marbell-Bobis v.

as

previous

marriage

was

not

Bobis, G.R. No. 138509, July 31, 2000).

lawfully dissolved or judicially declared


as null and void, contracting a new

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

marriage constitute bigamy (People v.

There are three (3) elements of bigamy:


(1) an undissolved marriage; (2) a new

Manuel, supra).
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

marriage; and (3) fraudulent intention


constituting

the

felony.

This

last

I will render a judgment of acquittal.

element is not stated in Article 349 of

According to Justice Florenz Regalado,

the Revised Penal Code, because it is

in bigamy, it is essential that the first

undoubtedly

in

the

marriage is valid and subsisting (People

codes,

and,

v. Dumpo, 62 Phil. 246). If the first

constituting one of the landmarks of our

marriage was null and void, there would

Penal Code, that, where there is no

be no bigamy (People v. Mendoza, 9 Phil.

willfulness there is no crime (People v.

845). Under the principle of retroactivity

Manuel, G.R. No. 165842, November 29,

of a marriage being declared void ab

2005).

initio, the accused is deemed never to

principle

incorporated

antedating

all

have

been

married.

Since

bigamy

requires that the accused must have


Bigamy; First Marriage Null and Void
(2012)

been

legally

married,

he

cannot

be

convicted of the crime of bigamy (Morigo


v. People, G.R. No. 145226, February 06,

No. I. b. If you were the judge in a bigamy

2004).

case where the defense was able to prove


that the first marriage was null and void or
a nullity, would you render a judgment of
conviction

or

acquittal?

Explain

Bigamy; Psychological Incapacity (2012)

your

answer. (2%)

No. I. c. Assuming the existence of the first


marriage when

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
I will render a judgment of conviction.
Proof that the first marriage is null and
void is not a defense in bigamy. As long

second

marriage

accused contracted the


and

the

subsequent

judicial declaration of nullity of the second


marriage on the ground of psychological
incapacity, would you render a judgment of

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Page 74 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

conviction

or

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acquittal?

Explain

your

answer. (3%)

faithrollan5@yahoo.com

Appeals, G.R. No. 150758, February 18,


2004).

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
I will render a judgment of conviction. A

Bigamy; Perjury; Adultery (2008)

declaration of the nullity of the second


marriage on the ground of psychological

No. XII. Raissa and Martin are married to

incapacity is of absolutely no moment

each other but had been separated for the

insofar as the States penal laws are

last five years. Raissa decided to wed Juan,

concerned. Since a marriage contracted

her suitor. Who had no inkling that she was

during

valid

married. Raissa and Juan accomplished an

the

application for marriage license which they

nullity of his second marriage is not per

subscribed and swore to before the Local

e an argument for the avoidance of

Civil Registrar. Raissa declared, in the

criminal liability for bigamy. Although

application, that she is single. The marriage

the judicial declaration of the nullity of a

licensed was issued. In due time, the couple

marriage on the ground of psychological

were married by the mayor. Raissa and

incapacity

Juan had their first sexual intercourse later

the

marriage

subsistence

is

of

automatically

insofar

as

the

a
void,

vinculum

between the spouses is concerned, it is


significant

to

note

that

the

said

marriage is not without legal effects.


Among

these

legal

consequences

is

incurring criminal liability for bigamy.


To hold otherwise would render the

in the evening.
What crime or crimes, if any, did Raissa
commit? Explain briefly. (7%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

States penal laws on bigamy completely

Raissa

nugatory,

to

contracting a second marriage while her

deliberately ensure that each marital

first marriage is still subsisting (Art. 349,

contract be flawed in some manner, and

RPC). She is also guilty of perjury for

to thus escape the consequences of

making

contracting

while

oath or executing an affidavit upon a

beguiling throngs of hapless women with

material matter, when she declared she

the promise of futurity and commitment

was not married in the application for

(Tenebero v. The Honorable Court of

marriage license a public document (Art.

and

allow

multiple

individuals

marriage,

committed

untruthful

bigamy

statements

for

under

171, RPC). Lastly, she is also guilty of

Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

Page 75 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

adultery

(Art.

333,

hectorchristopher@yahoo.com

RPC)

for

having

sexual intercourse with Juan, although

faithrollan5@yahoo.com

criminal liblity (Fermin v. People, GR No.


157643, March 28, 2008).

she is a married woman.


Any attack upon the private character of

CRIMES AGAINST HONOR

the public figure on matters which are


not

Libel;

Defamatory

Utterances

against

to

their

works

may

constitute liber under Article 355 (Sazon


v.

Public Figure (2013)

related
Hon.

Court

of

Appeals,

GR

No.

120715, March 29, 1996). Here, Gigi was


No. IV. In her weekly gossip column in a

attacking the personal life of Pablo as a

tabloid, Gigi wrote an unflattering article

husband and not his public life as a

about Pablo, a famous singer, and his bitter

famous singer.

separation

from

his

wife.

The

article

portrayed Pablo as an abusive husband and


caused him to lose lucrative endorsement
contracts. Pablo charged Gigi with libel. In
her defense, Gigi countered that she did not
commit libel because Pablo has attained the
status of a public figure so that even his
personal

life

has

become

legitimate

subject of public interest and comment.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Gigi is correct. Pablo, a famous singer,
attained the status of a public figure o
that even his personal life that has
something to do with hi character and
integrity

became

legitimate

public

interest. Here, Pablo was portrayed as an


abusive husband and caused him to lose
a lucrative endorsement contracts. The

Is Gigi correct? (7%)

article impinge on the moral fiber and


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

qualification of Pablo as a famous singer


entitled to respect as a public figure.

No, Gigi is nor correct. Although wider

Subject only to the requisite that the

latitude

defamatory

author has knowledge of it falsity or with

figures

reckless disregard of the truth , the

is

utterances

given
against

to
public

in

relation to matters of public interest

article,

involving

them,

such

privileged communicated protected by

utterances

fo

automatically

within

the

not

ambit

of

defamatory
fall

constitutionally

protected speech. If the utterances are

thus,

constituted

qualified

the freedom of expression. Gigi cannot


be

convicted

absent

proof

of

actual

malice.

false, malicious or unrelated to a public


figures work, the same may give rise to
Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.-Leroy Satchel Paige

Page 76 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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Libel; Proof of Truth (2009)

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imputations made by Bettina is libelous.


Whether the imputation of a defect,

No. I d. In the crime of libel, truth is an

status or condition is real or imaginary,

absolute defense.

if it publicly tend to discredit, dishonor


or

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

place

in

contempt

or

ridicule

particular person who is identified, the

False, Art. 361 of the RPC provides that


proof of truth shall be admissible in libel
cases only if the same imputes a crime
or is made against a public officer with
repect to fact related to the discharge of
their official duties, and moreover must
have been published with good motives
and for justifiable ends. Hence, truth
as a defense, on its own, is not enough.

imputation I presumed by law to be


malicious and thus penalized as libel
under Art. 355 of the Revised Penal
Code.
Moreover, if Bettina is engaged in similar
line of trade, her statement against the
goods sold by Angelina may constitute a
violation

of

the

law

on

Unfair

Competition (Rep. Act No. 8291).

QUASI-OFFENSES
Libel; Unfair Competition (2010)
Criminal

Negligence;

No. XI. Angelina maintains a website where

Imprudence

Resulting

visitors can give their comments on the

(2008)

Reckless
in

Homicide

posted pictures of the goods she sells in her


a

No. III. Olimpio caught a cold and was

comment that the red Birkin bag shown in

running a fever. His doctor prescribed

Angelinas website is fake and that Angelina

paracetamol. Olimpio went to a drug store

is known to sell counterfeit items.

with the prescription, and the pharmacist

exclusive

boutique.

Bettina

posted

sold him three(3) tablets. Upon arriving


Angelina wants to file a case against

home, he took a tablet. One hour later, he

Bettina. She seeks your advice. What advice

had a seizure and died. The autopsy

will you give her? (4%)

showed that the tablet he had taken was

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

not paracetamol but a pill to which he was


allergic. The pharmacist was charged with

I will advise Anglina to file a criminal

murder. Is the charge proper? If not, what

case of libel against Bettina because the

should it be? Explain. ( 6% )

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Page 77 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

seized

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dangerous

drugs,

controlled

chemicals, plant sources of dangerous


The

charge

pharmacist
criminal

was

should

improper.
be

negligence,

charged

with

drugs,

and

laboratory

dangerous

drugs

equipment

from

the

of

time

reckless

confiscation/seizure thereof from the

homicide,

offender, to its turn-over and receipt in

because there was not intent to kill

the forensic laboratory for examination

Olimpio. The accused inexcusably lacked

to

precaution in failing to dispense the

presentation/offer in court as evidence

proper medicine to the victim which

of

caused his death (Art. 365, RPC).

destruction

imprudence

or

The

resulting

in

its
the

safekeeping
criminal

and

violation,

(Dangerous

eventual
and

Drugs

for

Board

Regulation No. 1 Series of 2002).

MISCELLANEOUS

Its
Chain of Custody (2009)

rationale

is

to

preserve

the

authenticity of the corpus delicti or


body

of

the

crime

by

rendering

it

No. XIV. Following his arrest after a valid

improbable

buy-bust operation, Tommy was convicted

seized/confiscated in violation has been

of violation of Section 5, Republic Act 9165.

exchanged or substituted with another

On

the

or tampered with or contaminated. It is

admissibility of the evidence because the

a method of authenticating the evidence

police officers who conducted the buy-bust

as

operation failed to observe the requisite

reasonable doubt that the matter is what

"chain

the prosecution claims to be.

appeal,

of

Tommy

custody"

questioned

of

the

evidence

would

that

support

the

original

finding

item

beyond

confiscated and/or seized from him.


Failure to observe the chain of custody
What is the "chain of custody" requirement

requirement

in drug offenses? What is its rationale?

questionable,

What is the effect of failure to observe the

insufficient to prove the corpus delicti

requirement? (3%)

beyond reasonable doubt. Hence, Tommy

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

renders
not

the

evidence

trustworthy

and

would be acquitted on reasonable doubt.

Chain of Custody requirement in drug


offense refers to the duly recorded,
authorized movement and custody of

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Page 78 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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Doctrine of Pro Reo (2012)

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Following the pro reo doctrine, under


Art. 48 of the Revised penal Code,

No. VI. a. What is the fundamental principle

crimes are complexed and punished with

in applying and interpreting criminal laws,

a single penalty (i.e., that prescribed for

including the Indeterminate Sentence Law?

the

(5%)

imposed in its maximum period). The

fundamental

serious

crime

and

to

be

rationale being, that the accused who

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The

most

commits two crimes with single criminal


principle

in

interpreting and applying penal laws is


the principle of pro reo. The phrase in
dubio pro reo means when in doubt,
for the accused. (Intestate estate of
Gonzales v. People, G.R. No. 173473,
December 17, 2008).

impulse demonstrates lesser perversity


that when the crimes are committed by
different

acts

and

several

criminal

resolutions. (People vs Comadre, 431


SCRA 366, 384 [2004]). However, Art. 48
shall be applied only when it would bring
about the imposition of a penalty lesser
than

the

penalties

if

prosecuted

separately instead of being complexed.


Doctrine of Pro Reo (2010)
No. XII. b. What is the doctrine of pro reo?
How does it relate to Article 48 of the
Revised Penal Code? (3%)

Human Rights Violations (2008)


No. I. b. Are human rights violations
considered as crimes in the Philippines?

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Explain. ( 3% )

The doctrine of pro reo advocates that

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

penal laws and laws penal in nature are


to be construed and applied in a way

Yes,

lenient

offender,

violations cannot be considered crimes

constant to and consistent with the

in the Philippines. However, if the acts

constitutional guarantee that an accused

constitute

shall be presumed innocent until his

international

guilt is established beyond reasonable

considered violations of Philippine law

doubt.

(See Sec. 8, Art. II, Constitution). Also,

or

liberal

to

the

strictly

speaking

violation
law,

human

of

rights

customary

they

may

be

the acts may constitute elements of

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Page 79 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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offenses penalized under Philippine laws,

emotional and psycho-social well-being.

like

This is available to a child 15 years old

serious or slight violation of R.A. 7610,

or less at the time of the commission or

or

although over 15 but below 18 years old

kidnapping/illegal
R.A.

7877

detention

the

Anti-sexual

Harassment Act.

at the time of commission of the crime,


the child acted without discernment.
Diversion

Intervention vs. Diversion (2009)

committed homicide in 2005. The crime is


punishable by reclusion temporal. After two
years in hiding, he was arrested and
appropriately charged in May 2007. Since
Republic Act 9344 (Juvenile Justice and
Welfare Act of 2006) was already in effect,
Joe moved to avail of the process of
intervention or diversion.

an

alternative,

the responsibility and treatment of a


child in conflict with the law on the
basis

of

his/her

social,

cultural,

economic, psychological or educational


background without resorting to formal
court proceedings. This process governs
when the child is over 15 years old but
below 18 at the time of the commission
of

the

crime

and

has

acted

with

discernment.

What is intervention or diversion? Is Joe


to

to

child-appropriate process of determining

No. XV. a. Joe was 17 years old when he

entitled

refers

intervention

or

diversion?

Explain. (3%)

Yes, Joe is entitled to diversion. Being


only

12

years

old

at

the

time

he

committed the crime of homicide, he is


treated as a child in conflict with the law

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

under RA 9344.

The two terms are different.


Intervention

refers

to

series

of

activities which are designed to address


issues that caused the child to commit
an offense. It may take the form of an
individualized treatment program which
may include counseling, skills training,
education, and other activities that will
enhance

his/her

psychological,

No Criminal Liability (2008)


No. II. a. While Carlos was approaching his
car, he saw it being driven away by Paolo, a
thief. Carlos tried to stop Paolo by shouting
at him, but Paolo ignored him. To prevent
his car from being carnapped, Carlos drew
his gun, aimed at the rear wheel of the car

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Page 80 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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and fired. The shot blew the tire which

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Three-Fold Rule (2013)

caused the car to veer out of control and


collide with an oncoming tricycle, killing the

No. IX. Roman and Wendy are neighbors.

tricycle driver.

On Valentine's Day, without prior notice,


Roman visited Wendy at her condo to invite

What is the criminal liability of Carlos, if

her to dinner, but Wendy turned him down

any? Explain. (4%)

and abruptly left, leaving her condo door


unlocked. Roman attempted to follow, but

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

appeared to have second thoughts; he

Carlos has no criminal liability, he only


acted in the lawful exercise of his right.
It is his right to protect his property,
and what he did was to aim and hit the
wheel of the car and not any particular
person.

Wendy's arrival later that evening, Roman


grabbed her from behind and, with a knife
in hand, forced her to undress. Wendy had
no choice but to comply. Roman then tied
assaulted her five (5) times that night.

Carlos is liable for the natural and logical


consequence of his acts, although the
injury that results is different from that
he

intended

(Praeter

Intentionem). He incurs criminal liability


for

himself in, and waited for her return. On

Wendy's hands to her bed and sexually

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

which

simply went back to Wendy's condo, let

reckless

imprudence

resulting

in

homicide under Art. 365 of the Revised


Penal Code for the death of the tricycle
driver. He took the law into his own
hands, open fired at the wheel of his

Roman

was

charged

with,

and

was

convicted of, five (5) counts of rape, but the


judge

did

not

impose

the

penalty

of

reclusion perpetua for each count. Instead,


the judge sentenced Roman to 40 years of
imprisonment on the basis of the three-fold
rule.
Was the judge correct? (7%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

vehicle to stop it from being stolen, but


instead caused the death of the tricycle

No. the three-fold rule is applicable only

driver, because of the inexcusable lack of

in connection with the service of the

precaution.

sentence not in the imposition of the


proper penalties. The court must impose
all penalties for all the crimes for which
the accused have been found guilty.

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Page 81 of 168

Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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Thus, the court should not make a

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Anti-Carnapping Act (2012)

computation in it decision and sentence


the accused to not more than the three-

No. IV. a. A postal van containing mail

fold of the most severe of the penalties

matters, including checks and treasury

imposable. The computation under the

warrants, was hijacked along a national

three-fold

highway by ten (1 0) men, two (2) of whom

rule

is

for

the

prison

were armed. They used force, violence and

authorities to make.

intimidation

SPECIAL PENAL LAWS

against

three

(3)

postal

employees who were occupants of the van,


resulting

in

the

unlawful

taking

and

transportation of the entire van and its

Anti-Carnapping Act (2008)

contents.
No. II. b. While Carlos was approaching his
car, he saw it being driven away by Paolo, a

If you were the public prosecutor, would

thief. Carlos tried to stop Paolo by shouting

you charge the ten (10) men who hijacked

at him, but Paolo ignored him. To prevent

the postal van with violation of Presidential

his car from being carnapped, Carlos drew

Decree No. 532, otherwise known as the

his gun, aimed at the rear wheel of the car

Anti-Piracy and Anti -Highway Robbery Law

and fired. The shot blew the tire which

of 1974? Explain your answer. (5%)

caused the car to veer out of control and


collide with an oncoming tricycle, killing the
tricycle driver.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, I would not charge the 10 men with

What is the criminal liability of Paolo, if


any? Explain. (4%)

the crime of highway robbery. The mere


fact that the offense was committed on a
highway would not be the determinant
for the application of PD No. 532. If a

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

motor

vehicle,

either

stationary

or

Paolo who acted with intent to gain,

moving on a highway, is forcibly taken at

unlawfully took the personal property of

gun point by the accused who happened

another with force upon things, is liable

to take a fancy thereto, the location of

for

as

the vehicle at the time of the unlawful

amended by R.A. 7659, not qualified

taking would not be necessarily put the

theft (Peo vs. Bustinna).

offense within the ambit of PD No. 532.

carnapping

under

R.A.

6539,

In this case, the crime committed is


violation of the Anti-Carnapping Act. of
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1972 (People v. Puno, G.R. No. 97471,

Anti-Graft & Corrupt Practices RA 3019

February 17, 1993). Moreover, there is

(2010)

no showing that the 10 men were a band


of outlaws organized for the purpose of

No. IX. Proserfina, an assistant public high

depredation

and

school principal, acted to facilitate the

properties of innocent and defenseless

release of salary differentials and election

inhabitants who travel from one place to

duty per diem of classroom teachers with

another. What was shown I one isolated

the agreement that they would reimburse

hijacking of a postal van. It was not

her for her expenses.

upon

the

persons

stated in the facts given that the 10 men


previously
robberies

attempted
by

them

indiscriminate

to

at

similar

establish

commission

the

thereof

(Filoteo, Jr. v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No.


79543, October 16, 1996).
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

Did Proserfina commit a crime? Explain.


(5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, Proserfina committed violation of
Sec. 3(b) of Rep. Act No. 3019 which
considers as a corrupt practice, the act
of:

As a public prosecutor, I would charge


the 10 men who hijacked the postal van
with violation of PD 532. As oppose to
brigandage under Article 306 of the RPC,
highway robbery under PD 532 does not
require that there be at least four armed
persons forming a band of robbers. In
this case, while there are ten (10) men
who hijacked the postal van, only two (2)

(b) Directly or indirectly requesting or


receiving

any

gift,

present,

share

percentage, or benefit, for himself or for


any other person, in connection with
any contact or transaction between the
Government

and

any

other

party,

wherein the public officer in his official


capacity ha to intervene under the law.

were armed. Hence, they may be charged

Being the assistant public high school

with highway robbery under PD 532.

principal, it is her duty to intervene in


the release of salary differentials and per
diem of classroom teachers under her.
Her act of doing so, made with a request
for

share

or

benefit

therefor

constitutes graft or corrupt practices


under Sec. 3(b) of Rep. Act No. 3019.

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Considering that the acts prohibited or

therefor,

punished

P20,000.00.

under

prohibita,

and

this

law

thus

are

mala

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the

plaintiff

gave

Charina

punishable

thereunder, whether done with criminal

Charina was charged with violation of

intent or not.

Section 3 (b) of Republic Act No. 3019,


prohibiting any public officer from directly

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
In

the

case

of

or indirectly requesting or receiving any gift,


Jaravata

vs

Sandiganbayan (G.R. No. 56170, January


31, 1984), which has identical set of
facts as the present case, the Supreme
Court ruled that there is no law which

present,

percentage,

or

benefit

in

connection with any contract or transaction


x x x wherein the public officer, in his
official capacity, has to intervene under the
law.

invests an assistant principal with the

While

power to intervene in the payment of the

Ombudsman

salary differentials of classroom teachers

against Charina for Indirect Bribery under

or anyone for that matter. Accordingly,

the Revised Penal Code. Charina demurred

since in his official capacity as in the

to the second information, claiming that

payment of the salary differentials, the

she can no longer be charged under the

assistant principal cannot be said to

Revised Penal Code having been charged for

have violated Sec. 3(b) of Rep. Act No

the same act under R.A. 3019.

the

case

was

filed

being

another

tried,

the

information

3019 although he exerted efforts to


facilitate the payment of the salary

Is Charina correct? Explain. (3%)

differentials.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, Charina is not correct. Although the
Anti-Graft & Corrupt Practices RA

charged for violation of Rep. Act. No.

3019; Indirect Bribery (2009)

3019 and the charge for Indirect Bribery


(Art. 211, RPC) arose from the same act,

No. VII. Charina, Clerk of Court of an RTC

the elements of the violation charged

Branch, promised the plaintiff in a case

under Rep. Act. No. 3019 are not the

pending before the court that she would

same as the felony charged for Indirect

convince the Presiding Judge to decide the

Bribery under the Rev. penal Code (Mejia

case in plaintiffs favor. In consideration

v.

Pamaran,

160

SCRA

457

[1988]).

Hence, the crime charged are separate

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and

distinct

from

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each

other,

with

different penalties. The two charges do

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shall knowingly visit the same. These


requisites are absent in the facts given.

not constitute a ground for a motion to


dismiss or motion to quash, as there is
no jeopardy against the accused.

Harboring or Assisting in the Escape of a


Person who has Committed a Crime PD
1829 (2008)

Dangerous Drugs Act (2007)


No. IV. b.

Manolo revealed to his friend

No. II. Tiburcio asked Anastacio to join their

Domeng his desire to kill Cece. He likewise

group for a "session". Thinking that it was

confided to Domeng his desire to borrow his

for a mahjong session, Anastacio agreed.

revolver. Domeng lent it. Manolo shot Cece

Upon reaching Tiburcios house, Anastacio

in Manila with Domeng's revolver. As his

discovered

actually

gun was used in the killing,Domeng asked

a shabu session. At that precise time, the

Mayor Tan to help him escape. The mayor

place

gave Domeng P5,000.00 and told him to

was

that
raided

it
by

was
the

police,

and

Anastacio was among those arrested.

proceed to Mindanao to hide. Domeng went


to Mindanao. The mayor was later charged

What crime can Anastacio be charged with,

as an accessory to Cece's murder.

if any? Explain your answer. (10%)


Can he be held liable for any other offense?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Explain fully. (3%)

Anastacio may not be charged of any

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

crime.
Yes, for violation of (1) P.D. 1829 for
Sec.

of

Rep.

Act

9155

on

the

harboring or assisting in the escape of a

Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs of 2002

person who has committed a crime or

punishes employees and visitors of a

whom he knows has committed a crime,

den, dive or resort where dangerous

and (2) under Art. 19(3), RPC, the Mayor,

drugs are used in any form. But for a

being a public officer and acting woth

visitor of such place to commit the

abuse

crime, it is a requisite that he is aware

accessory to the crime of murder by

of the nature of the place as such and

assisting in the escape of Domeng.

of

his

public

function,

is

an

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Illegal

Possession

of

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Drugs;

Mala

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R.A. 9160; Anti-Money laundering Act

Prohibita (2009)

(2009)

No. XII. b. Will your answer be the same if

No. XI. e. For a person who transacts an

it is a conviction for illegal possession of

instrument representing the proceeds of a

drugs under R.A. 9165 (Dangerous Drugs

covered unlawful activity to be liable under

Act of 2002), the prescribed penalty of

the Anti-Money Laundering Act (R.A. 9160,

which is also imprisonment for a term of

as amended), it must be shown that he has

twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty

knowledge of the identities of the culprits

(20) years? Why or why not? (3%)

involved in the commission of the predicate


crimes.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, my answer will not be the same
because violations of Rep. Act 9165 are

False, there is nothing in the law which

mala prohibita in which mitigating and

requires that the accused must know the

aggravating

circumstances

not

identities of the culprits involved in the

appreciated.

Although

v.

commission of the predicate crimes. To

Simon (234 SCRA 555[1994]), it was held

establish liability under R.A. 9160, it is

that Art. 64 can be applied if the special

sufficient that proceeds of an unlawful

law

activity are transacted, making them

adopted

the

in

are
People

nomenclature

of

penalties provided under the RPC, such

appear

pronouncement cannot be applied in the

legitimate sources.

instant

case

because

the

for

to

have

originated

from

illegal

possession of drugs under R.A. 9165 do


not follow the technical nomenclature of
penalties in the RPC and thus, cannot be
divided

into

periods.

Hence,

the

existence of mitigating and aggravating


circumstances cannot be appreciated.

R.A. 9160; Anti-Money Laundering Act;


Freeze Order (2010)
No. VI. There being probable cause to
believe

that

certain

deposits

and

investments in a bank are related to an


unlawful

activity

of

smuggling

by

Alessandro as defined under Republic Act


(RA) No. 9160, as amended (Anti-Money
Laundering Act) an application for an order

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to allow inquiry into his deposit was filed

transaction is to hide the beneficial

with the Regional Trial Court.

owner of said funds and allows criminal

After hearing the application, the court


granted the application and issued a freeze

organizations or criminals to enjoy the


proceeds of uch criminal activities.
The three (3) stages in money laundering

order.
Pass upon the correctness of the courts

are:
a) Placement/infusion

order. Explain. (3%)

proceeds;

The freeze order issued by the Regional


Court

is

not

correct,

b) Layering or the separation of the


criminal

because

source

jurisdiction to issue said freeze order is

The

Regional

Trial

Court

is

by

from

creating

their

layers

of

such proceeds as legitimate and

under Rep. Act 9194, amending the AntiMoney Laundering Act (Rep. Act No.

proceeds

financial transactions to disguise

now vested with the Court of Appeals

9160).

the

physical disposal of the criminal

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Trial

or

avoid the audit trail; and


c) Integration or the provision of
apparent

without jurisdiction to issue a freeze

legitimacy

to

the

criminal proceeds.

order of the money involved.

R.A. 9262; Violence Against Women and


R.A. 9160; Anti-Money Laundering Act;

Children Act; Battered Woman Syndrome

Stages (2010)

(2010)

No. XII. a. Define Money Laundering. What

No. XIX. a. Jack and Jill have been married

are

for seven years. One night, Jack came

the

three

(3)

stages

in

money

laundering? (3%)

home drunk. Finding no food on the table,


Jack started hitting Jill only to apologize

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the following day.

Money Laundring is the process of

A week later, the same episode occurred

which a person conceals the existence of

Jack came home drunk and started hitting

unlawfully obtained money and makes it

Jill.

appear to have originated from lawful


sources. The intention behind such a
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Fearing for her life, Jill left and stayed with

A week later, the same episode occurred

her sister. To woo Jill back, Jack sent her

Jack came home drunk and started hitting

floral arrangements of spotted lilies and

Jill.

confectioneries.

Two

days

later,

Jill

returned home and decided to give Jack


another

chance.

After

several

days,

however, Jack again came home drunk.


The following day, he was found dead.

Fearing for her life, Jill left and stayed with


her sister. To woo Jill back, Jack sent her
floral arrangements of spotted lilies and
confectioneries.

Two

days

later,

Jill

returned home and decided to give Jack

Jill was charged with parricide but raised

another

the defense of "battered woman syndrome."

however, Jack again came home drunk.

pattern

of

psychological and behavioral symptoms


in

women

living

days,

the defense of "battered woman syndrome."

Battered Woman Syndrome refers to a

found

several

Jill was charged with parricide but raised

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

defined

After

The following day, he was found dead.

Define "Battered Woman Syndrome." (2%)

scientifically

chance.

in

battering

What are the three phases of the "Battered


Woman Syndrome"? (3 %)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

relationships as a result of cumulative


abuse (Section 3(d), Rep. Act No 9262).

The three (3) phases of the Battered


Woman Syndrome are: (1) the tensionbuilding phase; (2) the acute battering

R.A. 9262; Violence Against Women and


Children

Act;

Battered

Woman

Syndrome; Phases (2010)

incident; and (3) the tranquil, loving, or


non-violent phase (People v. Genosa,
G.R. No. 135981, January 15, 2004).

No. XIX. b. Jack and Jill have been married


for seven years. One night, Jack came

Syndicated Estafa (2010)

home drunk. Finding no food on the table,


Jack started hitting Jill only to apologize

No. XVI. The president, treasurer, and

the following day.

secretary of ABC Corporation were charged


with syndicated estafa under the following
Information:

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That on or about the 1st week of January

such manifestations and representations to

2010 or subsequent thereto in Cebu City

transact in foreign exchange were false and

and

fraudulent,

within

Honorable

the

jurisdiction

Court,

accused,

of

this

that

these

resulted

to

the

the

above-named

damage and prejudice of the complainants

and

confederating

and

conspiring

other

persons,

and

that

the

together and all of them mutually helping

defraudation pertains to funds solicited

and aiding one another in a syndicated

from

manner, through a corporation registered

corporations/associations.

with

the

Securities

Commission

(SEC),

and

with

Exchange

intention

of

carrying out the unlawful or illegal act,


transaction, enterprise or scheme, with

the

public

in

general

by

such

Will the case for syndicated estafa prosper?


Explain. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

intent to gain and by means of fraud and


willfully,

No, a case for syndicated estafa will not

unlawfully, and feloniously defraud Virna,

prosper because a syndicate for such

Lana, Deborah and several other persons

crime under Pres. Decree 1689 must be

by falsely or fraudulently pretending or

comprised of five (5) or more persons

representing in a transaction or series of

committing the estafa or other forms of

transactions,

with

swindling defined in Arts. 315 and 316

complainants and the public in general, to

of the Revised Penal Code; whereas the

the effect that they were in a legitimate

case

business

accused

deceit,

did

then

and

which

of

there

they

foreign

made

exchange

trading

given

involved

who

are

only

three

alleged

to

(3)
have

successively or simultaneously operating

conspired in the commission of the

under

swindling.

the

name

Corporation

and

Philippines,

and

style

DEF

of

ABC

Management

Incorporated,

induced

and

succeeded in inducing complainants and

But

because

the

amount

defrauded exceeds P100,000.00, the case


is still under the same P.D. 1689 with a
lower penalty than syndicated estafa.

several other persons to give and deliver to


said

accused

the

amount

of

at

least

P20,000,000.00 on the strength of said


manifestations
accused

and

knowing

representations,
fully

well

that

the
the

abovenamed corporations registered with


the SEC are not licensed nor authorized to
engage in foreign exchange trading and that

Torture (2012)
No. X. b. AA was arrested for committing a
bailable offense and detained in solitary
confinement. He was able to post bail after
two (2) weeks of defection. During the

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MULTIPLE CHOICE

period of detention, he was not given any


food.

Such

deprivation

caused

him

QUESTIONS

physically discomfort. What crime, if any,


was committed in connection with the
solitary confinement and food deprivation of
AA? Explain your answer. (5%)

faithrollan5@yahoo.com

(MCQ)

2013

Criminal

Law

Exam

MCQ

(October

20,

2013)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Torture refers to an act by which sever

I. The acquittal of an accused shall bar the

pain or suffering, whether physical or

civil action arising from the crime where the

mental, is intentionally inflicted on a

judgment of acquittal holds that __________.

person for such purpose as obtaining

(0.5%)

from

him/her

or

third

person

information or a confession; punishing


him/her for an act he/she or a third
person has committed or is suspected of
having committed; or intimidating or
coercing him/her or a third person; or

(A)

the

acquittal

is

based

on

reasonable doubt
(B) the liability of the accused is not
criminal but civil in nature

for any reason based on discrimination

(C) the civil liability does not arise

of any kind, when such pain or suffering

from or is not based on the criminal

is inflicted by or at the instigation of or

act for which the accused has been

with the consent or acquiescence of a

acquitted

person in authority or agent of a person


in authority (Section 3 of R.A. No. 9754).

(D) the accused did not commit

Food deprivation and confinement in

the act imputed to him

solitary cell are considered as physical


torture under Section 4 (2) R.A. No.
9745. Hence, the crime committed is
torture.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(D). The accused did not commit the act
imputed to him.
Acquittal in a criminal action bars the

In addition to torture, the crime of

civil action arising therefrom where the

maltreatment of prisoner is committed.

judgment of acquittal holds that the


accused did not commit the criminal

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action

bars

therefrom

the

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civil

where

action

the

arising

judgment

of

acquittal holds that the accused did not

(i.e.

the

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father

or

the

mother)

is

principally liable pursuant to Article 101


of the Revised Penal Code.

commit the criminal acts imputed to


them (Tan v. Standard Vacuum Oil Co.,

[Note: the question pertains to a matter

91 Phil. 672).

which is excluded in the coverage of the


2013 Bar Examination on Criminal Law].

II. Subsidiary liability may be imposed on


III.

the following, except __________. (0.5%)

Passion

or

obfuscation

may

be

appreciated __________. (0.5%)


(A) innkeepers, in relation to the
crime

committed

in

their

(A) if it arises from jealousy in an


amorous

establishment

relationship

between

married man and a single woman


(B) employers engaged in industry,
for the crime committed by their

(B) if it arises from jealousy of a

employees

man who has been living-in with


the woman for the past 20 years

(C) parents of minors who act with


discernment

in

committing

(C) if it arises from jealousy with


immoral,

crimes

lustful

and

vindictive

sentiments of the offender against


(D)

hospital

administrators

or

the victim

owners, for crimes committed by


(D) in none of the above situations

their hospital nurses


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(C). Parents of minors who act with

(B). If it arises from jealousy of a man

discernment in committing crimes.

who has been living-in with the woman


for the past 20 years.

Under

section

of

R.A.

9344,

the

exemption from criminal liability of a

In U.S. v. dela Cruz (G.R. No. L-7094,

child does not include the exemption

March 29, 1912), the Supreme Court

form

is

appreciated the mitigating circumstance

exempted from criminal liability, the

of passion and obfuscation wherein the

person who has legal authority or control

accused, in the heat of passion, killed

civil

liability.

If

the

child

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the deceased, who had been his querida

privileged

mitigating

circumstances

(concubine or lover), upon discovering

under Article 69 of the Revised Penal

her in flagrante in carnal communication

Code.

with a mutual acquaintance.


V.

Conspiracy

to

commit

felony

is

IV. Who among the following accused is

punishable only in cases where the law

entitled

specifically provides a penalty. Which of the

to

circumstance

privileged

that

would

mitigating
lower

the

imposable penalty by one degree? (0.5%)

following

combinations

contain

specific

felonies under the Revised Penal Code?


(0.5%)

(A) A minor above 15 years old and


below 18 years old who acted with

(A) Conspiracy to commit treason,

discernment.

conspiracy

to

commit

rebellion,

conspiracy to commit coup d'etat,


(B) One who, in fulfillment of his

conspiracy to commit misprision of

duty to carry out the warrant of

treason.

arrest of a fugitive, shot the fugitive


to death without ascertaining his

(B)

Conspiracy

to

commit

identity.

rebellion, conspiracy to commit


coup d'etat, conspiracy to commit

(C)

One

who

defended

himself

against an unlawful aggression but

treason,

conspiracy

to

commit

sedition.

used unreasonable means and gave


provocation.

(C) Conspiracy to commit rebellion


or

(D) All of the above.


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(A)

is

Penal

privileged
Code;

mitigating

Letter

(B),

an

incomplete justifying circumstance of


fulfillment of duty, and letter (C), an
incomplete

sedition,

commit

illegal

to

conspiracy

to

assemblies,

(D) Conspiracy to commit treason,

circumstance under Article 68(2) of the


revised

commit

conspiracy

conspiracy to commit treason.

(D) All of the above.


Letter

insurrection,

self-defense,

are

conspiracy

to

commit

sedition,

conspiracy to commit terrorism.


(E) None of the above.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

also

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

(B)

Conspiracy

conspiracy

to

conspiracy

to

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commit

commit

to

rebellion,

coup

commit

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A woman, who befriends and puts a

d'etat,

sleeping pill in the victim drink to

treason,

enable her husband to have intercourse

conspiracy to commit sedition.

with the victim, may be held liable for


rape

as

principal

by

indispensable

Conspiracy to commit coup detat or

cooperation

rebellion is punishable under Article 136

collective responsibility by reason of

of the Revised Penal Code; conspiracy to

conspiracy.

and

on

the

basis

of

commit treason under Article 115, and


conspiracy to commit sedition under

VII. The death of the accused extinguishes

Article 141.

his criminal liability but civil liability is not


extinguished. (0.5%)

VI. Choose the correct circumstance when a


woman may be held liable for rape: (0.5%)

(A) when the death of the accused


occurred before conviction

(A)

With

the

use

of

force

or

intimidation.

(B) when the death of the accused


occurred after conviction and after

(B) When the rape is committed by

he has perfected his appeal from

two or more persons.

conviction

(C) When the offender uses an

(C) when the death of the accused

instrument and inserts it m the

occurred during the pendency of his

mouth of the victim.

appeal

(D) When she befriends and puts a

(D) when the death of the accused

sleeping pill in the victim's drink

occurred after final judgment

to enable her husband to have


intercourse with the victim.

(E) None of the above.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(D)

(D) when the death of the accused

When she befriends and puts a

sleeping pill in the victim's drink to

occurred after final judgment

enable her husband to have intercourse


with the victim.

Criminal liability is totally extinguished


by the death of the convict, as to the

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personal penalties and as to pecuniary

(A)

penalties,

circumstantial, proof of motive is

liability

therefor

is

extinguished only when the death of the

If

the

evidence

is

merely

essential.

offender occurs before final judgment


(B) Generally, proof of motive is not

(Article 89 of the Revised Penal Code).

necessary to pin a crime on the


VIII. Compelling the pilot of an aircraft of

accused if the commission of the

Philippine Registry to change its destination

crime has been proven and the

is __________. (0.5%)

evidence

of

identification

is

important

to

convincing.
(A) grave coercion
(C)
(B)

violation

of

the

Anti-

Motive

is

ascertain the truth between two

Hijacking Law or R.A. No. 6235

antagonistic theories.

(C) grave threats

(D) Motive is relevant if the identity

(D)

violation

of

the

Human

Security Act of 2007 or the Anti-

of the accused is uncertain.


(E) All of the above are correct.

Terrorism Law
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(E) All of the above.
(C) Motive is important to ascertain the
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

truth between two antagonistic theories.

(B) a violation of the Anti-Hijacking Law


or R.A. No. 6235.

(Borguilla v. CA and People, G.R. No. L47286, January 7, 1987).

It shall be unlawful for any person to


compel

change

in

the

course

or

X. Luis was sentenced to prision mayor and

destination of an aircraft of Philippine

to pay a fine of P50,000, with subsidiary

registry, or to seize or usurp the control

imprisonment in case of in solvency. Is the

thereof, while it is in flight (Section I,

sentence correct? (0.5%)

Rep. Act no. 6235).


(A)

Yes,

because

Luis

has

no

IX. Choose from the list below the correct

property to pay for the fine, so he

principle in considering "motive". (0.5%)

must

suffer

the

equivalent

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imprisonment provided by law in

If Ben died before the promissory note's due

lieu of fine.

date and Anthony still collected P1,000,000


with

(B)

No,

because

subsidiary

interest

from

Ben's

estate,

what

crime/s did Anthony commit? (1%)

imprisonment is applicable only


when

the

penalty

imposed

is

(A)

Falsification

of

public

of

private

prision correccional or below.

document.

(C) Yes, because the sentence says

(B)

so.

document and estafa.

(D)

No,

because

imprisonment

is

the

subsidiary

applicable

Falsification

(C) Estafa.

only

when the penalty imposed is limited

(D) Estafa thru falsification of a

to a fine.

private document.

(E) None of the above.

(E) None of the above.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(B) No, because subsidiary imprisonment

(C) Estafa.

is applicable only when the penalty


imposed is prision correccional or below.

Article 315 of the Revised Penal Code


provides that swindling or estafa may be

When the principal imposed is higher

committed by inducing

than prision correccional, no subsidiary

means of deceit, to sign any document.

imprisonment shall be imposed upon the


culprit (Article 39, Revised Penal Code).

another, by

XII. Out of spite and simply intending to


put Gina to shame for breaking off with

XI. Anthony drew a promissory note and

him, Ritchie emptied a gallon of motor oil

asked his tem1inally-ill and dying business

on the school's stairway where Gina usually

partner Ben to sign it. The promissory note

passed. Gina, unaware of what Ritchie did,

bound Ben to pay Anthony One Million

used the slippery stairway and slipped,

Pesos (P1,000,000) plus 12% interest, on or

hitting her head on the stairs. Gina died

before June 30, 2011.

from brain hemorrhage.


What crime did Ritchie commit? (1%)

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(A) Murder.

(B)

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No,

because

multiple

sentences are served successively


(B) Reckless imprudence resulting in

not simultaneously.

homicide.
(C) No, only penalties other than
(C) Homicide.

imprisonment

the minimum of his penalties, he


can now be released.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(C) Homicide (People v. Pugay, G.R. No.
L-74324, November 17, 1988).
was

sentenced

to

suffer

6 months and 1 day to 4 years for


attempted homicide; 6 yearsand1day to 8
years for frustrated homicide; and 6 years
and1day to20years for homicide. After his
20th year in the National Penitentiary,
Santos filed a petition for habeas corpus
claiming that he had fully served his
sentence of 20 years and should therefore
immediately

released

from

imprisonment.

Yes,

(Article 70, Revised Penal Code).


XIV. Amelia, a famous actress, bought the
penthouse unit of a posh condominium
building in Taguig City. Every night, Amelia
would swim naked in the private, but open
air, pool of her penthouse unit. It must
have been obvious to Amelia that she could
be seen from nearby buildings. In fact,
some residents occupying the higher floors
of the nearby residential buildings did

because he

entertain

themselves

and

their

friends by watching her swim in the nude


from their windows.
served his

sentences simultaneously so that


his 20 years of incarceration was
sufficient.

served successively not simultaneously

indeed

Was Santos correct? (1%)


(A)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(B) No, because multiple sentences are

imprisonment in three separate judgments:

be

served

(D) Yes, because after he has served

(E) None.

Santos

be

simultaneously.

(D) Impossible crime of homicide.

XIII.

can

What crime did Amelia commit? (1%)


(A) Alarms and scandals because
her act of sw1mmmg naked disturbs
the public tranquility.

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(B)

Grave

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scandal

because

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she

XV. After drinking a bottle of Jack Daniels,

committed highly scandalous acts

Jonjon drove his BMW sports car at high

that are offensive to decency or good

speed, rammed into a group of crossing

customs.

pedestrians, and hit a traffic light post. The


incident

(C)

Immoral

doctrines,

caused

the

death

of

one

(1)

obscene

pedestrian, serious injuries to three (3)

publications and exhibitions, and

others, and the destruction of the traffic

indecent shows under Article 201 of

light post.

the Revised Penal Code, because her


act of swimming naked is akin to an

If you were the prosecutor, what would you

indecent live show.

charge Jonjon? (1%)

(D) Amelia did not commit any

(A) Homicide with serious physical

crime because the swimming pool

injuries through simple negligence.

is located in her private home.


(B) Damage to property, serious
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

physical

injuries

and

homicide

through reckless negligence.


(D) Amelia did not commit any crime
because the swimming pool is located in

(C) Simple negligence resulting in

her private home.

damage

to

property,

serious

physical injuries and homicide.


Ameli did not commit the crime of
alarms and scandals because she did not

(D) Reckless imprudence resulting

intend to disturb public peace as she was

in

merely swimming within the confines of

injuries and damage to property.

homicide,

serious

physical

her private home. Neither did Amelia


commit

grave

conduct

cannot

scandal
be

because

deemed

her

highly

scandalous as stated in Article 200 of


the Revised Penal Code, nor did Amelia
commit any of the acts mentioned in
Article 201 to constitute an incedent
live show to satisfy the market for lust
or phornography.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(D) Reckless imprudence resulting in
homicide, serious physical injuries and
damage to property (Article 365, Revised
Penal Code and Ivler v. Modesto-San
pedro, G.R. No. 172716, November 17,
2010).

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XVI. On June 1, 2011, Efren bought a used

Can Atty. Jose be held criminally liable for

top-of-the-line

libel? (1%)

Mercedes

Benz

for

P7.5

Million from Switik Trading. On the same


day, he paid P2,500,000 in cash and issued

(A) No, because an Answer to a

Switik Trading a check for P5,000,000

complaint is a court pleading where

dated July 31, 2011. He then brought the

communications

car to a friend's house and hid it in an

privileged; the writer cannot be held

underground

liable for libel.

garage.

The

check

Efren

issued was dishonored for insufficiency of


funds when presented for payment on due
date. Efren was asked to honor and pay the
check or to return the car, but he refused.
What crime/s did Efren commit? (1%)
(A) Carnapping.

made

are

(B) Yes, because the statement casts


aspersion on the character, integrity
and reputation of Atty. Agrada as a
lawyer and exposed him to public
ridicule.
(C) Yes, although a court pleading
is a privileged communication,

(B) Estafa and carnapping.

malicious

statements

that

are

irrelevant and impertinent to the


(C) A violation of BP Blg. 22.
(D) Estafa and a violation of BP
Blg. 22.
(E) None of the above.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(D) Estafa and a violation of BP Blg. 22
(Article 315(2), Revised Penal Code).
XVII. In his Answer to a complaint, Atty.
Jose (counsel for the defendant) stated that
Atty. Agrada (counsel for the plaintiff) is
"bobo, inutile, good for nothing, stupid, and
a menace to clients."

issue in the pleading may be


libelous.
(D) Yes, there was a malicious intent
to ridicule Atty. Agrada as a lawyer.
(E) No, because the statement is in a
pleading, but Atty. Jose can be
charged
misconduct

administratively
before

the

for

Supreme

Court.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(C) Yes, although a court pleading is a
privileged
statements

communication,
that

are

malicious

irrelevant

and

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impertinent to the issue in the pleading

(D) acts of lasciviousness (Article 336,

may be libelous.

Revised Penal Code).

A pleading is absolutely privileged when

XIX. If Rod killed Irene, his illegitimate

the defamatory statement therein is

daughter, after taking her diamond earrings

legitimately

and forcing her to have sex with him, what

related

thereto,

or

so

pertinent to the inquiry in the course of

crime/s should Rod be charged with? (1%)

the trial (People v. Sesbereno, G.R. No. L62449,

July

statements

16,

against

1984).
the

Although

counsel

for

plaintiff are not, for being irrelevant and


impertinent

to

the

issue

therein.

Irrelevant and impertinent statements


are not protected by the privileged-

(A) Robbery and rape with parricide.


(B) Robbery, rape and parricide.
(C) Rape with homicide and theft.
(D) Rape with homicide.

communication rule.
(E) None of the above.
XVIII. Using his charms because of his
movie star looks, Phil, in a movie date with

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Lyn, a 19-year old colegiala, kissed her on


the cheek and stroked her pubic hair. Lyn
shouted for help and Phil was arrested. Phil
is liable for __________. (1%)

(D) Rape with homicide.


The crime committed is the special
complex crime of rape with homicide

(A) rape by sexual assault for using

since homicide was committed on the

his fingers

occasion or by reason of rape.

(B) violation of the Anti-Child Abuse

There is no criminal liability for theft,

Law for lascivious conduct

since, under Article 332 of the Revised


Penal Code, no criminal, but only civil

(C) unjust vexation

liability,

shall

commission
(D) acts of lasciviousness
(E) None of the above.

swindling

of
or

result
the

from

crime

malicious

of

the
theft,

mischief

committed or caused mutually by the


following persons:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

1. Spouses,

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ascendants

descendants,

or

and

[Note: there are two choice marked

by

as (D) in the original Supreme Court

relatives

affinity in the same line.xxx


XX.

From

overheard

an

extension

line,

telephone

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Bar Examination Questionnaire.]

Ricardo

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

conversation

between Julito and Atty. Hipolito. The latter

(D) No, because a telephone extension

(Atty. Hipolito) was asking money from

line is not the device or arrangement

Julito

the

contemplated by the law and the use of

Julito.

an extension line cannot be considered

Ricardo was charged of violating the Anti-

as wire tapping (Gaanan v. IAC, G.R. No.

Wire Tapping Act or R.A. 4200.

L-69809, October 16, 1986).

Under these facts, was there a violation as

XXI. Judge Talim, upon complaint and

charged? (1%)

application

in

extortion

exchange
charge

for

filed

dropping
against

Batmanson,

of

the

Inc.,

realty
issued

corporation
a

writ

of

(A) Yes, because the conversation

preliminary injunction against Darjeeling

was private in nature.

Ventures, Inc., a competitor of Batmanson,


Inc., without notice and hearing.

(B) Yes, because the conversation


was overheard without the consent

If you were counsel for Darjeeling Ventures,

of the parties, Julito and Atty.

Inc., what criminal charge should you file

Hipolito.

against Judge Talim? (1%)

(C) No, because what is punishable

(A) Rendering a manifestly unjust

is

judgment.

intentional

listening

to

conversation through a wire.


(B) Knowingly rendering an unjust
(D)

No,

because

telephone

interlocutory order.

extension line is not the device or


arrangement contemplated by the

(C) Causing undue injury through

law and the use of an extension

manifest partiality under R.A. No.

line cannot be considered as wire

3019.

tapping.
(E) None of the above.

(D) Bribery.
(E) None of the above.

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(B)

Knowingly

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(E) None of the above.

rendering

an

unjust

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

interlocutory order.
(C) Possession of dangerous drugs.
The facts show that all the elements of
the crime of knowingly rendering an

Even though George was found positive

unjust interlocutory order are present,

for

to wit: (1) that the offender is a judge; (2)

additionally liable for use of dangerous

that he performs any of the following

drugs under Section 15 of RA 9165. The

acts: (a) he knowingly renders an unjust

last paragraph of thi provision provides:

interlocutory order or decree; or (b) he

this Section shall not be applicable

renders

unjust

where the person tested is also found to

interlocutory order or decree through

have in his/her possession such quantity

inexcusable

ignorance

of any dangerous drugs provided for

(Article 206, Revised Penal Code). The

under Section 11 of this Act, in which

requirement of a notice and hearing is a

case the provisions stated therein shall

basic tenet.

apply. RA 9165, a possessor and user of

manifestly
negligence

or

opium,

he

shall

not

be

held

dangerous drug can only be held liable


XXII. George, the 20-year old son of a rich

for illegal possession of dangerous drug

politician, was arrested at the NAIA arrival

under Section 11.

lounge and found positive for opium, a


dangerous drug. When arrested, 15 grams

Importation

of

drugs

is

also

not

of cocaine were found in his backpack.

committed. In order to establish the


crime of importation of dangerous drugs,

What offense would you charge George

it must be shown that the dangerous

under

drugs are brought to the Philippines

R.A.

No.

9160

(Comprehensive

Dangerous Drugs Act)? (1%)

from a foreign country. In this case, it


was

(A) Use of dangerous drug.


(B) Use and possession of dangerous
drugs.
(C) Possession of dangerous drugs.
(D) Importation of dangerous drugs.

not

lounge

stated
is

in

international

whether
the

terminal

the

arrival

domestic
of

NAIA

or
and

whether or not George is an airplane


passenger,
foreign

who

country.

just

arrived

Thus,

the

form

crime

committed is possession of dangerous


drugs.

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XXIII. During a military uprising aimed at

XXIV. Andres was convicted of frustrated

ousting the duly constituted authorities

homicide and was sentenced to 6 years and

and taking over the government, General

1 day as minimum, to 8 years of prision

Tejero and his men forcibly took over the

mayor as maximum. Andres appealed his

entire Rich Hotel which they used as their

conviction to the Court of Appeals, which

base. They used the rooms and other

convicted him of attempted homicide, and

facilities of the hotel, ate all the available

sentenced him to 6 months of arresto

food they found, and detained some hotel

mayor as minimum, to4years of prision

guests.

correccional as maximum.

What crime did General Tejero and his men

Instead of appealing his conviction, Andres

commit? (1%)

filed an application for probation with the


Regional Trial Court. Is Andres qualified to

(A) Rebellion complexed with serious

avail of the benefits of the probation law?

illegal detention and estafa.

(1%)

(B) Rebellion.

(A) No, because when he filed a


notice of appeal with the Court of

(C) Coup d'etat.

Appeals, he waived his right under


the probation law.

(D) Terrorism.

(B) Yes, because after his appeal,

(E) None of the above.

he qualified for probation as the


sentence imposed on him was less

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

than 6 years.
(C) Coup d'etat.
(C) Yes, because the probation law is
It appears that General Tejero and his
men

launched

swift

meant to favor the accused.

attack

accompanied by violence, intimidation

(D)

or threat directed against public utilities

sentence of more than 6 years

or other facilities needed for the exercise

disqualified him so that he can no

and continued possession of power for

longer avail of probation as an

the

alternative remedy.

purpose

of

seizing

state

power

(Article 134-A, Revised Penal Code).

No,

because

his

previous

(E) None of the above.

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

took

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his

rifle,

went

around

the

neighbourhood, and fired his rifle in the air


(B) Yes, because after his appeal, he

while shouting, "makakatikim sa akin ang

qualified for probation as the sentence

naglason ng mga baboy ko." Barangay

imposed on him was less than 6 years.

officials requested police assistance and

The accused who was convicted by the


lower

court

of

non-probationable

offense (frustrated homicide), but on


appeal

was

found

probationable

offense

homicide),

may

since:

the

(1)

guilty

apply

of

(attempted
for

Probation

Juancho was apprehended. Juancho was


charged with and convicted of the crime of
alarms and scandals. Juancho did not
appeal his conviction.
Is Juancho qualified for probation? (1%)

probation
Law

never

(A) Yes, because the penalty for

intended to deny an accused his right to

alarms and scandals is less than six

probation through no fault of his. The

(6) years.

underlying theory behind probation is


one of liberality towards the accused. (2)

(B) Yes, because Juancho did not

If the accused will not be allowed to

appeal his conviction.

applyfor probation, he will be made to


pay

for

the

trial

courts

erroneous

judgment. (3) While probation may be a


mere privilege, the accused has the right
to

apply

for

judgments
meted

out

of
to

that

privilege.

conviction
the

(4)

have

accused:

two
been

one,

conviction for frustrated homicide by


the RTC now set aside; and two, a

(C) No, because the crime of alarms


and scandals carries with it a fine of
P200.
(D)

No,

because

the

crime

of

alarms and scandals affects public


order.
(E) None of the above.

conviction for attempted homicide by


the Supreme Court (Colinares v. People,

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

G.R. No. 182748, December 13, 2011).


(D) No, because the crime of alarms and
XXV. Juancho owns a small piggery in

scandals affects public order.

Malolos, Bulacan. One Saturday afternoon,


he discovered that all his pigs had died.

Under Section 9 of PD No. 968, the

Suspecting that one of his neighbours had

benefit

poisoned the pigs, Juancho went home,

extended to those convicted of a crime

of

probation

shall

not

be

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

against

public

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order.

Alarms

and

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through falsification of public

scandals is a crime against public order

document.

since it is punishable under Chapter 5,

c. If AAA commits in a public

Title Three, Book two of the Revised

document the act of falsification

Penal

as a necessary means to commit

Code;

hence,

Juancho

is

not

qualified for probation.

2012

Criminal

Law

Exam

estafa,

the

relationship

by

affinity

still

subsists

an

absolutory

MCQ (October 21, 2012)

which

cause

should

as

for

be

estafa

considered

separately from the liability for


1. The

wife

of

AAA

predeceased

falsification of public document

his

mother-in-law. AAA was accused of

because

there

defrauding his mother-in-law under a

penalty

prescribed

criminal information for estafa, but the

complex crime of estafa through

actual recital of facts of the offense

falsification of public document.

charged

therein,

if

proven,

would

d. Considering

is

that

no

specific
for

under

the

the

constitute not only the crime of estafa,

given situation, the two (2)

but also falsification of public document

crimes

as a necessary means for committing

falsification

estafa.

document

AAA

invokes

the

absolutory

of

estafa
of

are

not

and
public

separate

cause of relationship by affinity. Which

crimes but component crimes

statement is most accurate?

of the single complex crime of


affinity

estafa

created between AAA and the

public

blood relatives of his wife is

absolutory

dissolved by the death of his wife

relationship by affinity is not

and the absolutory cause of

available to AAA.

a. The

relationship

relationship

by

by

affinity

is

therefore no longer available to


AAA.
b. The death of spouse does not
severe

the

relationship

by

affinity which is an absolutory


cause available to AAA for estafa

and

falsification

of

document,

the

cause

of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
D. there are two views on whether the
extinguishment of marriage by death of
the spouse dissolves the relationship by
affinity for purpose of absolute cause.
The first

holds

that

relationship by

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affinity terminates with the dissolution


of

the

marriage

while

the

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

second

maintains that relationship continues

D. the Supreme Court in several cases

even after the death of the deceased

had

spouse. The principal of pro reo calls for

doctrine in relation to the justifying

the adoption of the continuing affinity

circumstance

view because it is more favorable to the

States

accused. However, the absolutory cause

defense

applies

and

Bautista, G.R. No. 10678, August 17,

maliscious mischief. It does not apply to

1915), defense of honor (United States v.

theft

estafa

Apego, 23 Phil. 391), performance of

through falsification (Intestate estate of

duty, (People v. Mamasalaya, G.R. No. L-

Gonzales v. People, G.R. No. 181409,

4911,

February 11, 2010).

exempting circumstance of obedience of

to

theft,

through

swindling

falsification

or

applied

v.

the
of

Ah

of

mistake
self-defense

Chong,

person

February

of

15

and

10,

fact

(United

Phil.

right

1953),

488),

(US

and

v.

the

an order of superior officer (People v.


2. Under

which

of

the

following

Beronilla, G.R. No. L-4445, February 28,

circumstances is an accused not liable

1955). Hence, mistake of fact principle

for the result not intended?

can likewise be applied in relation to

a. Accused is not criminally liable

circumstance of lack of voluntariness

for the result not intended when

such as the circumstance of irresistible

there is mistake in the identity

force or uncontrollable fear. In sum, the

of the victim.

accused will not be held criminally liable

b. Accused is not criminally liable

for the result not intended when there is

for the result not intended when

mistake

of

fact

there is mistake in the blow.

involuntary act.

constituting

an

c. Accused is not criminally liable


for the result not intended when
the wrongful act is not the
proximate cause of the resulting
injury.
d. Accused
liable

is

for

intended

not
the

when

criminally
result
there

not
is

mistake of fact constituting


an involuntary act.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
C. Accused is not criminally liable for
the

result

not

intended

when

the

wrongful act is not the proximate cause


of the resulting injury.
3. Can there be a frustrated impossible
crime?

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a. Yes. When the crime is not


produced
inherent

by

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to the employment of inadequate or

reason

of

the

ineffectual means to accomplish it, the

impossibility

of

its

crime committed is impossible crime.

is

(Example: If the accused with intent to

accomplishment,

it

frustrated impossible crime.

kill thought that the salt, which he

b. No. There can be no frustrated

mixed with the coffee of another, is

impossible crime because the

arsenic

means employed to accomplish

impossible crime People v. Balmores,

the

G.R. No. L-1896, February 16, 1950, En

crime

is

inadequate

or

ineffectual.

Banc).

c. Yes. There can be a frustrated

powder,

If

the
but

performed would be an offense

produced

by

against persons.

independent

of

perpetrator,

the

because

liable

employed

for

to

accomplish the felony is adequate or


effectual,

impossible

is

means

impossible crime when the act

d. No. There can be no frustrated

he

the

felony

reason
the
crime

was

of
will

not

causes
of

committed

the
is

the

frustrated felony. (Example: The offender

already

with intent to kill mixed arsenic with

performed the acts for the

the coffee of another; the latter did not

execution of the crime.

die not by reason of inadequate quantity

offender

has

of the poison but due to timely medical


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

intervention;

D. There can be no frustrated impossible


because

the

offender

has

already

performed the acts for the execution of


the crime.

is

liable

for

frustrated murder). Hence, the answer is


B.
4. FF and his two (2) sons positioned
themselves outside the house of the
victim. The two (2} sons stood by the

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

stairs in front of the house, while the

B. if one performed all the acts of


execution

offender

but

the

felony

was

not

produced, the crime committed is either


frustrated felony or impossible crime
and not frustrated impossible crime. If
the felony despite the performance of all
acts of execution was not produced due

father waited at the back. The victim


jumped out of the window and was met
by FF who instantly hacked him. The
two (2) sons joined hacking the victim to
death. They voluntarily surrendered to
the

police.

How

will

the

attendant

circumstances be properly appreciated?

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a. Treachery and abuse of superior

v. Rebucan, G.R. No. 182551, July 27,

strength qualify the killing to

2011). What should qualify the crime is

murder.

treachery as proved and not abuse of

b. Only treachery qualifies the


killing

to

because

No. 137411-13, February 28, 2003, See

abuse of superior strength is

also People v. Perez, G.R. No. 181409,

absorbed by treachery.

February 11, 2010).

c. Treachery

murder

superior strength (People v. Loreto, G.R.

is

the

qualifying

aggravating circumstance, while

5. Which of the following circumstances

abuse of superior strength is

may be taken into account for the

treated as a generic aggravating

purpose of increasing the penalty to be

circumstance.

imposed upon the convict?

d. The qualifying circumstance of

a. Aggravating

circumstances

treachery or abuse of superior

which in themselves constitute a

strength can be offset by the

crime specially punishable by

mitigating

law.

circumstance

of

b. Aggravating

voluntary surrender.

circumstances

which are inherent in the crime


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

to such a degree that they must


of

B. Abuse of superior strength is an


aggravating circumstance if the accused

necessity

accompany

the

crime.
c. Aggravating

circumstances

purposely uses excessive force out of

which arise from the moral

proportion to the means of defense

attributes of the offender.

available to the person attacked, or if

d. Aggravating

circumstances

there is notorious inequality of forces

which are included by the law in

between the victim and aggressor, and

defining a crime.

the latter takes advantage of superior


strength (People v, Del Castillo, G.R. No.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

169084, January 18, 2012). If the victim


is

completely

defenseless,

treachery

C. Aggravating circumstances which in

the

themselves constitute a crime specially

superior

punishable by law or which are included

strength concurs with treachery, the

by the law in defining a crime and

former is absorbed in the latter (People

prescribing the penalty therefor shall not

should

be

circumstance

appreciated.
of

abuse

When
of

be taken into account for the purpose of


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increasing the penalty. The same rule

No. 4103); while those convicted of

shall apply with respect to such a degree

misprision of treason are not.

that it mut be necessity accompany the


commission thereof. Aggravating which

7. Proposal to commit felony is punishable

arise from the moral attributes of the

only

offender shall only serve to aggravate

specifically provides a penalty therefor.

the

Under which of the following instances.

liability

of

the

principals,

accomplices and accessories as to whom


such

circumstances

are

attendant

in

cases

in

which

the

law

are proponents NOT liable?


a. Proposal to commit coup d'etat.

(Article 62 of the Revised Penal Code).

b. Proposal to commit sedition.

Hence,

c. Proposal to commit rebellion.

aggravating

involving moral

circumstance

attributes

should be

taken into considerationin increasing


the penalty to be imposed upon the
convict.

d. Proposal to commit treason.


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B. proposal to commit treason, rebellion

6. Who among the following convicts are


not entitled to the benefits of the
lndetermediate Sentence Law?
a. Those who are recidivists.
b. Those whose maximum term of
imprisonment exceeds one (1)
year.
c. Those convicted of inciting to
sedition.
d. Those convicted of misprision
of treason.

or coup detat (Articles 115 and 136 of


the Revised Penal Code) is punishable
but proposal to commit sedition is not.
8. AA misrepresented to the complainant
that

he

authority

had
and

the

power,

influence,

business

to

obtain

overseas employment upon payment of


placement fee. AA duly collected the
placement fee from complainant. As per
certification of the Philippine Overseas
Employment Administration, AA did not
possess any authority or license for

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

overseas employment. Is it proper to file


of

two (2) separate Informations for illegal

inciting to sedition and those whose

recruitment under the Labor Code and

term of imprisonment exceed one year

for estafa by means of deceit?

D.

are

Recidivists,

entitled

to

those

the

convicted

benefits

of

the

indeterminate sentence (Section 2 of Act

a. No. The filing of two (2) separate


Informations
recruitment

for
under

illegal
the

Labor

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Code and for estafa by means of

a person convicted under RA No. 8042

deceit

may

also

be

convicted

violative of the principle against

punishable

by

other

double jeopardy.

Logan, G.R. No. 135030-33, July 20,

b. No.

for

One

complex

the

same

act

Information
crime

recruitment

for

of

with

is

illegal

estafa

by

2001).

Moreover,

of

laws

offenses

(People

although

the

v.
two

crimes may arise form the same facts,


they are not the same. Not all acts,

means of deceit should be filed,

which

instead

establish illegal recruitment, for estafa is

of

two

(2)

separate

Informations.

wider

c. No. A person convicted of illegal


recruitment

under

the

Labor

constitute
in

scope

astafa,
and

necessarily

rovers

deceits

whether or not related to recruitment


actvivties.

More

importantly,

the

Code may not, for the same act,

element of damage, which is essential in

be separately convicted of estafa

estafa

by means of deceit.

recruitment (People v. Turda, G.R. No.

case,

is

immaterial

in

illegal

d. Yes. A person convicted of

97044, July 6, 1994). Moreover, under

illegal recruitment under the

Section 6 of RA No. 8042 as amended by

Labor Code may, for the same

RA No. 10022, the filing of an offebse

act, be separately convicted of

punishable

estafa by means of deceit.

without prejudice to the filing of cases

under

this

Act

shall

be

punishable under existing laws, rules or


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
D. it is well-settled that a person who
has committed illegal recruitment may
be charged and convicted separately of
the crime of illegal recruitment under
RA No. 8042 and estafa. The reason for

regulations.

If

undertaken

to

the

recruitment

defraud

another,

is
the

recruiter may be held liable for estafa


under paragraph 2(a) of Article 315 of
the

Revised

Penal

Code

and

illegal

recruitment.

the rule is that the crime of illegal

[Note: RA No. 8042 amended pertinent

recruitment I malum prohibitum where

provisions of the Labor Code and gave a

the criminal intent of the accused is not

new definition of the crime of illegal

necessary

the

recruitment and provided for a higher

crime of estafa Is malum in se where the

penalty Nasi-Villar v. People, G.R. No.

criminal

176169, November 14, 2008]

for
intent

conviction,
of

the

while
accused

is

necessary for conviction. In other words,

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9. When are light felonies punishable?

c. AA

a. Light felonies are punishable in


felonies

are

punishable

property.
felonies

are

request

for

that

he

caused

prejudice

to

anyone.

those

committed against persons or


d. Light

for

because there is no indication

only when consummated, with


of

liable

d. AA incurs no criminal liability

c. Light felonies are punishable


exception

criminally

disqualification.

only when consummated.

the

is

disobeying

all stages of execution.


b. Light

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punishable

only when committed against


persons or property.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B. the crime of prolonging performance
of duties and powers is committed by
any public officer who shall continue to
exercise the duties and powers of his

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

office,

employment

beyond

the

or

period
or

commission,

provided

special

by

law,

C. Light felonies are punishable only

regulations

provisions

when consummated, with the exception

applicable to the case (Article 237 of the

of those committed against persons or

Revised Penal Code).

property (Article 7 of the Revised Penal


11. For

Code).

treachery

to

qualify

killing

to

murder, the evidence must show:


10. AA was appointed for a two-year term to
serve

the

the

accused

resigned public official. Despite being

overt act manifestly indicating

disqualified after the lapse of the two-

that

year term, PA continued to exercise the

determination, and a sufficient

duties and powers of the public office to

lapse

which appointed. What is the criminal

decision

liability of AA?

allowing him to reflect upon the


criminally

of

when

decided to employ treachery, the

is

portion

time

a. AA

unexpired

a. The

liable

for

malfeasance in office.
b. AA

is

criminally

prolonging

of

clung
time
and

to

such

between
the

the

execution,

consequence of his act.


b. Unlawful aggression, reasonable

liable

for

performance

of

duties and powers.

he

necessity

of

the

means

to

prevent or repel the aggression,


and

lack

of

sufficient

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provocation on the part of the

b. The woman who tried to commit

victim.

suicide is criminally liable for

c. That the accused employed


such

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means,

methods

unintentional abortion which is

or

punishable

manner to ensure his safety


from

the

defensive

when

caused

by

violence.

or

c. The woman who tried to commit

retaliatory acts of the victim,

suicide is criminally liable for

and the mode of attack was

abortion that resulted due to the

consciously adopted.

poison that she had taken to

d. Actual sudden physical assault


or threat to inflict real imminent
injury

to

an

commit suicide.
d. The

unsuspecting

woman

commit

victim.

who

suicide

tried

to

occurs

no

criminal liability for the result


not intended.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C. There is treachery when the offender
commit any of the crimes against the

D. the pregnant woman cannot be held

person, employing means, methods, or

liable for abortion under Article 258 of

forms in the execution thereof which

the Revide Penal Code because intent to

tend directky and specially to insure its

abort, which is an essential element of

execution,

this crime, is lacking. Neither can she be

arising

without

from

the

risk
defense

to

himself

which

the

held liable for unintentional abortion

offended party might make (Article 14 of

under Article 257, because the element

the Revised Penal Code).

of violence is wanting.

12. What is the criminal liability, if any, of a

Criminal liability shall be incurred by

pregnant woman who tried to commit

any person committing a felony (delito)

suicide by poison, but she did not die

although

and the fetus in her womb was expelled

different from that which he intended

instead?

(Article 4 of the Revised Penal Code).

the

wrongful

act

done

be

a. The woman who tried to commit

Attempt to commit suicide although an

suicide is not criminally liable

intentional act is not constitutive of a

because the suicide intended

felony. According to Luis B. Reyes, a

was not consummated.

person who attempts to commit suicide


is not criminally liable, because the

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society has always considered a person

(17) years and four (4) months of

attempts

reclusion temporal as maximum.

to

kill

herself

as

an

unfortunate being, a watched person


more deserving of pity rather than of
penalty. Hence, the woman, who tried
to commit suicide, is not liable for the
direct, antural and logical consequence
of her non-felonious act.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A.In People v. Rillorta, G.R. No. 57415,
December 15, 1989, and in People v.
Recto, G.R. No. 129069, October 17,
2001, the Supreme Court En Banc found

13. Chris Brown was convicted of a complex

the accused guilty of the complex crime

crime of direct assault with homicide

of homicide with assault upon a person

aggravated by the commission of the

in authority and sentenced him to suffer

crime

public

an indeterminate penalty ranging from

authorities are engaged in the discharge

twelve (12) years of prision mayor, as

of their duties. The penalty for homicide

minimum,

is reclusion temporal. On the other

reclusion temporal, as maximum.

in

place

where

hand, the penalty for direct assault is


pns10n correccional in its medium and
maximum periods. What is the correct
indeterminate penalty?
a. Twelve (12) years of prision
mayor as minimum to twenty
(20)

years

of

reclusion

ten1poral as maximum.
b. Ten (10) years of prision mayor
as minimum to seventeen (17)
years and four (4) months of
reclusion temporal as maximum.
c. Eight (8) years of prision mayor
as minimum to eighteen (18)
years and four (4) months of
reclusion temporal as maximum.
d. Twelve

(12)

years

of

prision

mayor as minimum to seventeen

to

twenty

(20)

years

of

14. A, 8, and C organized a meeting in


which the audience was incited to the
commission of the crime of sedition.
Some of the persons present at the
meeting

were

carrying

firearms.

What

crime,

unlicensed
if

any,

was

committed by A, 8 and C, as well as


those who were carrying unlicensed
firearms and those who were merely
present at the meeting?
a. Inciting to sedition for A, 8 and
C

and

firearms

illegal
for

possession
those

of

carrying

unlicensed firearms.
b. Inciting to sedition for A, 8 and
C and those carrying unlicensed
firearms.

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c. Illegal assembly for A, 8, C and


all

those

present

at

the

meeting.

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not, the offender cannot be prosecuted


separately

for

illegal

possession

of

firearm. RA 8294 prescribes a penalty for

d. Conspiracy to commit sedition

possession

of

unlicensed

for A, B, C and those present at

provided,

that

the meeting.

committed. A simple reading of PD

no

other

firearm

crime

was

1866 as amended by RA 8249 shows that


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

if

C. inciting to sedition under Article 142


of

the

Revied

Penal

Code

is

not

committed since there is no showing


that the audience was incited by A,
B and C themselves to commite
sedition.
commit

Neither

conspiracy

used

in

the

commission of any crime, there can be


no separate offense of simple illegal
possession

of

Ladjaalam,

firearms

G.R.

(People

Nos.

v.

136149-51,

September 19, 200; Celino v. CA, GR No.


170562, June 29, 2007).
15. Is the crime of theft committed by a
person who, with intent to gain, takes a

that the organizers and audience agreed

worthless check belonging to another

and decided to commit sedition. The

without the latter's consent?

assembly

a. Yes. All the elements of the

under Article 146 of the Revised Penal

crime of theft are present: that

Code.

there

This

is

Article

is

committed since there is no showing

committed

under

to

unlicensed

142

crime

sedition

is

an

crime

is

illegal

committed

by

be

taking

of

personal

the

property

organizers and leaders of a meeting in

property;

which the audience wa incited to the

belongs to another; and that the

commission of the crime of sedition.

taking be done with intent to

Persons merely present at such meeting

gain and without the consent of

shall likewise be held criminally liable.

the owner.

Those

who

were

carrying

unlicensed

firearms, cannot be separately charged


with the crime of illegal possession of
unlicensed firearm in addition to illegal
assembly. Settled is the rule that if the
offender committed illegal possession of
firearm

and

other

crime,

whether

expressly mentioned in RA No. 8294 or

b. No.

The

that

taking

of

the

worthless check, which has no


value, would not amount to
the crime of theft because of
the

legal

impossibility

to

commit the intended crime.


c. Yes. Theft is committed even if
the worthless check would be

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subsequently

dishonored

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committed while still serving for

because the taker had intent to

the first offense.

gain from the check at the time


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

of the taking.
d. Yes. Theft is committed because
the factual impossibility to gain
from the check was not known
to

the

taker

or

beyond

his

control at the time of taking.

C. Quasi-recidivist is a person who shall


commit a felony after having been
convicted by final judgment while erving
his sentence (Article 160 of the Revised
Penal Code). B is not a quasi-recidivist
since he did not commit a felony while

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

serving sentence. Illegal possession of


B. Stealing a worthless check constitute

unlicensed firearm committed by B is

impossible crime. There is impossibility

an offense punishable by special law and

to accomplish the crime of theft since

not a felony under the Revised Penal

the check has no value (See: Jacinto v.

Code.

People, G.R. No. 162540, July 13, 2009).


ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
16. B was convicted by final judgment of
theft. While serving sentence for such

A.A is a quai-recidivist. Under PD No.

offense, B was found in possession of

1866, the penalty for illegal possession

an unlicensed firearm. Is B a quasi-

of firearm is prision correccional in its

recidivist?

maximum period for low powered firearm

a. B is a quasi-recidivist because

or prision mayor in its minimum period

he was serving sentence when

for high powered firearm. Since these

found

penalties under PD No. 1866 were taken

in

possession

of

an

unlicensed firearm.
b. B

is

not

quasi-recidivist

from the Revised Penal Code, the rules


in said Code for determining the proper

because the offense for which he

period

was serving sentence is different

supplement (See: People v. Feloteo, G.R.

from the second offense.

No. 124212, June 5, 1998). One of these

c. B

is

not

quasi-recidivist

shall

be

applied

by

way

of

rules is the application of penalty in its

because the second offense is

maximum

not a felony.

circumstance

period
of

due

to

the

quasi-recidivism.

quasi-recidivist

Although CA Justice Luis Reyes and

because the second offense was

Justice Florenz Regalado opined that the

d. B

is

not

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second

crime

appreciate

must

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be

felony

quasi-recidivism

to

because

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18. What crime is committed by a person


who kills a three-day old baby?

Article 160 speaks of a felony, the

a. infanticide;

Supreme Court in People v. Salazar, G.R.

b. homicide;

No. 98060 January 27, 1997 appreciated

c. murder;

quasi-recidivism

d. parricide.

against

the

accused,

who committed an offense under RA No.


6425. Hence, A is the answer.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

17. What crime is committed by one who

C. the crime commited is not infanticide

defrauds

another

by

taking

undue

under Article 255 of the Revised Penal

the

Code since the victim killed is not less

offended party in a blank check and by

than three days of age. Killing of a three-

writing the payee and amount of the

day

check to the prejudice of the offended

qualified by treachery under Article 248.

party?

Minor children, who by reason of their

advantage

of

the

signature

of

a. estafa with unfaithfulness or

old

baby

constitutes

murder

tender years, cannot be expected to put


a defene. When an adult person illegally

abuse of confidence;
b. estafa by false pretense;

attacks a child, treachery exists. (People

c. estafa

v. Fallorina, G.R. No. 137347, March 4,

through

fraudulent

2004).

means;
d. estafa by other deceits.

19. What crime is committed by a person


who kills his legitimate brother on the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

occasion of a public calamity?


A.Estafa is committed by a person who

a. parricide;

shall

b. homicide;

defraud

another

with

unfaithfulness or abuse of confidence by

c. murder;

taking undue advantage of the signature

d. death caused in a tumultuous

of the offended party in blank, and by


writing

any

document

above

such

signature in blank, to the prejudice of


the offended party or to any third person
(Article 315[1] [c] of the Revised Penal
Code).

affray.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C. Parricide under Article 246 of the
Revised Penal Code is committed when:
(1) a person is killed; (2) the deceased is

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killed by the accused; (3) the deceased is

3947,

January

28,

the father, mother, or child, whether

determining

legitimate or illegitimate, or a legitimate

committing a crime (US v. Hawchaw, GR

other ascendant ot other descendant, or

No. L-6909, February 20, 1912).

if

he

1908);
committed

or
or

(3)
is

the legitimate spouse of the accused


(People v. Tibon, G.R. No. 188320, June

Arbitrary detention is a crime against

29, 2010). Killing his legitimate brother

fundamental

is not parricide since he is just a

Constitution. A public officer, who is

collateral

accused.

vested with the authority to detain or to

However, killing a person on occasion of

order the detention of a peson accused

public calamity is murder.

of a crime, is acting in behalf of the

relative

of

the

law

of

the

law

or

the

government in arresting or detaining a


20. What is the crime committed by any

person. If such public officer detained a

person who, without reasonable ground,

person in violation of his constitutional

arrests

the

right against unreasonable seizure (or

purpose of delivering him to the proper

not in accordance with Section 5, Rule

authorities?

113 of the Revised Rules of Criminal

or

detains

another

for

a. unlawful arrest;

Procedure),

the

crime

committed

is

b. illegal detention;

arbitrary detention. Unlawful arrest is

c. arbitrary detention;

a crime against personal liberty and

d. grave coercion.

security. A public officer, who is not


vested with the authority to detain or to

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A.in

unlawful

order the detention of a person (e.g.

arrest,

the

private

individual or public officer in its private


capacity arrestes or detains the victim
without

reasonable

ground

or

legal

authority. In arbitrary detention, the


public officer, who has authority to
make arrest, detains the victim without
legal grounds for the purpose of: (1)
delivering him to judicial authority (US
v. Gellada, 15 Phil. 120); (2) conducting
criminal investigation (People v. Oliva,
95 Phil. 962; US v. Agravante, GR No.

stenographer, researcher or municipal


treasurer), is not acting in behalf of the
government in making a warrantless
arrest. Such public officer acting in his
private capacity (or a private individual)
could

not

violate

the

Constitution

(People v, Marti, GR No. 81561, January


18, 1991); hence, if he arrests or detains
a person not in accordance with Section
5, Rule 113 of the Revised Rule of
Criminal

Procedure,

the

committed

is

arrest.

unlawful

crime
The

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essence of this crime is not violation of


fundamental

law

of

the

law

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d. No.

but

The

surrender

to

the

Barangay Chairman is not a

deprivation of liberty of the victim.

surrender

to

the

proper

authorities.
In the facts given, the acts of the person
squarely falls within the provision of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Article 269 of the Revised Penal Code,


which defines unlawful arrest as one

C. surrender is not voluntary where the

committed by a person who, in any case

accused

other than those authorized by law, or

after the killings to seek protection

without

therefor,

against the retaliation of the victims

shall arrest or detain another for the

relatives. Considering that the accused

purpose of delivering him to the proper

did not uncondtitionally submit himself

authorities.

to

reasonable

ground

went to Barangay Chairman

the

authorities

in

order

to

acknowledge his participation in the


21. A killed M. After the killing, A went to

killings

or

in

order

to

save

the

the Barangay Chairman of the place of

authorities the troube and expense for

incident to seek protection against the

his arrest, surrender is not a mitigating

retaliation

circumstance (People v. Del Castillo,

of

M's

relatives.

May

voluntary surrender be appreciated as a

G.R. No. 169084, January 18, 2012).

mitigating circumstance in favor of A?


a. Yes.

surrendered

to

the

Barangay Chairman who is a

22. Who among the following is liable for


estafa?
a. The

person in authority.

seller

of

laptop

b. Yes. The surrender of A would

computer who failed to inform

save the authorities the trouble

the buyer that the laptop had

and expense for his arrest.

a defect.

c. No. A did not unconditionally

b. The person who ran away with

the

a cell phone which was handed

to

to him upon his pretense that

acknowledge his participation

he had to make an emergency

in the killing or to save the

call.

submit

himself

authorities

authorities
expenses

to

in.

the

order

trouble

necessary

search and capture.

for

and

c. The person who assured he will

his

pay interest on the amount but


failed to do so as promised.

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d. The son who induced his father

constitute

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estafa

of

theft

depending

to buy from him a land which

upon the nature of possession. If his

the son is no longer the owner.

possession of the property if physical or


de facto, misappropriation thereof is

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

constitutive of theft. If the possession is

B. the person, who ran away with a


cellphone which was handed to him
upon his pretence that he had to make
an emergency call, is liable for estafa
through misappropriation.

juridical

or

thereof

legal,
is

misappropriation

estafa

through

misappropriation (See: People v. Mirto,


GR No. 193479, October 19, 2011). Thus,
the

person,

who

ran

away

with

cellphone which was handed to him


upon his pretence that he had to make

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

an emergency call, is liable for theft

A.fraud or deceit may be committed by

since

omission. It is true that mere silence is

merely physical (See: US v. De Vera, 43

not in itself concealment. Concealment

Phil.

which the law denounces as fraudulent

answer.

implies a purpose or design to hide fact


which the other party sought to know.
Failure to reveal a fact which the seller
is, in good faith, bound to disclose may
generally be classified as deceptive act
due to its inherent capacity to deceive.
Suppression of a material fact which a
party is bound in good faith to disclose
is equivalent to a false representation. A
seller, who failed to disclose the defect
of the property sold to the buyer, is
liable for other deceit under Article 318
of the Revised Penal Code (Guinhawa v.
People,

GR

No.

162822,

August

25,

2005). Hence, A is the answer.

the

possession

1000).

Hence,

estafa

through

is

not

the

false

representation

Code and other deceit under Article 318


thereof must constitue the very cause or
the

only

motive

for

the

private

complainant to part with her property


(See:

Guinhawa

v.

People,

GR

No.

162822, August 25, 2005). Assurance


not only to pay the interest but more
importantly the principal is obviously
the very cause why the person in the
given facts parted his money. Moreover,
failure

to

pay

interest

as

promised

should not be considered as estafa or

possession

constitutional

accused

is

under Article 315 of the Revised Penal

other

the

offender

False pretense whether as an element of

Misappropriation of personal property in


of

of

may

deceit

because
prohibition

of

the
against

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imprisonment for non-payment of debt.

attending circumstances under the ISL

Promise to pay is not a false pretense

be limited to Articles 13 and 14, then it

contemplated by provision of the law on

could

estafa. Hence, C is not the answer.

wording of the law clearly permits other

have

simply

so

stated.

The

circumstances outside of Articles 13 and


The son, who induced his father to buy

14

from him a land, which the son is no

attending circumstances under the ISL

longer the owner, is not liable for estafa

be limited to Articles 13 and 14 of the

because relationship is an absolutory

RPC

cause under Article 332 of the Revised

circumstances

Penal

application of the ISL, such as quasi-

Code.

Hence,

is

not

the

answer.

the

to

RPC

be

to

treated
for

be

treated

as

as

attending

purposes

of

the

recidivism and circumstance involving

23. What is the nature of the circumstance


which is involved in the imposition of
the maximum term of the indeterminate
sentence?

incremental penalty rule in estafa and


theft (People v, Temporada, GR

No.

173473, November 17, 2008, En Banc).


24. A, B and C, all seventeen (17) years of

a. qualifying circumstance;

age,

b. aggravating circumstance;

detection

c. modifying circumstance;

implementation of their plan to rob G.

d. analogous circumstance.

They entered the room of G through a

Law (ISL) the court shall sentence the


accused to an indeterminate sentence
the maximum term of which shall be
that which, in view of the attending
could

be

properly

imposed under the rule of Revised Penal


Code. The plain terms of the ISL show
that the legislature did not intend to
attending

for

and

Upon

nighttime
to

to

avoid

facilitate

instruction

of

the

A,

opened her vault while 8 was poking a

C. under the Indeterminate Sentecnce

circumstances,

waited

window.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

limit

of

circumstances

as

referring to Article 13 and 14 of the


RPC. If the legislature intended that the

knife at her. Acting as lookout, C had


already opened the main door of the
house when the helper was awakened
by the pleading of G to A and B to just
take the money from the vault without
harming her. When the helper shouted
for help upon seeing G with A and B
inside the room, 8 stabbed G and ran
towards the door, leaving the house
with C. A also left the house after taking
the money of G from the vault. G was
brought to the hospital where she died

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as a result of the wound inflicted by B.

to commit robbery for which

Under the given facts, are A, B and C

they

exempt from criminal liability? If not,

charged as principals, and in

what is the proper charge against them

addition, B should be separately

or any of them?

charged with homicide for the

a. A,

and

C,

be

collectively

under

death of G, subject to diversion

eighteen (18) years of age at the

programs for children over 15

time of the commission of the

and under 18 who acted with

offense,

discernment.

are

being

should

exempt

from

criminal liability and should be


merely subjected to intervention
program for child in conflict with
the law.
b. There being no indication of
having acted with discernment,
A, B and C are exempt from
criminal

liability,

appropriate
consultation

subject

programs
with

the

to
in

person

having custody over the child in


conflict with the taw or the local
social welfare and development
officer.
c. Considering the given facts
which manifest discernment,
A, B and C are not exempt
from

criminal

liability

and

should be charged with the


complex crime of robbery with
homicide,

subject

to

automatic

suspension

of

sentence upon finding of guilt.


d. Under the given facts, A, 8 and
C are not exempt from criminal
liability because they conspired

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C. a child above fifteen (15) years but
below eighteen (18) years if age shall be
exempt from criminal liability unless
he/she

has

(Section

acted

RA

with

discernment

No.

9344).

The

discernment is his mental capacity to


understand the difference between right
and wrong, and such capacity may be
known and should be determined by
taking into consideration all the facts,
and

circumstances

records

in

each

afforded
case,

by

the

the
very

appearance, the very attitude, the very


comportment and behavior of said minor
(People

v.

Doquena,

GR

No.

46539,

September 27, 1939). A, B and C


are not exempt from criminal liability
since the manner they committed the
crime indicates discernment.
Although the original plan may have
been to simply rob the victim, the
conspirators are equally liable as coprincipals

for

all

the

planned

or

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

unanticipated

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their

A.Evasion through negligence (Article

criminal design (People vs. Ballo, GR No.

224 of the Revised Penal Code) and

124871, May 13, 2004). Whenever the

conniving with or consenting to evasion

commission

(Article 223) are crimes committed by

crime

of

consequences

of

the

robbery

of

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special

with

complex

homicide

id

public

officer

in

charged

with

the

proven, all those who took part in the

conveyance or custody of the prisoner;

robbery are liable as principals even

either detention prisoner or prisoner by

though they did not take part in the

final judgment; hence, letters b and

killing (People v. Sumalinog, GR No.

128387, February 5, 2004) unless it

service of sentence (Article 157) can

appear that they endeavored to prevent

only be committed by a prisoner by final

the homicide (People v. Gonzales, GR No.

judgment, and not by mere detention

140756, April 4, 2003). A, B and C

prisoner (Curiano vs. CFI, G.R. No. L-

hould be charged with robbery with

8104, April 15, 1955). Hence, D is the

homicide despite the fact that they

answer. The escapee does not incur

merely plan to rob the victim and that

criminal liability.

are

nit

the

answer.

Evasion

of

only B stabbed G.
26. What crime is committed when a person
25. The guard was entrusted with the

assumes the performance of duties and

conveyance or custody of a detention

powers of a public office or employment

prisoner

without first being sworn in?

who

escaped

through

his

negligence. What is the criminal liability


of the escaping prisoner?
a. The

escaping

a. anticipation

of

duties

of

public office;

prisoner

does

b. usurpation of authority;

not incur criminal liability.

c. prohibited transaction;

b. The escaping prisoner is liable

d. unlawful appointment.

for evasion through negligence.


c. The escaping prisoner is liable
for conniving with or consenting
to, evasion.
d. The escaping prisoner is liable
for

evasion

sentence.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

of

service

of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A.The crime of anticipation of duties of a
public office is committed by any person
who shall assume the performance of the
duties and powers of any public office or
employment without first being sworn in
or having given the bond required by law
(Article 236 of the Revised Penal Code).

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27. What crime is committed by a public


officer who, before the acceptance of his

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victim. Which one of

the following

circumstances constitutes parricide?

resignation, shall abandon his office to

a. Offender killing the illegitimate

the detriment of the public service in

daughter of his legitimate son.

order to evade the discharge of the

b. Offender killing his illegitimate

duties of preventing, prosecuting or

grandson.

punishing the crime of treason?


a. abandonment

of

c. Offender killing his common-law

office

or

wife.

position;
b. qualified

d. Offender
abandonment

of

killing

his

illegitimate mother.

office;
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

c. misprision of treason;
d. negligence in the prosecution of
offense.

D. Parricide is committed when: (1) a


person is killed; (2) the deceased is killed
by the accused; (3) the deceased is the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

father,

mother,

or

child,

whether

B. Abandonment of office or position is

legitimate or illegitimate, or a legitimate

committed by any public officer who,

other ascendant or other descendant, or

before the acceptance of his resignation,

the legitimate spouse of the accused

shall abandon his office to the detriment

(People v. Tibon, GR No. 188320, June

of the public service. The crime is

29, 2010). Killing his granddaughter,

qualified if the purpose of abandonment

grandson or wife shall not be considered

is to evade the discharge of the duties of

as parricide since the relationship is not

preventing, prosecuting or punishing any

legitimate. In parricide, the legitimacy of

of the crime falling within Title One, and

the relationship is an essential element

Chapter One of Title Three of Book Two

thereof if the victim is the wife or the

of the Revised Penal Code such as

second degree direct relative of the

treason (Article 238). Hence, the crime

offender. Hence, A, B or C is not

committed is qualified abandonment of

the answer. On the other hand, killing

office.

his illegitimate mother is parricide. In


parricide,

the

legitimacy

of

the

28. The key element in a crime of parricide

relationship is not an essential element

other than the fact of killing is the

thereof if the victim is the first degree

relationship

direct relative of the offender.

of

the

offender

to

the

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29. What is the minimum age of criminal


responsibility?

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constitutes trafficking in person (Section


4 [f] of RA No. 9208). The means to

a. a} fifteen (15) years old or under

commit trafficking in person such as

b. nine (9) years old or under

taking advantage of the vulnerability of

c. above nine (9) years old and

the victim, fraud etc. can be dispensed

under fifteen (15) who acted with

with since the trafficking is qualified

discernment

when trafficked person is a child or when

d. above fifteen (15) years old

the adoption is effected through Inter-

and under eighteen (18) who

Country

acted with discernment

adoption

Adoption
is

Act

for

the

of

and

said

purpose

of

prostitution (Section 6 [a] and [b]).


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
31. What

crime

is

committed

when

D. a child above fifteen (15) years but

mother kills the three-day old child of

below eighteen (18) years of age shall be

her husband with their daughter?

exempt from criminal liability unless

a. parricide;

he/she

b. infanticide;

has

acted

with

discernment

(Section 6 of RA No. 9344).

c. murder;
d. homicide.

30. When the adoption of a child is effected


under the Inter-Country Adoption Act

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

for the purpose of prostitution, what is


the proper charge against the offender

C.

who is a public officer in relation to the

infanticide since the victim killed I not

exploitative purpose?

less than three days of age. As the child

a. acts that promote trafficking in


persons;

her

crime

daughter,

committed

the

baby

is

is

not

the

illegitimate grandchild of the offender.

b. trafficking in persons;
c. qualified

of

The

trafficking

Killing her illegitimate grandchild is not


in

persons;
d. use of trafficked person.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

parricide. However, killing of a three-day


old baby constitutes murder qualified by
treachery.
32. When is a crime deemed to have been
committed by a band?

C. Adoption or facilitating the adoption

a. When armed men, at least four

of child for the purpose of prostitution

(4) in number, take direct part

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in the execution of the act

c. one (1) year;

constituting the crime.

d. three (3) years;

b. When three (3) armed men act


together in the commission of
the crime.
c. When there are four ( 4) armed
persons,

one

of

whom

is

principal by inducement.
d. When

there

are

four

(4)

malefactors, one of whom is


armed.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A.Since the offender was sentenced to
term of not more than one year, the
period of probation shall not exceed two
years (Section 14 PD No 968).
34. What is the criminal liability, if any, of a
mayor who, without being authorized by
law, compels prostitutes residing in his

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

city to go to, and live in, another place

A.There are three elements of band

against their will?


a. The mayor is criminally liable for

under Article 14 (6) of the Revised Penal

violation of domicile.

Code, to wit: (1) there must be at least

b. The mayor is criminally liable

four malefactors, (2) at least four of them

for expulsion.

are armed (People v. Solamillo, GR No.

c. The mayor is criminally liable for

123161, June 18, 2003, En Banc), and

grave coercion.

(3) at least four of them take part or

d. The mayor incurs no criminal

acted together in the commission of


crime. In People v. Lozano, September

liability

29,

wants

2003,

GR

Nos.

137370-71,

the

because
to

he

protect

merely

the

youth

Supreme Court En Banc stated that the

against the indecency of the

four armed persons contemplated in the

prostitutes.

circumstance

of

band

must

all

be

principals by direct participation who


acted together in the execution of the
acts constituting the crime.
33. The period of probation of the offender
sentenced to a term of one (1) year shall
not exceed:
a. two (2) years;
b. six (6) years;

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B. the prostitute are not chattels but
human

beings

protected

by

the

constitutional guaranties such as the


provision on liberty of abode. The mayor
could

not

praiseworthy

even
of

for

the

motives

render

most
the

liberty of the citizen so insecure. No

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official, no matter how high, is above the

or to stir up the people against

law (Villavicencio v. Lukban, GR No.

the lawful authorities.

14639, March 25, 1919). A public officer,


who, not being thereunto authorized by
law, shall compel persons to charge their
residence, is liable for the crime of
expulsion

under

Article

127

of

the

Revised Penal Code.


35. How

is

the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B. the crime of coup detat is a swift
attack

accompanied

of

coup

d'etat

violence,

intimidation, threat, strategy or stealth,


directed

crime

by

against

authorities

of

duly

the

constituted

Republic

of

the

Philippines, or any military camp or

committed?
a. By rising publicly and taking

installation, communications network,

arms against the Government for

public utilities or other facilities needed

the purpose of depriving the

for

Chief Executive of any of his

possession

powers or prerogatives.

simultaneously carried out anywhere in

b. When a person holding public

the

the

exercise
of

Philippines

and

power,
by

continued
singly

any

or

person

or

persons, belonging to the military or

swift attack, accompanied by

police or holding any public office of

strategy or stealth, directed

employment, with or without civilian

against

support or participation for the purpose

employment

undertakes

public

utilities

or

other facilities needed for the

of

exercise

continued

participation for the purpose of seizing

possession of power for the

or diminishing state power (Article 134-A

purpose of diminishing state

of the Revised Penal Code).

and

power.
c. When persons rise publicly and
tumultuously in order to prevent
by

force

Government

the

National

from

freely

exercising its function.


d. When

persons

scurrilous
Government

libels

circulate
against

which

tend

the
to

instigate others to meet together

seizing

or

diminishing

state

36. What is the proper charge against


public officers or employees who, being
in conspiracy with the rebels, failed to
resist a rebellion by all means in their
power, or shall continue to discharge
the duties of their offices under the
control of the rebels, or shall accept
appointment to office under them?
a. disloyalty of public officers or
employees;

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b. rebellion;

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d. unlawful

use

c. conspiracy to commit rebellion;

publication

d. dereliction of duty.

utterances.

of

means

or

of

unlawful

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

B. The crime of disloyalty of public

B. Depriving Congress of its legislative

officers is committed by oublic officers

powers is an object of rebellion. Hence,

who have failed to reist a rebellion by all

inciting others to attain the purpose of

the

rebellion

mean

in

their

power,

or

shall

continue to discharge the duties of their

by

means

of

speeches

or

writing constitutes inciting to rebellion.

offices under them (Article 137 of the


Revised Penal Code). However, the public
officer who performs any of the acts of
disloyalty should not be in conspiracy
with the rebels; otherwise, he will be
guilty of rebellion, not merely disloyalty,
because in conspiracy, the act of one is
the act of all (The Revised Penal Code by
CA Justice Luis Reyes). Since in the
facts given, the public officers performed
acts of disloyalty in conspiracy with the
rebels, the crime committed is rebellion.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
D. Inciting to sedition is committed by
person who, without taking any direct
part in the crime of sedition, should
incite others to the accomplishment of
any

of

the

acts

which

sedition,

by

means

writings

(Article

of

142).

constitute

speeches
To

or

commit

inciting to sedition, the offender must


incite

others

to

rise

publicly

and

tumultuously in order to attain any of

37. What is the proper charge against a

the ends of sedition (People v. Arrogante,

person who, without taking arms or

39 O.G. 1974). In sum, the offender must

being in open hostility against the

incite others not only to accomplish any

Government,

to

purposes of sedition (such as preventing

legislative

the national government or public officer

shall

deprive

Congress

powers,

by

incite
of

means

its
of

others

speeches

or

but likewise to perform the acts of

writings?

sedition

a. inciting to sedition;
b. inciting

form freely exercising its or his function)

to

rebellion

insurrection;
c. crime against legislative body;

or

(arising

publicly

and

tumultuously). N the facts given, the


person, who merely incited others to
accomplish a sedition purpose, is not

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committing inciting to sedition. Hence,

intimidation

to

prevent

member

of

a is not the answer.

Congress from attending its meeting.


Hence, c is not the answer.

Inciting to rebellion or insurrection is


committed by a person who, without

Unlawful use of means of publication or

taking arms or being in open hostility

unlawful utterances is committed by a

against the Government, shall incite

person who by speeches or other means

others to the execution of any of the

of

acts specified in Article 134 of the

disobedience

Revised

of

authorities (Article 154). Inciting others

writing (Article 138). The

to deprive Congress of its legislative

Penal

speeches or
clause

shall

Code
incite

by

means

others

to

the

execution of any of the acts specified in

publication,

shall

to

encourage

the

constituted

power constitutes unlawful utterances.


Hence, d is the answer.

Article 134 means that the offender


shall incite to rise publicly and take up

38. What is the crime committed when a

arms against the government for any of

group of persons entered the municipal

the purposes of rebellion (The Revised

building rising publicly and taking up

Penal Code by CA Justice Luis Reyes). To

arms in pursuance of the movement to

be held liable for inciting to rebellion,

prevent

the offender must incite other not only

authority with respect to the residents

to accomplish any purposes of rebellion

of the municipality concerned for the

(such

its

purpose of effecting changes in the

power) but likewise to perform the acts

manner of governance and removing

of rebellion (rising publicly and taking up

such locality under their control from

arms against the government). in the

allegiance

facts given, the person, who merely

Government?

as

depriving

legislature

of

exercise

to

of

the

incited others to accomplish a rebellion

a. sedition;

purpose, is not committing inciting to

b. coup d'etat;

rebellion. Hence, b is not the answer.

c. insurrection;

governmental

laws

of

the

d. public disorder.
Preventing

the

meeting

of

Congress

through force or fraud constitutes the


crime

against

popular

representation

(Article 143). In the facts given, the


person

did

not

employ

fraud

or

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B.

The

term

insurrection

is

more

commonly employed in reference to a


movement which seeks merely to effect

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some change of minor importance or to

any of the objectives of rebellion

prevent

or sedition.

the

authority

exercise

with

of

particular

d. The disturbance shall be deemed

matters or subjects (The Revised Penal

tumultuous when at least four

Code

(4) persons participate in a free-

by

respect

government

Justice

to
Luis

Reyes).

Insurrection is punishable under Article

for-all-fight

assaulting

134 of the Revised Penal Code. In the

other

facts given, this crime is committed

tumultuous manner.

in

confused

each
and

since there is a public uprising and


taking up arms against the government
for purpose of removing the locality
under the control of the offenders from
the

allegiance

to

the

laws

of

the

government (See: People v. Almazan, 37


O.G. 1937; Reyes).

deemed to be tumultuous?
disturbance

shall

be

deemed tumultuous if caused


by more than three (3) persons
who are armed or provided
with means of violence.
b. The disturbance shall be deemed
tumultuous

when

person

causes a serious disturbance in


a public place or disturbs public
performance,

function

or

gathering.
c. The disturbance shall be deemed
tumultuous
three

(3)

A.The disturbance of public order shall


be deemed to be tumultuous if caused by
more than three persons who are armed
or provided

with means of

violence

(Article 153 of the Revised Penal Code).

39. When is a disturbance of public order


a. The

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

when
persons

more
make

than
any

outcry tending to incite rebellion


or sedition or shout subversive
or provocative words to obtain

40. What is the criminal liability, if any, of a


police officer who, while Congress was
in session, arrested a member thereof
for committing a crime punishable by a
penalty higher than prision mayor?
a. The police officer is criminally
liable

for

violation

parliamentary

of

immunity

because a member of Congress


is privileged from arrest while
Congress is in session.
b. The police officer is criminally
liable

for

disturbance

of

proceedings because the arrest


was made while Congress was in
session.
c. The police officer incurs no
criminal liability because the
member

of

Congress

has

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committed a crime punishable

implication modifies Article 145 of the

by

Revised Penal Code in the sense that an

penalty

higher

than

prision mayor.

arrest of a member of Congress for a

d. The police officer is criminally


liable

for

violation

parliamentary
because

crime punishable by a penalty of more

of

than prision correccional (six years of

immunity

imprisonment) is not constitutive of the

parliamentary

immunity guarantees a member

crime

of

violation

of

parliamentary

immunity.]

of Congress complete freedom of


expression without fear of being
arrested

while

in

regular

or

41. What is the proper charge against a


group of four persons who, without
public. uprising, employ force to prevent

special session.

the holding of any popular election?


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

a. sedition;
b. disturbance of public order;

C. Violation of parliamentary immunity I

c. grave coercion;

committed by public officer who shall,

d. direct assault.

while the Congress is in regular or


special

session,

arrest

any

member

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

thereof, except in case such member has


committed a crime by a penalty higher

D. Any person or persons who, without a

than prision mayor (Article 145 of the

public uprising, shall employ force or

Revised Penal Code).

intimidation for the attainment of any of


the purposes enumerated in defining the

[Note:

While

protects

crimes of rebellion and sedition, is liable

offense

for the crime of direct assaults (Article

punishable by not more than prision

148 of the Revised Penal Code). The first

mayor (twelve years of imprisonment],

mode of direct assault is tantamount to

the

rebellion

legislators

1987

legislators

Article

from

145

arrest

for

Constitution
from

arrest

for

protects
offense

or

sedition,

without

the

element of public uprising (People v.

punishable by not more than six years of

Recto, GR

imprisonment. In Matinez v. Morfe, 44

2001,

SCRA 22, it was held that Article 145

prevented by force the holding of a

could not enlarge the immunity enjoyed

popular election in certain precincts,

by legislators under the Constitution.

without public uprising, he may be held

Thus,

liable for direct assault of the first form

the

1987

Constitute

by

En

No. 129069, October 17,


Banc).

If

the

offender

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(Clarin v. Justice of Peace, GR No. L-

together with other Filipino girls (People

7661, April 30, 1955).

v. Adlawan, supra).

42. Which of the following circumstances

43. What is the crime committed by a

may be appreciated as aggravating in

public officer who discloses to the

the crime of treason?

representative of a foreign nation the

a. cruelty and ignominy;

contents

of

the

articles,

b. evident premeditation;

information of a confidential nature

c. superior strength;

relative to the defense of the Philippine

d. treachery.

archipelago

which

he

data

has

in

or

his

possession by reason of the public office


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A.Treachery

and

he holds?

abuse

of

superior

strength are by their nature, inherent in


the offense of treason and may not be
taken to aggravate the penalty (People v.
Adlawan, GR No. L-456, March 29, 1949).

a. espionage;
b. disloyalty;
c. treason;
d. violation of neutrality.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Evident premeditation is inherent in


treason

because

adherence

and

the

A.Espionage

is

committed

by

public

giving of aid and comfort to the enemy

officer, who is in possession, by reason

is a long continued process requiring

of the public office he holds, of the

comfort

articles,

to

continued

the

process

enemy

is

requiring

long

for

the

data,

confidential

or

information

nature

relative

of

to

a
the

successful consummation of the traitors

defense of the Philippine Archipelago,

purpose a fixed, reflective and persistent

discloses

determination and planning (People v.

representative

Racaza,

GR

(Article 117 of the Revised Penal Code).

1949).

However,

No.

L-365,

January

cruelty

may

21,

their
of

contents
a

foreign

to

nation

be

appreciated in treason by deliberately

44. A foreigner residing in Hong Kong

being

counterfeits a twenty-peso bill issued by

unnecessarily cruel to captured guerrilla

the Philippine Government. May the

suspects, subjecting them to death and

foreigner be prosecuted before a civil

ignominy by arresting and maltreating a

court in the Philippines?

augmenting

the

wrong

by

guerrilla suspect and then stripping his

a. No. The provisions of the Revised

wife of her clothes and then abusing her

Penal Code are enforceable only

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within

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the

Philippine

because the first element is that

Archipelago.

the offender owes allegiance to

b. No. The Philippine Criminal Law

the

is binding only on persons who


reside

or

sojourn

in

the

Government

c. No. Foreigners residing outside


of

the

b. No. The offender in the crime of


treason

jurisdiction

of

Philippines.

Philippines.
the

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is

either

Filipino

citizen or a foreigner married to

the

Filipino

citizen,

whether

Philippines are exempted from

residing in the Philippines or

the operation of the Philippine

elsewhere, who adheres to the

Criminal Law.

enemies

d. Yes.

The

Revised

provisions
Penal

of

the

Philippines,

giving them aid or comfort.

are

c. No. The offender in the crime

enforceable also outside the

of treason is either a Filipino

jurisdiction of the Philippines

citizen or an alien residing in

against those who should forge

the Philippines because while

or counterfeit currency notes

permanent allegiance is owed

of

by

the

Code

the

of

Philippines

obligations

and

or

the

alien

to

his

own

securities

country, he owes a temporary

issued by the Government of

allegiance to the Philippines

the Philippines.

where he resides.
d. Yes. It is not possible for an

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

alien, whether residing in the


Philippines

D. The provision of the Revised Penal


Code

shall

be

enforced

outside

currency

note

or

to

because he owes allegiance to


his own country.

those who should forge or counterfeit


Philippine

elsewhere,

commit the crime of treason

the

jurisdiction of the Philippines against


any

or

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

obligations and securities issued by the


government (Article 22).

C. A foreigner owes temporary allegiance


to the government of the place wherein

45. Can the crime of treason be committed


only by a Filipino citizen?
a. Yes. The offender in the crime of

he reside in return for the protection he


receives.
continues

Such

temporary

during

the

allegiance

period

of

hi

treason is a Filipino citizen only


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residence. If an alien, while residing in a

lability for physical injuries (Article 235

foreign country, does an act, which

of the Revised Penal Code).

would amount to treason if committed


by a citizen of that country, he will be
held liable for treason (52 Am Jur 797).
Furthermore, Article 114 of the Revised
Penal Code punishes resident alien for
committing treason.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
B. Maltreatment must relate to the
correction or handling of a prisoner
under his charge or must be for the
purpose of extorting a confession, or of

46. A jailer inflicted injury on the prisoner

obtaining some information form the

because of his personal grudge against

prisoner. A jailer who inflicted injuries

the latter. The injury caused illness of

on the prisoner because of personal

the prisoner for more than thirty (30)

grudge against him is liable for physical

days. What is the proper charge against

injuries only (People v. Javier, CA, 54 OG

the jailer?

6622; RPC by Luis Reyes). Maltreatment

a. The jailer should be charged

of prisoner is a crime committed by a

with maltreatment of prisoner

public

and serious physical injuries.

committed

b. The jailer should be charged


with serious physical injuries
only.
c. The jailer should be charged
with

complex

crime

of

maltreatment of prisoner with


serious physical injuries.
d. The jailer should be charged
with maltreatment of prisoner
only.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

officer.

If

the

the
act

public
in

his

officer
private

capacity, this crime is not committed.


47. AA was convicted of proposal to commit
treason.

Under

Article

115

of

the

Revised Penal Code, proposal to commit


treason shall be punished by prision
correccional and a fine not exceeding
P5,000.00.

Is

the

Indeterminate

Sentence Law applicable to AA?


a. Yes. The Indeterminate Sentence
Law is applicable to AA because
the

maximum

of

prision

correccional exceeds one ( 1)


A.Maltreatment of prisoner is committed

year.

since the victim maltreated I under the

b. Yes. The Indeterminate Sentence

charge of the offender. The offender

Law is applicable to AA because

shall be punished for maltreatment of

there is no showing that he is a

prisoner in addition to his criminal

habitual delinquent.

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Law is not applicable to AA


considering
imposable

the
for

penalty

the

offense

of

B. Betrayal of trust is committed by an


attorney-at-law who, by any malicious
breach

which he was convicted.

of

professional

duty

or

of

Indeterminate

inexcusable negligence, shall reveal any

Sentence Law is not applicable

of the secrets of his client learned by

considering

him in his professional capacity (Article

d. No.

The

the

offense

of

209 of the Revised Penal Code).

which he was convicted.

49. AB was driving a van along a highway.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Because of her recklessness, the van hit


D. the Indeterminate Sentence Law shall

a car which had already entered the

not

intersection. As a result, CD who was

apply

to

persons

convicted

of

proposal to commit treason (Section 2 of

driving

the Indeterminate Sentence Law). Thus,

injuries,

AA is not entitled to the benefits of

amounted to P8,500.00. What is the

Indeterminate sentence because of the

proper charge against AB?

offense that he was convicted of.

the

a. AB

car

while

suffered

damage

should

complex

be

crime

to

physical
his

charged
of

car

with

reckless

48. What is the proper charge against a

imprudence resulting in damage

lawyer who reveals the secrets of his

to property with slight physical

client learned by him in his professional

injuries.

capacity?

b. AB should .be charged with

a. The lawyer should be charged


with

revelation

of

secrets

of

private individual.

reckless imprudence resulting


in slight physical injuries and
reckless imprudence resulting

b. The lawyer should be charged


with betrayal of trust.

in damage to property.
c. AB

c. The lawyer should be charged

should

injuries

classified materials.

property.

lawyer

should

be

revealing

charged

with

complex crime of slight physical

with unauthorized revelation of


d. The proper charge against the

be

with

damage

to

d. AB should be charged with slight


physical injuries and reckless

secrets with abuse of office.

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imprudence resulting in damage

imprudent

or

negligent

act

that,

if

to property.

intentionally done, would be punishable


as a felony. The law penalizes thus the

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

negligent or careless act, not the result

B. Under Article 48 of the Revised Penal


Code, there is a compound crime when a
single act constitutes two or more grave
or

less

grave

felonies.

Reckless

imprudence resulting in slight physical


injuries is a light felony; hence, resulting
in slight physical injuries is a slight
felony; hence, AB should not be charged
with a complex crime since a

light

felony could not be made a component

thereof. The gravity of the consequence


is only taken into account to determine
the penalty. It does not qualify the
substance of the offense. And, as the
acreless

act

is

single,

whether

the

injurious result should affect one person


or several persons, the offense criminal
negligence remains one and the same,
and cannot be split into different crimes
and prosecutions.]

thereof. AB should be charged separately

50. What crime is committed by one who,

with reckless imprudence resulting in

having received money, goods or any

damage

other personal property in trust or on

to

property

and

reckless

imprudence resulting in slight physical

commission,

injuries (People v. Turla, 50 Phil. 1001)

defrauds the offended party by denying

[Note:

The

contradicts

principle
the

latest

in

Turla

ruling

case

of

the

for

administration,

receipt of such money, goods or other


property?
a. He

Supreme Court in Ivler v. Modesto-San

commits

violation

of

the

Trust Receipt Law.

Pedro, GR No. 172716, November 17,

b. He

2010, where it was ruled that Reckless

commits

estafa

through

fraudulent means.

imprudence under Article 365 is a single

c. He

quasi-oofense by itself and not merely a

commits

estafa

by

false

pretenses.

means to commit other crimes; hence

d. He

conviction or acquittal of such quasi-

commits

unfaithfulness

offense bars subsequent prosecution for

estafa
or

with

abuse

of

confidence.

the same quasi-offense, regardless of its


various consequences. The essence of

or

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the quasi-offense of criminal negligence


under Article 365 of the Revised Penal

D. Estafa is committed by person who

Code

shall

lies

in

the

execution

of

an

defraud

another

with

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unfaithfulness or abuse of confidence by

(Article 156 of the Revised Penal Code).

denying having received money, goods,

or any other personal property received

fictitious

by

concealing

the

offender

in

trust

or

on

person

who

shall

name

for

crimes

publicly
the

use

purpose

commits

of

using

commission, or for administration, or

fictitious name (Article 178). Person,

under any other obligation involving the

who substituted for a prisoner by taking

duty to make delivery of or to return the

his place in jail, is liable for delivering

same (Article 315 of the Revised Penal

prisoners from jail because the removal

Code).

of the prisoner from jail is by other


means, that is, deceit (The Revised Penal

51. What is the criminal liability, if any, of

Code by Luis Reyes). A person, who took

AAA who substitutes for a prisoner

the place of another who had been

serving sentence for homicide by taking

convicted by final judgment, would not

his place in jail or penal establishment?

necessarily use his own name. hence, he

a. AAA is criminally liable for

is

also

guilty

of

crime

of

using

delivering prisoner from jail

fictitious name since he used a fictitious

and for using fictitious name.

name to conceal the crime of delivering

b. AAA is criminally liable as an


accessory

of

the

crime

prisoners from jail.

of

homicide by assisting in the

52. A child over fifteen (15) years of age

escape or concealment of the

acted

principal of the crime.

commission of murder. What is the duty

c. AAA

is

infidelity

criminally
in

the

is

discernment

in

the

liable

for

of the court if he is already over

custody

of

eighteen (18) years of age at the time of

prisoners.
d. AAA

with

the determination of his guilt for the


criminally

liable

for

misrepresentation or concealing
his true name.

offense charged?
a. The court shall pronounce the
judgment of conviction.
b. The court shall place the child

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

under suspended sentence for

A.A person, who shall help the escape of


person

confined

in

jail

establishment by means

or
of

penal

violence,

intimidation, or bribery or other means,


is liable for delivering prisoner from jail

a specified period or until he


reaches twenty-one (21) years
of age.
c. The court shall discharge the
child for disposition measures.

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d. The court shall place the child


on probation.

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C. under Article 280 of the Revised Penal


Code, qualified trespass to dwelling is
committed by any private person who

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

shall

B. Section 38 of RA 9344 provides that


suspension

of

sentence

can

still

be

applied even if the child in conflict with


the law is already 18 years of age or
more at the time of the pronouncement
of his/her guilt. Section 40 of the same
law

limits

the

said

suspension

of

enter

the

dwelling

of

another

against the latters will and by means of


violence or intimidation. However, the
provisions of Article 280 shall not be
applicable to any person who shall enter
anothers dwelling for the purpose of
preventing

some

serious

harm

to

himself.

sentence until the child reaches that

54. AAA was convicted of theft by a Manila

maximum age of 21 (People v. Mantalba,

Court and sentenced to a straight

GR No. 186227, July 20, 2011).

penalty

53. What is the criminal liability, if any, of a


private person who enters the dwelling
of another against the latter's will and
by means of violence or intimidation for
the purpose of preventing some harm to
himself?
a. The private person is criminally
liable for qualified trespass to
dwelling.
b. The private person is criminally
liable

for

simple

trespass

to

dwelling.
c. The private person incurs no
criminal liability.
d. The private person is criminally
liable for light threats.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

of

correccional.

one

(1)

After

year

of

serving

prision
two

(2)

months of the sentence, he was granted


conditional

pardon

by

the

Chief

Executive. One of the conditions of the


pardon was for him not to be found
guilty of any crime punishable by the
laws of the country. He subsequently
committed robbery in Pasay City. Can
the Manila Court require AAA to serve
the unexpired portion of the original
sentence?
a. Yes. The Manila Court has the
authority to recommit AAA to
serve the unexpired portion of
the original sentence in addition
to the penalty for violation of
conditional pardon.
b. No. The penalty remitted by the
conditional pardon is less than
six (6) years.

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c. Yes. The penalty for violation

conditional pardon granted to AAA does

of conditional pardon is the

not exceed six years, the court cannot

unexpired

require

portion

punishment

in

the

of

the

original

sentence.

offense

unexpired

convict

portion

to
of

serve
his

the

original

sentence in addition to the penalty of

d. No. AAA must first be found


guilty

the

of

the

before

prosecuted

for

subsequent
he

can

violation

be

prision

correctional

in

its

minimum

period (See: Revised Penal Code by Luis


Reyes).

of
55. What is the criminal liability of a person

conditional pardon.

who knowingly and in any manner aids


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

or protects highway robbers/brigands


by giving them information about the

D. AAA must be first found guilty of a


subsequent offense before he can be

movement of the police?


a. He

is

criminally

liable

as

prosecuted for violation of conditional

principal

pardon.

cooperation in the commission of


b. He is criminally liable as an
accessory

C. Even if AAA will be found guilty of a


subsequent offense, just the same the
court cannot require AAA to serve the
portion

of

indispensable

highway robbery or brigandage.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

unexpired

by

the

conditional pardon under Article 159 of

accomplice

of

the principal

offenders.
d. He

is

criminally

principal

for

liable

aiding

as
and

abetting a band of brigands.

the penalty remitted by the granting of


unexpired portion of the sentence at the

principal

c. He is criminally liable as an

the Revised Penal Code will depend upon


pardon. The penalty remitted is the

the

offenders.

original

sentence. The penalty for violation of

of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

time the pardon was accepted. If the

D. The crime of aiding and abetting a

unexpired portion of the penalty is not

band of brigands is committed by a ny

higher than six years, the convict shall

person knowingly and in any manner

then

prision

acting, abetting or protecting a band of

period.

brigands

suffer

penalty

of

correctional in its

manimum

Since

remitted

the

penalty

by

the

preceding

as

described

article,

or

in

the

giving

next
them

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information of the movements of the

c. GGG should be charged with

police or other peace officers of the

complex crime of arson with

Government, when the latter are acting

double murder.

in aid of the Government, or acquiring or

d. GGG should be charged with

receiving the property taken by such

complex

brigands (Article 307 of the Revised

murder.

crime

of

double

Penal Code).
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
D. If the main objective of the offender is
C. Articles 306 and 307 of the Revised

to kill a particular person who may be in

Penal Code govern brigandage while PD

No.

resorted to as the means to accomplish

532

highway

robbery/brigandage.

building
goal

or
the

edifice,
crime

when

fore

committed

is

Since in the facts given, the persons

such

is

protected or aided by the offender are

murder only. When the Code declare that

described as highway robbers/brigands,

killing committed by means of fire is

the applicable law is PD No. 532 and not

murder, it intends that fire should be

Revised Penal Code. Under Section 4 of

purposely adopted as a means to that

this Decree, any person who knowingly

end. There can be no murder without a

and in any manner aids or protects

design to take life. Murder qualified by

highway robbers/brigands by giving

means of fire absorbs the crime of arson

them information about the movement

since the latter is an inherent means to

of police shall be considered as an

commit the former (People v. Baluntong,

accomplice of the principal offenders

GR No. 182061, March 15, 2010; People

and be punished in accordance with the

v. Cedenio, GR No. 93485, June 27,

revised Penal Code.

1994). A single act of burning the house


of victims with the main objective of

56. With intent to kill, GGG burned the

killing resulting in their deaths resulted

house where F and D were staying. F

in the complex crime of double murder

and D died as a consequence. What is

committed by means of fire (People v.

the proper charge against GGG?

Gaffud, GR No. 168050, September, 19,

a. GGG should be charged with two

2008).

(2) counts of murder.


b. GGG should be charged with
arson.

57. RR convinced WW to take a job in


Taiwan, assuring her of a good salary
and entitlement to a yearly vacation.

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WW paid to RR the processing fee for

processing

passport and visa, but no receipt was

representation and false pretenses that

issued for the payment. WW was made

induced WW to part with her money. As

to use the alien certificate of registration

of another person with a Chinese name

misrepresentations,

and instructed on how to use the

damages as the promised employment

Chinese name. The application of WW

abroad

was

Taiwanese

money she paid was never recovered

authorities. Cases were filed against RR

(People v. Sy, GR No, 183879, April 14,

for illegal recruitment and estafa. The

2010).

case

rejected

of

by

illegal

the

recruitment

is liable for

unfaithfulness

abuse

of

is

liable

for

estafa

by

is

pretenses
WW

materialized

and

suffered
and

the

the

processing

of

the

illegal

travel

documents will nit exculpate RR from

not

liable

for

circumstances and of fraud committed


by RR. She was forced to take part in the

means of false pretenses.


c. RR

false

RRs

liability. WW was a helpless victim of

confidence.
b. RR

never

was

The fact that WW actively participated in

estafa with

or

RRs

It

was

dismissed. Is RR liable for estafa?


a. RR

result

fee.

estafa

processing

of

the

falsified

travel

because WW participated in the

documents because she had already paid

illegal travel documents.

the processing fee. RR committed deceit

d. RR can no longer be held liable

by representing that she could secure

the

WW with employment in Taiwan, the

dismissal of the case against

primary consideration that induced the

him

recruitment,

latter to part with her money. WW was

double jeopardy has already set

led to believe by RR that she possessed

in.

the power and qualifications to provide

for

estafa
for

because
illegal

with

WW with employment abroad, when, in


SUGGESTED ANSWER:

fact, she was not licensed or authorized


to do so. Deceived, WW parted with her

B. RR is liable for estafa by means of

money and delivered the same to RR

false pretense. RR misrepresented and

(People v. Sy, supra).

falsely

pretended

that

she

had

the

capacity to deploy WW for employment

Illegal recruitment and estafa cases may

in Taiwan. The misrepresentation was

be filed simultaneously or separately.

made

The

prior

to

the

payment

for

filing

of

charges

for

illegal

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recruitment does not bar the filing of

b. A is criminally liable for robbery

estafa, and vice versa. RRs acquittal in

with force upon things in an

the illegal recruitment case does not

inhabited house because the act

prove that she is not guilty of estafa.

was

Illegal

constituting the dwelling of one

recruitment

and

estafa

are

entirely different offenses and neither


one necessarily includes or necessarily

committed

in

house

or more persons.
c. A is criminally liable for grave

included in the other. A person who is

coercion

because

the

convicted of illegal recruitment may, in

presumption of intent to gain

addition, be convicted of estafa. In the

is rebutted.

same manner, a person acquitted of

d. A is criminally liable for qualified

illegal recruitment may be held liable for

trespass to dwelling because he

estafa. Double jeopardy will not set in

employed violence.

because illegal recruitment is malum


prohibitum,
necessity

in

to

which

prove

there

criminal

is

no

intent,

whereas estafa is malum in se, in the


prosecution of which proof of criminal
intent is necessary (People v. Sy, Supra).
58. A entered the house of B. Once inside

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C. A is not criminally liable for robbery
since the presumption of intent to gain,
an element of this crime, is rebutted
because he took the personal property
under a bona fide belief that he owns the

the house of B, A took and seized

property (Gaviola v.

personal property by compulsion from B

163927, January 27, 2006). However, A

with the use of violence and force upon

is liable for grave coercion because he

things, believing himself to be the owner

used violence in seizing the property by

of the personal property so seized. What

reason of his mistaken belief that he

is the criminal liability of A?

owned it (See: People v. Bautista, CA-GR

a. A is criminally liable for robbery


with

violence

because

he

employed violence in the taking


of the personal property from B,
robbery
violence

characterized
being

graver

by
than

ordinary robbery committed with


force upon things.

People, GR

No.

No. 43390, December 17, 1936).


59. What is the criminal liability, if any, of a
physician who issues a false medical
certificate

in

connection

with

the

practice of his profession?


a. The
liable

physician
for

is

criminally

falsification

of

medical certificate.

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b. The physician is criminally liable


if the false medical certificate is
used in court.
liability

if

the

false

medical

certificate is not submitted to


the court.

fine of less than P200.00.


is

not

applicable

when accused is convicted of


indirect assault.
d. Probation is not applicable when
accused is convicted of indirect

d. The physician incurs no criminal


liability

less than one (1) month and/or


c. Probation

c. The physician incurs no criminal

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if

the

certificate

false

does

bribery.

medical

not

cause

prejudice or damage.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C. The benefits of probation hall not be
extended to those: (a) sentenced to serve

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

a maximum term of imprisonment of


A.The crime of falsification of medical

more than six years; (b) convicted of any

certificate

any

offense against the security of the State;

physician who, in connection, with the

(c) who have previously been convicted

practice of hi profession, shall issue a

by final judgment of an offense punished

false certificate (Article 174). What is

by imprisonment of not less than one

criminal

the

month and one day and/or a fine of not

issuance of false medical certificate.

less than Two Hundred Pesos (Section 9

Submitting the false medical certificate

of PD 968). Thus, probation is applicable

to the court or causing prejudice or

(1) when the accused is sentences to

damage is not an element of this crime.

serve a maximum term of imprisonment

is

under

committed

Article

174

by

is

of six years; (2) when the accused have


60. Under

which

circumstances

of
is

the

following

probation

not

applicable?

by final judgment of an offense punished


by imprisonment of not less than one (1)

a. Probation is not applicable when


the accused

presently (not previously) been convicted

is

sentenced

month and one day and/or fine of not

to

less P200; and (3) when the accused is

serve a maximum of six (6)

convicted of security or public order.

years.

However, probation is not applicable

b. Probation is not applicable when

when the accused is convicted of direct

the accused has been convicted

assault because this is a crime against

by final judgment of an offense

the public order.

punished by imprisonment of
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61. What crime is committed by a person


who, having found a ring, fails to deliver
the same to the owner or to the local
authorities?

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fourteen

(14)

counts

of

attempted murder.
c. AA should be charged with four
(4) counts of murder, fourteen

a. The finder commits theft.

(14) counts of serious physical

b. The

injuries and illegal possession of

finder

commits

concealment.
c. The

finder

firearms.
commits

qualified

theft.

d. AA

should

be

charged

with

complex crime of murder and

d. The finder commits usurpation


of property.

attempted murder with illegal


possession of firearms.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

A.Theft is committed by a person who,

B. Article 48 of the Revised Penal Code

having found lot property shall fail to

refers to cases where a single act

deliver the same to the authorities or to

constitutes two or more grave felonies.

its owner (Article 308 of the Revised

A complex (compound) crime refers to

Penal Code).

singularity of criminal act (People v.


Pineda, GR No. L-26222, July 21, 1967).

62. At a wake, there were people watching a

When one fires his firearm in succession,

game of dice. With treachery and use of

killing and wounding several persons,

unlicensed

fired

the different acts must be considered as

successively several gunshots at their

distinct crimes (People v. Remollino, GR

direction. During the shooting, four (4)

No. L-14008, September 30, 1960). When

persons were killed and fourteen (14)

various victims expire from separate

others were injured and brought to the

shots, such acts constitute separate and

hospital for the treatment of gunshot

distinct crimes (People v. Tabaco, GR No.

wounds. What should be the proper

100382-1000385, March 19, 1997).

firearms,

AA

charge against AA?


a. AA

should

be

charged

with

63. A, B, C and D are members of the police

multiple murder and attempted

department

murder.

Conspiring

of

with

one

municipality.
another,

they

b. AA should be charged with

arrested E, without reasonable ground,

four (4) counts of murder and

for the purpose of delivering him to the


proper authorities by imputing to E the

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crime of bribery. While E was being

officer (People v. Alagao, GR No. L-

investigated by A, B, C and D, one of

20721, April 30, 1966, En Banc).

them placed a marked five hundred


peso bill, together with the money taken

64. Felonies

are

classified

according

to

from E, to make it appear that E, an

manner or mode of execution into

employee of the Office of the Local Civil

felonies committed by means of deceit

Registrar, agreed to perform an act not

(dolo) and by means of fault (culpa).

constituting a crime in connection with

Which of the following causes may not

the performance of E's duties, which

give rise to culpable felonies?

was to expedite the issuance of a birth

a. Imprudence;

certificate. What is the crime committed

b. Malice;

by A, B, C and D?

c. Negligence;

a. A,

8,

and

incriminatory

machination

through unlawful arrest.


b. A,

8,

and

committed

intriguing against honor with


unlawful arrest.
c. A, 8, C and D committed slight
illegal detention.
d. A,

8,

and

d. Lack of foresight.

committed

committed

corruption of public official.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B.

Culpable

means

of

crime

is

negligence

committed
or

by

imprudence.

Imprudence indicates a deficiency in


action. Negligence indicates a deficiency
of perception. If a person fails to take
necessary precaution to avoid injury to
person or damage to property, there is
imprudence. If a person fails to pay

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

proper

attention

and

to

use

due

A.Unlawful arrest was a necessary means

diligence in foreseeing the injury or

to commit the crime of incriminatory

damage impending to be caused, there is

machinations. The accused had to arrest

negligence. Negligence usually involves

the offended party because it was the

lack of foresight. Imprudence usually

only way that they could with facility

involves lack of skill (The Revised Penal

detain

Code by Justice Luis Reyes).

him

and,

in

the

process,

commingle therewith the marked one


peso bill for purposes of incriminating
him for the crime if corruption of public

65. Which of the following acts does not


constitute estafa or other forms of
swindling?

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a. When a person mortgages a real


property by pretending to be the

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deceit (See: People v. Ganasi, CA 61 OG


3603). Hence, c is not the answer.

owner thereof.
b. When a person disposes of the

Swindling under Article 316 (a) of RPC is

real property knowing it to be

committed by any person who, knowing

encumbered.

that the real property is encumbered,


wrongfully

shall dispose of the same. The law was

takes real property from its

taken from Article 455 of the Spanish

lawful

Penal Code. Although, the words como

c. When

person
possessor

to

the

libre in the Spanish Penal Code, which

prejudice of the latter.


d. When a person mortgages real

means free from encumbrance do not

property while being a surety

appear in the English text of RPC,

given in a civil action without

nonetheless,

express

incorporated in the RPC (In sum, the

authority

from

the

court.

same

are

deemed

offender must dispose the real property


free

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the

form

knowledge

encumbrance

that

is

despite

encumbered).

The

gravamen of the crime is the deposition


C. Swindling under Article 316 of the

of legally encumbered real property by

Revised Penal Code is committed by the

the

owner of any personal Property who

representation

shall wrongfully take it from its lawful

encumbrance thereon. Hence, for one to

possessor, to the prejudice of the latter.

be criminally liable for estafa under the

In the facts giving in choice letter c,

law, the accused must make an express

what is involved is a real property.

representation

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
B. Since wrongfully taking real property
from it lawful possessor to the prejudice
of the latter is not covered by paragraph
3 of Article 316, the offense committed
must perforce come within meaning and
intendment of the blanket provision of
first paragraph of Article 318 on other

offender

under
that

in

the

express

there

the

is

deed

no

of

conveyance that the property sold or


disposed

of

is

free

from

any

encumbrance (Naya v. Abing, GR No.


146770, February 27, 2003). A person,
who disposes real property knowing it to
be

encumbered,

is

not

liable

for

swindling under Article 316 since the


element of express representation of no
encumbrance is not present. Hence, b
is the answer.

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66. DD, intending to kill EE, peppered the

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b. The offender commits slander by

latter's bedroom with bullets, but since

deed.

the intended victim was not home at

c. The offender commits assault.

that time, no harm came to him. What

d. The offender commits coercion.

crime is committed?
a. DD

committed

the

crime

of

crime

of

crime

of

attempted murder.
b. DD

committed

the

attempted homicide.
c. DD

committed

the

impossible crime.
d. DD committed the crime of
malicious mischief.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A.Maltreatment

is

committed

by

an

offender, who shall ill-treat another by


deed without causing any injury (Article
266 of the Revised Penal Code).
68. The baptism of A was solemnized by B,
an

ecclesiastical

minister,

in

the

absence of C, one of the godparents.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Upon request of the mother of A, B

D. In Intod v. CA, GR No. 103119,

caused the inclusion of the name of C in

October 21, 1992 outside the house of

the baptismal certificate of A as one of

the victim, accused with intent to kill

the godparents and allowed a proxy for

fired at the bedroom, where the victim is

C during the baptismal ceremony. What

supposed to be sleeping. No one was in

is the criminal liability, if any, of the

the room when the accused fired the

ecclesiastical minister?

shots. No one was hit by the gun fire.


The

accused

were

convicted

of

a. The

ecclesiastical

minister

is

criminally liable for falsification

impossible crime. Accused shoot the

of

baptismal

certificate

place where he thought his victim would

causing it to appear that C

be, although in reality, the victim was

participated in

not present in said place and thus, the

ceremony when he did not in

accused failed to accomplish their end

fact so participate.

the

by

baptismal

b. The ecclesiastical minister is

due to it factual impossibility.

not criminally liable because


67. What crime is committed when a person
ill-treats

another

by

deed

without

causing any injury?


a. The

offender

the insertion of the name of C


in the baptismal certificate
will not affect the civil status

commits

of A.

maltreatment.
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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

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c. The ecclesiastical minister is not

committed

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by

ecclesiastical

criminally liable because he is

under

not a public officer, employee or

falsification affects the civil status of a

notary.

person (See: The Revised Penal Code by

d. The ecclesiastical minister is not

Article

Vicente

171

minister

because

Francisco).

Now,

such

parochial

criminally liable because he did

documents are now considered private

not take advantage of his official

writing (US v. Evangelista, 29 Phil 215),

position nor cause damage to a

the falsification of which will not affect

third party.

the civil status of a person.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

69. Is the penalty for impossible crime


applicable to one who attempts to

B. The ecclesiastical minister is not

commit a light felony of impossible

criminally liable because the insertion of

materialization?

the

name

of

in

the

baptismal

a. No.

The

evil

certificate will not affect the civil status

offender

of A.

accomplished.

Moreover, falsification of document by


ecclesiastical is punishable under Article
171 of the Revised Penal Code. In case
the offender is an ecclesiastical minister,
the act of falsification I committed with
respect to any record or document of
such character that its falsification may
affect the civil status of persons (The
Revised Penal
Before
baptisms

the

Code

by

parochial

were

Luis

Reyes).

registries

considered

as

of

official

books and registers, and the certificates

intent

of

cannot

the
be

b. No. An attempt to commit light


felony

constitutes

an

employment of inadequate or
ineffectual means.
c. No.

The

penalty

for

consummated light felony is


less

than

the

penalty

for

impossible crime.
d. No. In impossible crime, the act
performed should not constitute
a violation of another offense.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

taken from those books were considered


as public documents (US v. Orosa, GR

C. The penalty for impossible crime I

No. 2916, December 29, 1906). Thus,

arresto mayor of a fine from 200 to 500

falsification

document,

pesos (Article 59 of the Revised Penal

which is considerd public document, was

Code) while the penalty for light felony

constitutive of the crime of falsification

is arresto menor or a fine not exceeding

of

parochial

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P200 or both. Article 59 should not be

allows another to take the funds, or

made applicable to one who attempts to

through

commit a light felony of impossible

allow such taking. The felony may be

materialization since the penalty for the

committed,

former is graver than that for the latter.

misappropriation or the conversion of

It would be unfair to punish a person,

public fund or property to ones personal

who failed to commit a light felony since

use, but also by knowingly allowing

it is impossible to accomplish it, for a

others to make use of or misappropriate

graver penalty than that for a person

the

who committed a light felony.

committed by dolo or by culpa. The

fund.

crime
70. What crime is committed by a public

abandonment
not

The

is

or

only

through

felony

may

consummated

appropriate

negligence,

penalty

the

thus
and

is

be
the

imposed

officer who, having control of public

regardless

funds or property by reason of the

commission is with intent or due to

duties of his office and for which he is

negligence (People v. Pantaleon, Jr., GR

accountable, permits any other person

No. 158694-96, March 13, 2009).

of

whether

the

mode

of

through abandonment to take such


public funds or property?
a. The

public

71. AA knowingly and willfully induced BB

officer

commits

malversation.
b. The

public

to swear falsely. BB testified as told in a


formal hearing of an administrative case

officer

commits

technical malversation.

under

circumstances

rendering

him

guilty of perjury. Is AA criminally liable?

c. The public officer commits the

a. AA

is

not

criminally

crime of failure of accountable or

because

responsible

subornation of perjury which is

officer

to

render

accounts.
d. The public officer commits the
crime of failure to make delivery
of public funds or property.

A.It is settled that a public officer is


liable for malversation even if he does
not use public property or funds under
his custody for his personal benefit, if he

act

constitutes

not expressly penalized in the


Revised Penal Code.
b. AA

is

not

criminally

liable

because he was not the one who


gave

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

his

liable

false

testimony

in

the

administrative case.
c. AA

is

not

criminally

liable

because the witness suborned


testified

in

an

administrative

case only.

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d. AA

is

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criminally

perjury

as

liable

principal

for

a. The proper charge against the

by

offender should be murder with

inducement with BB as the


principal

by

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the use of motor vehicle.

direct

b. The proper charge against the

participation.

offender should be qualified


carnapping or carnapping in

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

an aggravated form.
c. The proper charge against the

D. Under Act No. 1697, any person who

offender should be carnapping

causes or procures another person to

and homicide.

commit perjury is guilty of subornation

d. The proper charge against the

of perjury. The Revised Penal Code,

offender should be robbery with

which has repealed Act No. 1697, does

homicide.

not expressly penalized subornation of


perjury.

However,

suborner,

who

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

causes or procure another person to


commit perjury, is guilty as principal by

B. The last clause of Section 14 of RA

inducement. In People v. Pudol, GR No.

No. 6539 as amended by RA No, 7659

45618, October 18, 1938 The fact that

provides:

subornation of perjury is not expressly

perpetua to death shall be imposed when

penalized in the Revised Penal Code

the owner, driver or occupant of the

does not mean that the direct induction

carnapped motor vehicle is killed or

of

raped in the course of the commission of

person

perjury

has

by

another

ceased

to

to

be

commit
a

crime,

the

the

carnapping

penalty

or

on

of

the

reclusion

occasion

because said crime is fully within the

thereof. The amendment clarifies the

scope of that defined in Article 17 (2), of

intention of the law to make the offense

the said Code.

a special complex crime, in the same


way that robbery with homicide. As

72. What should be the proper charge

such, the killing merely qualifies the

against an offender who unlawfully took

crime of carnapping which for lack of

and

vehicle

specific nomenclature in an aggravated

belonging to another without the latter's

form (People v. Mejia, GR No. 118940-41

consent,

and GR No. 119407, July 7, 1997).

carried

away

killing

the

motor
driver

in

the

process?
73. Conspiracy

to

commit

felony

is

punishable only in cases in which the


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law

specifically

hectorchristopher@yahoo.com

provides

penalty

faithrollan5@yahoo.com

a. AAA

committed

the

complex

therefor. Under which of the following

crime of arson with multiple

instances

homicide.

are

the

conspirators

not

liable?

b. AAA

a. Conspiracy to commit arson.

committed

arson

and

multiple homicide.

b. Conspiracy to commit terrorism.

c. AAA committed simple arson.

c. Conspiracy

d. AAA

to

commit

child

pornography.

committed

arson

and

multiple murder.

d. Conspiracy

to

commit
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

trafficking in persons.

C. If the main objective of the offender is

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

the burning of the building or office, but


D. Conspirators are liable for conspiracy

death

to commit arson (Section 7 of PD No.

occasion of arson, the crime is simply

1613), conspiracy to commit terrorism

arson, and the resulting homicide is

(Section

absorbed (People v. Baluntog, GR No.

of

RA

No.

9372)

and

results

by

March

reason

15,

or

2010;

on

People

the

conspiracy to commit child pornography

182061,

v.

(Section [K] of RA No. 9775) because the

Cedenio, GR No. 93485, June 27, 1994).

law provides penalty thereof. However,


conspirators are not liable for conspiracy

75. What crime is committed by a utility

to commit trafficking in persons because

worker in government who destroys

RA No. 9208 has not provided a penalty

office files as an act of revenge against

for it.

his supervisor?
a. The

74. With intent to cause damage, AAA


deliberately set fire upon the two-storey
residential

house

of

his

employer,

mostly made of wooden materials. The


blaze spread and gutted down seven

utility

infidelity

in

worker
the

commits

custody

of

papers.
b. The utility worker commits
malicious mischief.
c. The

utility

worker

commits

neighboring houses. On the occasion of

estafa by removing, concealing

the fire, six (6) persons sustained burn

or destroying office files.

injuries which were the direct cause of


their death. What crime was committed

d. The utility worker commits crime


involving destruction.

by AAA?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
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B. The crime of infidelity in the custody

(A) mother-in-law and daughter-in-

of paper under Article 226 of the Revised

law.

Penal Code is not committed since the


files are not officially entrusted to the

(B)

government utility worker by reason of

natural daughter.

his office. Official custody of the paper is


destroying office files under Article 315

committed

lacking.

Thus,

by

utility

the

the

crime

worker

is

malicious mischief.

2011

Law

Exam

(3) Arthur, Ben, and Cesar quarreled with


Glen while they were at the latters house.
while Ben and Cesar pinned his arms.
What

stealing

items

circumstance

if

any

(A) Evident premeditation.

(1) Isabel, a housemaid, broke into a


on

aggravating

attended the killing of Glen?

MCQ (November 20, 2011)

intent

legitimate

Enraged, Arthur repeatedly stabbed Glen

Criminal

pawnshop

and

(D) stepfather and stepson.

(3) (c) is not committed because of this


is

son

(C) aunt and nephew.

an element of this crime. Estafa by

crime,

adopted

of

(B) None.

jewelry in it. She found, however, that the


jewelry were in a locked chest. Unable to

(C) Abuse of superior strength.

open it, she took the chest out of the shop.


(D) Treachery.

What crime did she commit?


(A) Robbery

in

an

uninhabited

(4)

The

presence

of

mitigating

circumstance in a crime

place or in a private building

(A) increases the penalty to its

(B) Theft

maximum period.
(C) Robbery in an inhabited house
(B)

or public building.

changes

the

gravity

of

the

offense.
(D) Qualified theft
(C) affects the imposable penalty,
(2)

The

relationship

alternative
shall

circumstance

NOT

be

of

considered

depending

on

other

modifying

circumstances.

between
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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

(D)

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automatically

reduces

the

penalty.

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(A) is in the nature of confession


and avoidance.

(5) He is an accomplice who

(B) may be presumed from the


offenders previous behavior.

(A) agreed to serve as a lookout after


his companions decided to murder

(C) may be mitigating if its presence

the victim.

becomes apparent subsequent to


the commission of the crime.

(B) watched quietly as the murderer


stabbed his victim.

(D)

exempts

criminal
(C) helped the murderer find the

the

liability

offender

from

whatever

the

circumstances.

victim who was hiding to avoid


detection.

(8) Zeno and Primo asked Bert to give them


a sketch of the location of Andys house

(D) provided no help, when he can,

since they wanted to kill him. Bert agreed

to save the victim from dying.

and drew them the sketch. Zeno and Primo

(6) Principles of public international law


exempt

certain

individuals

from

the

drove to the place and killed Andy. What


crime did Bert commit?

Generality characteristic of criminal law.

(A) Accomplice to murder, since

Who among the following are NOT exempt

his cooperation was minimal.

from the Generality rule?


(B) Accessory to murder, since his
(A) Ministers Resident
(B) Commercial

Attache

map facilitated the escape of the


of

foreign country
(C) Ambassador
(D) Chiefs of Mission
(7) As a modifying circumstance, insanity

two.
(C) None, since he took no step to
take part in executing the crime.
(D) Principal to murder, since he
acted in conspiracy with Zeno and
Primo.
(9) A police officer surreptitiously placed a
marijuana stick in a students pocket and

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Criminal Law Q&As (2007-2013)

then

arrested

him

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for

possession

of

marijuana cigarette. What crime can the

(D)

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not

liable

since

the

police

operation was an invalid instigation.

police officer be charged with?


(11) Plaintiff X said in his civil complaint for
(A)

None,

as

it

is

case

of

entrapment

damages

that

defendant

Y,

employing

fraud, convinced him to buy a defective


vehicle. Y filed a criminal action for libel

(B) Unlawful arrest


(C)

against X for maliciously imputing fraud on

Incriminating

an

innocent

person

him. Will the action prosper if it turns out


that the civil complaint for damages was
baseless?

(D) Complex

crime

of

incriminating an innocent person


with unlawful arrest
(10) The police officer in civilian clothes

(A) No, since pleadings filed in


court are absolutely privileged.
(B) No, since malice is not evident.

asked X where he can buy shabu. X

(C) Yes, given the fact that the

responded by asking the officer how much

imputation of fraud was baseless.

of the drug he needed. When he told him, X


left, returned after a few minutes with the

(D) Yes, parties must state the truth

shabu, gave it to the officer, and took his

in their pleadings.

money. X is
(12) The maxim "Nullum crimen nula poena
(A) liable
police

for

selling

operation

since

was

the

sine lege" means that

valid
(A) the act is criminal at the time of

entrapment.

its commission and recognized as


(B) not liable for selling since the

such at the time of its commission

police

but

operation

was

an

invalid

entrapment.

the

prescribed

penalty

therefor

in

subsequently

is

enacted law.
(C) liable for selling since the police
operation
instigation.

was

valid

form

of

(B) the act is criminal and punished


under and pursuant to common
law.

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(C) there is a crime for as long as the

(B) battered woman syndrome, a

act is inherently evil.

complete self-defense.

(D) crime is a product of the law.

(C) incomplete self-defense.

(13) X, a tabloid columnist, wrote an article

(D)

mitigating

describing Y, a public official, as stupid,

obfuscation.

passion

and

corrupt, and having amassed ill-gotten


wealth. X relied on a source from Y's own

(15) There is violation of Art. 316, RPC

office who fed him the information. Did X

(Other forms of Swindling) where

commit libel?

(A) the owner of property sells a

(A) Yes,

since

libelous

and

the

article

inconsistent

was
with

good faith and reasonable care.

property and subsequently rescinds


the sale.
(B) the real property subject of the

(B) No, since X but made a fair


commentary on a matter of public
interest.

sale does not exist.


(C) the property was mortgaged for a
usurious contract of loan.

(C) No, since Xs article constitutes


privileged communication.

(D) the

owner

disposes

of

his

encumbered real property as if it

(D) No, since he wrote his article


under the freedom enjoyed by the
press.

is free from encumbrances.


(16) X, a police officer, placed a hood on the
head of W, a suspected drug pusher, and

(14) The husband has for a long time

watched as Y and Z, police trainees, beat

physically and mentally tortured his wife.

up and tortured W to get his confession. X

After one episode of beating, the wife took

is liable as

the husbands gun and shot him dead.


Under

the

circumstances,

her

act

constitutes
(A) mitigating vindication of grave
offense.

(A) as accomplice in violation of the


Anti-Torture Act.
(B) a principal in violation of the
Anti-Torture Act.

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(C) a principal in violation of the

decriminalized, a pending case charging the

Anti-Hazing Law.

accused of the repealed crime is to be

(D) an accomplice in violation of the

(A) prosecuted still since the charge

Anti-Hazing Law.

was valid when filed.

(17) Dr. Chow, a government doctor, failed

(B) dismissed

to submit his Daily Time Record (DTR) from

precondition.

without

any

January to March 2000 and did not get


approval of his sick leave application for

(C) dismissed provided the accused

April because of evidence that he was

is not a habitual delinquent.

actually moonlighting elsewhere. Thus, the


medical Director caused the withholding of
his salary for the periods in question until
he submitted his DTRs in May 2000. Can
Dr. Chow prosecute the medical director for
causing him undue injury in violation of the
Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act?

acted with evident bad faith.


(B) No, since the medical director
has full discretion in releasing the
salary of government doctors.
Yes,

since

his

salary

still

since

the

offended party has a vested interest


in the repealed law.
(19) In malversation of public funds, the
offenders return of the amount malversed

(A) It is exculpatory.
(B) It is inculpatory, an admission of
the commission of the crime.
(C)

was

withheld without prior hearing.

(18)

prosecuted

has the following effect

(A) Yes, since the medical Director

(C)

(D)

The

imposable

penalty

will

depend on what was not returned.


(D) It is mitigating.

(D) No, since Dr. Chow brought it

(20) The exchanges of highly offensive

upon himself, having failed to

words between two quarrelling women in

submit the required DTRs.

the presence of a crowd of people constitute

When

repealed

such

penal
that

law
the

is

absolutely
offense

is

(A)

one

count

of

grave

slander

against the woman who uttered the


more insulting expressions.

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(B) grave slander against the woman

a physical defect must prove that such

who started it and light slander

defect restricted his freedom of action and

against the other woman.

understanding. This proof is not required


where the physical defect consists of

(C) two separate counts of light


slander, one for each woman.

(A) a severed right hand.

(D) two separate counts of grave

(B) complete blindness.

slander, one against each of them.


(C) being deaf mute and dumb.
(21) Any person who, having found lost
(D) a severed leg.

property, shall fail to deliver the same to


the local authorities or to its owner is liable
for

(24) An extenuating circumstance, which


has

(A)

occupation

or

usurpation

of

the

same

effect

as

mitigating

circumstance, is exemplified by

personal property.

(A) the mother killing her 2-day

(B) civil damages only.

old child to conceal her dishonor.

(C) theft.

(B) the accused committing theft out


of extreme poverty.

(D) other deceits.


(C) the accused raping his victim in
(22) A crime resulting from negligence,

extreme state of passion.

reckless imprudence, lack of foresight or


(D) the accused surrendering the

lack of skill is called

weapon he used in his crime to the


(A) dolo.
(B) culpa.

authorities.
(25) Three men gave Arnold fist blows and
kicks

(C) tortious crimes.


(D) quasi delict.
(23) To mitigate his liability for inflicting

causing

him

to

fall.

As

they

surrounded and continued hitting him, he


grabbed a knife he had in his pocket and
stabbed one of the men straight to the
heart. What crime did Arnold commit?

physical injury to another, an accused with


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(A) Homicide with incomplete self-

(D) Accomplice to robbery since his

defense, since he could have run

role in the crime was minimal.

from his aggressors.


(27)

X,

court

employee,

wrote

the

(B) Homicide, since he knew that

presiding judge a letter, imputing to Y, also

stabbing a person in the heart is

a court employee, the act of receiving an

fatal.

expensive gift from one of the parties in a


pending case. Because of this, Y accused X

(C)

Homicide

incomplete

mitigated

self-defense,

by
since

of libel. Does Y need to prove the element of


malice in the case?

stabbing a person to the heart is


excessive.

(A) No, since malice is self-evident in


the letter.

(D) No crime, since he needed to


repel the aggression, employing

(B) Yes, malice is not presumed

reasonable means for doing so.

since X wrote the letter to the


presiding judge who has a duty to

(26) A, B, and C agreed to rob a house of its

act on what it states.

cash. A and B entered the house while C


remained outside as lookout. After getting

(C) No, since malice is presumed

the cash, A and B decided to set the house

with

on fire to destroy any evidence of their

imputations.

respect

to

defamatory

presence. What crime or crimes did C


(D)

commit?

Yes,

since

malice

is

not

presumed in libel.
(A) Robbery and arson since arson
took place as an incident of the

(28) X killed B, mistakenly believing that

robbery.

she was his wife, upon surprising her


having sex with another man in a motel

(B) Robbery and arson since C took

room. What is the criminal liability of X?

no step to stop the arson.


(A) None since he killed her under
(C) Just for robbery since he only
agreed
lookout.

to

it

and

served

exceptional circumstances.

as
(B) None since he acted under a
mistake of fact.

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(C) Parricide.

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(C) Debbie is not a dweller of the


house.

(D) Homicide.
(D) Belen, whom Debbie maligned,
(29) X draws a check upon request of Y, the

also dwells in the house.

payee, who told X that he would merely


show the check to his creditor to gain more

(31) It is a matter of judicial knowledge that

time to pay his account. The check bounced

certain

upon presentation by the creditor. Under

commit serious offenses for no reason at

the circumstances, who can be prosecuted

all. For this reason,

individuals

will

kill

others

or

for estafa based on the dishonored check?


(A) lack of motive can result in
(A) Y as the one who negotiated

conviction where the crime and

the

the accused's part in it are shown.

check

contrary

to

the

agreement
(B) motive is material only where
(B) X as the drawer of the check

there is no evidence of criminal


intent.

(C)

Both

and

based

on

conspiracy

(C)

lack

of

motive

precludes

conviction.
(D) None
(D) the motive of an offender is
(30) Ana visited her daughter Belen who

absolutely immaterial.

worked as Caloys housemaid. Caloy was


not at home but Debbie, a casual visitor in

(32) Minority is a privileged mitigating

the house, verbally maligned Belen in Anas

circumstance which operates to reduce the

presence. Irked, Ana assaulted Debbie.

penalty by a degree where the child is

Under the circumstances, dwelling is NOT


regarded as aggravating because

(A)

15

years

and

below

acting

without discernment.
(A) Dwelling did nothing to provoke
Ana into assaulting Debbie.

(B) above 15 years but below 18


acting without discernment.

(B) Caloy, the owner of the house,


was not present.

(C) below 18 years acting with


discernment.

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(D) 18 years old at the time of the

(35)

Which

commission of the crime acting with

circumstances do NOT qualify the crime of

discernment.

kidnapping?
The

among

victim

the

is

following

(33) The crime of robbery in an inhabited

(A)

killed

house or public building is mitigated when

consequence of the detention.

as

the offenders
(B) The
(A) entered the house using false

offender

is

public

officer.

keys.
(C) Ransom is demanded.
(B) although armed did not fire their
(D) The victim is raped.

weapons.
(C)

entered

through

window

without breaking it.

(36) Removing, concealing or destroying


documents to defraud another constitutes
the crime of estafa if committed by

(D) although armed took property


valued at only P200.

(A) any public officer.

(34) A private person who assists the

(B)

escape of a person who committed robbery

entrusted with the document.

shall be liable
(A) as a principal to the crime of
robbery.
(B) as an accessory to the crime of
robbery.

public

officer

officially

(C) private individuals who executed


the same.
(D) private individuals.
(37) Dagami concealed Bugnas body and
the fact that he killed him by setting

(C) as a principal to the crime of

Bugnas house on fire. What crime or

obstruction of justice.

crimes did Dagami commit?

(D) as an accessory to the crime of

(A)

Murder,

the

obstruction of justice.

absorbed already

arson

being

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(B) Separate crimes of murder and

(B) X may plead praetor intentionem

arson

since he intended only to scare, not


kill Z.

(C)

Arson,

the

homicide

being

absorbed already

(C) X may plead aberratio ictus as


he had no intention to hit Z.

(D)

Arson

with

murder

as

compound crime

(D) X may plead commission of only


Discharge of Firearm as he had no

(38) Sam wrote a letter to his friends stating

intent to kill Z when he fired his

that Judge Odon loves obscene magazines

gun.

and keeps these in his desk. Charged with


libel, can Sam present proof that Judge

(40) Which of the following statements

Odon indeed loves obscene magazines and

constitute Inciting to Sedition?

keeps these in his desk?


(A) Utterance of statements irritating
(A) No, since the imputation is not

or obnoxious to the ears of the

related to the duties of a judge.

police officers.

(B) No, since Sam does not impute

(B) Speeches

a crime to Judge Odon.

communism

extolling
and

urging

the

people to hold a national strike


(C) No, since Sam imputes the

and paralyze commerce and trade.

commission of a crime to Judge


Odon.

(C) Leaders of jeepney and bus


associations shouting "Bukas tuloy

(D) Yes, since truth can be a valid

ang welga hanggang sa magkagulo

defense in libel.

na!"

(39) X, without intent to kill, aimed his gun

(D) Speeches calling for resignation

at Z and fired it, hitting the latter who died

of high government officials.

as a consequence. Under the circumstances


(41) Culpa can either be a crime by itself or
(A) X

cannot

plead

praetor

intentionem since the intent to

a mode of committing a crime. Culpa is a


crime by itself in

kill is presumed from the killing


of the victim.
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(A) reckless imprudence resulting in

(A) No, because the bystanders had

murder.

nothing to do with the abandoned


truck on the road.

(B) medical malpractice.


(B) No, because the injury done is
(C) serious physical Injuries thru

greater than the evil to be avoided.

reckless imprudence.
(C) Yes, since the instinct of self(D)

complex

imprudence

crime
resulting

of

reckless

in

serious

preservation takes priority in an


emergency.

physical injuries.
(D) Yes, since the bystanders should
(42)

The

mitigating

circumstance

of

immediate vindication of a grave offense

have kept off the shoulder of the


road.

cannot be appreciated in a case where


(44) The accused was shocked to discover
(A) Following the killing of his

his wife and their driver sleeping in the

adopted brother, P went to the

masters bedroom. Outraged, the accused

place

got his gun and killed both. Can the

where

it

happened

and

killed S whom he found there.

accused claim that he killed the two under

(B) X kills Y who attempted to rape


Xs wife.
(C)

exceptional circumstances?
(A) No, since the accused had time

severely

septuagenarian,

maltreats
prompting

S,

a
the

latter to kill him.

to reflect when he got his gun.


(B) No, since the accused did not
catch them while having sexual

(D) M killed R who slandered his


wife.

intercourse.
(C) Yes, since the wife and their

(43) To save himself from crashing into an

driver desecrated the marital bed.

unlighted truck abandoned on the road,

(D) Yes, since the scene shows that

Jose swerved his car to the right towards

they had an intimate relationship.

the

graveled

shoulder,

killing

two

bystanders. Is he entitled to the justifying

(45) The three accused forcibly took their

circumstance of state of necessity?

victim from his car but the latter succeeded

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in freeing himself from their grip. What

mitigating

crime did the three accused commit?

voluntary surrender as another.

(A) forcible abduction.

(47)

The

circumstance

aggravating

and

circumstance

of

uninhabited place is aggravating in murder


(B) frustrated kidnapping.

committed

(C) attempted kidnapping.

(A) on a banca far out at sea.

(D) grave coercion.

(B) in a house located in cul de sac.

(46) Deeply enraged by his wifes infidelity,

(C) in a dark alley in Tondo.

the husband shot and killed her lover. The


husband subsequently surrendered to the

(D)

in

partly

police. How will the court appreciate the

condominium building.

occupied

mitigating circumstances of (i) passion or


obfuscation, (ii) vindication of a grave

(48) The penalty of perpetual or temporary

offense, and (iii) voluntary surrender that

special disqualification for the exercise of

the husband invoked and proved?

the right of suffrage does NOT deprive the


offender of the right

(A) It will appreciate passion or


obfuscation
surrender

and
as

one

(A) to be elected to a public office.

voluntary
mitigating

(B) to vote in any popular election

circumstance and vindication of a

for a public office.

grave offense as another.


(B)

It

will

appreciate

all

(C) to vote in a plebiscite.

three

mitigating circumstances separately.


(C)

It

will

appreciate

the

three

mitigating circumstances only as


one.

(49)

Without

meaning

anything,

happened to stare into the eye of one of four


men hanging out by a store which he

(D) It will appreciate passion or


obfuscation and vindication of a
grave

(D) to hold any public office.

offense

as

just

one

passed. Taking offense, the four mauled


and robbed him of his wages. Z went home,
took a knife, and stabbed one of his

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attackers to death. Charged with murder, Z

(D) The act which the offender

may raise the mitigating circumstance of

agrees to
executes

(A) praeter intentionem.

(50)

perform
is

or

which he

connected

with

his

official duties.

(B) incomplete self-defense preceded

(52) Insuperable cause is an exempting

by undue provocation.

circumstance which may be applied to

(C) passion or obfuscation.

(A) robbery.

(D) complete self-defense.

(B) misprision of treason.

public

officer

who

immediately

(C) homicide.

returns the bribe money handed over to


him commits

(D) rebellion.

(A) no crime.

(53) Which of the following crimes is an


exception

(B) attempted bribery.

committed

which

of

the

following elements of direct bribery can


moral turpitude be inferred?
(A) The offender receives a gift by
himself or through another.
(B) The offender is a public officer.
(C) The offender takes a gift with
a view to committing a crime in
exchange.

Rule

in

by

an

alien

in

the

Philippines.

(51) Direct bribery is a crime involving


From

Territoriality

(A) Violation of the Trademark Law

(D) frustrated bribery.

turpitude.

the

Criminal law?

(C) consummated bribery.

moral

to

(B)

Forgery

of

US

bank

notes

committed in the Philippines.


(C) Crime committed by a Filipino in
the disputed Spratly's Island.
(D) Plunder

committed

at

his

place of assignment abroad by a


Philippine public officer.
(54) X, Y and Z agreed among themselves to
attack and kill A, a police officer, but they
left their home-made guns in their vehicle

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before approaching him. What crime have

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(D) rebellion.

they committed?
(57) Motive is generally IMMATERIAL in
(A) Conspiracy to commit indirect

determining criminal liability EXCEPT when

assault.
(A) several offenders committed the
(B) Attempted direct assault.

crime

but

the

court

wants

to

ascertain which of them acted as


(C) Conspiracy to commit direct

leader.

assault.
(B)
(D) Illegal possession of firearms.

the

consists

evidence
of

of

both

the

crime

direct

and

circumstantial evidence.

(55) On hearing a hospital ward patient on


the next bed, shrieking in pain and begging

(C)

to die, Mona shut off the oxygen that was

penalty that may be imposed on the

sustaining the patient, resulting in his

offender.

ascertaining

the

degree

of

death. What crime if any did Mona commit?


(D) the evidence of guilt of the
(A) Homicide.

accused is circumstantial.

(B) Murder if she deliberated on

(58) Which of the following circumstances of

her action.

dishonor of a check can be a basis for

(C) Giving Assistance to Suicide.


(D) Euthanasia.

our

courts

DO

jurisdiction over the crime of


(A) treason.
(B) piracy.

law?
(A) The check was returned unpaid

(56) When committed outside the Philippine


territory,

prosecution under the bouncing checks

NOT

have

with

stamp

"stop

payment,"

although the drawers deposit was


sufficient.
(B) The check, drawn and issued
in the Philippines, was dishonored
by the drawee bank in a foreign
country.

(C) espionage.

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(C) The check was presented to the

(B) the correct penalty for crimes

bank for payment 6 months after

committed

the date of issue.

imprudence.

(D) The drawer of the dishonored

(C) whether the offender is liable as

check paid its value within 5 days

an accomplice.

through

reckless

from notice of dishonor.


(D) what stage of the felony has been
(59) X and his step-father have a long-

reached.

standing enmity. One day, irked by an


argument with his step-father, X smashed

(61) A child in conflict with the law shall

the windshield of his step-fathers brand

enjoy all the rights of a child until

new Audi sports car. X is liable for

(A) he is found to have acted with


discernment.

(A) malicious mischief.


(B)

malicious

mischief

with

the

alternative mitigating circumstance


of relationship.
(C)

malicious

mischief

with

the

aggravating

circumstance of relationship.
RIGHT

aggravating circumstance.
(C) he is proved to be 18 years or

alternative

(D)

(B) his minority is setoff by some

ANSWER

the

older.
(D) he forfeits such rights by gross
misconduct and immorality.

civil

damage he caused.

(62) Mr. P owns a boarding house where he


knowingly allowed children to be videotaped

(60) The classification of felonies into grave,

while simulating explicit sexual activities.

less

What is Mr. P's criminal liability, if any?

grave,

and

light

is

important

in

ascertaining

(A) Corruption of minors under the

(A) if certain crimes committed on


the

same

complexed.

occasion

can

be

Penal Code
(B) Violation

of

the

Child

Pornography Act
(C) Violation of the Child Abuse Law

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(D) None

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(A) This serves as an analogous


mitigating

(63) W allowed a man to have sex with her

circumstance

of

voluntary surrender.

thinking that he was her husband. After


realizing

that

the

man

was

not

her

husband, W stabbed him to death. Under


the

circumstances,

the

(B) It has no effect at all since the


law provides none.

mitigating
(C)

circumstance in attendance constitutes

He

is

considered

to

have

confessed to murder.
(A) defense of honor.
(D)
(B) immediate

vindication

of

grave offense.

This

serves

circumstance

of

as

aggravating

concealment

of

weapon.

(C) passion or obfuscation.

(66) A qualifying aggravating circumstance

(D) self-defense.

(A) changes the description and


the nature of the offense.

(64) The prescriptive period for bigamy is 15


years counted from the date of the

(B) increases the penalty to its next


degree but absorbs all the other

(A) discovery

of

the

second

aggravating circumstances.

marriage by the offended spouse.


(C) raises the penalty by two periods
(B)

registration

of

the

second

higher.

marriage in the Local Civil Registry.


(D) is one which applies only in
(C) celebration or solemnization of

conjunction

the second marriage.

aggravating circumstance.

with

another

(D) discovery of the second marriage

(67) X inflicted serious injuries on Y.

by the authorities.

Because of delay in providing medical

(65) After properly waiving his Miranda


rights, the offender led the police to where

treatment to Y, he died. Is X criminally


liable for the death of Y?

he buried the gun he used in shooting the

(A) Yes because the delay did not

victim. How does this affect his liability?

break

the

causal

connection

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between X's felonious act and the

(B) No, since it took too long for

injuries sustained by Y.

death to occur.

(B) Yes because any intervening

(C) Yes, since E cannot be compelled

cause

to undergo medical treatment.

between

the

infliction

of

injury and death is immaterial.


(D) Yes, since it was a natural
(C) No because the infliction of

result of the injuries X inflicted

injury was not the immediate cause

on E.

of the death.
(70) 003-1137-0001 A criminal action for
(D) No because the delay in the

rape is extinguished when the offender is

administration

forgiven by

of

the

medical

treatment was an intervening cause.


(A) RIGHT ANSWER the offenders
(68) In an attempted felony, the offenders

wife who herself is the rape victim.

preparatory act
(B) his wife for having raped another
(A) itself constitutes an offense.

woman.

(B) must seem connected to the

(C) the rape victims husband.

intended crime.
(D) the rape victim herself.
(C) must not be connected to the
(71) A battered woman claiming self-defense

intended crime.

under the Anti-Violence against Women


(D) requires another act to result

and Children must prove that the final

in a felony.

acute battering episode was preceded by

(69) X inflicted violent kicks on vital parts of

(A) 3 battering episodes.

E's body. E nevertheless was able to flee for


fear

of

his

life.

Refusing

to

undergo

treatment for his injuries, E died 3 days


later. Is X liable for Es death?
(A) No, since kicks on the body

(B) 4 battering episodes.


(C) 5 battering episodes.
(D) 2 battering episodes.

cannot cause death.

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(72) A special complex crime is a composite

As a case of aberratio ictus, it is punishable

crime

as a
(A) made up of 2 or more crimes

(A) complex crime proper.

defined in the Penal Code.


(B) special complex crime.
(B) with its own definition and
(C) continuing crime.

special penalty provided by the


Penal Code.

(D) compound crime.

(C) with its own definition and


special penalty provided by a special
penal law.

(75) A proposal to commit a felony is


punishable only when the law specifically
provides a penalty for it as in the case of

(D) made up of 2 or more crimes


defined in the Penal Code

proposal to commit

and

(A) rebellion.

special penal laws.

(B) sedition.

(73) What court has jurisdiction when an


Indonesian

crew

murders

the

Filipino

(C) espionage.

captain on board a vessel of Russian


registry while the vessel is anchored outside

(D) highway robbery.

the breakwaters of the Manila bay?


References:
(A) The Indonesian court.

(B) The Russian court.

Special

Thanks

to

Sir

Patrick

Estillore from the University of the


Cordilleras College of Law (Baguio

(C) The Philippine court.

City) for the 2008 PALS reviewer

(D) Any court that first asserts


jurisdiction over the case.
(74) X, intending to kill Y, a store owner,
fired at Y from the street, but the shot killed

Answers

to

Bar

Examination

Questions by the UP LAW COMPLEX


(2007, 2009, 2010)

not only Y but also Z who was in the store.

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PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF LAW


SCHOOLS (2008)

UP LAW Review

lawphil.net

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